Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
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AGRICULTURE (680 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 263 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Agricola     Open Access  
Scientia Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Seed Science Research     Hybrid Journal  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Semiárida     Open Access  
Siembra     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Smart Agricultural Technology     Open Access  
Social & Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Economic Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stiinta Agricola     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability and Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
The Agriculturists     Open Access  
The Journal of Research, PJTSAU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems     Open Access  
Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access  
Tropical Technology Journal     Open Access  
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science / Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access  
Viticulture Data Journal     Open Access  
VITIS : Journal of Grapevine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Weed Biology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Weed Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
West African Journal of Applied Ecology     Open Access  
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wirtschaftsdienst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access  
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World's Poultry Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.171
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1870-0462
Published by Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán Homepage  [2 journals]
  • HABITAT USE BY GRAY FOX (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, CARNIVORA: CANIDAE) IN

    • Authors: Ricardo Serna-Lagunes, Misael Alejandro-Hernández, Dulce María Ávila-Nájera, Gerardo Benajmín Torres-Cantú, Pablo Andrés-Meza, Fernando Isaac Gastelum-Mendoza, Juan Salazar-Ortiz, Carlos de Jesús Ocaña-Parada
      Abstract: Background. Gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus is tolerant to habitat disturbance, but the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the selection of space in the subperennial medium forest (SMF) with different degrees of anthropization are not known, which is relevant to explain a fraction of an animal’s niche. Objective. We described the use of habitat by the gray fox, in four habitat units in the SMF, with different degrees of anthropization. Methodology. We classified four habitat units with vegetation structure criteria: Sugar cane-coffee plantation, Coffee plantation-forest, forest and Coffee plantation, where we evaluated parameters such as number of carnivores and potential prey and plant cover. In addition, we evaluated the altitude, temperature, precipitation and evaporation. Using indirect techniques, we obtained gray fox records in each habitat unit, which we related to biotic and abiotic parameters through a χ2 test and a partial least squares analysis; we applied a dendrogram to estimate the similarity of use of the habitats; and a response surface-based model to describe habitat use. Results. We associated fourteen independent records of gray fox and six of them with the Coffee plantation-SMF habitat, where it was correlated with temperature. Implications. Shrub coverage, the number of competitors and evaporation in SMF and Coffee plantation-SMF are factors correlated with a low number of gray fox records. Conclusion. In this ecosystem anthropized by the production of coffee and sugarcane, the gray fox may be using open habitats for hunting and closed habitats to seek refuge while it is not active.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           Bacillus, Trichoderma AND Streptomyces WITH POTENTIAL FOR THE BIOCONTROL

    • Authors: Davies Arturo Morales Pizarro, Javier Javier Alva, Luis Armando Álvarez, Rocío Mayta Obos, René Aguilar Anccota, Ricardo Peña Castillo, Roger Chanduvi García, David Lindo Seminario
      Abstract: Background: Biocontrol of grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) is a friendly alternative to chemical control that cause resistance and contamination of the ecosystems. Objective: isolate native grapevine root and rhizosphere microorganisms with biocontrol potential of grapevine trunk fungi diseases. Methodology: The competition for substrate (CS) was studied with the Bell´s scale, contact time (CT) between the antagonist-pathogen (days) and the growth inhibition percentage (GIP). Results: Seven Trichoderma strains were isolated (from roots: Tr-1, Tr-2, Tr-3, Tr-6; and from rhizosphere: Tr-4, Tr-5 Tr-7); six Bacillus spp. (from roots: Bac-4, Bac-5, Bac-6; and from rhizosphere: Bac-1, Bac-2, Bac-3); and two Streptomyces sp. (Act-1, Act-2). The CS results evaluated with the Bell scale showed Tr-1, Tr-7, T.atv (Trichoderma atroviride) and T-22 (Trichoderma harzianum) were placed in class 1 against Lasiodiplodia theobromae and, all isolates were placed in class 1 against Campylocarpon pseudofasciculare and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum. The CT of Trichoderma was 2 days (L. theobromae) and 3 days (C. pseudofasciculare and P. parasiticum). In the antibiosis test, Tr-5 (Trichoderma) and Bac-3 (Bacillus) had the highest GIP values (>50%) against the different evaluated pathogens. The isolate Act-2 (Streptomyces sp.) presented a GIP, >70% (L. theobromae), and >40% (C. pseudofasciculare) and >30% (P. parasiticum). Implications: The use of biological control in the management of grapevine trunk diseases is an effective tool, and can be integrated into an integrated management strategy for these pathologies.  Conclusions: The native isolates Bac-3 (Bacillus spp.), Tr-5 (Trichoderma spp.), Act-2 (Streptomyces sp.) demonstrated in vitro control against the pathogens L. theobromae, C. pseudofasciculare and P. parasiticum, pathogens associated to grapevine trunk diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Alexis Adrián Vargas-Cruz, José Alberto Delgadillo, Manuel de Jesús Flores, José Alfredo Flores, Jesús Vielma, Gerardo Duarte, Luis Angel Zarazaga, Omar Uriel García-Cruz, Gonzalo Fitz-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Martínez-Alfaro, Leonardo Iván Vélez, Horacio Hernández
      Abstract: Background. Small ruminants from subtropical regions are sensitive to respond physiologically to natural photoperiodic changes. In some subtropical goat production systems as located in semi-arid areas of México, the main objective is to obtain in the shortest possible time, males with a suitable weight and body development for sale. Objective. The present study determines if the exposure to artificial long day photoperiod could promote a growth rate, body development and an increased glycemia in male goat kids compared with those under natural short days. Methodology. Starting on late September, 21 creole male goat kids (13 ± 0.1 week aged; mean ± SEM) were assigned to one of the two experimental groups. In the natural short days group, males remain under natural short days from autumn-winter (GDC, n = 10). In the artificial long days group, males were exposed to artificial photoperiod consisting in 16 h light and 8 h darkness (GDL, n = 11). The study lasted until the animals had 35 weeks of age. All animals were fed according their nutritional requirements. Results. During the study, the body weight of the GDL animals was higher than that of the GDCN males (P < 0.05). Due to this, the daily weight gain (GDP) obtained at 23 weeks of age was higher in the GDL males (165 g/day) than that registered in the GDC males (143 g/day; P <0.05). In some periods, the males of the GDL had higher body mass index (IMC) than the males of the GDC (P < 0.05). Thoracic perimeter at week 32 was greater in the GDL males than in the GDC males (P <0.05). The height at the withers did not reach significant differences in the comparisons between groups in the different weeks measured (P > 0.05). However, the total height at the withers gained during the study was significantly higher in the GDL males than in the GDC males (P < 0.01). Under fasting conditions, GDL males had higher levels (P < 0.05) of blood glucose in some periods than GDC males. Implications. The present study demonstrate that artificial long days stimulates growth in goats as occurs in other ruminants. Conclusion. Exposure of the male goat kids from subtropical regions to artificial long days, promotes a higher growth rate, better body development and increased glycemia compared to kids maintained under natural short-day photoperiods.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Rodrigo Portillo Salgado, Jaime Bautista Ortega, Alfonso J. Chay Canul, Rubi E. Sánchez Casanova, José Segura Correa, Francisco Antonio Cigarroa Vázquez
      Abstract: Background. Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) is used as an alternative for the production of meat with high nutritional value; however, there are several factors that affect their productive performance. Objective. Review the main factors that affect the productive performance of the guinea fowl described in the worldwide literature. Methodology. A bibliographic review in the databases of Scopus, NCBI, Springer, Science direct, Google Scholar, Redalyc, and other repositories was carried out. The keywords for the search were: Guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, productive performance and body weight gain. Results. The production system is one of the main factors that affect the productive performance of the Guinea fowl. Birds raised in semi-intensive conditions have better weight gains compared to those that are kept under an extensive system. Mortality in the extensive system increases due to poor or no disease prevention practices and natural predators. The increase in population density under intensive management conditions negatively affects the performance and welfare of Guinea fowl. Ignorance of the energy and protein requirements causes a deficient productive performance in weight gains. Genetic factors also play a role; in Africa local varieties that have not been genetically improved are bred in extensive systems obtaining low yields, compared to developing countries. Birds hatch from large eggs with shorter storage periods had better growth performance. Implications. There is limited information on the main aspects related to the raising of the Guinea fowl, including the factors that affect its productive performance. Ignorance of the productive parameters favors the displacement of Guinea fowl production by other poultry species, such as chicken. Conclusions. Breeding the Guinea fowl as an alternative for meat and egg production must be accompanied by the disclosure of productive parameters to improve their production performance.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Ayodeji Damilola Kehinde, Abiodun Akintunde Ogundeji
      Abstract: Background. Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the capital required to meet their needs. Whereas, social capital has been described as a vital asset for poverty alleviation since it can provide access to that which is lacking; capital. This study suggests evidences that the poor farmers could benefit more from social capital. Objective. This study was conducted to assess the impact of social capital on poverty alleviation among cocoa producing households in Southwestern, Nigeria. Methodology. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select 300 cocoa-producing households for the study. Data were analyzed using social capital indices, FGT index, the Probit model and two-stage least square model. Results. The results revealed that cash contribution (0.478), labour contribution (0.556), decision-making (0.882), meeting attendance (0.920), heterogeneity (0.659) and density of membership (0.661) are the major dimensions of social capital available to cocoa-producing households. The results of the Probit model revealed that age of household head, gender, household size, years of experience, farm income, and farm size were the main determining factors of participating in SCNs. The Foster, Greer and Thorbecke index revealed that 65% of the sample households are poor. Out of the poor households, 42% are moderately poor and 23% are core poor. The results further revealed that factors including age, square of age, household size, years of education, farm income, farm size, cash contribution, labour contribution, decision making, meeting attendance, aggregate social capital and instrumented social capital significantly influenced cocoa-producing households’ expenditure. Implications. The paper adds evidence for a better understanding of nexus between social capital networks and poverty alleviations. Conclusions. The study concluded that social capital alleviates poverty among cocoa-producing households. This means that policy strategy aimed toward alleviating poverty among cocoa-producing households must consider their social capital.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Angel Kelsen Arbaiza-Peña, Grober Panduro-Pisco, Edgar Díaz-Zúñiga, Noé Klever Guadalupe-Baylon, Norberto Angulo-García, Jose Iannacone
      Abstract: Background. The Peruvian Amazon has an area of 74,739 ha oil palm in 2019, which during the palm oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid agro-industrial waste (Empty Fruit Bunch [EFB] and Oil palm fiber [OPF]) which, due to not having proper management and being exposed to open sky is the cause of atmospheric, hydrological and terrestrial pollution. This problem could be seen as an opportunity to exploit agricultural soils. Objective. Determine the elemental composition and heavy metal content of the EFB and OPF in palm residues of the Peruvian Amazon. Methodology. The population was made up of 19.39 t day-1 of EFB and 12.48 t day-1 of OPF from the fruit extracted from the INDOLMA SA industry, district of Neshuya, Peru. The analyzes were carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometry for P and K; Kjeldahl method for N; for humidity, the humidity balance - PCE Iberian was used and the potentiometer for the measurement of pH and the Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. Results. The concentrations of the elemental content (NPK) did not present statistically significant differences between the variables, while the heavy metals in Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in EFB were higher than that found for the OPF. However, it was the opposite with As, showing significant differences, while the presence of Hg was below the detection limits. Implications. Knowing the nutritional and heavy metal characteristics has the function that new sustainable technologies can be proposed using this raw material of organic origin that are adapted to the quality of its properties. Conclusions. The values indicate the good performance of the elemental content in the EFB and OPF, but the presence of heavy metals, especially Cd and Ni, is high in the studied residues.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           (Odocoileus virginianus yucatanensis) IN SOUTHEAST OF MEXICO

    • Authors: Melina Maribel Ojeda Chi, Rogen Ivan Rodriguez-Vivas, Sokani Sanchez-Montes
      Abstract: Background: Louse-fly (Lipoptena spp.) and ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals and accidentally of humans. Globally, there is little information on the medical importance of these ectoparasites, but there are studies that suggest that these ectoparasites might be involved in the transmission of pathogens. In Mexico, both ectoparasites have been reported parasitizing white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Objective: To estimate the prevalence and intensity of Lipoptena spp. and ticks in WTD and its possible implication of louse-flies as a vector of Anaplasma spp. in Southeastern Mexico. Methodology: 25 WTD were inspected for their louse-flies and ticks. Pools of louse-flies were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the presence of a fragment of the 16S-rDNA gene of Anaplasma spp. Results: All louse-fly (96 specimens) were identified as Lipoptena mazamae and 348 ticks of the genera Amblyomma, Ixodes, Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis were also identified. The prevalence of WTD with L. mazamae was 56% with an intensity of 6.9 flies/WTD, meanwhile the prevalence of ticks was 92% with an intensity of 15.5 ticks/WTD. Anaplasma spp. was not detected in any of the pools of flies evaluated. Implications: WTD are parasitized by ectoparasites that affect their health and can be transmitters of pathogens to wild animals, domestic animals, and humans, therefore their identification is important for the design of prevention programs. Conclusion: WTD showed high prevelances of L. mazamae and different species of ticks, being the latter with high prevalence and intensity. Molecular tests showed that louse-flies evaluated in this study were not found to be infected with Anaplasma spp.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           (Lippia graveolens)

    • Authors: Adríán Muñóz Cuautle, José Guadalupe Herrera Haro, Jacinto Efrén Ramírez Bribiesca, María Esher Ortega Cerrilla, Pedro Zetina Córdoba
      Abstract: Background. Ruminants have been related to greenhouse gas production. Therefore, it has been necessary to find alternatives by using natural additives to reduce their production by modulation of rumen fermentation. Objective. It was to evaluate the effect of the addition of condensed tannins (CT) and different levels of essential oregano oil (Lippia graveolens) (EOO) in sheep's diets on in vitro fermentation products such as total gas production, methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3), and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Methodology. There were evaluated six experimental diets: the control diet with 4% of CT kg/DM, and 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 or 1% de EOO kg/DM, respectively. Total gas production, CH4, CO2, pH, N-NH3, and AGV were measured at different in vitro incubation times. Results. Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) due to treatment or the interaction treatment*time. An exponential increment was observed (P < 0.05) according to incubation time. CH4 and CO2 production increased at 48 h. The lowest emissions of these gases were recorded when 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 1% of EOO were added to the diet. Nevertheless, no differences were found (P > 0.05) due to treatment or the interaction treatment*time. Acetic and butyric acid concentrations were affected due to incubation time and the interaction treatment*time; however, there was no effect due to treatment (P > 0.05). Propionic acid production and pH were not affected (P > 0.05) due to treatment, time, or interaction treatment*time. N-NH3 production increased through incubation time (P < 0.05), with the highest concentration at 48 h for all treatments, without differences (P > 0.05) due to treatment or interaction treatment*time. Implications. These results suggest that the inclusion levels of TC and EOO in the diet were not enough to affect rumen fermentation or methane production. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate higher levels of these compounds in sheep's diets. Conclusion. The addition of CT or the different levels of EOO included in sheep's diets evaluated in this study did not affect total gas production, CH4, CO2, pH, concentration of N-NH3, AGV, and pH.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Ignacio Vázquez-Martínez, Jesús Enrique Ek-Mex, Raciel Estrada-León, José Herrera-Camacho, Germani Adrián Muñoz-Osorio, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Bautista, Alfonso Juventino Chay-Canul
      Abstract: Background. The study of space allowance (m2) per animal is important, due in current production systems different group sizes are used throughout the year, without knowing their possible effects on daily weight gain and growth during the fattening period. Objective. The effect of space allowance on the growth of hair lambs in raised-slatted floor cages was determined. Methodology. Data from 527 daily weight gains (DWG) and weights adjusted at 60 (P60) days post-weaning of female lambs from commercial crossbreds between hair breeds were analyzed. The statistical model included fixed effects of space allowance (AL; 0.69, 0.64-0.60 and 0.56 m2/animal), year (A; 2012 and 2013), seasons of the year (EA; rainy and north) and the interaction on DWG and P60. The initial body weight was included as co-variate. Results. AL, A and interactions A × EA affected the dependent variables evaluated (P <0.05). AL larger (0.69 m2) and intermediate (0.64-0.60 m2) had similar growth (P >0.05); these groups, in turn, were the ones that obtained the highest DWG and P60 compared to smaller AL (0.56 m2). Higher growth of the female lambs was observed in the year 2012 compared to 2013. EA had no significant effect (P >0.05). Implications. The availability of the space allowance implies the quantity and quality, including the area occupied by the feeder and drinker. Conclusion. Under the conditions of the present study, AL should be adjusted between 0.69 and 0.60 m2/female lambs and that A and A × EA interaction can play an important role in animal growth.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Araceli López Vargas, Teódulo Quezada Tristán, Carlos Urban Haubi Segura, Rafael Macedo Barragán, Arturo Gerardo Valdivia Flores, Raúl Ortiz Martínez, Carlos Leonel Hernández Millán
      Abstract: Background. Propylene glycol has been used successfully since the 1950’s for him acute and prophylactic treatment of ketosis in dairy cows however; its use has been poorly evaluated in beef cattle and meat sheep. Objective. Evaluate the effects of different doses of propylene glycol on the productive parameters, blood metabolites and ruminal parameters in fattening lambs. Methodology. Twenty lambs 14.70 ±0.57 kg of weigh, 2 months old, males and Katahdin-Black Belly breed, were randomly assigned to one of four treatments, a control mixed ration and an experimental diet with three different levels of propylene glycol: 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/20 kg live weight/day. The effects of propylene glycol on blood metabolites, ruminal and productive parameters were assessed. Results. Propylene glycol supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) glucose, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentration as well as increased (P<0.05) the concentration of beta hydroxybutyrate. In addition, its inclusion resulted in an increase in pH and protozoa population and in a decrease of reductive activity (P<0.05). No effect was observed (P>0.05) on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of lambs but carcass yield was improved without increasing the feeding cost of production. Implications. Propylene glycol is a viable option as an energy source in fattening lambs. Conclusion. Inclusion of PPG increased the pH and the population of ruminal protozoa, reduced the formation of ketone bodies and improved the carcass yield of lambs without increasing the meat production cost.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: O. B. Del Río Zaragoza, S. Tanahara Romero, K. Del C. Lugo Ibarra, S. R. Canino Herrera, M. Vivanco Aranda
      Abstract: Background. The current challenges of agri-food chains make it necessary for them to be efficient not only from the standpoint of costs, but also to develop the capacity to adapt to the ever-changing environment and set up a long-term vision, i.e., the use of strategic foresight for the production chains planning. Objetive. The objectives of this systematic review were: 1) to compare the use of prospective methods in research’s carried out from 2010 to 2021 for agri-food production chains in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2) to discuss the main scope and achievements of recent studies and 3) analyze the areas of opportunity for the following investigations. Methodology. The study was carried out by the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic reviews and Meta-Analyzes), a systematic literature review was conducted in the global databases ScienceDirect, Elsevier, EBSCO, Springer, Wiley and academic Google using the following key terms: “foresight studies, methodologies, agri-food productive chain and strategic planning”. Implications. Given the complexity of the environment and the high level of competition in which agri-food production chains work, it is necessary to join a long-term vision, i.e. the use of strategic foresight for the production chains development. To make prospective studies, there are a variety of methods available that were analyzed and compared in this research. Conclusions. Despite the enormous contributions of prospective studies, in terms of publications, projects and research results of regional scope are basically published. The systematic analysis carried out indicates that the methodological bases of the recent investigations carried out are based on the French school of prospective and not on the foresight. There is still work to be done in the establishment of Observatories or scientific councils that can process and evaluate strategic studies on the future and also in matters of institutional development of prospective. It is therefore necessary to redouble efforts and continue to develop foresight studies for the priority production chains for the development of the Latin American and Caribbean region.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           FACTORS OF A MEXICAN ISOLATE OF Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ovis

    • Authors: Maria Carla Rodríguez Domínguez, Roberto Montes de Oca Jiménez, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego, Efrén Díaz-Aparicio, Jorge Antonio Varela Guerrero, Esvieta Tenorio Borroto
      Abstract: Background. Caseous lymphadenitis is a worldwide distribute disease that affects the sheep and goat industry. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ovis is a facultative intracellular Gram-positive bacterium, considered the etiologic agent of the disease. Complete genome sequences of Mexican isolates have been obtained and different strain has been previously characterized. The study of virulence factors allows establishing potential candidates for the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools. Objective. To identify the complete pld and cp40 genes sequence from a Mexican isolate of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ovis, principal virulence factors. Methodology. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolate 2J-L was obtained from an abscess of a sheep of the State of Jalisco. The complete pld and cp40 genes were amplified by PCR, cloned into a replicative vector and sequenced by Sanger automatic sequencing. Gene sequences conservancy was established, analyzing homology across previously reported genes of Mexican strains MEX1, MEX2, MEX9, MEX25 and MEX29. Results. Sequences of pld and cp40 genes from isolate 2J-L presented high percentages of similarity (99%) in comparison with the sequences of other isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, reported in the GenBank database. The analysis of nucleotide sequence homology and phylogenetic tree based on pld and cp40 directed the observation that 2J-L is related to Mexican strain MEX29 and MEX25. Phylogenetic results agreed on the idea that strains biovar ovis and biovar equi are groupings on different clades. Finally, results indicate that Mexican strains are more similar among strains isolated from the same host type, without geography distance influence. Implications. The analysis pointed out that both genes conserve their sequences in comparison with Mexican and international strains, which encourages the research continuity for vaccine and diagnostic tools development using proteins PLD and CP40 as antigen targets. Conclusions. The complete pld and cp40 genes from Mexican isolate 2J-L were amplified, cloned and analyzed; important virulence factors from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Armando Romero-Yerena, Lina Marisol Arellano-Perez, Maria Luisa Posada-Sosa-y-Silva, Baudelio Rodriguez-Murillo, Alejandro Palacios
      Abstract: Background. The nutrient content of Moringa oleifera, such as vitamin A and B, calcium, iron, copper, carbohydrates and protein, make this shrub an option as a supplement in poultry feed. Objective. To evaluate the effect of the incorporation of three levels of Moringa oleifera in the diet of semi-heavy Plymouth Rock hens, on post-moult recovery and egg quality. Methodology. Ten hens per treatment were randomly assigned to one of three levels of moringa (0%, 3% and 6%, for T1, T2 and T3, respectively), 11d after the start of the moult a corn-based diet was provided, plus the percentage of moringa corresponding to each treatment. According to the moult method used, 10 g were increased every two days until completing 20 d and / or reaching 120 g of feed per bird. On day 31, the laying diet plus moringa was restarted for 20 more days. The hens and the egg were weighed, registering the following variables: number, weight, measurements (width and length) of the egg, weight of the hen, breast measurements (length and width), culling test (horizontal and vertical), feed consumption, pH, height and diameter of the white and the yolk, and thickness of the shell. Results. No significant differences (P> 0.05) were observed between the aforementioned variables, except for the thickness of the shell, which was thicker (P <0.05) for the eggs produced by the hens subjected to the T2 and T3 treatments. Implications. Moringa oleifera is a viable option to replace soy or fish meal as a source of protein in poultry feed, in addition to improving the quality of the egg in relation to its resistance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
  • AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF SHALLOT (Allium cepa L. var. Aggregatum) UNDER

    • Authors: Sri Anjar Lasmini, Idham Idham, Burhanuddin Haji Nasir, Flora Pasaru, Irwan Lakani, Nur Khasanah
      Abstract: Background. Shallot plant is an important commodity in Central Sulawesi because it functions as a raw material in the fried onion home-industry. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulch and organic fertilizers on the agronomic performance of the “Lembah Palu” variety of shallot (Allium cepa L. var. Aggregatum) on dryland. Methodology. The experiment consisted of three types of mulch (no mulching, rice straw, and Gliricidia sepium leaf) and four types of organic fertilizers (no fertilizer, bioculture, biourin and cattle manure compost). The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. A total of 36 plots were used for the experiment. The agronomic performance measured were: plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of tillers, fresh weight, dry weight, bulb diameter and bulb yield of shallot. Environmental parameters include temperature and humidity. Result. Results showed that the application of rice straw mulch plus bioculture organic fertilizer had positive  significant effect (P≤ 0.05, respectively) on next agronomic parameters: plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of tillers, fresh weight, dry weight, bulb diameter and yield bulb of shallot. Implications. Significantly positive results on the agronomic parameters of shallots indicate that the application of mulch and bioculture organic fertilizers can be used on other crops to increasing the efficiency of dryland. Conclusion. The highest production of shallots was 9.46 t.ha-1. Thus, it can be recommended that straw mulch at a dose of 5 t.ha-1 and bioculture at a dose of 750 L.ha-1 is better for the growth and yield of shallot in dryland. The use of rice straw mulch and bioculture as organic liquid fertilizer provides benefits to increase productivity, add value to the crop and livestock waste, reduce environmental pollution, and application to plants will produce healthy products.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Lucia Leticia Palacios-Cortez, Fatima Lizeth Gandarilla-Pacheco, Lilia Hortencia Morales-Ramos, Sergio Manuel Salcedo-Martínez, Maria Elizabeth Aleman-Huerta, Myriam Elias-Santos, Isela Quintero-Zapata
      Abstract: Background. The formulation of agents of biological origin with insecticidal activity is one of the most effective methods for the control of lepidopteran pests due to their feeding forms. The insecticidal activity of B. thuringensis is widely known, which is why it is believed that native strains of this bacillus could have toxic activity on larvae of the cobweb worm, H. cunea. Objective. To prepare by means of the spray drying technique microencapsulated formulations of a native strain of B. thuringensis with toxic activity on H. cunea. Methodology. The experimental design was completely randomized and the means were compared with the Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). The strain selected for the formulation is a key Mexican strain GM-10 belonging to the aizawai variety and presented an LC50 of 0.007 ng cm-2 in artificial diet, and a LT50 of 80.83 h. To prepare the formulations, a phago-stimulant was first selected by means of food preference tests with powdered leaves of walnut, blackberry, ash, loquat and walnut shell powder and a commercial phage-stimulant (Coax®), and ash was selected with 61.4% of the larvae attracted. Once the phagostimulant was selected, encapsulated formulations were developed with a mixture of polymers (Capsul®-bovine gelatin), as a base. Several formulations were then made to select an adhesion additive, and the ingredients tested were guar gum, core® gum and xanthan gum. Results. Food preference bioassays to establish the affinity of H. cunea for some of the formulations showed that the larvae had a similar affinity for feeding on all formulations (p ≥ 0.05), while in the trials to select an adherent for the formulation xanthan gum presented the best adherence (p ≤ 0.05). Implications. The evaluated formulations preserved their toxic activity after microencapsulation with an LC50 of less than 0.05 ng cm-2 of B. thuringensis. Conclusion. These results show the feasibility of using the spray drying method to obtain an effective formulation for the treatment of the immature stages of H. cunea.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Irma L. Medina-Baizabal, Gabriela Heredia, Marcela Gamboa-Angulo
      Abstract: Background: Saprophytic micromycetes are recognized for their extraordinary ability to biosynthesize various metabolites with biological properties that can be modified when interacting with other organisms. Objective: To evaluate the antibacerial and antifungal activity of extracts obtained from dual interactions of Acremonium masseei CICY029 (Am), Beltraniella portoricensis MR42 (Bp), Cylindrium elongatum MR45 (Ce) y Stachybotrys sp. MR33 (Ssp) and to obtain the chemical profile of the most active interaction. Methodology: The ethyl acetate extracts of the four strains and their six dual interactions were evaluated against ten pathogens by the microdilution method to determine their antifungal and antibacterial capacity.  The most active extracts were partitioned, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) o their fractions were determined. The chemical profile of the most active interaction was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Results: The highest mycelial growth inhibitory activity (MCI = 100%) was obtained from the fungal extracts of the single culture of Stachybotrys sp., and the dual Ce-Ssp interaction against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Mycosphaerella fijiensis at the concentration of 2000 µg/mL, as well as against Candida albicans and Xanthomonas campestris at 400 µg/mL. The acetonitrile fraction of Stachybotrys sp. showed high effectiveness against Alternaria tagetica, C. gloeosporioides, M. fijiensis and X. campestris (MIC ≤ 250 -1000 µg/mL). A mixture of fatty acids and three unidentified components not observed in the single cultures were detected by GC-MS in the Ce-Ssp extract. Implications: Biological interactions between two saprophytic fungi are a viable alternative for inducing the production of new metabolites with the potential to control pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Conclusions: The antifungal and antibacterial potential of saprophytic micromycetes can be improved in their dual interaction, particularly between C. elongatum MR45 and Stachybotrys sp. MR33, is a promising option for further investigation as potential natural antimicrobials.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Raul Avalos-Castro, Jose C. Segura-Correa, Alejandro Palacios-Espinosa, Fernando Romero-Santillan
      Abstract: Background. Growth curves allow to predict the mature weight, the grow rate unto maturity, as well as the age and weight at inflexion point, to improve management on productive animals. Objective. To identify the best non-linear model (NLM), which best describe the growth curve of Creole sheep from the Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico.  Material and methods. The live weights of 720 sheep (438 females and 239 males) between 1 and 60 months of age were used. The NLM evaluated were: Logistic, Gompertz, Michaelis-Menten, Weibull and Mechanist. Analyzes were performed with SAS JMP software. The criteria used to select the best model were the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc), Bayesian (BIC) and coefficient of determination (R2). Results. For females, the Mechanist and Weibull models adjusted better de data (lowest AICc, BIC), but not being differences with the Michaelis-Menten and Gompertz. For males the lowest AICc, BIC and the highest R2 (0.84) values were for the Logistic, Gompertz and Mechanist models. Implications. The knowledge of the parameters of the growth curves of the creole sheep of the Mixteca region could be used for taking better decisions on the management of this type of sheep. Conclusion. According to the models, the inflection point of the growth curves was reached at a young age and a lower body weight in females than in males; therefore, different models should be used to study the growth kinetics between sexes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           PUEBLA, MEXICO

    • Authors: Omar Romero-Arenas, Saira Jazmin Martínez-Salgado, Antonio Rivera, Manuel Huerta-Lara, Beatriz Laug-García, Nemesio Villa-Ruano
      Abstract: Background: Species of the Fusarium genus are considered as devastating phytopathogens of onion crops around the world. Objective:  This work aimed to know the causal agent of basal rot in onion crops from Puebla-México recorded in 2019. Methodology: The causal agent was isolated from diseased samples by tissue incubation in Potato Dextrose Agar medium (PDA) and the pathogenicity tests were done with the causal agent to demonstrate its involvement in basal rot. Monosporic cultures of the causal agent were generated for further microscopic characterization and molecular identification by Internal Transcribed Spacers ITS1 and ITS2. Results: According to the pathogenicity tests, the causal agent produced apical constriction and necrosis in the radicle and leaves accompanied by brown spots surrounded by yellowing as those observed in natural conditions. A 533 bp amplicon of the causative agent was obtained by partial amplification of the 5.8S rDNA gene. The sequence of the amplicon was compared with the sequences deposited in the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) showing 100% homology with Fusarium equiseti. Implications: Our investigation reveals F. equiseti as an emergent causal agent of onion basal rot in crops from the community of “La Soledad” Puebla, México. Conclusion: Herein we report for the first time F. equiseti as a new phytopathogen of onion and further strategies should be considered for its control.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           TABASCO, MEXICO

    • Authors: Vanessa Lisbeth Morán-Villa, Alejandro Ismael Monterroso-Rivas, Jesús David Gómez-Díaz, Sergio Roberto Márquez-Berber, Eduardo Valdés-Velarde
      Abstract: Background. The floristic composition of the cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems in Tabasco provides a way to describe the genetic and tree diversity of traditional forms of production. Objective. to evaluate how the cacao agroforestry systems are floristically composed in the state. Methodology. Thirteen plots were sampled in four municipalities, with a total area of 30.5 ha. The species were counted, and the importance, diameter classes, height, and main uses were estimated. Results. Seventeen families and 2370 individuals belonging to 36 species were recorded. The dominant families were Fabaceae and Rutaceae; The species with the highest presence (74.5%) were represented by Cedrela odorata L, Erythrina americana Mill., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) DC., Swietenia macrophylla Willd., Cocos nucifera L, Colubrina arborescens (P. Mill) Sarg., Pimenta dioica L., Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol and Roystonea dunlapiana P. H. Allen. In addition to providing shade, trees are used to obtain wood, fruit, fencing, or similar medicinal alternatives. On average, each plot has 46 trees per ha, a diversity of 9 different shade trees in young plantations, and 18 species in mature plantations, demonstrating the variety and floristic richness in the agroecosystem. Implications. It lays the foundations for future work that quantifies and enhances the environmental services provided by agroecosystems, as its utility on cacao agroforestry systems to preserve wildlife species. Conclusion. More studies should be implemented to deepen the knowledge of cocoa agroforestry systems (CAFS), particularly in quantifying and providing environmental services. Maintaining these CAFS will promote biodiversity and other environmental benefits, such as carbon storage, which with integrative plans, can represent alternative sources of income for producers in a sustainable way."Background. The floristic composition of the cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems in Tabasco provides a way to describe the genetic and tree diversity of traditional forms of production. Objective. to evaluate how the cacao agroforestry systems are floristically composed in the state. Methodology. Thirteen plots were sampled in four municipalities, with a total area of 30.5 ha. The species were counted, and the importance, diameter classes, height, and main uses were estimated. Results. Seventeen families and 2370 individuals belonging to 36 species were recorded. The dominant families were Fabaceae and Rutaceae; The species with the highest presence (74.5%) were represented by Cedrela odorata L, Erythrina americana Mill., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) DC., Swietenia macrophylla Willd., Cocos nucifera L, Colubrina arborescens (P. Mill) Sarg., Pimenta dioica L., Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol and Roystonea dunlapiana P. H. Allen. In addition to providing shade, trees are used to obtain wood, fruit, fencing, or similar medicinal alternatives. On average, each plot has 46 trees per ha, a diversity of 9 different shade trees in young plantations, and 18 species in mature plantations, demonstrating the variety and floristic richness in the agroecosystem. Implications. It lays the foundations for future work that quantifies and enhances the environmental services provided by agroecosystems, as its utility on cacao agroforestry systems to preserve wildlife species. Conclusion. More studies should be implemented to deepen the knowledge of cocoa agroforestry systems (CAFS), particularly in quantifying and providing environmental services. Maintaining these CAFS will promote biodiversity and other environmental benefits, such as carbon storage, which with integrative plans, can represent alternative sources of income for producers in a sustainable way."
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Guidsam Tilus, R.A. Zinn, M. Joseph, Alfonso Juventino Chay Canul, J. Santillano-Cazares, M. Galicia-Juarez, M.L. Tilus, D. Tilus, E.E. Estrada-Delgado, M.F. Montaño-Gomez
      Abstract: Background. The intensity and grazing interval are two very important factors in the management of grasslands that can affect the morphological and productive behavior of the forage species. Due to its productivity and persistence to grazing, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamb.) is the main source of pasture for backgrounding cattle during winter-spring in northwestern México. Therefore, it is important to generate knowledge of established pasture with grasses to generate information that will serve producers to improve the economic profitability of livestock activities. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of grazing intensity (GI) and grazing interval (GIv) on forage yield, elongation rate and botanical composition of ryegrass, under ambient conditions of this arid region. Hypothesis. It is evident to observe that GIv and GI modify the forage yield, elongation rate and botanical composition of L. multiflorum established in irrigated grassland in temperate climate zones. Methodology. The study involved 1008 crossed bull calves (Bos indicus ˣ Bos taurus) of 16 months of age. Calves were distributed in a 3 ˣ 2 factorial arrangement in an RCB design, with three repetitions. Three GIv (21, 28 and 35-d) and two GI (grazed to 4 to 6 cm vs 10 to 12 cm) were evaluated. This 105-d trial was initiated on January 16, 2019, 90 days post-planting and finished on May 01, 2019, using an intensive grazing system with stocking rate of 56 calves per ha. The main effects of grazing interval were evaluated by means of orthogonal polynomials. Results. Forage yield increased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing GIv; whereas with GIv of 28 and 35 days, yield increased with increased GI (interaction, P< 0.01). Stem contribution to yield increased linearly (P<.01) with increasing GIv. Forage lef to stem ratio decreased with increasing GIv and GI; however, at 28-d GIv, GI did not affect this ratio. Implications. The results of the present study contribute to know the productive parameters of an established L. multiflorum meadow in zones of arid climates under two intensities and three grazing intervals. Conclusions. In conclusion, both grazing intensity and grazing interval are effective management tools to modify ryegrass performance during the hot ambient conditions of the Sonoran Desert region, associated with late-spring grazing period.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Soul Washaya, Prince Dieter Muchaurawa, Dorine Dorcas Washaya
      Abstract: Background: The severity of drought in sub-Saharan Africa has led to crop failure and high mortalities of cattle. For decade’s drought-induced losses have been a persistent struggle for herded animals on rangelands. Persistent droughts have caused significant cattle losses, yet drought warning signs are not communicated in time to prepare farmers for adaptation and or mitigation. Objective: To analyse the adoption of drought coping strategies by smallholder beef farmers in Zaka District. Methodology: The sustainable livelihood framework guided the study in assessing the community adaptive strategies. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was employed and questionnaires were used to collect data. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between demographic characteristics and drought copping and mitigation strategies. A logit model and maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to analyse the factors influencing adoption. Results: The results indicated that age and education status influenced (P < 0.05) drought copping strategies. Cattle disease and droughts were the major causes of cattle loses 38 and 35% respectively. Supplementary feeding, cattle disposal and lease grazing major were the adopted strategies. It was also found that farmer education level and access to agricultural training influenced adoption (P < 0.05). Cattle mortality, drought experience and crop losses are driving factors to adoption. Purchase of food items and its payment of medical bills are the major (P<0.05) reasons for selling beef cattle. Implications: Given the forecasts of future drought cycles, it is imperative that farmer’s establishment of drought feeding schemes, forage harvesting, investing in commercial protein supplements and communal breeding programs for drought-tolerant cattle be implemented. Conclusion: Cattle disposal, supplementary feeding and lease grazing are the adopted drought mitigatory strategies by beef communal farmers, yet these are only short term. Long term grazing strategies are recommended in order to reduce further cattle losses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Lindokhuhle Buthelezi, John Mupangwa, Soul Washaya
      Abstract: Background. Pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) produce large amounts of high protein leaves that make it suitable for cultivation in arid and semiarid regions. Objective. To evaluate the biomass production and chemical composition of three pigeon pea varieties (ICEAP 00557, ICEAP 01514 and CIMMYT 100/01). Methodology. A completely randomized design was used. In two growing seasons, the plots were harvested at flowering and biomass yields were measured for fresh forage and dry matter (DM). Harvested leaves were either shade or oven-dried to a constant weight before being milled for chemical analyses. The proximate composition, mineral content, phenolic, tannin and saponnin contents were determined. Results. Varieties ICEAP 01514 and CIMMYT 100/01 yielded the highest fodder of 2620.6 and 4458.3 kg DM/ha in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Variety ICEAP 00557 produced the lowest amount of fodder in both 2016 and 2017 at 1997.6 and 2933.3 kg DM/ha, respectively. There were interactions among varieties, seasons and drying methods on proximate composition. The DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were higher for ICEAP 01514 at 96.0, 88.0 and 55.3 %, respectively and digestible dry matter (DDM) (67.8 %) and metabolizable energy (ME) (9.8 MJ/kg DM) were higher for variety ICEAP 00557 in 2017.  Shade drying recorded higher crude protein (CP) values (24.2-27.0 %) across all varieties with higher values occurring in 2017 compared to 2016. The interactive effect of season, pigeon peas varieties and drying method had little effect on both macro and micro- minerals except for copper (Cu) values. The ranges in macro-minerals were: calcium (Ca) (1.21-2.35), magnesium (Mg) (0.33-0.89), sodium (Na) (0.1-0.7) and phosphorus (P) (0.13-0.31 %). The ranges in micro-minerals were: iron (Fe) (206.7-283.4) and Cu (5.94-7.95 mg/kg DM). The tannins, phenolic and saponin contents were different (P< 0.05) among varieties and between drying methods. Their ranges were: 2.7-8.0 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/g, 13.6-15.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.4-6.1 %, respectively. Implications. Pigeon peas are suitable for farming systems in the drylands and these varieties are suitable diets for ruminants in the subtropics, where CP in the diets are low. Conclusions. Air-drying under a shade was recommended to preserve the nutritional quality of pigeon peas fodder. The macro and micro-nutrients in the pigeon peas satisfied the animal requirements, except for the deficiency in Na and Cu. The concentration of the anti-nutritive compounds in the pigeon peas will not limit animal performance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: David Sósol-Reyes, Juan A. Villanueva-Jiménez, Francisco Osorio-Acosta, Norma Flores-Estévez, Juan C. Noa-Carrazana
      Abstract: Background: The Potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-p) causes the papaya (Carica papaya L.) ringspot disease, which causes damage to the plantations of this crop. In regions where there is movement of plant material and continuous production processes, there is greater genetic variability of this virus; such is the case of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, one of the main papaya producers in the country. Objective: To analyze the genetic variability of isolates of PRSV-p, present in commercial papaya plantations in the central zone of the State of Veracruz. Methodology: Leaves with differential symptoms of the disease were collected. The capsid protein (CP) coding region was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the identity of the virus. The sequences obtained were analyzed, aligned and a phylogenetic tree was obtained. Results: The presence of PRSV-p was confirmed by RT-PCR. Through sequence analysis, high diversity was observed in the first 50 amino acids encoded in the N-terminal region of CP. In the phylogenetic tree, three viral genetic groups were obtained. The largest conserved sites of interest (even the WCIEN box and QMKAAA) were found near the C-terminal region of the CP. 100% homology was observed in the central and C-terminal region of the Ver75Co isolate, with respect to the consensus sequence. Implications: The results show the genetic diversity of the virus in the central zone of the state of Veracruz, which will allow genetic modifications to improve resistance in papaya plants. Conclusions: There is genetic variability of PRSV-p in Veracruz, there are conserved sites of interest (WCIEN and QMKAAA) and changes in the N-terminal region, which includes the EK repetitive region and the DAG codon. These changes may be a genetic characteristic of the virus for adaptation. The Ver75Co isolate may be the point of change that gives rise to the other isolates of this work. The phylogenetic tree shows a single genetic group of the virus, which is distributed in three different clades.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Yasin Goa, W. Worku, H. Mohammed, E. Urage
      Abstract: Background. Farmers’ participation in varietal selection process is important to collect the actual feedbacks on their performance in the field and hastens promotion and popularization of technologies. The study was conducted during 2016-2017 main cropping seasons in Gofa district of southern Ethiopia. Objective. To assess and select superior cowpea variety (ies) that meet needs of farmers and preferences through farmers’ participation. Methodology. Data on agronomic traits were collected on plant and plot basis whereas at maturity and post harvest stages, farmers were requested to evaluate each variety. Eight cowpea varieties were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates on the Gofa research station and additional unreplicated block at three nominated farmers’ fields from each testing site. Results. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the existence of significant differences (p<0.05) among the tested varieties for all the measured agronomic traits. Combined mean values showed that Brazil-3 (1.65 t ha-1), Brazil-2 (1.62 t ha-1), Kenketi (1.53 t ha-1), and bole (1.52 t ha-1) were high-yielding varieties with a yield advantage of 3.9 to 12.2 % more than the check variety white wonderer trailing. In case of farmers’ evaluation using direct matrix and pair-wise ranking methods showed that Kenketi, Brazil-3, Brazil-2, and Bole were the most preferred varieties. The rank correlation analysis between varieties’ ranked by farmers and the varieties’ grain yield rank was positive across the tested villages. Implication. These results lead to identify the farmers’ screening criteria needs to be incorporated into new varieties being developed which will contribute considerably to increased acceptance of improved cowpea varieties among smallholder farmers across the growing areas of southern Ethiopia.Conclusion. The results of this study have confirmed the need for researchers to incorporate farmers’ preferred traits in cowpea improvement programmes. The study also identified cowpea varieties Brazil-3, Brazil-2, Kenketi and Bole as potential ones that can be recommended for further demonstration, popularization, and dissemination on farmers’ fields to improve cowpea productivity in southern Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    • Authors: Wenceslao Apan Salcedo, José Nahed Toral, Esaú Pérez Luna, Angel Piñeiro Vázquez, Guillermo Jiménez Ferrer
      Abstract: Background. Silvopastoral systems are viable agroforestry option to move toward sustainable livestock and rural development. Objective. to analyze the level of adoption of silvopastoral techniques by beneficiary producers of three converging projects in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas region (Mexico), during the 2008-2017 period. Methodology. Forty-two Cattle Production Units (UPP, for its acronym in Spanish) from the municipalities of Villaflores, La Concordia and Pijijiapan (Chiapas) were diagnosed by socioeconomic and technical variables. A Silvopastoral Systems Development Index (IDESSP, for its acronym in Spanish) was used to evaluate their level of adoption. Results. The global IDESSP of UPP was 52%. UPP in the “High” level of adoption reached an IDESSP of 74% (± 6.2), “Medium” an index of 56% (± 5.3) and located in the “Low” group was 42% (± 3.1). The socio-educational characteristics (age of the producer, years of experience in livestock activity, education level) and the productive variables (land area, herd size, milk production / day, annual income) were different (P <0.05) between the groups. The significant variables (P> 0.001) that allowed a greater adoption of silvopastoral practices were the average annual income of each family, the availability of total land, and the collaboration that the rancher had with other social sectors.  Implications. The low adoption of silvopastoral techniques encourages the continuation of conventional livestock practices with negative effects on natural resources, diminishes the capacities for strengthening and social organization, and limits the processes of scaling-up or massification of SSP. Conclusions. The level of adoption of silvopastoral techniques among the UPP was intermediate, which was subject to availability of land, years of experience, educational level and number of links for the production of each owner of the production units, the area under actions of conservation were greater than silvopastoral techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Rodrigo Ávila-González, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán, Julieta Gertrudis Estrada-Flores, Felipe López González
      Abstract: Background: Sheep production in central Mexico is an important livestock activity that requires the evaluation of feeding strategies to increase or sustain production in times of feed scarcity. Objective: To evaluate the performance of ewes fed diets with different levels of inclusion of Typha latifolia. Methodology: Fifteen criollo adult ewes were randomly grouped to receive different levels of tule (Typha latifolia) in their feeding as a complement to grazing. An incomplete randomized block design was employed. Daily live weight gain, intake, and body condition score were evaluated, as well as grassland parameters and the chemical composition of feeds. The experiment lasted 60 days divided in four measurement periods. All ewes were supplemented with a commercial pelleted concentrate. The control group (T1) had 0g DM of tule, 461.75 g DM commercial concentrate, and 8 h grazing; T2 had 116.5g DM of tule, 461.75 g DM commercial concentrate, and 8 h grazing; and T3 had 174.75 g DM of tule, 461.75 g DM commercial concentrate, and 8 h grazing. Results: There were significant differences (P<0.05) in DM intake of pasture and Typha latifolia. There were no significant differences among treatments (P>0.05) for initial and final live weight, daily weight gain and body condition score. Implications: Typha latifolia is an available non-conventional forage source for adult sheep maintenance in the dry season for small-scale systems. Conclusion: The inclusion of Typha latifolia in diets for sheep may be a good option for feeding adult ewes in maintenance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           MESQUITE PODS (Prosopis spp.)

    • Authors: Oscar Enrique Del Razo Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández, Augusto Lizarazo Chaparro, José Manuel Elizalde Téllez, Alfonso Juventino Chay Canul, Verónica Rodríguez Guerrero, Joaquín Castro Montoya
      Abstract: Background. Mesquite is a shrubby legume that dominates the vegetation of arid regions with multiple benefits in controlling erosive process, improving micrometeorology, and as feed source for livestock species. In addition, mesquite pods contain secondary components that could represent an option to mitigate emissions of enteric methane in ruminants. Objective. To evaluate in vitro fermentation patterns and methane production of mesquite pods (Prosopis spp.) in the arid ecoregion of the State of Hidalgo. Methodology. Mesquite pod samples were obtained from four municipalities in the arid ecoregion of the state of Hidalgo: Actopan (ACT), Tula de Allende (TUL), San Salvador (SAL) and Zimapán (ZIM). In vitro fermentation of the mesquite pods was carried out during 72 h to 39 °C in a culture medium with ruminal bacteria and mineral solutions. The fractional gas volume (Vf), cumulated gas volume (Va), maximum volume (V), gas production rate (S) and lag time (L) were calculated. The volume of methane was quantified by displacement of a NaOH 2N solution. Results. Some chemical composition characteristics of the mesquite pods were different between municipalities. V showed significant differences between localities (p≤0.05), with mesquite pods collected in SAL showing the highest values (163.2 mL g-1 MS). A municipality x time interaction was observed for Vf (p≤0.05) and differences between municipalities were observed. The values of volume partial of CH4 observed at 24 hours were different between collection sites (p≤0.05), with higher emission values observed in mesquite pods collected in SAL (16.3 mL/g MS) and ACT (17.3 mL/g MS). Conclusion. The results of the current study provide evidence of differences of in vitro fermentation patterns and methane emissions from the mesquite pods regarding to origin place. Implications. These results should be considered in the design and implementation of future nutritional and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
  • CURRENT PERSPECTIVE OF FALL ARMYWORM Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:

    • Authors: Ernesto Cerna Chavez, Jose Luis Arispe Vazquez, Juan Mayo Hernandez, Luis Alberto Aguirre Uribe, Yisa Maria Ochoa Fuentes, Agustin Hernandez Juarez, Epifanio Castro del Angel
      Abstract: Background. Fall Armyworm (FAW) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests found in Western Hemisphere, and it is now one of the key pests on several crops on America, Africa, Oceania, and Asia; becoming a major threat to food safety in many countries, due to losses caused to farmers. Objective. Review current knowledge of FAW resistance to active ingredients in the world. Methodology. A systematic study was carried out by collecting information from scientific writings, from first reports of resistance of fall armyworm to the more current ones, which included different national and international databases. Main finding. FAW control for decades has been based on the use of chemical insecticides; this has generated applications increase without control and therefore, resistance of the pest. FAW resistance has been reported since 1965; today, FAW has been reported to be resistant to 33 active ingredients in different parts of the world. Implications. The knowledge generated is essential to plan control strategies. Conclusion. The development of new chemical insecticide molecules and the emergence of Bt technology have not achieved good control of FAW. Management strategies for FAW need to be implemented not only in Mexico, but in all places where FAW is present, to avoid further increase FAW resistance to of insecticides and Bt crops; otherwise, the FAW will be present in more places in the world, putting the food safety in more countries at risk.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Roberto Alexander Fisher-Ortíz, Ulises Rodríguez-Robles, E. Miriam Aldasoro-Maya, M. Lorena Soto-Pinto, Elsa Chávez-García
      Abstract: Background: The cacao agroforestry system (Cacao-AFS) is a small-scale design system with a great diversity and multiple functions; at the same time that is very vulnerable to the climatic variability. Through resilience is possible to see, how does a system respond and/or reorganize in the face of a perturbation like climate change. This work makes a review of Cacao-AFS and analyzes its potential resilience to climate change. Methodology: A review of the state of the art about the cacao system and its resilience had been organized from an analysis of 249 works consulted from bibliographic bases. The information was codified in six factors (scientific and contemporaneous knowledge, agrobiodiversity, socioecological autoregulation, capital, and social self-organization) and climate change implications, and finally evaluated through a matrix. Results: Through the review of the literature, it was found that there is a great adaptive capacity because scientific innovation and contemporaneous knowledge it generates different actions to solve some problems of the system. Also, it was found that there is a great agrobiodiversity in the system that allows the socioecological reproduction of the system (autoregulation). On the other hand, the system is low rentable and the young people don`t want to incorporate to the activity (low capital) and the social actors don´t use to cooperate (low self-organization). Implications: It was found that there are some aspects that favor the resilience of cacao system and others that need to be improved. To improve the resilience of the Cacao-AFS to climate change it is necessary to create spaces for the self-organization of the different actors and the knowledge dialogue, and to make a transition to more just and agroecological schemes. There are still some parts of the systems and their resilience that had not been totally investigated, like the local responses of the communities to climate change, the immaterial life of the cacao peasants, their inter-familiar and inter-community links, the environmental history of the cacao system, the functional and respond biodiversity and holistic economic diagnostics. Conclusions: The cacao system had some elements that indicate some degree of resilience to the climate change. The cacao system is resilient to climate change in some factors and not resilient in others. Their investigation is a fertile field to make multi and interdisciplinary studies.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Irene Martínez Velasco, Amaury-M. Arzate Fernandez
      Abstract: Background: Plant tissue culture has been shown to be an efficient technique for the propagation of diverse Agave species using different in vitro regeneration processes. However, it has been demonstrated that genetic changes can occur in plants regenerated under these schemes, also called somaclonal variation. Objective: the objective of this study was to determine the genetic fidelity of plantlets regenerated from three different explants (mature zygotic embryonic axis, in vitro plantlet meristematic zone, and ex vitro plantlet meristematic zone) using two pathways of micropropagation (direct and indirect organogenesis) of A. salmiana and A. marmorata. Methodology: somaclonal variation of the obtained clones was evaluated using different DNA markers, such as anchored simple inter-sequence repeat (ASSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Results: the results show that only in those clones that undergo a callus phase and, consequently, indirect organogenesis, somaclonal variation was observed. In contrast, those clones obtained by direct organogenesis were genetically stable, it means not polymorphic bands were observed. Implications: it was achieved an efficient propagation protocol for A. salmiana and A. marmorata, maintaining genetic stability of regenerated plantlets as well as a possible alternative for genetic improvement by observing somaclonal variation via indirect organogenesis in both evaluated species. Conclusions: in this research, the micropropagation pathway (direct and indirect organogenesis) was the determining factor to maintain or not the genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants in both species of Agave used.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           SILAGE (Brassica napus) INSTEAD OF CORN SILAGE (Zea mays) IN TOTAL MIXED

    • Authors: Luis Alberto Mejía Uribe, Ignacio Arturo Domínguez Vara, Fuensanta Hernández Ruipérez, Ernesto Morales Almaráz
      Abstract: Background. Canola silage (EC) is a viable alternative to replace corn silage (EM) in ruminants feed, due to its nutritional value and source of polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve the quality milk fat. Objective. To evaluate the inclusion of EC as substitute for of EM in total mixed rations (TMR) on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of goats at the end lactation. Methodology. Ten Alpine goats (49 ± 2.5 kg LW, 194 ± 18 days in lactation) were fed with completely mixed diets containing 25% EC plus 25% EM (experimental diet) and 50% EM (control diet). Results. Milk production in goats fed with EC was 33.46% higher (P<0.05) than in goats eating only ME as forage. The content of rumenic and vaccenic acids in milk increased (P<0.05) 60 and 57%, respectively, with the inclusion of EC in the diet. There were not differences (P>0.05) in milk fat, protein and lactose content, nor in dry matter intake between treatments. Implications. EC as an alternative forage in combination with EM, it is a viable feeding strategy for small ruminants. Conclusions. The use of EC represents a feeding strategy to improve the fatty acid profile of milk without effecting the chemical composition of milk and the productive response of goats at the end of lactation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: H. Jesús Muñoz-Flores, J. Trinidad Sáenz-Reyes, Rubén Barrera-Ramírez, David Castillo-Quiroz, Francisco Castillo
      Abstract: Background. Bamboo species is characterized by their rapid growth; therefore, they have been used in commercial forest plantations in Mexico under several environments. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and growth of two bamboo species: Otatea acuminata, and Otatea rzedwoskiorum, in plantations in Ziracuaretiro, Michoacán. Methods. An experimental design with randomized blocks, two treatments, four replicates, and 25 plants as experimental units was used. Variance (p= 0.05) and Tukey-test analyses were performed for the variables height (AT), diameter at stem base (DBT), and relative growth rate (TCR) in the program Statistica version 13. Results: After two years, there were differences between both species ( ), where O. rzedwoskiorum stood out in survival (96%), but O. acuminata had more AT (2.04 m), DBT (8.30 mm), and TCR (0.013 mm day-1). Implications: O. acuminata can be established adequately in commercial forest plantations in the temperate region of Michoacán. Conclusions: In survival, Q. rzedwoskiorum was better; however, O. acuminata had better growth.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Cristell G. Valencia-Garcia, T.A. Arbez-Abnal, R. Portillo-Salgado, R.A. Garcia-Herrera, F.A. Cigarroa-Vazquez, J. Herrera-Camacho, E. Vargas-Bello-Perez, Alfonso Juventino Chay Canul
      Abstract: Background. Carcass yield varies depending on the relative proportions of muscle, fat and bone, therefore, the possibility of predicting its value would produce valuable information that will promote the viability and sustainability of rabbit meat production. Methodology. Thirty-eight male growing rabbits (New Zealand White × Californian) with body weights (BW) of 1329 ± 291 g and from 60 to 100 days of age were used. Real time ultrasonography (RTU) measurements were taken 12 h before slaughtering. For that, rabbits were shaved between the 6th and 7th lumbar vertebrae. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LM) area (LDA) and also the maximum LM width (LDW) and the maximum depth LM (LDD) were measured. Data recorded at slaughtering included carcass and non-carcass components. After chilling at 4° C for 24 hours, carcasses were split longitudinally to obtain left and right halves that were later weighed. Thereafter, the right half carcass was weighed and manually deboned for recording weights of muscle (TCM), and bone (TCB). Results. The highest correlation (r = 0.84, P <0.001) was observed between TCM and LDD, while the lower correlation (r = 0.4, P <0.001) was observed between TCB and LDW. The BW were highly related to carcass characteristics (r>0.77≤0.97). In vivo RTU measurements explained a low to moderate amount of variation in TCB and TCM with an r2 of 0.36 to 0.77 (P < 0.001) respectively. BW explained from 49 to 92% of variation in TCB and TCM, respectively. Implications. The in vivo ultrasound measurements it is a viable tool that allows predicting carcass value of rabbits. Conclusion. Our results indicated that the use of RTU measurements could accurately predict muscle from growing rabbit's carcass.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
  • CONTROL of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus zeae USING Embelia
           schimperi EXTRACTS

    • Authors: Beth Wangui Waweru, Njira Njira Pili, Moses Wabusya Wetiba, Dorcas Lusweti, Margaret Chepkemoi Koske, Rose Chepchirchir Ramkat, Ambrose Kipchumba Kiprop
      Abstract: Background. Some secondary metabolites found in plants have been used to control pests and pathogens. The plant Embelia schimperi contains complex compounds that can be used to biosynthesize agrochemicals for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Objective. This work analysed the phytochemical profile of the E. schimperi plant and assessed the biological potential of its crude extracts. Methodology. The phytochemicals were extracted in three solvents: ethanol, dichloromethane, and hexane, utilising maceration and ultrasonication procedures. Results. These solvents performed well in extracting flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, tannins, and saponins, according to the findings. Implication. The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita can be inhibited from hatching, and the lesion nematode Pratylenchus zeae can be killed as a result of these chemicals' bioassay activities. Conclusion. Plant-parasitic nematode may be controlled with crude extracts from this plant, which can be processed into a botanical insecticide.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Assefa Tadesse, Aberra Melesse, Markus Rodehutscord
      Abstract: Background. Through in vitro studies, dried Leucaena leucocephala leaf (DLL) was identified as potential candidate in mitigating enteric methane (CH4) emission. Nevertheless, its efficiency as suitable feed for sheep has not been determined in Ethiopia. Objective. To assess the suitability of replacing the concentrate mix (CM) with DLL on voluntary intake, growth performance in rams and in vitro CH4 production. Methodology. Thirty yearling rams were first stratified according to their initial body weight similarities and then individuals from each stratum were randomly assigned to five treatment diets with six rams each. The control diet contained CM with 346 g/head/d (T1), and treatment diets replacing the CM in the control diet with DLL at a rate of 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4) and 20% (T5) with the corresponding CM to DLL mixture ratio of 346:0, 329:17, 311:35, 294:52 and 277:69 g/head/day. Grass hay was provided ad libitum to all rams. Data were collected on fed intake and body weight. Methane (CH4) production was determined along with 24h in vitro gas production (GP). Digestible organic matter (DOM) and Metabolizable energy (ME) were estimated from 24h GP. Results. The contents of ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDFom), acid detergent fiber (ADFom) and acid detergent lignin were higher in DLL than in the control diet while it contained the lowest EE value. The DLL had the highest Ca and K values as compared to the control diet. The feed intake, live weight and weight gain did not differ (P>0.05) among rams supplemented with various levels of DLL. The total intake of CP increased across treatment diets and was significantly higher for T3, T4 and T5 than T1 and T2 diets. None of the supplementation levels of L. leucocephala affected the total intake of DM, NDFom and ADFom. There was a linear reduction (p<0.05) of in vitro CH4 production as the levels of DLL in the diet were increased. It was lowest in T4 and T5 diets being significantly different from those of T1 and T2. The T5 diet showed the lowest values and differed (p<0.05) from those of T1, T2 and T3. The ME and DOM values were higher (p<0.05) in T1 and T2 diets than that of T4 and T5. No difference in ME and DOM values were observed between T1, T2 and T3 diets as well as among T4 and T5 diets. Implications. The current findings suggest that conventional CM could be replaced with DLL up to 20% as alternative protein source in ruminant nutrition in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Conclusion. The replacement of CM with DLL significantly reduced the in vitro CH4 production across treatment diets without affecting the voluntary intake and growth performance parameters in rams.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Benard Kiplangat Rop, George N. Karuku, Caroline W. Nduhiu
      Abstract: Background: Phosphorous is a limiting crop nutrient in highly weathered tropical soils due to fixation, and its availability for plants’ uptake is influenced by soil physico-chemical characterics, land use type and management practices.    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between selected physico-chemical properties and phosphorous sorption characteristics of a humic nitisol (Alfisol) from Tigoni, Kiambu County, central Kenya. Methodology: The soil was sampled from the same area with different land uses that include tea plantation, maize field and natural forest at 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm depths.  P solution at the rates of 50, 100, 150, 200 mg P L−1 in a 24 h contact time were used in the study for maximum sorption. The data was analysed by simple regression and Pearson correlation analysis.  Results: The adsorption data was fitted more to Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9100-0.9994) compared to Freundlich (R2 = 0.6815-0.9971). The values of P sorption maxima ( ) determined by Langmuir model ranged from 3,333-5,000 mg kg-1 and bonding energies ( ) ranged from 0.2308-1.5385 L mg-1. The buffering capacity of soil ranged from 769-5000 L kg-1 and the external P requirement at 0.2 mg kg-1 (  ranged from 147-1176 mg P kg-1 both increasing with soil depth. P sorption maxima were negatively and significantly correlated with organic carbon (r2 = -0.700*) and Ca2+ (r2 = -0.703*) contents. The pH of soil and clay content were negatively correlated with adsorption parameters ( ) while Al content was positively correlated though none of them was statistically significant. Implication: The data revealed a highly P-sorbing soil particularly tea plantation, a situation that can be alleviated by management practices such as liming and enhancing soil organic matter content. Field experiments are however, recommended to validate the findings of this study. Conclusion: Land use type influences P-sorption capacity of soil hence, fertilizer recommendations should be based on soil physico-chemical characteristics besides crop nutrient requirements.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Ikpoza Eguono Aramide, N.C. Nwachukwu, O.A. Ohwo
      Abstract: Background: The seasonality of most agricultural activities and restricted utilization of inputs in Africa, make it particularly helpless against weather or climate related difficulties across the different phases of the production cycle. Objective: This study focused on climate change adoption strategies by arable crop farmers in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.  Methodology: A total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were used for the study. Data analysis was achieved using descriptive statistics and multivariate probit (MVP) model. Results: The study revealed that the average age of the arable crop farmers was 40 years. An average income of ₦28,000 per month was earned by the arable crop farmers. The result on the various climate change adaptation strategies reveals that income diversification (85.0%) was the most utilized adaptation strategy. The result from the multivariate probit regression analysis revealed that age, farm income and extension visits have a significant impact on choice of climate change adaptation method. Implication: Households with diversified streams of income have greater chances of adopting climate change adaptation strategies because of their ability to afford them. Conclusion: An increase in age, farm income and extension visits have a significant impact on choice of climate change adaptation methods in the study area. It is therefore recommended that farmers in the study area need to expand their source of income in order to form backup savings to invest on adaptation infrastructure.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Gabriel A Rejón-Martínez, Diana E Ríos-Muñiz, Erika A Contreras-Leal, Zahaed Evangelista-Martínez
      Abstract: Background: Crop microbial pathogens reduce the production and quality of agricultural products. They cause substantial increase costs for producers of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants with negative consequences on economy and food security at household, national and global levels. Annually, the losses represent around 40% to 50% for root crops, vegetables, and fruits. Chemical control with fungicides can prevent, kill, mitigate, or inhibit the growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Nevertheless, biological control with microorganisms and natural molecules is an increasingly popular alternative to protect crops. Objective: Here, the antagonist activity of soil Streptomyces sp. Y20 against the pathogenic fungi causing diseases in plants and fruits was evaluated. Methodology: Streptomycetes bacteria was isolated from soils collected at open field cultures of local farms with tomato. The antagonism was evaluated in vitro via a dual confrontation experiment against fungal species of Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Colletotrichum, Aspergillus, Botrytis, and Sclerotium. Streptomyces sp. Y20 was characterized phenotypically and molecularly identified by the 16S rDNA gene. The biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketide synthases (PKS Type I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NSPS) were detected. Results: Preliminary, the isolate Y20 was selected by the higher antagonism against F. oxysporum f sp. lycopersici. Taxonomic characterization of the isolate Y20 by the analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence led to its identification as member of Streptomyces genus. Spore surface morphology by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) showed barrel-like spores. Antagonistic activity of Streptomyces sp Y20 was comparable to the commercial strain S. lydicus WYEC108 (P > 0.5). However, there was a superior antagonism of Y20 strain versus the commercial strain WYEC108 against F. oxysporum f sp. lycopersici, Fusarium sp. CDBB1172, F. oxysporum, Lasiodiplodia sp., and Aspergillus sp. (P < 0.05). Implications: Soil streptomycetes with in vitro antagonistic activity on plant pathogenic fungi could be a natural alternative to the use of chemical fungicides to control plant diseases. Conclusion: This study presented a novel soil Streptomyces specie which showed in vitro antagonism against a diversity of plant pathogenic fungal species. Streptomyces strain Y20 could be used as a biocontrol agent.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Amaury-M. Arzate Fernandez, I. Martinez-Velasco, J.I. Reyes-Diaz, T.H. Norman-Mondragon, M.C. Corona-Rodriguez, E.T. Cano-Perdono, J.L. Hernandez-Rodriguez
      Abstract: Background: Nowadays, a growing demand for hybrids of Phalaenopsis sp. exists to satisfy this demand it is necessary to develop protocols for massive propagation that ensure high percentages of clonal regeneration, such as somatic embryogenesis. Besides, studying genetic variation within regenerated plants offers a greater understanding of the suitability of the micropropagation protocol in relation with genetic stability of the materials used. Objective: The present research work aimed to evaluate three concentrations of two types of plant growth regulators (RCV). 6-benzylaminopurine cytokinin (BA) (1.0, 2.0 y 3.0 mgL-1) in combination with three concentrations of 2,4-diclorofenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D) (3.0, 4.0, 5.0 mgL-1), for the induction of somatic embryos. In addition, the genetic stability of the regenerated plants was analyzed using molecular markers type RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Methodology: The induction of somatic embryogenesis was induced from two leaf explants with different stages of develop from 15-20 cm in height Phalaenopsis sp. var. Dudú seedlings, cultivated in vitro; first leaf as mature explant (PH) and third leaf as young explant (TH). Results: The highest number of regenerated plants was 29.8 at 135 days after the start of the culture (ddic) with 2.0 and 5.0 mgL-1 of BA and 2,4-D, respectively, using TH as explant. In the morphogenetic response of the regenerated explants, a correlation was observed between the age of the explant and the RCV concentration. Polymorphic bands were observed with the four primers used, indicating somaclonal variation in regenerated plants. Implications: The results obtained provide an alternative for regeneration, as well as offering a methodology to initiate genetic improvement programs in Phalaenopsis sp. var. Dudú. Conclusions: In vitro regeneration of Phalaenopsis sp. var. Dudú by somatic embryogenesis was achieved, as well as the analysis of the genetic integrity of the regenerated material.        
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
           aculeata Rupr. IN PUEBLA, MEXICO

    • Authors: Casimiro Ordoñez Prado, Juan Carlos Tamarit Urias, Enrique Buendia Rodriguez, Gabriela Orozco Gutierrez
      Abstract: Background. Bamboo forests are an alternative to mitigate the effects of climate change, doe to the high growth rate, however, in Mexico there are few studies on its biomass and carbon storage. Objective. Estimate and inventory the biomass and carbon stored in stands of G. aculeata Rupr. in forest management unit numbered 2103, Puebla, Mexico. Methodology. The biomass and necreomass were sampled through square sites of 100 m2, the normal diameter at 1.30 m of all the culms present in each site was measured, the litter present in 1 m2 was weighed and samples were taken to determine the carbon content in culm, branches, leaves, roots, and litter. An analysis of variance and a Tukey’s means comparison test were carried out. Results. It was determined that dry base total biomass was on average 308.05 ± 10.13 Mg ha-1, of which 139.09 ± 6.81 Mg ha-1 correspond to stored carbon; in the study area 19,714.91 ± 61.87 t of dry base biomass and 8,901.63 ± 435.78 of stored carbon were estimated. Fixed carbon was 46 ± 0.4%, 44 ± 0.4%, 42± 0.2%, 42 ± 0.5% and 38 ± 1.0% for culms, branches, foliage, roots, and litter, respectively; carbon being different in culm and branches with the content found in foliage, root, and litter. Implications. Although the contribution of branches, foliage and litter was low, these are the most dynamic structural components and represent the photosynthetic machinery for biomass production. Conclusions. The natural forests of G. aculeata Rupr. have a high carbon content like that of tree species, so it is advisable to conserve them and establish forest plantations that allow a sustained carbon capture over time.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Rember Emilio Pinedo-Taco, Luz Rayda Gómez-Pando, Dylan Anderson-Berens
      Abstract: Background. The growing demand for organic quinoa in the national and international market has contributed to the intensification of quinoa cultivation under conventional production systems, causing changes in economic, environmental and social terms in the quinoa-producing areas of the inter-Andean valleys of the highlands of Peru.  Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the economic, social and environmental sustainability of organic quinoa production in plots of five communities in the province of Andahuaylas, Peru. Methodology. Surveys with structured questions were applied to a stratified sample of 50 organic quinoa producers with a focus on sustainability. The internal consistency of the scales used was validated by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) using the optimal scale technique and the percentage scale was determined with 0 - 24% very low level of sustainability and 100% as optimal level of sustainability. Implications. The value of economic, environmental and social indicators determines the degree of sustainability of organic quinoa production systems. Conclusions. An Economic Indicator (KI) of 42.6%, Social Indicator (IS) of 52.7% and Environmental Indicator (EI) of 53.4% were found. The General Sustainability Index (GSI) was 50.9%, which results in an average sustainability level and with critical points related to the market and adverse climatic and biotic factors.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
  • RESPONSE OF Origanum vulgare L. TO NaCl-STRESS

    • Authors: Gregorio Lucero-Vega, Beatriz Andrea Valdez-Caro, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel, Tomás Rivas-García, Bernardo Murillo Amador
      Abstract: Background. One of the classic land degradation problems that man has had to face is controlling, preventing, or improving soils affected by salinity. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological and morphometric response of Origanum vulgare L. plants subjected to five concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Methodology. The experiment was established in a completely randomized design with five treatments based on different concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) with four replications per treatment. Each repetition consisted of 14 plants. The variables evaluated were fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of stem, stem length, fresh and dry weight, and root length, chlorophyll content a and b, relative water content and water potential. Results. The results showed that the fresh and dry weight of leaves, stem and root, foliar area, as well as the length of stem and root showed significant differences between treatments, they decreased as NaCl concentrations increased in the culture medium, as did the chlorophyll content "a and b". It is concluded that oregano plants have the capacity to absorb Na from the culture medium in 50, 100 and 150 mM of NaCl. Implications. The study makes the possibility to determine the tolerance of oregano to salinity, by subjecting the plants to different concentrations of NaCl and assessing whether it has the capacity to absorb Na+ from the culture medium. The study shows that it is possible to grow oregano in floating root hydroponic conditions, considering the advantages that this system offers, such as saving water and nutrients, being possible to obtain adequate yield using water of moderate salinity (50 mM NaCl) that represents an electrical conductivity of 5.8 dS m-1. Conclusions. All variables decreased as NaCl concentrations increased in the culture medium. Oregano showed the ability to absorb Na+ from the culture medium in 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Josefa Martinez Duran, Omar Duverger Tellez, Namibia Diaz Martinez, Lisbani Interian Alvarez, Ramon Denis Garcia, Alejandro Palacios Espinosa
      Abstract: Background: Prior to freezing goat semen, it is necessary to perform seminal washing by centrifugation to eliminate Phospholipase A, with the consequent loss of elements involved in maintaining sperm functions. Objective: Determine the adequate concentration of egg yolk (YH) for freezing goat semen in a lyophilized diluent based on Tris-glucose and citric acid, without performing seminal washing by centrifugation. Methodology: ninety ejaculates were evaluated with 12 replicates, collected twice a week by means of Artificial Vagina. Volume, motility, concentration, viability and total pathologies were measured. The fit ejaculates were united and divided into five portions, each one received the corresponding diluent: Tris-glucose-Ac. Citrus with YH (2.25%, 3.37%, 4.45% and 5.65%) and the control diluent containing lactose-skimmed milk (DC). The final sperm concentration in the samples was 1.5 x 109 mL-1. The equilibrium period was carried out at 5°C for 2 h. Subsequently, it was frozen in 0.1 mL tablets in nitrogen vapors, and stored for 7 d in liquid nitrogen, thawed at 37°C and the percentages of motility (30 min, 120 min and 240 min), viability and total pathologies (30 min and 120 min) were determined. The diluents were compared using a Binary Logistic Regression model. Results: YH (4.45%) and DC had the highest probability (P <0.05) of motility at all times. The highest probability (P <0.05) of viability was for YH (4.45%), and the lowest probability (P <0.05) of total pathologies for 4.45% YH and DC, at 30 min and 120 min. Implications: In the freezing of goat semen, it is possible to eliminate the seminal washing process by centrifugation. Conclusion: Goat semen can be frozen in a Tris-based lyophilized extender with 4.45% egg yolk, without performing seminal washing by centrifugation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cover Vol. 25, No. 2

    • Authors: . .
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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