Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 981 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (93 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (680 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (120 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (30 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (58 journals)

AGRICULTURE (680 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
aBIOTECH : An International Journal on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Aquatica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technica Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultura     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural Economics : The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
AGRIEAST : Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AgriEngineering     Open Access  
Agrinova (Agrotechnology Innovation)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriprobe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrisost     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agritech     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access  
Agro Sur     Open Access  
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroalimentaria     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Agronomía Tropical     Open Access  
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agronomy Science     Open Access  
Agrosains : Jurnal Penelitian Agronomi     Open Access  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Agrosintesa Jurnal Ilmu Budidaya Pertanian     Open Access  
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Agrotekma : Jurnal Agroteknologi dan Ilmu Pertanian     Open Access  
Agrotrop : Journal on Agriculture Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Analytical Science Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal - Open Space     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Microbiome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Arid Zone     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultura Indonesiana     Open Access  
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access  
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Berichte aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut     Open Access  
Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BHUMI : Jurnal Agraria dan Pertanahan     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access  
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Botanica Orientalis : Journal of Plant Science     Open Access  
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Caraka Tani : Journal of Sustainable Agriculture     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ceylon Journal of Science     Open Access  
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access  
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access  
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coffee Science     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Compost Science & Utilization     Hybrid Journal  
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
CSA News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Cultura Agronômica : Revista de Ciências Agronômicas     Open Access  
Cultural Geographies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cultural Studies of Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Agricultural Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Agriculture Research Journal     Open Access  
Current Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Dinamika Pertanian     Open Access  
Dissertationen aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut     Open Access  
Dossiers Agraris     Open Access  
E-Jurnal Agroekoteknologi Tropika (Journal of Tropical Agroecotechnology)     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agriculture
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.33
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2077-0472
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 895: Simulating Growth and Evaluating the
           

    • Authors: Desheng Wang, Chengkun Wang, Lichao Xu, Tiecheng Bai, Guozheng Yang
      First page: 895
      Abstract: Planting with non-film mulching is the fundamental means to eliminate the pollution of residual film in cotton fields. However, this planting approach should have regional adaptability. Therefore, the calibrated WOFOST model and an early mature cultivar CRI619 (Gossypium hirsutum Linn) were employed to simulate the cotton growth, and regions were then evaluated for planting in Xinjiang. A field experiment was conducted in 2019–2020 at the experimental irrigation station of Alar City, and the data were used to calibrate and validate the WOFOST model. The field validation results showed that the errors of the WOFOST simulation for emergence, flowering, and maturity were +1 day, +2 days, and +1 day, respectively, with good simulation accuracy of phenological development time. The simulated WLV, WST, WSO, and TAGP agreed well with measured values, with R2 = 0.96, 0.97, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. The RMSE values of simulated versus measured WLV, WST, WSO, and TAGP were 175, 210, 199, and 251 kg ha−1, and showed high accuracy. The simulated soil moisture (SM) agreed with the measured value, with R2 = 0.87. The calibration model also showed high SM simulation accuracy, with RMSE = 0.022 (cm3 cm−3). Under all treatments, the simulated TAGP and yield agreed well with the measured results, with R2 of 0.76 and 0.70, respectively. RMSE of simulated TAGP and yield was 465 and 200 kg ha−1, and showed high accuracy. The percentage RMSE values (ratio of RMSE to the average measured value, NRMSE) of ETa and WUE were 9.8% and 11.7%, indicating extremely high precision (NRMSE < 10%) and high precision (10% < NRMSE ≤ 20%), respectively. The simulated results for phenology length at the regional scales showed that the effective accumulation temperature in counties such as Yingjisha and Luntai was not enough for the phenological maturity of the studied cotton cultivar. The southern area of Xinjiang had a generally higher yield than the northern area but required more irrigation. This research can provide a method for evaluating the adaptability of filmless cultivation techniques for cotton in different counties.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070895
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 896: Design and Experiment of Symmetrical
           Spiral Row-Sorting of the Straw Device Based on Kinematics Analysis

    • Authors: Yunxiang Li, Caiyun Lu, Hongwen Li, Zhinan Wang, Zhen Gao, Xuyang Wei, Dong He
      First page: 896
      Abstract: This paper designed a symmetrical spiral row-sorting of the straw device (SSRSD) under the condition that the no-till anti-blocking knife cut and chopped the straw to guarantee the machine’s passing capacity. The row-sorting blade (RB) of the symmetrical spiral mechanism (SSM) pushed the straw that fell into the straw hopper to the non-sowing area on both sides of the sowing belt and played the role of row-sorting the straw. Based on a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the material-bearing capacity limit of the SSM and the straw mulching quantity (SMQ) in the actual operating area, the critical parameters of the SSM and its value ranges were determined. The results show that the average straw removing rate (SRR) of the no-till planter with the SSRSD was 87.98%, and the passing capacity of the machine was great. Compared with the no-till planter without the SSRSD, the average SRR was increased by 20.7%.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070896
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 897: Potato Late Blight Severity and Epidemic
           Period Prediction Based on Vis/NIR Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Bingru Hou, Yaohua Hu, Peng Zhang, Lixia Hou
      First page: 897
      Abstract: Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a destructive disease in potato production, which can lead to crop failure in severe cases. This study combined visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy with machine learning (ML) and chemometric methods for rapid detection of potato late blight. The determination of disease severity was accomplished by two methods directly or indirectly based on differences in reflectance. One approach was to utilize ML algorithms to build a model that directly reflects the relationship between disease level and spectral reflectance. Another method was to first use partial least squares to construct a predictive model of internal physicochemical values, such as relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and then use an ML model to classify disease levels based on the predicted values. The classification accuracy based on these two methods could reach up to 99 and 95%, respectively. The changes in physicochemical values during the development of disease were further investigated. Regression models for fitting changes in SPAD value and POD activity were developed based on temperature and incubation time, with determination coefficients of 0.961 and 0.997, respectively. The prediction of epidemic period was realized by combining regression and classification models based on physicochemical values with an accuracy of 88.5%. It is demonstrated that rapid non-destructive determination of physicochemical values based on Vis/NIR spectroscopy for potato late blight detection is feasible. Furthermore, it is possible to guide the control of disease throughout the epidemic period.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070897
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 898: A Review of Crop Protection Methods
           against the Twospotted Spider Mite—Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:
           Tetranychidae)—With Special Reference to Alternative Methods

    • Authors: Magdalena Jakubowska, Renata Dobosz, Daniel Zawada, Jolanta Kowalska
      First page: 898
      Abstract: Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of many species of economically important crops, cultivated both under cover and in open ground. Feeding T. urticae reduces the size and quality of the yield. Nowadays, in connection with the popularization of organic farming and the green order policy, non-chemical methods that provide an effective reduction in the harmfulness of this spider mite are sought. The aim of the study is to present the current state of knowledge on methods of reducing the undesirable effects of T. urticae feeding. The paper discusses the main directions of searching for biopesticides against T. urticae and provides a list of natural components on which commercially available products are based. The aspect of using the natural properties of plants, micro- and macro-organisms is presented. The paper also deals with the issue of the spread of spider mites in connection with the observed climate changes.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070898
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 899: Predicting the Feed Intake of Cattle
           Based on Jaw Movement Using a Triaxial Accelerometer

    • Authors: Luyu Ding, Yang Lv, Ruixiang Jiang, Wenjie Zhao, Qifeng Li, Baozhu Yang, Ligen Yu, Weihong Ma, Ronghua Gao, Qinyang Yu
      First page: 899
      Abstract: The use of an accelerometer is considered as a promising method for the automatic measurement of the feeding behavior or feed intake of cattle, with great significance in facilitating daily management. To address further need for commercial use, an efficient classification algorithm at a low sample frequency is needed to reduce the amount of recorded data to increase the battery life of the monitoring device, and a high-precision model needs to be developed to predict feed intake on the basis of feeding behavior. Accelerograms for the jaw movement and feed intake of 13 mid-lactating cows were collected during feeding with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz at three different positions: the nasolabial levator muscle (P1), the right masseter muscle (P2), and the left lower lip muscle (P3). A behavior identification framework was developed to recognize jaw movements including ingesting, chewing and ingesting–chewing through extreme gradient boosting (XGB) integrated with the hidden Markov model solved by the Viterbi algorithm (HMM–Viterbi). Fourteen machine learning models were established and compared in order to predict feed intake rate through the accelerometer signals of recognized jaw movement activities. The developed behavior identification framework could effectively recognize different jaw movement activities with a precision of 99% at a window size of 10 s. The measured feed intake rate was 190 ± 89 g/min and could be predicted efficiently using the extra trees regressor (ETR), whose R2, RMSE, and NME were 0.97, 0.36 and 0.05, respectively. The three investigated monitoring sites may have affected the accuracy of feed intake prediction, but not behavior identification. P1 was recommended as the proper monitoring site, and the results of this study provide a reference for the further development of a wearable device equipped with accelerometers to measure feeding behavior and to predict feed intake.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070899
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 900: The Effects of Ecological Public Welfare
           Jobs on the Usage of Clean Energy by Farmers: Evidence from Tibet
           Areas—China

    • Authors: Huaquan Zhang, Yashuang Tang, Martinson Ankrah Twumasi, Abbas Ali Chandio, Lili Guo, Ruixin Wan, Shilei Pan, Yun Shen, Ghulam Raza Sargani
      First page: 900
      Abstract: In several rural areas of China, ecological public welfare work is an effective way to improve farmers’ social participation. This job does not only increase farmers’ income but also greatly improves their enthusiasm for ecological environment protection. Under the goal of carbon neutrality in peak carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, it is necessary to explore the impact of ecological public welfare jobs on the usage of Clean Energy (CE) in rural areas. Based on the data of 1100 farmers from Tibet areas in China, this paper applied the Ordered Probit model to explore the impact of ecological public welfare jobs on farmers’ use of CE. The results are as follows: (1) Holding ecological public welfare jobs can raise farmers’ willingness to use CE; (2) Holding ecological public welfare jobs can also promote farmers’ use of CE by enhancing their ecological environment cognition and influencing their social behavior; (3) The impact of ecological public welfare work on CE use has regional and income heterogeneities. Firstly, this effect is smaller in mixed pastoral-farming areas than in agricultural and pastoral areas. Secondly, this effect is more obvious in low-income groups. Our study provided several policies aimed at improving rural and environmental development.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070900
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 901: Can Agricultural Machinery Harvesting
           Services Reduce Cropland Abandonment' Evidence from Rural China

    • Authors: Ping Xue, Xinru Han, Yongchun Wang, Xiudong Wang
      First page: 901
      Abstract: Ending hunger, achieving food security, and promoting sustainable agriculture are the main targets of sustainable development goals. It is well known that cropland resources are the most essential factor in achieving sustainable development goals. However, China has been facing the problem of a continuous reduction in cropland resources. Reducing the abandonment of cropland has become an important way to curb the reduction in cropland resources. Can agricultural machinery harvesting services reduce cropland abandonment in rural China' To answer this scientific question, this study employs the Survey for Agriculture and Village Economy data from 8345 samples of 12 provinces in rural China. The extended regression models (i.e., the extended probit regression model and the extended interval regression model) are used to empirically analyze the relationship between agricultural machinery harvesting services accessed by farmers and cropland abandonment. The results are as follows. Agricultural machinery harvesting services accessed by farmers significantly reduced the probability of cropland abandonment and the proportion of the area of abandoned cropland in farmers’ contracted cropland area decreased by 18.5% and 20.3%, respectively. Moreover, the heterogeneity analysis results showed that farmers’ access to agricultural machinery harvesting services significantly reduced cropland abandonment in small-scale groups, without elderly households, with nonagricultural income groups, and in the eastern region. This study also provides some policy implications for policymakers to reduce cropland abandonment in rural China.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070901
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 902: The History of the School of Animal
           Science at the University of Padova (Padua) and the Evolution of Animal
           Science in Italy

    • Authors: Giovanni Bittante, Lucia Bailoni, Alessio Cecchinato, Luigi Gallo, Roberto Mantovani, Maurizio Ramanzin, Fabio Zampieri, Stefano Schiavon, Enrico Sturaro
      First page: 902
      Abstract: In its 800-year history, the University of Padova (Padua, Italy) has come to play an important role in the development of animal science in Italy and Europe. Having founded the oldest university botanical garden (1545; UNESCO World Heritage Site) and anatomical theatre (1595), and awarded the first university degree to a woman (Elena-Lucrezia Cornaro-Piscopia, 1678), the University instituted the Public School of Agriculture (Orto Agrario) in 1765 and the Collegium Zooiatricum in 1773. Between 1986 and 1995, under the leadership of Professor Mario Bonsembiante, animal scientist and rector, the scientific-technological center of Agripolis was established, including the Faculties of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (with the experimental farm and veterinary hospital), the Istituto Zooprofilattico delle Venezie, and Veneto Agricoltura. Agripolis rapidly became the most innovative center in Italy for teaching, research, and extension services in the fields of agricultural, animal, veterinary, food and environmental sciences. In the last 35 years, the number of Italian animal scientists has remained almost constant, but they have moved on to more innovative research topics closer to society’s demand and concerns, and significantly enhanced their international standing, reaching the first position in Europe and the fourth in the world in terms of citations.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070902
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 903: Rooftop Greenhouse: (1) Design and
           Validation of a BES Model for a Plastic-Covered Greenhouse Considering the
           Tomato Crop Model and Natural Ventilation Characteristics

    • Authors: Uk-Hyeon Yeo, Sang-Yeon Lee, Se-Jun Park, Jun-Gyu Kim, Young-Bae Choi, Rack-Woo Kim, Jong Hwa Shin, In-Bok Lee
      First page: 903
      Abstract: Energy management of a building-integrated rooftop greenhouse (BiRTG) is considered one of the important factors. Accordingly, the interest in energy simulation models has increased. Energy load computed from the simulation model can be used for appropriate capacity calculation and optimal operation of the environmental control system. In particular, because the thermal environment of greenhouses is sensitive to the external weather environment, dynamic energy simulations, such as building energy simulation (BES), play an essential role in understanding the complex mechanisms of heat transfer in greenhouses. Depending on the type and crop density, there is a significant difference in the thermal energy loads of greenhouses. Furthermore, ventilation is also an important factor affecting the energy input of the greenhouse. Therefore, this study aimed to design and validate BES models considering the crop and ventilation characteristics of a naturally ventilated greenhouse before designing and evaluating a BES model for the BiRTG. First, the BES module for the greenhouse and crop models was designed using field-measured data, and the ventilation characteristics were analysed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The greenhouse BES model was designed and then validated by comparing air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH) measured at the greenhouse with the BES-computed results of the greenhouse model. The results showed that the average absolute error of Ta was 1.57 °C and RH was 7.7%. The R2 of the designed BES model for Ta and RH were 0.96 and 0.89, respectively. These procedures and sub-modules developed were applied to the energy load calculation of BiRTG.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070903
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 904: Extraction of High-Purity Native State
           Gutta-Percha from Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Eucommia ulmoides Pericarps by
           Ultrasound Treatment and Surfactant Aqueous Phase Dispersion

    • Authors: Qili Shi, Yangjie He, Xuejun Zhang, Qiaoling Wu, Han Tao
      First page: 904
      Abstract: Herein, a method of ultrasound treatment combined with surfactant aqueous phase dispersion was proposed for the extraction of high-purity gutta-percha in its native state from enzymatic hydrolyzed Eucommia ulmoides pericarps. Firstly, the plant tissues wrapped around gutta-percha were destructed through enzymatic hydrolysis, then the plant tissues debris still attached to gutta-percha were further stripped off by ultrasound. Finally, under the “amphiphilic” action of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the entangled gutta-percha was untwined, allowing the residual plant tissue debris to be released and precipitated, thus high purity gutta-percha was obtained. The process parameters were optimized through single factor and response surface experiments. The optimal parameters for ultrasonic treatment were displayed as follows: frequency of 40 kHz, power of 320 W, time of 7.3 h, temperature of 50 °C, and material-to-liquid ratio of 1:70 g/mL, and for the aqueous phase dispersion of surfactant were SDS concentration 1.7%, temperature 80 °C, stirring speed 1200 rpm, solid-to-liquid ratio 1:60 g/mL, and time 60 h. Under optimal conditions, the purity of gutta-percha reached 95.4 ± 0.31% and its weight average molecular weight (Mw) was 20.85 × 104. Moreover, the obtained gutta-percha maintained its native filamentous form. The obtained products were characterized by IR, NMR, XRD, TGA, DSC, and tensile experiments, which showed that the obtained product was gutta-percha and maintained the natural α- and β- crystal structure. The proposed method overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional organic solvent method, which has great environmental pollution and destroys the gutta-percha structure. This is also the first reported method to obtain high purity gutta-percha while maintaining its native state.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070904
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 905: Growing Triticum aestivum Landraces in
           Rotation with Lupinus albus and Fallow Reduces Soil Depletion and
           Minimises the Use of Chemical Fertilisers

    • Authors: Fernando Almeida-García, Sara Lago-Olveira, Ricardo Rebolledo-Leiva, Sara González-García, María Teresa Moreira, Benigno Ruíz-Nogueiras, Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo
      First page: 905
      Abstract: In north-western Spain, the cultivation of wheat landraces represents the pillar of quality Galician bread; today, a minimum of 25% Galician flour is required to produce bread under the auspices of the Protected Geographical Indication “Pan Galego”. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the rotation of two wheat landraces—‘Carral’ and ‘Caaveiro’—with lupin (sweet Lupinus albus), together with a fallow period, on crop yield and quality, as well as the environmental benefits of rotations over conventional monoculture systems. After the different agricultural activities, twelve agronomic parameters were analysed at the end of the third year. For the environmental analysis, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied. The results showed a positive influence of rotation systems on wheat yield and quality parameters, reporting higher specific weight and lower impurities compared to monoculture. No significant differences were observed between wheat rotation and monoculture in other parameters related to baking quality, such as protein, wet gluten, baking strength (W), elasticity (L), tenacity (P), and swelling (G). However, soil quality influenced wheat quality independently of rotation, and higher organic matter and lower phosphorus produced higher W and P, respectively. Moreover, rotation had a positive effect on yield, up to 62% when fallow preceded wheat, and in reducing diseases, pests, and weeds. Finally, in terms of environmental performance, the best results were identified when lupin preceded wheat due to lower fertiliser application. In this regard, the worst profiles corresponded to the scenarios based on monoculture for both wheat landraces.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070905
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 906: Test and Analysis on Friction
           Characteristics of Major Cotton Stalk Cultivars in Xinjiang

    • Authors: Bingcheng Zhang, Rongqing Liang, Jiali Li, Yaping Li, Hewei Meng, Za Kan
      First page: 906
      Abstract: The friction characteristic parameters of cotton stalks are important basic physical parameters required to establish the crushing mechanics model and study the separation machinery of film residue mixtures. In this paper, the friction characteristics of cotton stalks were studied using response surface methodology, and the influence of the variation in contact materials, sampling location, and moisture content on the static sliding friction coefficient (μs) and stable static rolling angle (φs) were analyzed. The results show that the contact materials, sampling location, and moisture content significantly influence the μs and φs. When the contact material is cotton stalk bark, the μs and φs values of cotton stalks are maximum. When the sampling location of the cotton stalk changes from top to bottom, the μs increases and φs decreases, respectively, while the moisture content has an opposite influence on the μs and the φs. The model coefficient of the μs and the φs indicates that the influencing factors have a high degree of explanation for the influence on the μs and φs. This study on the friction characteristics of cotton stalks can provide theoretical references and basic parameters for the separation technology research and equipment development of film residue mixtures.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070906
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 907: Effects of Organic Maize Cropping Systems
           on Nitrogen Balances and Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    • Authors: Felizitas Winkhart, Thomas Mösl, Harald Schmid, Kurt-Jürgen Hülsbergen
      First page: 907
      Abstract: Silage maize cultivation is gaining importance in organic farming, and thus its environmental and climate impacts. The effects of digestate fertilization in combination with different catch crops and tillage intensities in maize cultivation are investigated in a long-term field experiment in southern Germany. The tested variants are (a) maize after winter rye, plowed, unfertilized and (b) fertilized with biogas digestate, (c) maize after legume-rich cover crop mixture, mulch seeding, fertilized with digestate, and (d) maize in a white clover living mulch system, fertilized with digestate. Over three years (2019 to 2021), crop yields and N balance were analyzed, N2O emissions were measured in high temporal resolution using the closed chamber method, and soil moisture, ammonium, and nitrate contents were continuously determined. Maize dry matter yields ranged from 4.2 Mg ha−1 (variant a, 2021) to 24.4 t ha−1 (variant c, 2020) depending on cropping intensity and annual weather conditions. Despite relatively high nitrogen fertilization with digestate, the N balances were negative or nearly balanced; only in 2021 did the N surplus exceed 100 kg ha−1 (variant b and c) due to low yields. In maize cultivation, relatively low N2O-N emissions (1.0 to 3.2 kg ha−1) were measured in the unfertilized variant (a), and very high emissions in variant b (5.6 to 19.0 kg ha−1). The sometimes extremely high N2O emissions are also due to soil and climatic conditions (high denitrification potential). The experimental results show that cover crops, living mulch, and reduced tillage intensity in silage maize cultivation can reduce N2O emissions, improve nitrogen balance and increase maize yields.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070907
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 908: Experimental Study of the Planting
           Uniformity of Sugarcane Single-Bud Billet Planters

    • Authors: Meimei Wang, Qingting Liu, Yinggang Ou, Xiaoping Zou
      First page: 908
      Abstract: Planting uniformity is a key evaluation index for planters. This paper investigated the effect of rotational speed, the angle of the rake bar chain, and the number of billets on the planting uniformity of a seed-metering device in the laboratory. The experimental results showed that the optimal planting uniformity can be achieved under a rake bar chain angle of 117°, a number of billets of 500, and a rotational speed of the rake bar chain of 70 rpm. Under this condition, the quality index Zq was 97.22% and the multiple index Zm was 0%, while the miss index Ze was 2.78%. Based on the above parameters, a single-bud planter was improved with three rake bar chains per seed box. Field experiments with different operation parameters (rotational speed, forward speed) were conducted. Results indicated that when the rotational speed was 40 rpm and the forward speed was 2.26 km/h, the planting uniformity was the best and the quality index Zq was 93.38%. The research results provide a basis for the application of single-bud billet planters in the field.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070908
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 909: Simulations and Experiments of Soil
           Temperature Distribution after 2.45 GHz Long-Term Microwave Treatment

    • Authors: Xiaohe Sun, Chunjiang Zhao, Shuo Yang, Haolin Ma, Changyuan Zhai
      First page: 909
      Abstract: Soil disinfection is an important agronomic measure to prevent soil-borne diseases, insects, weeds and other hazards. Based on the premise of being environmentally friendly, microwave soil disinfection can improve crop yield and quality in a pollution-free, residue-free and green way. The law of microwave soil heating is the theoretical basis of microwave soil disinfection. Therefore, in this paper, loess soil of North China and black soil of Northeast China are used as test materials to explore the law of soil heating under the action of microwaves. First, COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to simulate the temperature field change in the microwave-irradiated soil, and a simulation model of the temperature field of the microwave-irradiated soil was constructed to analyze the effective working range and temperature distribution characteristics of the microwave-irradiated soil. Second, using the 2.45 GHz microwave treatment, the following conditions were tested: soil moisture conditions of 10%, 15%, 20% and 23% (within the natural moisture content range). The loess and black soil were treated by microwave irradiation for 1~12 min, respectively (1 min/time increment). A single-factor experiment was designed to explore the influence of these factors on the soil heating law. The results show that the two soil surface temperatures are positively correlated with the soil moisture content, both of which satisfy Tsurface23% > Tsurface20% > Tsurface15% > Tsurface10%, and the surface temperature of black soil is higher than that of loess. According to the experimental results of the internal temperature distribution of loess and black soil irradiated by microwaves, the surface equations of “irradiation time–soil depth-soil temperature” and “irradiation time–soil moisture content–soil temperature” were constructed by surface fitting. When the irradiation time and moisture conditions are the same, the average temperature inside the irradiation area satisfies T¯α black soil > T¯α loess. The results of long-term microwave soil heating preliminarily confirmed the feasibility of microwave soil disinfection and the optimal conditions of microwave irradiation in loess of North China and Northeast black soil, which provides a certain reference for the study of soil-borne diseases inactivation at high temperature.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070909
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 910: Mixed Modeling in Genetic Divergence
           Study of Elite Popcorn Hybrids (Zea mays var. everta)

    • Authors: Guilherme Ferreira Pena, Gabrielle Sousa Mafra, Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior, Rafael Ferreira Alfenas, Leonardo Lopes Bhering, Juliana Saltires Santos, Samuel Henrique Kamphorst, Valter Jário de Lima, Talles de Oliveira Santos, Rosimeire Barboza Bispo, Flávia Nicácio Viana, Messias Gonzaga Pereira, Geraldo de Amaral Gravina, Rogério Figueiredo Daher
      First page: 910
      Abstract: Popcorn is a food highly appreciated throughout the world, generating billions of dollars annually just in the North American market alone. Even in the face of the historical superiority of American hybrids, which occupy almost 100% of the grain production fields in Brazil, our researchers have been working to develop cultivars that combine important traits for the crop, such as tolerance to leaf diseases and high rates of grain yield and popping expansion. This work investigated the degree of genetic divergence among 40 diallel hybrids of popcorn, 16 parents and 6 elite controls using mixed models to discriminate superior materials to be adopted in the Brazilian agribusiness. Based on the individual Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) of each of the 15 variables analyzed, the Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) and Tocher clusters were performed, and the study of Pearson correlation was carried out. The results pointed out that there is genetic variability among the genotypes evaluated and that the best candidates for composing superior genotypes are in the combination between the P10×L77 parents and/or between the P7 and L88 lines. Linear correlations showed that earlier flowering and taller genotypes exhibited an association with materials more tolerant to Exserohilum turcicum intensity.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070910
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 911: Irrigation Increases Crop Species
           Diversity in Low-Diversity Farm Regions of Mexico

    • Authors: Matthew C. LaFevor, Aoife K. Pitts
      First page: 911
      Abstract: Although agricultural intensification generally has homogenizing effects on landscapes that reduce crop diversity, the specific effects of different input strategies on crop diversity are unclear. This study examines the effects of irrigation inputs on crop species diversity in Mexico. We assess the richness and evenness diversity of 297 crop species across 2455 municipalities while controlling for environmental and socioeconomic factors and farm structural and functional characteristics. Using a quantile regression approach, we assess relationships across conditional quantiles of low-, medium-, and high-diversity farm regions. Results show irrigation level (% cropland irrigated) is a strong positive predictor of crop species richness and evenness diversity across all quantile regions. Moreover, the quantile effects of irrigation on evenness diversity are five times greater in low-diversity rather than high-diversity regions. With implications for agricultural water policy in Mexico, this study illustrates the potential benefits of sustainable irrigation expansion in water-rich but irrigation-poor farming regions. Specifically, by enhancing crop species diversity, carefully targeted irrigation expansion can support the transition to sustainable intensification.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070911
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 912: The Combination of Plant Extracts and
           Probiotics Improved Jejunal Barrier and Absorption Capacity of Weaned
           Piglets

    • Authors: Lijie Yang, Xiangming Ma, Chongwu Yang, Shan Jiang, Weiren Yang, Shuzhen Jiang
      First page: 912
      Abstract: Plant extracts and probiotics play a vital role in maintaining animal intestinal health. However, their joint compatibility program still needs to be further explored. In our study, thirty two piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected to divided into four treatments, which included basal diet, basal diet + 1000 mg/kg probiotics with added glucose oxidase (PGO), basal diet + 500 mg/kg Illicium verum extracts (IVE), and basal diet + 500 mg/kg IVE + 1000 mg/kg PGO. All the piglets were housed individually for the 42-d trial period after 7-d adaptation. Results showed that dietary supplementation of PGO and IVE increased the digestibility of ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), and lysine (p < 0.05). Likewise, the net protein utilization (NPU) was also improved (p < 0.05). What is more, adding PGO and IVE reduced crypt depth, increased villus length, and chrionic gland ratio of piglets (p < 0.05). Additionally, IVE or PGO that was applied alone can increase the expression of Occludin, Zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), and Sodium-dependent glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1) in jejunum (p < 0.05). Our results strongly suggest that the combination of IVE and PGO can improve the nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets by increasing the expression of nutrient transport vectors (SGLT1 and CAT1) and tight junction proteins (Occludin and ZO-1) in the jejunum. In conclusion, the combination of plant extracts and probiotics is a vital strategy to improve animal health before the advent of antibiotic substitutes with absolute advantages.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070912
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 913: Assessing Barriers in Adaptation of Water
           Management Innovations Under Rotational Canal Water Distribution System

    • Authors: Imran Sajid, Bernhard Tischbein, Christian Borgemeister, Martina Flörke
      First page: 913
      Abstract: This study assessed problems associated with irrigation water provisions and the potential barriers to the adaptation of the interventions (soil moisture sensors, on-farm water storage facilities and the drip method) under rotational canal water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. Three groups of stakeholders were individually surveyed during September–December 2020: (i) 72 farmers, (ii) 15 officials, and (iii) 14 academicians. We used descriptive statistical analysis, cross-tabulation and the Fisher test to explore the pattern of responses across the groups. The main problems in the canal water distribution system were expressed by the farmers as limited water allocation, while academicians were concerned mostly with inflexibility and officials indicated discussion among neighbors. According to the farmers' responses, the conventional depth/interval of irrigation is flooding the field with water and observing the plants, indicating over-irrigation behavior. Moreover, the most important barriers in the adaptation of the interventions that were highly rated by the three groups were low awareness, lack of training and financial resources. Additionally, farmers’ education revealed a statistically significant influence on awareness of soil moisture sensors and water storage facilities, while large farm holders showed a positive relationship to conducting a joint experiment with scientists and farmers’ associations on part of their land to improve water use efficiency.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070913
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 914: Information Perception Method for Fruit
           Trees Based on 2D LiDAR Sensor

    • Authors: Yong Wang, Changxing Geng, Guofeng Zhu, Renyuan Shen, Haiyang Gu, Wanfu Liu
      First page: 914
      Abstract: To solve the problem of orchard environmental perception, a 2D LiDAR sensor was used to scan fruit trees on both sides of a test platform to obtain their position. Firstly, the two-dimensional iterative closest point (2D-ICP) algorithm was used to obtain the complete point cloud data of fruit trees on both sides. Then, combining the lightning connection algorithm (LAPO) and the density-based clustering algorithm (DBSCAN), a fruit tree detection method based on density-based lightning connection clustering (LAPO-DBSCAN) was proposed. After obtaining the point cloud data of fruit trees on both sides of the test platform using the 2D-ICP algorithm, the LAPO-DBSCAN algorithm was used to obtain the position of fruit trees. The experimental results show that the positive detection rate was 96.69%, the false detection rate was 3.31%, and the average processing time was 1.14 s, verifying the reliability of the algorithm. Therefore, this algorithm can be used to accurately find the position of fruit trees, meaning that it can be applied to orchard navigation in a later stage.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070914
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 915: Early Plant Development in Intermediate
           Wheatgrass

    • Authors: Douglas John Cattani, Sean Robert Asselin
      First page: 915
      Abstract: Early seedling developmental morphology influences plant growth and development and ultimately crop biomass and grain yields. We used six half-sibling plants of intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) (Thinopyrum intermedium, (Host), Barkworth and Dewey) to develop an obligate outcrossing species, to develop six maternal lines. Thousand seed weights (TSW) were consistently different amongst plants, averaging from 6.28 to 9.62 g over the three harvest years. Seedlings from the largest seed of each line were studied for early plant development under controlled conditions (22 °C/18 °C, 16/8 h day/night) with destructive harvests at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after imbibition (DAI) through six grow-outs. Haun stage, and tiller umber and origin, were noted daily, and dry weight plant−1 (DWP) measured at the dates noted above. Leaf-blade length and width were measured in four grow-outs and leaf area estimated. Seedling development data showed some differences between lines and was similar in all lines studied. Data was combined to garner an understanding of early IWG development. Tillering began as the third leaf completed emergence. Coleoptile tillers and rhizomes were infrequent. DWP was best estimated using the main stem leaf area. A large-, a medium- and a small-seeded line were statistically identical for many characteristics including DWP indicating that TSW did not influence seedling vigor. The main stem leaf area may be used non-destructively to improve plant populations for early DWP selection.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070915
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 916: Variation of Grain Yield, Grain Protein
           Content and Nitrogen Use Efficiency Components under Different Nitrogen
           Rates in Mediterranean Durum Wheat Genotypes

    • Authors: Sawsen Ayadi, Salma Jallouli, Zoubeir Chamekh, Inès Zouari, Simone Landi, Zied Hammami, Fatma Ezzahra Ben Azaiez, Mokhtar Baraket, Sergio Esposito, Youssef Trifa
      First page: 916
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is a crucial nutrient for plant growth and development. To optimize agricultural environments, N fertilizers represent a critical tool to regulate crop productivity. The improvement of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) represents a promising tool that may enable cereal production to meet future food demand. Wheat reported contrasting behaviors in N utilization showing specific abilities depending on genotype. This study selected two landraces and two improved genotypes from Northern Africa to investigate grain yield (GY), grain protein content (GPC) and NUE. Plants were grown under three levels of N supply: 0, 75, 150 kg N ha−1 and for two consecutive years. Results reported a better NUE (0.40 kg kg N−1) obtained under 150 kg N ha−1, while N utilization efficiency (NUtE) showed a 13% increase using 75 kg N ha−1 compared with 150 kg N ha−1. Under low nitrogen rate (0 N), crop N supply (CNS) and N uptake efficiency (NUpE) were shown as determinant factors for improved genotypes GY (R2 = 0.72), while NUtE represented the most determinant component for GPC in landraces (R2 = 0.92). Multivariate regression models explained the dependence in GPC on NUE, NUpE, and NUtE. In conclusion, our results recognize GPC and NUtE as suitable selection traits to identify durum wheat with higher NUE.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070916
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 917: Seasonal and Feeding System Effects on
           Qualitative Parameters of Bovine Milk Produced in the Abruzzo Region
           (Italy)

    • Authors: Marco Florio, Claudia Giannone, Andrea Ianni, Francesca Bennato, Lisa Grotta, Giuseppe Martino
      First page: 917
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine variations in cow milk composition as a function of breeding system and seasonality. This study was carried out in 16 dairy farms located in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), equally distributed between farms that adopt grazing in the spring and summer months, and farms where the intensive system is exploited. Milk was sampled in all seasons in each of the farms involved and was analyzed with particular attention given to the quality of the lipid and protein fractions. A lower concentration of saturated fatty acids and an increase in rumenic, vaccenic and oleic acids were registered for milk samples coming from outdoor grazing, in which was also observed the greatest presence of α and β caseins. The opposite result was instead observed for κ casein, which showed the highest values from intensive farming. Evaluations also focused on retinol, which significantly increased in concentration during summer in both breeding systems. The present results suggest positive insights into the role of the outdoor breeding system in improving the main qualitative trait of bovine milk in warm seasons.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070917
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 918: Effect of No-Tillage Management on Soil
           Organic Matter and Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Rice-Oilseed Rape
           Cropping System

    • Authors: Huabin Zheng, Xianliang Tang, Jiabin Wei, Huaqin Xu, Yingbin Zou, Qiyuan Tang
      First page: 918
      Abstract: No-tillage (NT) management is considered a leading approach for sustaining crop production and improving soil and environmental quality. Based on a long-term no-tillage experiment in a rice–oilseed rape cropping system, we examined differences in soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, and methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between NT and conventional tillage (CT) management. SOM under NT was 21.0 g kg–1, and a significant difference was detected between 2004 and 2016. SOM increased under NT and CT by averages of 0.60 and 0.32 g kg–1 year–1, respectively. Soil microbial C and N content were higher under CT than under NT. However, soil C:N ratios under NT were 17.4 and 9.7% higher than the CT, respectively, whereas soil microbial C:N ratios under NT were on average 9.47 and 9.70% higher. In addition, about 70% of CO2 net uptake and over 99% of net CH4 emissions occurred during the rice season in May–September in the rice–oilseed rape cropping system. Annual cumulative CH4 and daytime net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) under NT was 1813.9 g CO2 equiv. m–2, 10.8% higher than that under CT. Our results suggest that a higher soil microbial C:N ratio and NEE (CH4 and daytime CO2) could contribute to increasing SOM/C in the surface soil under NT management.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070918
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 919: Experimental Study on Direct Harvesting
           of Corn Kernels

    • Authors: Liquan Yang, Qingqing Lü, Hongmei Zhang
      First page: 919
      Abstract: The mechanical harvesting of corn has always been a problem for the development of the corn industry. In the present investigation, a tangential flow–transverse axial flow threshing test system was designed based on the 4YL-4/5 harvester. The structure design was modular, and the threshing drum and other key parts could be changed, or the technical parameters could be adjusted according to the needs. Thus, the system becomes suitable to carry out the threshing test of various grains. In this paper, two kinds of systems, a cylindrical plate-tooth mixed row threshing drum and a full cylindrical threshing drum, were designed. Using the same materials and technical conditions, a comparative experiment of the corn grain harvest was carried out to explore the mechanical–technical conditions and methods to reduce the grain breakage rate of corn’s direct harvest.The results showed that the threshing ability and adaptability of the cylinder with a plate-tooth mixed arrangement structure were higher than those of the full cylinder arrangement structure. It was also found that for a higher moisture content (above 28%) of the maize ear, the grain breakage rate met the national standard. On the other hand, the cylinder with a plate-tooth threshing drum can support a wider range of moisture contents and drum peripheral velocities than the full cylinder threshing drum. Within the range of all tested moisture contents and drum peripheral velocities, the minimum grain breakage rate of the full cylinder tooth drum was 3.7%, and the minimum grain breakage rate of the cylinder with the plate-tooth threshing drum was 1.5%, which means a reduction of 59.5% of the breakage rate was achieved.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070919
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 920: Evaluation of the Egg Predator
           Blattisocius tarsalis (Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) for the Biological
           Control of the Potato Tuber Moth Tecia solanivora under Storage Conditions
           

    • Authors: Jorge Gavara, Tomás Cabello, Juan Ramón Gallego, Estrella Hernández-Suarez, Ana Piedra-Buena Díaz
      First page: 920
      Abstract: Tecia solanivora is the most prevalent pest causing damage to potato crops in fields in the Canary Islands, but even more so in the postharvest storage period. However, currently, there are no authorised chemical insecticides for potato storage facilities. Analysis of the viability of the predator mite Blattisocius tarsalis as a biological control agent for this moth was carried out. A study of the temperature effect showed B. tarsalis maintains predatory capacity in the range of 10–27 °C. Though predatory activity increases with temperature, no differences in mortality rates were observed between 10 and 20 °C (33.52 ± 2.44 and 40.14 ± 3.54% efficacy rate, respectively), nor between 25 and 27 °C (59.26 ± 4.59 and 75.19 ± 4.64% efficacy rate, respectively). Under microcosm conditions, at low pest infestation (10 eggs), B. tarsalis achieved the highest mortality of eggs at a density of 5 mites, with an efficacy rate of 91.67 ± 8.33%. At high infestation levels (50 eggs), maximum mortality was achieved with a density of 10 mites and efficacy of 98.52 ± 1.48%. The choice-assay showed no preference of B. tarsalis between T. solanivora and Phthorimaea operculella, suggesting this mite could be useful in mixed infestations of potato moths. The results show B. tarsalis is a very good candidate as a control agent in storage conditions and even in mixed infestations of T. solanivora and P. operculella.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070920
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 921: Grassland Management Impact on Soil
           Degradation and Herbage Nutritional Value in a Temperate Humid Environment
           

    • Authors: Igor Bogunovic, Kristina Kljak, Ivan Dugan, Darko Grbeša, Leon Josip Telak, Marija Duvnjak, Ivica Kisic, Marijana Kapović Solomun, Paulo Pereira
      First page: 921
      Abstract: Understanding the importance of grassland management is crucial for predicting the effects on forage production, pasture and ecosystem stability. Studies about the impact of grassland management in temperate humid environments on soil, erosion and aboveground biomass properties are lacking. This study investigates the effect of different grassland managements—no grazing, moderate grazing and heavy grazing—on soil properties, hydrological responses and herbage quality in an organic farm located in Croatia. The results showed that heavy grazing significantly increased soil compaction, structural deterioration, erosion and nutrient transport compared with no grazing. Heavily grazed plots had significantly higher soil organic matter and nutrient concentrations compared with no-grazing plots. Moderately grazed plots had the highest biomass production and the herbage with higher quality compared with other treatments. Significantly higher ash contents on heavily and moderately grazed plots were due to cow trampling. Cow grazing behaviour was a more important factor for plant regrowth and herbage quality than soil properties. Moderate grazing did not induce serious soil erosion problems or reduce soil productivity. Soil conservation measures should focus only on the heavily grazed areas and include the introduction of rotational grazing in combination with various strategies: excluding grazing, reseeding and increasing the diversity of resting areas.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070921
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 922: Adverse Effects of Long-Term Continuous
           Girdling of Jujube Tree on the Quality of Jujube Fruit and Tree Health

    • Authors: Junhui Ran, Wensong Guo, Can Hu, Xufeng Wang, Ping Li
      First page: 922
      Abstract: In order to improve fruit yield, girdling technology is widely used in fruit production. However, in the practice of Hui jujube planting in Southern Xinjiang, it was found that the jujube fruit quality declined and the health problems and death rate of jujube trees increased after jujube trees have been girdled continuously for many years, which seriously affected the economic benefits of jujube planting. So, this study was carried out to explore the specific influence law of continuously jujube-tree girdling for many years on the main nutrients (soluble solid, protein, total acid, vitamin C, total sugar, fat and so on), physical quality attributes (single-fruit weight, hardness and geometric-mean diameter) of jujube fruit and tree health. Through the detection of the nutrients of jujube fruit, it was found that the long-term girdling of jujube trees significantly reduced the main nutrients of jujube fruit. The total sugar and reducing sugar content of jujube-fruit samples from the trees without girdling were 134.23% and 109.62% of the corresponding indexes of jujube-fruit samples from girdled ones, respectively; furthermore, the sugar–acid ratio of jujube samples from the girdled trees was 149.95, while the sugar–acid ratio of fruit from non-girdled trees reached 183.78. Moreover, the protein content of fruit from non-girdled trees was 5.91% higher than that of fruit from girdled ones. In addition, the single-fruit weight, hardness and geometric-average diameter of jujube from non-girdled jujube trees were 20.25%, 13.31% and 20.21% higher than those of jujube from girdled ones, respectively. Moreover, microstructural analysis of the callus and the newly formed phloem showed that the adverse effects of girdling on the phloem function were persistent and permanent. It was also found that jujube-tree girdling can also cause damage, to a certain extent, to the xylem around the girdling wound. The above research results further explained the internal cause of jujube-tree death caused by long-term continuously jujube-tree girdling. The results of this study can provide some scientific basis for the effective application of fruit-tree-girdling technology in fruit production.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070922
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 923: Effects of Continuous Ridge Tillage at
           Two Fertilizer Depths on Microbial Community Structure and Rice Yield

    • Authors: Lihua Liu, Shize Cui, Meng Qin, Liqiang Chen, Dawei Yin, Xiaohong Guo, Hongyu Li, Guiping Zheng
      First page: 923
      Abstract: Ridge tillage at two fertilizer depths is a new type of conservation tillage method that was previously shown to substantially improve rice yield. This study aimed to compare the effects of continuous ridge tillage at two fertilizer depths (L treatment) with those of conventional cultivation (P treatment) on bacterial and fungal diversity in the rice root zone and study the correlation between microorganisms and yield components. At the mature stage, the yield and yield components of rice plants were compared. Test soil (0–20 cm) with continuous tillage for 3 years was used for high-throughput sequencing to analyze the microbial community structure in the root–soil of the two treatments. We found that the L treatment increased soil nutrient content and improved soil physical properties, which altered the composition of the microbial community. The bacterial ACE and Chao indices in the L treatment increased by 1.46% and 1.83%, respectively, and the fungal ACE and Chao indices increased by 5.25% and 5.49%, compared with the P treatment, respectively. The average theoretical yield under the L treatment was 9781.51 kg/ha, which was 19.23% higher than that under the P treatment. Continuous ridge tillage at two fertilizer depths can provide a better soil environment for rice growth and increase the yield.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12070923
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 824: Optimization and Test of Structural
           Parameters of Flat Hob Chopper

    • Authors: Anming Yang, Wei Xiang, Bo Yan, Yiping Duan, Jiangnan Lv, Mingliang Wu
      First page: 824
      Abstract: In order to reduce the chopping power consumption of a flat hob chopper (referred to herein as chopper) on the premise of ensuring the chopping effect of the chopper, the mathematical model of optimal design of chopper is established in this paper with the minimum chopping power as the objective. With the help of MATLAB software, the mathematical model is solved. The chopping power curves of each point on the chopper blade edge line before and after the optimization of structural parameters are generated. The results indicate that when the coordinate value of point A on the blade edge line on the Z axis is 0.7 m; the included angle between the bottom surface of the blade and the axis of the cutter roll is 6°. When the radius of the chopper is 0.11 m, the chopper can obtain the theoretical minimum chopping power. The analysis result of chopping power curve is the chopping power after structural parameter optimization is reduced by about 25.50% compared with that before optimization. The choppers before and after the optimization of structural parameters was trial manufactured and sequentially mounted on the performance test bench of the chopping system of the forage ramie harvester. The test results show the standard-length rate of ramie stalk chopped by the choppers before and after the optimization of structural parameters were 92.96% and 92.84%, respectively, which were extremely close to each other, indicating that the optimization of structural parameters has no influence on the chopping effect of the chopper. The chopping power of the chopper is reduced by 22.25% after optimization, which is close to the software analysis value (25.50%), indicating that the optimization result is accurate and reliable. This study can provide parameter foundation and an optimization method for lowering chopping power consumption of the chopper.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060824
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 825: Using Smoke Condensed Liquids from Pruned
           Fruit-Tree Branches for Aedes Mosquito Larva Control

    • Authors: Dun-Sheng Yang, Meng-Wei Shen, Shyi-Tien Chen
      First page: 825
      Abstract: Some mosquitos are disease-causing vectors. Their widespread existence poses a great threat to disease control worldwide. Finding an effective, low-cost solution for mosquito population control is desperately needed. Pruned branches from three fruit trees of date, pomelo, and guava were chopped, dried, and smoldered to form biochar and smoke. The smoke was condensed at 6 °C to form a smoke condensed liquid (SCL) to be used as a larvicide for mosquito larva control. The SCL had a smoky smell, minimal nutrients, and little metal contents, yet contained plenty of phenolic molecules commonly used as biocides. Via bacterial inhibition zone tests, ten percent of the date, pomelo, and guava SCLs had 1.44, 1.13, and 0.83 times higher bactericidal effects, respectively, than the use of 75% ethanol. The effectiveness of bacterial inhibition was positively related to the amounts of volatile compounds in the SCL liquids. As for larvicidal effects, a ten percent solution of the date and pomelo SCLs killed all tested larvae within 2 hrs. The reactive time versus each SCL’s LC50 was determined and fitted with a first-order mathematic model. The adopted model and its estimated parameters showed satisfactory results in presenting the dose–effect relationships in larval mortality of all the tested SCLs. Finally, the liquid pHs and dissolved oxygen (DO) over time were examined for their effectiveness and variation, respectively, and the SCL addition was concluded as the sole key factor in the mortality of the tested larvae.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060825
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 826: Effects of Selenium-Methionine against
           

    • Authors: Alberto Marco Del Pino, Luca Regni, Alessandro Di Michele, Alessandra Gentile, Daniele Del Buono, Primo Proietti, Carlo Alberto Palmerini
      First page: 826
      Abstract: Climate change (CC), which causes temperatures to rise steadily, is causing global warming. Rising temperatures can reduce plant yield and affect pollen characteristics. In particular, heat stress strongly influences pollen viability for its sensitivity to this extreme environmental condition. This work evaluated the effect of heat stress on olive pollen after in vitro incubation at different temperatures (20, 30, and 40 °C). Furthermore, the potential of selenium-methionine (Se-met) in mitigating the detrimental effects of heat stress on olive pollen was investigated. In particular, how thermal stress can affect pollen was evaluated by testing the effect of temperature on pollen germinability and morphology and cytosolic Ca2+ content. The results suggest that the heat stress at 40 °C caused a marked reduction in the germination rate, changes in the morphology of the external pollen wall, and a decreased response to Ca2+-agonist agents. On the contrary, in vitro treatment of pollen with Se-met improved the germination rate and Ca2+-cytosolic homeostasis under heat stress conditions and confirmed the protective role of this compound in containing the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity. Therefore, this study revealed that organic selenium could play a crucial role in promoting heat tolerance in olive tree pollen.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060826
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 827: Genome-Wide Survey and Expression
           Analysis of B-Box Family Genes in Cucumber Reveal Their Potential Roles in
           Response to Diverse Abiotic and Biotic Stresses

    • Authors: Chuxia Zhu, Lingdi Xiao, Yaqi Hu, Liu Liu, Haoju Liu, Zhaoyang Hu, Shiqiang Liu, Yong Zhou
      First page: 827
      Abstract: As a class of zinc finger transcription factors, B-box (BBX) proteins play diverse roles in numerous biological processes, and they have been identified in a series of plant species in recent years. However, the roles of BBX genes in regulating cucumber growth regulation and stress response have not yet been established. Here, a total of 22 BBX family genes were identified via an analysis of the latest cucumber genome data, which were classified into five groups (I–V) on the basis of their phylogenetic features and number of B-box domains and CCT domains. The CsBBX genes were unevenly distributed across the seven cucumber chromosomes, and segmental duplication was found to play a significant role in the expansion of the cucumber BBX gene family. Gene structure and motif composition analysis suggested that the evolutionarily close CsBBXs have similar conserved motif composition and gene structure. Most CsBBX genes possessed 1–3 introns, and intron gain rather than intron loss could contribute to the different structures of CsBBX genes across different groups during their evolution. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of 13 kinds of hormone-related and nine kinds of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of these CsBBX genes. Expression analysis via RNA-seq and qRT-PCR suggested that the CsBBX genes exhibit differential expression in different tissues and in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. This work constitutes a starting point for further revealing the function of the CsBBX genes and sheds light on the potential molecular mechanism of stress resistance in cucumber.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060827
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 828: Role of Corn Silage in the Sustainability
           of Dairy Buffalo Systems and New Perspective of Allocation Criterion

    • Authors: Andrea Bragaglio, Aristide Maggiolino, Elio Romano, Pasquale De Palo
      First page: 828
      Abstract: This paper aims to compare the cradle-to-farm gate sustainability of two dairy buffalo systems, according to life cycle assessment guidelines (LCA). Primary data were obtained by five intensive farms with feeding plans based on non-corn silage (NCS) and five with corn silage (CS) based rations. Both systems were characterized by the presence of two farms with wheat grain yields, sold for human consumption. All the farms were in Southern Italy and seven were included in the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) area of “Mozzarella di bufala campana”. The functional unit (FU) adopted was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (NBM); impact categories investigated were: global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), agricultural land occupation (ALO), water depletion (WD). Two different economic allocation procedures were tested: a first step aimed to mitigate the environmental impacts sharing among wheat grain, where present, and milk. The second stage involved culled buffalo cows. Neither the allocation nor the combination of allocation and feeding system showed significant effects (p > 0.05). Corn silage-based system (CS) showed lower impacts than non-corn silage (NCS) one for AP and EP (p = 0.002 and p = 0.051 respectively). High average dry matter yield per hectare of corn silage probably had a positive effect on SO2 and PO43− equivalents.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060828
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 829: Investment Decisions of Blockchain-Based
           Anti-Counterfeiting Traceability Services in a High-Quality Fresh Supply
           Chain of China

    • Authors: Pan Liu
      First page: 829
      Abstract: The application of a blockchain-based anti-counterfeiting traceability system (hereafter, blockchain-based ACTS) presents a positive effect on improving the unreliability of the freshness information. However, using a blockchain-based ACTS requires additional expenditures from chain members. Chain members want to know the investment conditions of a blockchain-based ACTS and how to coordinate their supply chain. To solve these problems, a supply chain with one fresh producer and one retailer was chosen as the study subject. Afterwards, considering the unreliability of the freshness information, the demand function was revised. Then, the profit functions before and after adopting a blockchain-based ACTS were constructed, and then a price discount and revenue-sharing contract was put forward to coordinate the supply chain. Findings: With the growth of the unreliability coefficient of the freshness information, benefits to chain members in the proposed three situations would be reduced. Thus, we can know that after using a blockchain-based ACTS, if chain members want to gain more benefits, they should try their best to excavate the value of the blockchain-based ACTS and reduce the unreliability coefficient of the freshness information.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060829
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 830: Effects of Harvest Time on the Yield and
           Forage Value of Winter Forage Crops in Reclaimed Lands of Korea

    • Authors: Yeongmi Jang, Bumsik Choi, Khulan Sharavdorj, Suhwan Lee, Jinwoong Cho
      First page: 830
      Abstract: This research was conducted to select the most suitable winter forage crop varieties for silage in reclaimed land located in the Midwest of Korea by investigating the soil environment, crop growth characteristics, dry weight, and forage value according to growth stage. The slightly alkalescent soil was characterized by a pH of 7.41–7.84, by an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1–2.5 dS/m, and by 440–934 mg/kg of available phosphate. Barley showed the highest chlorophyll content in the heading stage and milk stages, while oats and triticale reached the highest content in the milk and dough stage. In both years, triticale achieved the highest leaf area index (LAI), reaching 4.3–4.8. In addition, triticale showed the highest percentage of dry matter and the highest dry weight in the milk stage. Forage value was the best in the heading stage for all cereal crops; however, its quality decreased as the growth stage proceeded. This study suggests cultivating triticale, which showed high adaptability to reclaimed soil and climatic conditions, as well as good growth and dry weight when harvested between the milk and dough stages. These results indicate that triticale can be cultivated all year round in salty soil and these data can be useful to increase forage production in reclaimed soil.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060830
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 831: Impacts of Risk Perception and
           Environmental Regulation on Farmers’ Sustainable Behaviors of
           Agricultural Green Production in China

    • Authors: Mingyue Li, Yu Liu, Yuhe Huang, Lianbei Wu, Kai Chen
      First page: 831
      Abstract: In China, the excessive application and improper disposal of chemical inputs have posed a great threat to the agricultural ecological environment and human health. The key to solve this problem is to promote the sustainable behaviors of farmers’ agricultural green production (AGP). Based on the micro-survey data of 652 farmers, this study adopts the binary probit model to investigate the impacts of risk perception and environmental regulation on the sustainable behaviors of farmers’ AGP. Results show that both risk perception and environmental regulation have significant effects on farmers’ willingness to engage in sustainable behaviors. Moreover, environmental regulation can positively adjust risk perception to improve farmers’ willingness to engage in sustainable behaviors. In terms of the two-dimensional variables, economic risks create the greatest negative impacts, and their marginal effect is 7.3%, while voluntary regulation creates the strongest positive impacts, and its marginal effect is 14.1%. However, both constrained and voluntary regulation have an enhanced moderating effect, where the effects of voluntary regulation are more remarkable. This is mainly because the environmental regulation policy signed by the government and farmers through the letter of commitment can inspire farmers to continue to implement green agricultural production from the deep heart. Therefore, government policies should constantly reduce farmers’ risk perception in terms of economic input, and adopt restrictive behaviors measures, such as regulatory punishment and voluntary contract, to promote their sustainable behaviors of AGP to the maximum extent.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060831
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 832: Food Production in the Context of Global
           Developmental Challenges

    • Authors: Tomasz Daszkiewicz
      First page: 832
      Abstract: The article presents a synthetic analysis of the most pressing challenges associated with food security in the context of changes induced by global development and the generated problems. The study demonstrated that a more effective model of food production and management is needed to counteract anthropogenic pressure on the natural environment and excessive exploitation of limited resources caused by rapid population growth. Policies aiming to increase the efficiency of production and conversion of raw materials into finished food products of plant and animal origin (including feed conversion into high-energy and high-protein foods), promote the use of novel protein sources for feed and food production, and prevent excessive food consumption and waste are needed. At present and in the future, demographic, social, environmental, and geopolitical factors as well as the availability of natural resources should be taken into account by world leaders who should act together, with solidarity, to provide food to countries suffering from food shortage. Adequate food availability, including both physical and financial access to food, cannot be guaranteed without a holistic approach to global food security.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060832
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 833: Investigating the Impact of International
           Markets on Imported and Exported Non-Cereal Crops in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Arifa Jannat, Kentaka Aruga, Jun Furuya, Miyuki Iiyama
      First page: 833
      Abstract: To maintain a sustainable market for major non-cereal crops in Bangladesh, the present study evaluated the asymmetric effect of the key macroeconomic variables on the imported and exported non-cereal crops. In this connection, this study evaluated the nonlinear interactions and co-movements between the international market indicators such as the world prices, total trade amount, and gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the market prices of potato and rapeseed in Bangladesh. Using yearly data from 1988 to 2019, we used the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model to investigate both short- and long-term market dynamics concerning the positive and negative shocks in the macroeconomic variables on imported and exported non-cereal crops. First, the study identifies that during the period investigated, the world potato and rapeseed prices led to an increase in the Bangladesh potato and rapeseed prices when they are increasing. Second, we find that the changes in the trade volume only have an influence on the potato price, both in the long-run and short-run. Finally, our findings revealed that domestic rapeseed prices tend to decrease when the GDPPC increases. Our empirical findings imply that it is important for market participants of potato and rapeseed in Bangladesh to take into consideration the sensitivity of the above-mentioned variables when designing resource allocation decisions in the event of positive and negative effects.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060833
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 834: Effectiveness of Species- and
           Trichothecene-Specific Primers in Monitoring Fusarium graminearum Species
           Complex in Small Grain–Pea Intercropping Systems

    • Authors: Vesna Župunski, Radivoje Jevtić, Milosav Grčak, Mirjana Lalošević, Branka Orbović, Dalibor Živanov, Desimir Knežević
      First page: 834
      Abstract: Tracking the distribution of Fusarium species and the detection of changes in toxin production provides epidemiological information that is essential for Fusarium head blight (FHB) management. Members of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) were characterized using species and trichothecene-specific primers. Associations between members of the FGSC, cereal crop species (wheat, rye, triticale, and oat), seeding time (winter and spring), type of cultivation (monocrop and intercrop) and chemotype grouping were investigated with multiple correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling. We found that triticale and oat were more related to isolates classified into F. graminearum s. lato than with other isolates. In contrast, wheat and rye were more associated with F. graminearum s. stricto. Cereal crop species affected the frequencies of F. graminearum s. stricto (p = 0.003) and F. graminearum s. lato (p = 0.08) and unidentified isolates with morphological characteristics like those of FGSC members (p = 0.02). The effectiveness of species-specific primers was 60.3% (Fg16F/R) and 76.2% (FgrF/FgcR), and the effectiveness of primer sets for the trichothecene genotyping of the Tri5 and Tri3 genes was 100% and 90.6%, respectively. The decrease in Fusarium-damaged kernel values in the wheat–pea intercropping system indicated that intercropping systems have the potential to control FHB.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060834
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 835: Evolutionary Analysis of Grapevine Virus
           A: Insights into the Dispersion in Sicily (Italy)

    • Authors: Andrea Giovanni Caruso, Sofia Bertacca, Arianna Ragona, Slavica Matić, Salvatore Davino, Stefano Panno
      First page: 835
      Abstract: Grapevine virus A (GVA) is a phloem-restricted virus (genus Vitivirus, family Betaflexiviridae) that cause crop losses of 5–22% in grapevine cultivars, transmitted by different species of pseudococcid mealybugs, the mealybug Heliococcus bohemicus, and by the scale insect Neopulvinaria innumerabilis. In this work, we studied the genetic structure and molecular variability of GVA, ascertaining its presence and spread in different commercial vineyards of four Sicilian provinces (Italy). In total, 11 autochthonous grapevine cultivars in 20 commercial Sicilian vineyards were investigated, for a total of 617 grapevine samples. Preliminary screening by serological (DAS-ELISA) analysis for GVA detection were conducted and subsequently confirmed by molecular (RT-PCR) analysis. Results showed that 10 out of the 11 cultivars analyzed were positive to GVA, for a total of 49 out of 617 samples (8%). A higher incidence of infection was detected on ‘Nerello Mascalese’, ‘Carricante’, ‘Perricone’ and ‘Nero d’Avola’ cultivars, followed by ‘Alicante’, ‘Grecanico’, ‘Catarratto’, ‘Grillo’, ‘Nerello Cappuccio’ and ‘Zibibbo’, while in the ‘Moscato’ cultivar no infection was found. Phylogenetic analyses carried out on the coat protein (CP) gene of 16 GVA sequences selected in this study showed a low variability degree among the Sicilian isolates, closely related with other Italian isolates retrieved in GenBank, suggesting a common origin, probably due to the exchange of infected propagation material within the Italian territory.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060835
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 836: An Understanding of Education in
           Supporting Cotton Production: An Empirical Study in Benin, West Africa

    • Authors: Iskid Jacquet, Jieyong Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Ke Wang, Sen Liang
      First page: 836
      Abstract: Benin is an underdeveloped country whose economy is dependent on agriculture, principally cotton production. Kandi is a community in the country’s northeast region, and is regarded as one of Benin’s top four cotton-producing communities. This community has a deficient level of education. The present paper aimed to investigate whether education could contribute to increasing cotton production in Kandi. A questionnaire was distributed to educated, uneducated, and organic farmers in the research area to achieve this goal. A linear regression strategy was applied, with the key components of the research areas being the usage of agricultural chemical inputs (pesticides and fertilizers), miscellaneous factors, and the level of education of farmers. The data collected were utilized to compare the different groups polled (educated and uneducated farmers). Organic farmers are used in this paper as a model of suitable agriculture development in the study area. The key finding is that primary education affects agricultural production. Solutions are presented with a focus on organic farmers.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060836
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 837: Lethality of Three Phasmarhabditis spp.
           (P. hermaphrodita, P. californica, and P. papillosa) to Succinea Snails

    • Authors: Jacob Schurkman, Irma Tandingan De Ley, Adler R. Dillman
      First page: 837
      Abstract: Succinea snails are considered to be invasive and pestiferous gastropods to those in the floricultural industry. Their small size makes them difficult to locate within large plant shipments, and their presence on decorative plants can constitute for an entire shipment to be rejected for sale and distribution. Research performed on Succinea snails is limited, especially in terms of effective mitigation strategies. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a biological control agent used on pestiferous gastropods throughout some European nations. Here, three strains of Phasmarhabditis from the United States (P. hermaphrodita, P. californica, and P. papillosa) were assessed as biological control agents against Succinea snails in controlled laboratory conditions, along with the molluscicide Sluggo Plus® as a control. All species of Phasmarhabditis applied at 30 IJs/cm2 caused significant mortality compared to the non-treated control and treatment with Sluggo Plus®. P. californica caused 100% mortality 6 days after exposure, while P. hermaphrodita and P. papillosa caused the same mortality rate 7 days after exposure. The molluscicide was unable to cause significant mortality compared to the non-treated control. Additional research with US Phasmarhabditis strains, including their non-target effects and distribution may lead to their being a viable option for biological control against Succinea snails.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060837
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 838: A Platform Approach to Smart Farm
           Information Processing

    • Authors: Mohammad Amiri-Zarandi, Mehdi Hazrati Fard, Samira Yousefinaghani, Mitra Kaviani, Rozita Dara
      First page: 838
      Abstract: With the rapid growth of population and the increasing demand for food worldwide, improving productivity in farming procedures is essential. Smart farming is a concept that emphasizes the use of modern technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) to enhance productivity in farming practices. In a smart farming scenario, large amounts of data are collected from diverse sources such as wireless sensor networks, network-connected weather stations, monitoring cameras, and smartphones. These data are valuable resources to be used in data-driven services and decision support systems (DSS) in farming applications. However, one of the major challenges with these large amounts of agriculture data is their immense diversity in terms of format and meaning. Moreover, the different services and technologies in a smart farming ecosystem have limited capability to work together due to the lack of standardized practices for data and system integration. These issues create a significant challenge in cooperative service provision, data and technology integration, and data-sharing practices. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose the platform approach, a design approach intended to guide building effective, reliable, and robust smart farming systems. The proposed platform approach considers six requirements for seamless integration, processing, and use of farm data. These requirements in a smart farming platform include interoperability, reliability, scalability, real-time data processing, end-to-end security and privacy, and standardized regulations and policies. A smart farming platform that considers these requirements leads to increased productivity, profitability, and performance of connected smart farms. In this paper, we aim at introducing the platform approach concept for smart farming and reviewing the requirements for this approach.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060838
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 839: Analyzing Rice Grain Collision Behavior
           and Monitoring Mathematical Model Development for Grain Loss Sensors

    • Authors: Depeng Li, Zhiming Wang, Zhenwei Liang, Fangyu Zhu, Tingbo Xu, Xinyang Cui, Peigen Zhao
      First page: 839
      Abstract: Grain loss in the harvesting process of combine harvesters not only causes economic losses to farmers but also affects the soil environment because of the lost grain covering the soil, influencing crop growth in the next season. Grain sieve loss-monitoring sensors represent an important accessory in combine harvesters, as they can not only provide current grain loss levels for the operator to adopt a rational action in time but also serve as an important performance signal for the control system. To reflect the rice grain sieve loss level of combine harvesters in real time, an indirect grain sieve loss-monitoring system is proposed in this paper. First, the grain collision rise time was obtained by the finite element method (FEM), and the parameters of the grain loss sensor signal processing circuit were determined accordingly to upgrade the monitoring accuracy. Then, grain loss distribution behind the cleaning shoe was analyzed in detail under different working parameters. Grain loss distribution functions at the end of the sieve and a monitoring mathematical model with relevant variables were established based on the laboratory experiment results. Finally, calibration experiments were carried out to verify the measurement accuracy of the sensor on a cleaning test bench, with an obtained relative monitoring error ≤6.41% under different working conditions.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060839
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 840: Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network
           to Model Performance Attributes of a Mechanization Unit (Tractor-Chisel
           Plow) under Different Working Variables

    • Authors: Naji Mordi Naji Al-Dosary, Abdulwahed Mohamed Aboukarima, Saad Abdulrahman Al-Hamed
      First page: 840
      Abstract: The focal objective of the current research is to apply artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) methods for modeling the performance attributes of a mechanization unit (tractor-chisel plow) during the plowing process under both different soil types and working variables. Two different parameters to represent working conditions and soil type were considered as potential input parameters. The first parameter represented soil type by calculating soil texture index as a combination of clay, silt, and sand. The second one was constructed into one dimensionless parameter, namely the field working index. This index linked most working variables such as plowing speed, plow width, soil moisture content, soil bulk density, tractor power, and plowing depth. The performance of the created ANN and MLR models was appraised by computing mean-absolute-error criterion for the testing dataset. The mean absolute error values for draft force, effective field capacity, fuel consumption, drawbar power, overall energy efficiency, rate of plowed soil volume, and loading factor, were 1.44 kN, 0.03 ha/h, 1.17 L/h, 2.28 kW, 0.68%, 73.97 m3/h, and 0.08 (decimal), respectively, when the ANN model was applied. In addition, coefficient of determination (R2) acted as a criterion for judging the performance of the developed models, and their values when ANN was applied were 0.569, 0.384, 0.516, 0.454, 0.486, 0.777, and 0.730 for the same performance attributes, respectively. When the MLR model was applied, the corresponding values of R2 were 0.239, 0.358, 0.352, 0.429, 0.511, 0.482, and 0.422, respectively, for the same attributes. The current study adds to the standing literature by contributing data and information regarding the performance attributes of a tractor-chisel plow unit under specific working variables and soil types. In addition, the models developed for plowing operations in different soil texture and under the field working index are recommended for use in budgeting for diesel consumption, in calculating operation cost, in matching mechanization units of tractor-chisel plows, in estimating energy requirements of tractor-chisel plow combinations, etc.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060840
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 841: The Method of Calculating Ploughshares
           Durability in Agricultural Machines Verified on Plasma-Hardened Parts

    • Authors: Alexandr Gulyarenko, Michał Bembenek
      First page: 841
      Abstract: Reliability consists of four components: failure-less operation, maintainability, durability, and preservation ability. For different machines and different conditions of operation, different combinations of these properties, and differences in how they are balanced and proportioned are essential. For tractors, the most important aspect of reliability is maintainability, while for agricultural machines, durability is most important. Using the example of a ploughshare, the issue of increasing the durability has been studied; a method for calculating the durability of a ploughshare for various types of soils has been described. The use of plasma hardening of the surface of a 65G-steel ploughshare has been proposed; the effectiveness of plasma hardening of soil-cutting parts and its economic feasibility have been proved. Due to hardening to a depth of 1–1.8 mm, the service life of parts increases by 2–3 times; moreover the downtime of expensive machine-tractor units for replacing worn-out parts is reduced.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060841
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 842: Cannabis sativa L. Spectral
           Discrimination and Classification Using Satellite Imagery and Machine
           Learning

    • Authors: Fatih Bicakli, Gordana Kaplan, Abduldaem S. Alqasemi
      First page: 842
      Abstract: Crops such as cannabis, poppy, and coca tree are used to make illicit and addictive drugs. Detection and mapping of such crops can be significant for the controlled growth of the plants, thus supporting the prevention of illegal production. Remote sensing has the ability to monitor areas for cannabis growing. However, in the scientific literature, there is relatively little information on the spectral features of cannabis. Here in this study, we aim to: (1) offer a literature review on the studies investigating Cannabis sativa L. using remote sensing data; (2) define the spectral features of cannabis fields and other plants found in areas where cannabis is produced in northern Turkey; (3) apply machine learning algorithms for distinguishing cannabis from non-cannabis fields. For the purposes of this study, high-resolution imagery from PlanetScope satellites was used. The investigation showed that the most significant difference between cannabis and the other investigated plants was noticed in May–June. The classification results showed that, with Random Forest (RF) cannabis, fields can be accurately classified with accuracy higher than 93%. Following these results, the investigations with machine learning techniques showed promising results for classifying cannabis fields.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060842
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 843: How Does the Choice of Genotype and Feed
           in the Local Market Affect Broiler Performance and the Farm Economy' A
           Case Study in Serbia

    • Authors: Miloš Lukić, Veselin Petričević, Nikola Delić, Nataša Tolimir, Vladimir Dosković, Simeon Rakonjac, Zdenka Škrbić
      First page: 843
      Abstract: Key questions for a local broiler farm are: which broiler hybrid to rear and which industrial feed to use' To show how farmers can manage them, a combination of biological tests and feed characterizations of the most commonly used hybrids and broiler feeds in the local (Serbian) market was designed and performed. The hybrids Cobb 500 and Ross 308 were used, as well as feed of the same quality category from three established domestic producers (A, B, and C) available in the market. A factorial trial (2 × 3) was performed on a total of 1800 unsexed day-old chicks divided into six experimental treatments, with six repetitions per treatment and 50 chickens in each repetition. Prior to and after the biological trial, the feed was characterized. The results confirm the equally high production potential of the two tested fast-growing hybrids, the different quality of the three industrial feeds, and that for the expression of genetic potential, each feeding and fattening period was equally valuable. A complete picture of the tested feeds was obtained within a suitable post-test feed characterization with a farm economy included in the analysis, and the results differed in different production and market scenarios, which allows for finding the optimal feed for the local farm.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060843
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 844: Positive Selection and Adaptive
           Introgression of Haplotypes from Bos indicus Improve the Modern Bos taurus
           Cattle

    • Authors: Qianqian Zhang, Anna Amanda Schönherz, Mogens Sandø Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen
      First page: 844
      Abstract: Complex evolutionary processes, such as positive selection and introgression can be characterized by in-depth assessment of sequence variation on a whole-genome scale. Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of positive selection and adaptive introgression on genomes, resulting in observed hotspots of runs of homozygosity (ROH) haplotypes on the modern bovine (Bos taurus) genome. We first confirm that these observed ROH hotspot haplotypes are results of positive selection. The haplotypes under selection, including genes of biological interest, such as PLAG1, KIT, CYP19A1 and TSHB, were known to be associated with productive traits in modern Bos taurus cattle breeds. Among the haplotypes under selection, we demonstrate that the CYP19A1 haplotype under selection was associated with milk yield, a trait under strong recent selection, demonstrating a likely cause of the selective sweep. We further deduce that selection on haplotypes containing KIT variants affecting coat color occurred approximately 250 generations ago. The study on the genealogies and phylogenies of these haplotypes identifies that the introgression events of the RERE and REG3G haplotypes happened from Bos indicus to Bos taurus. With the aid of sequencing data and evolutionary analyses, we here report introgression events in the formation of the current bovine genome.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060844
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 845: Genetic Analysis of Maternal Haploid
           Inducibility for In Vivo Haploid Induction in Maize

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Ren, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zongze Li, Penghao Wu
      First page: 845
      Abstract: Doubled haploid (DH) technology based on in vivo haploid induction has gradually become the key technology in modern maize breeding. The ability of maternal germplasm to be induced into haploids, inducibility, varies among genotypes. To dissect the genetic basis of maternal haploid inducibility (MHI), an F2 population derived from inbred lines B73 and Zheng58 was used for single environment QTL analysis and QTL by environment interaction analysis. The mapping population was genotyped by the 48K liquid-phase hybridization probe capture technique and phenotyped in multi-environment trials for MHI. A total of ten QTLs located on chromosome bins 4.05, 4.09, 5.05/5.06, 6.07, 7.00, 7.01, 7.02, 7.03, 9.02, and 10.06 were identified for MHI. The PVE value of each QTL ranged from 4.79% to 10.01%. The QTL qMHI5 is a stable QTL identified in JSH, HN, and across environments with the highest PVE value of 10.01%. Three QTLs, qMHI4-1, qMHI5, and qMHI 9-1, were detected by both methods. Three genes, Zm00001d017366, Zm00001d017420, and Zm00001d017432, involved in seed development were the most likely candidate genes. This study provides valuable information for the genetic basis of MHI.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060845
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 846: Improve the Constructive Design of a
           Furrow Diking Rotor Aimed at Increasing Water Consumption Efficiency in
           Sunflower Farming Systems

    • Authors: Florin Nenciu, Marius Remus Oprescu, Sorin-Stefan Biris
      First page: 846
      Abstract: Water is the primary limiting factor in dryland crop production, therefore emerging approaches for preserving rainwater to be more accessible to plants, for extended periods of time, can significantly improve agricultural system efficiency. Furrow diking, a method involving compartmentalizing micro-basins to increase infiltration and soil water storage is one of the most promising water conservation solutions, particularly for sloping terrain. Moreover, furrow diking is associated with water conservation practices and regenerative agriculture as adaptive to dryland crop production. The present research study aims at improving the process of building soil compartmentalized segments using furrow diking technology, by designing and testing optimal geometries for the active soil modeling component. Three new constructive designs of a furrow diking active subassembly were built and tested in comparison with the standard version. In accordance with the considered quality indicators, the most efficient constructive shape was the curved rotor blade due to the higher volume of managed soil and fewer soil losses. Furthermore, the technology applied on three non-irrigated sunflower experimental crops grown on sloping land showed very good effectiveness with respect to the studied climatic and pedological conditions in southern Romania. When compared with non-compartmentalized crops, the most efficient rotor geometry design increased seed production by 11–13%. Water storage efficiency contributed the most to the yield increase, with moisture retention from the root zone improving by an average of 20%.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060846
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 847: Long-Term Fertilization Alters
           Mycorrhizal Colonization Strategy in the Roots of Agrostis capillaris

    • Authors: Larisa Corcoz, Florin Păcurar, Victoria Pop-Moldovan, Ioana Vaida, Anca Pleșa, Vlad Stoian, Roxana Vidican
      First page: 847
      Abstract: Long-term fertilization targets mycorrhizal fungi adapted to symbiotic exchange of nutrients, thus restricting their colonization potential and re-orienting the colonization strategies. The MycoPatt tool has a high applicability in quantifying the symbiotic process with the identification of mycorrhizal indices and projection of mycorrhizal patterns. Organic treatments increase the symbiotic process, visible in values of colonization frequency and intensity, with about 6% more than the native status of colonization. At the opposite pole, organic-mineral treatments decrease the colonization parameters by up to half of the organic treatment. All of the colonization parameters show significant correlations, except for the arbuscules/vesicle ratio (0.03). All the applied treatments, except for the organic one, record multiple root segments with a colonization degree lower than 10%. The application of treatments changes the strategy of native colonization from a transfer (40%) and storage (37%) to a predominant storage (50%) for organic treatment, and are mainly proliferative between 38–50% in mixed and mineral treatments. The high amount of mineral components increases also the presence of resistance conditions strategies. The use of mycorrhizal pattern maps, with the inclusion of colonization strategies, presents an important direction in understanding the evolution of mutual relations, and to explore in-depth the efficiency of the whole symbiotic process.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060847
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 848: Variability in Cadmium Uptake in Common
           Wheat under Cadmium Stress: Impact of Genetic Variation and Silicon
           Supplementation

    • Authors: Rui Yang, Xi Liang, Daniel G. Strawn
      First page: 848
      Abstract: To decrease the transfer of cadmium (Cd) to the food chain, it is essential to select wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm that accumulates the least amount of Cd and to develop management practices that promote a reduction in Cd uptake. This requires knowledge of factors controlling Cd accumulation in wheat plants, which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was thus to investigate variations in Cd accumulation, translocation, and subcellular distribution in response to Cd stress and supplemental Si in two wheat cultivars that have high vs. low Cd accumulation capacities. Cd uptake and distribution in two common wheat cultivars, high-Cd ‘LCS Star’ and low-Cd ‘UI Platinum’ were evaluated at two levels of Cd (0 and 50 µM) and Si (0 and 1.5 mM) in a hydroponic experiment. LCS Star and UI Platinum were not different in root Cd accumulation but differed in Cd concentration in the shoot, which agreed with the variation between the two cultivars in their subcellular Cd distributions in organelle and soluble fractions as well as induced glutathione synthesis in response to Cd addition. Supplemental Si reduced Cd uptake and accumulation and suppressed Cd-induced glutathione synthesis. The differences between the wheat cultivars in Cd accumulation in shoots mainly derive from root-to-shoot translocation, which is related to subcellular Cd distribution and Cd-induced glutathione synthesis. Exogeneous Si could decrease Cd translocation from root to shoot to alleviate Cd toxicity in common wheat.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060848
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 849: Rapeseed Meal and Its Application in Pig
           Diet: A Review

    • Authors: Hao Cheng, Xiang Liu, Qingrui Xiao, Fan Zhang, Nian Liu, Lizi Tang, Jing Wang, Xiaokang Ma, Bie Tan, Jiashun Chen, Xianren Jiang
      First page: 849
      Abstract: Rapeseed is the second largest plant protein resource in the world with an ideal profile of essential amino acids. Rapeseed meal (RSM) is one of the by-products of rapeseed oil extraction. Due to the anti-nutritional components (glucosinolates and fiber) and poor palatability, RSM is limited in livestock diets. Recently, how to decrease the anti-nutritional factors and improve the nutritional value of RSM has become a hot topic. Therefore, the major components of RSM have been reviewed with emphasis on the methods to improve the nutritional value of RSM as well as the application of RSM in pig diets.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060849
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 850: Europe’s Large-Scale Land
           Acquisitions and Bibliometric Analysis

    • Authors: Marii Rasva, Evelin Jürgenson
      First page: 850
      Abstract: The agricultural sector in the European Union is largely characterized by a declining number of farms and an increasing size of surviving farms. The land is concentrating under the usage of fewer large agricultural producers. Meanwhile, a broad distribution of land ownership is the basis for the welfare of local economies and rural communities. Land distribution is one important component that guarantees our right to food, human rights, and sustainability in agriculture. The aim of this paper was to compile a systematic review of the existing literature on large-scale land acquisitions in Europe. The results are based on two different search methods. Firstly, documents and articles on large-scale land acquisitions were studied and, secondly, keyword research from the SCOPUS database and analysis using VOSviewer where performed. This study shows that large-scale land acquisitions are closely related to food security, human rights, global governance and international law, land tenure, biofuel production, and financialization through European Union common agricultural policy subsidies and foreign direct investments.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060850
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 851: Economic and Environmental Assessment of
           Olive Agroforestry Practices in Northern Greece

    • Authors: Emmanouil Tziolas, Stefanos Ispikoudis, Konstantinos Mantzanas, Dimitrios Koutsoulis, Anastasia Pantera
      First page: 851
      Abstract: Preservation and promotion of agroforestry systems entails the ideology for more ecosystem services, additional biodiversity benefits and climate change mitigation. Furthermore, farmland and forest landscapes and the consequent benefits to the environment from their combination, enhance the importance of agroforestry systems towards sustainable environmental policies. Nevertheless, traditional agroforestry systems face significant adaptation problems, especially in the EU, due to continuous economic reforms and strict agri-environmental measures. In this context our main goal is to assess the current managerial framework of two agroforestry systems and more specifically the olive agroforestry practices in Northern Greece. The economic and environmental implications of four different production plans are highlighted following the Life Cycle Costing and the Life Cycle Assessment protocols. The production plans include the simultaneous cultivation of annual crops, such as vetch and barley, along with olive groves. Potential environmental impacts are depicted in CO2 equivalents, while the economic allocation of costs is divided in targeted categories (e.g., raw materials, labor, land rent, etc.). The results indicate significant deviations among the four production plans, with the combination of olive trees and barley being heavily dependent on fertilization. Furthermore, the open-spaced olive trees intercropped with a mixture of barley and commonly depicted the lowest CO2 eq. emissions, though the economic cost was significantly higher than the other agroforestry system intercropped with barley only. The authors suggest that the formulation of a decision support system for agroforestry systems should be taken into account in order to preserve current agroforestry systems.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060851
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 852: Grape Quality Zoning and Selective
           Harvesting in Small Vineyards—To Adopt or Not to Adopt

    • Authors: Ivana Rendulić Jelušić, Branka Šakić Bobić, Zoran Grgić, Saša Žiković, Mirela Osrečak, Ivana Puhelek, Marina Anić, Marko Karoglan
      First page: 852
      Abstract: The practical application of grape quality zoning and selective harvesting in small vineyards (<1 ha) has not yet gained much importance worldwide. However, winegrowers with small vineyards are looking for ways to improve wine quality and maximise profit. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the most predictive vegetation index for grape quality zoning among three vegetation indices—NDVI, NDRE, and OSAVI—at three grapevine growth stages for the efficient use in small vineyards for the selective harvesting and production of different wine types from the same vineyard. Multispectral images were used to delineate two vigour zones at three different growth stages. The target vines were sampled, and the most predictive vegetation index was determined by overlapping the quality and vigour structures for each site and year. A differential economic analysis was performed, considering only the costs and revenues associated with grape quality zoning. The results show that OSAVI is the least predictive, while NDVI and NDRE are useful for grape quality zoning and selective harvesting. Multi-year monitoring is required to determine the ideal growth stage for image acquisition. The use of grape quality zoning and selective harvesting can be economically efficient for small wineries producing two different “super-premium” wines from the same vineyard.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060852
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 853: Agricultural Water Optimal Allocation
           Using Minimum Cross-Entropy and Entropy-Weight-Based TOPSIS Method in
           Hetao Irrigation District, Northwest China

    • Authors: Yunquan Zhang, Peiling Yang
      First page: 853
      Abstract: Affected by the temporal and spatial changes of natural resources, human activities, and social economic system policies, there are many uncertainties in the development, utilization, and management process of irrigation district agricultural water resources, which will increase the complexity of the use of irrigation district agricultural water resources. Decision makers find it challenging to cope with the complexity of fluctuating water supplies and demands that are critical for water resources’ allocation. In response to these issues, this paper presents an optimization modeling approach for agricultural water allocation at an irrigation district scale, considering the uncertainties of water supply and demand. The minimum cross-entropy method was used to estimate the parameters of hydrologic frequency distribution functions of water supply and demand, which are the basis for agricultural water resources’ optimal allocation and the evaluation of water resources’ carrying capacity in the Hetao Irrigation District. Interval Linear Fractional Programming was used to find water availability, shortage, and use efficiency in different irrigation areas of the Hetao Irrigation District (HID) under different scenarios. The denominator of fractional planning is the environmental goal, and the numerator is the economic goal; so, the objective function of fractional programming is the utility rate required in the post-optimization analysis. Future water availability and shortage scenarios are adopted consistent with the Representative Concentration Pathways’ (RCPs’) framework, and future water use scenarios are developed using the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways’ (SSPs’) framework. Results revealed that under SSP1, the annual water consumption increased from 30 billion m3 to 60 billion m3, almost doubling in Urad. The annual water consumption under SSP2 and SSP3 increased slightly, from 30 billion m3 to about 50 billion m3. The amount of water available for well irrigation in Urad decreased from 300 to 250 billion m3, while the amount of water available for canal irrigation in Urad remained at 270 billion m3 from 2010 s to 2030 s, only dropping to 240 billion m3 in 2040 s. The entropy-weight-based Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method was applied to evaluate agricultural water resources’ allocation schemes because it can avoid the subjectivity of weight determination and can reflect the dynamic changing trend of irrigation district agricultural water resources’ carrying capacity. The approach is applicable to most regions, such as the Hetao Irrigation District in the Upper Yellow River Basi with limited precipitation, to determine water strategies under the changing environment.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060853
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 854: The Relationship between Child Rearing
           Burden and Farmers’ Adoption of Climate Adaptive Technology: Taking
           Water-Saving Irrigation Technology as an Example

    • Authors: Min Cui, Jizhou Zhang, Xianli Xia
      First page: 854
      Abstract: Exploring the relationship between child rearing burden and farmers’ adoption of climate adaptation technologies can be used to improve farmers’ adoption of these technologies, thus reducing the impact of climate change on agricultural production and increasing agricultural output. However, with the full implementation of the Chinese three-child policy, the number of children in families will continue to increase and the cost of raising children will rise, which will have a crowding out effect on the adoption of climate adaptive technologies. In this context, we analyzed the impact and mechanism of child rearing burden on farmers’ adoption of climate adaptive technology by Probit model and discussed its heterogeneity based on family life cycle theory. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 511 farm households in the 3 provinces of China to produce the findings. We found that the child rearing burden had a significant negative impact on farmers’ adoption of climate adaptive technology. The impact mechanism analysis showed that the child rearing burden mainly affected farmers’ adoption of climate adaptive technology through three paths: risk appetite, economic capital and non-agricultural employment, with non-agricultural employment having the largest impact, followed by risk appetite and finally, economic capital. Furthermore, the effect of child rearing burden on the adoption of climate adaptive technology was heterogeneous amid different family life cycles: In the upbringing and burden period, the child support burden had a significant negative impact on the adoption of climate adaptive technology and the impact was greater in the upbringing period, while in the stable period, the child support burden had a significant positive impact on the adoption of climate adaptive technology. The influence mechanism was also heterogeneous in different family life cycles. This paper not only provides research evidence on the relationship between child rearing burden and farmers’ adoption of climate adaptive technology, but also has certain empirical value for the formulation and implementation of supportive measures for improving fertility policies.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060854
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 855: Agronomic Performance of Soybean with
           Bradyrhizobium Inoculation in Double-Cropped Farming

    • Authors: Fazliddin Namozov, Sokhib Islamov, Maruf Atabaev, Kholik Allanov, Aziz Karimov, Botir Khaitov, Kee Woong Park
      First page: 855
      Abstract: Land degradation is a serious problem in arid regions, including in Central Asian countries. Soybean symbiosis with rhizobia microbes has an essential role in improving crop productivity and sustaining soil fertility in an arid environment. An experiment was conducted in light straw-colored sierozem soils in the Syrdarya region of Uzbekistan (41.4° N, 64.6° E) under arid conditions over the 2016–2017 and 2017–2018 growing seasons. This study aimed to assess the beneficial N fixation (BNF) ability of soybean in association with the Bradyrhizobium R6 strain and the Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 strains and their combined effect on soil fertility and crop yield. The residues of winter wheat and soybean improved soil structure, i.e., soil humus and N and P contents, significantly differing from those on the soybean followed by summer fallow treatment. Furthermore, soybean in association with dual inoculation had the highest N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa) (62.9 kg N ha−1), followed by individual soybean treatments with the R6 and USDA110 strains at 51.9 and 40.6 kg N ha−1, respectively. Improved soil quality positively impacted crop output, increasing winter wheat and soybean yields by 36.5% and 34.6%, respectively. Likewise, the yield parameters, i.e., the number of pods, weight of grain per pods, and 1000 seeds were significantly higher in the inoculated treatment with the highest value observed in the dual-inoculated treatment. These results suggest the insertion of soybean with symbiotic bacteria into the cropping system has considerable potential to contribute to sustainable land management practices in arid zones.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060855
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 856: A Real-Time Apple Targets Detection
           Method for Picking Robot Based on ShufflenetV2-YOLOX

    • Authors: Wei Ji, Yu Pan, Bo Xu, Juncheng Wang
      First page: 856
      Abstract: In order to enable the picking robot to detect and locate apples quickly and accurately in the orchard natural environment, we propose an apple object detection method based on Shufflenetv2-YOLOX. This method takes YOLOX-Tiny as the baseline and uses the lightweight network Shufflenetv2 added with the convolutional block attention module (CBAM) as the backbone. An adaptive spatial feature fusion (ASFF) module is added to the PANet network to improve the detection accuracy, and only two extraction layers are used to simplify the network structure. The average precision (AP), precision, recall, and F1 of the trained network under the verification set are 96.76%, 95.62%, 93.75%, and 0.95, respectively, and the detection speed reaches 65 frames per second (FPS). The test results show that the AP value of Shufflenetv2-YOLOX is increased by 6.24% compared with YOLOX-Tiny, and the detection speed is increased by 18%. At the same time, it has a better detection effect and speed than the advanced lightweight networks YOLOv5-s, Efficientdet-d0, YOLOv4-Tiny, and Mobilenet-YOLOv4-Lite. Meanwhile, the half-precision floating-point (FP16) accuracy model on the embedded device Jetson Nano with TensorRT acceleration can reach 26.3 FPS. This method can provide an effective solution for the vision system of the apple picking robot.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060856
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 857: The Role of Innovation Capacities in the
           Relationship between Green Human Resource Management and Competitive
           Advantage in the Saudi Food Industry: Does Gender of Entrepreneurs Really
           Matter'

    • Authors: Hassane Gharbi, Abu Elnasr E. Sobaih, Nadir Aliane, Ayth Almubarak
      First page: 857
      Abstract: Adopting environmentally friendly behavior has become more than a claim. Green human resource management seems to be the solution where innovation will be a strategic lever to lead the company, with green practices, to the possession of a decisive competitive advantage. The purpose of this research is to examine the mediating role of innovation capacities in the relationship between green human resource management and competitive advantage in the Saudi food industry. The research compares between males and females in this relationship. For this purpose, we have used a quantitative approach to conduct the research. Using a sample of 1114 female and male entrepreneurs, owner–managers of small and medium different food companies, operating in the Saudi territory, especially in the major cities, namely Riyadh, Medina, Makkah, Sharaqiyah, Tabuk, Al Qasim and Najran. We were able to make a gender comparison of the mediating role of innovation in the above relationship. The results of the structural equation modelling (SEM) via AMOS software version 23 showed a perfect mediation of the innovation capacities for female entrepreneurs, and partial mediation for male entrepreneurs in the relationship between green human resource management and competitive advantage. Following a focus group with ten female and male entrepreneurs, we were able to understand the reasons for the results we arrived at. The results of our research have numerous implications for both scholars and policymakers, especially in relation to the Saudi food industry.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060857
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 858: Soil Organic Matter Storage in Irrigated
           Tsitsikamma Dairy Farms with Minimum Tilled Pasture Mixtures: Case Studies
           

    • Authors: Palo Francis Loke, Elmarie Kotzé, Christiaan Cornelius Du Preez
      First page: 858
      Abstract: In recent years, pasture production changed from conventional tilled single pastures to minimum tilled mixed pastures in the Tsitsikamma region, South Africa. However, storage of soil organic matter (SOM) under minimum tilled mixed pastures is not yet quantified. This study evaluated SOM indices in the upper 60 cm soil of six-year-old mixed pastures in the Upper (UT) and Lower (LT) Tsitsikamma regions. Soil samples were collected at 0–15, 15–30, 30–45, and 45–60 cm soil layers of five farms (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) treated with different rates of fertilizer (NPK) alone and in combination with dairy effluent (DE) and/or poultry manure (PM). Results of this study indicated that there were no significant differences in bulk density, total nitrogen (N), and rate of potentially mineralizable N (PMN) between farms in the UT region. In the LT region, NPK, DE, and PM combinations improved soil C accumulation relative to the soil application of NPK. Higher C/N ratios in the LT region suggested adequate C for microbial energy and maintenance. Integrating manure into minimum tilled pasture mixtures as a replacement for synthetic fertilizers seems to be a feasible option to promote SOM storage, but remains only feasible by applying site-specific management strategies.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060858
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 859: Impacts of Nitrogen and Phosphorus
           Fertilization on Biomass, Polyphenol Contents, and Essential Oil Yield and
           Composition of Vitex negundo Linn

    • Authors: Li-Chen Peng, Lean-Teik Ng
      First page: 859
      Abstract: Nutrient management has increasingly become important in producing quality medicinal plant materials. Vitex negundo is an important perennial medicinal plant widely distributed in tropical Asia and Africa. This study aimed to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on the biomass, polyphenol contents, and essential oil yield and composition in field cultivated V. negundo. Two field experiments were conducted; one was performed on three different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, and 200 kg-N ha−1), and the other was on different P fertilizer rates (50, 100, and 200 kg-P ha−1), with their respective control groups receiving no fertilization under field conditions. The results showed that at 200 kg-P ha−1, V. negundo had the highest biomass and essential oil yield, the highest number of volatile components (45 compounds), and the content of bioactive ingredients (β-caryophyllene and eremophilene). Polyphenol contents were not significantly different between treatments. This study indicates that 200 kg-P ha−1 (NPK ratio of 1:2:1) treatment positively affects the yield of biomass, essential oils, and bioactive compounds in field cultivated V. negundo.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060859
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 860: Spatial Evolution, Driving Mechanism, and
           Patch Prediction of Grain-Producing Cultivated Land in China

    • Authors: Zhiyuan Zhu, Jiajia Duan, Ruolan Li, Yongzhong Feng
      First page: 860
      Abstract: China has implemented strict policies for protecting cultivated land, and the Chinese government has focused on the non-grain production (NGP) of cultivated land. This study aimed to analyze the spatial evolution law of grain-producing cultivated land (GPCL) in China between 2000 and 2018, explore the mechanism of GPCL, and simulate the spatial characteristics of GPCL in 2036. We used the Geographic Information System (GIS) and a patch-generating land-use simulation model, a new model that proposes a land expansion analysis strategy by improving previous rule-mining methods. China’s grain production rate (GPrate) shows a gradual upward trend between 2000 (36.98%) and 2018 (47.18%). The mutual conversion of GPCL and non-grain-producing cultivated land (NGPCL) are the primary transfer types. The evolution of GPCL is driven by climatic, economic, and social factors, of which population density is the most important factor. GPCL expansion patches are distributed in densely populated, economically developed, and warm and humid plain areas. Further, the simulation results showed that the GPrate in 2036 is estimated to be 41.39%, with GPCL transfer-in significantly exceeding the amount transferred out. Our results further cultivated land evolution-associated research and provide a basis for formulating scientific land-use policies for cultivated land protection for other countries.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060860
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 861: Design and Experiment of Full-Tray
           Grafting Device for Grafted Melon Seedling Production

    • Authors: Xiaohu Fu, Jiahao Shi, Yuan Huang, Enzhao Zhu, Zhilong Bie, Weiguo Lin
      First page: 861
      Abstract: At present, the existing vegetable grafting machines are cutting and grafting operations for a single plant or row. They need to manually or automatically grab the seedlings, and their grafting efficiency is not significantly higher than that of manual grafting techniques. In this paper, grafted melon seedlings were the subject of the research. Based on the splice-grafting method, we designed a clamping and positioning device for full-tray seedlings and a mechanical device to realize full-tray grafting by locating the vegetable seedlings and completing the full-tray grafting process without damaging the seedlings. The results show that the cutting success rate for pumpkin rootstock and for melon scion reached 100% and 92%, respectively. The lengths of the long axis of the section of the rootstock and the scion were 6.2–7.7 mm, and the cutting angle was maintained at 30 degrees, thereby able to meet the requirements of the grafting method. The average grafting efficiency for the rootstock and scion were 2134 plants/h, and the average grafting success rate was 67%.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060861
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 862: Evaluation of Soil-Cutting and
           Plant-Crushing Performance of Rotary Blades with Double-Eccentric
           Circular-Edge Curve for Harvesting Cyperus esculentus

    • Authors: Hao Zhu, Xiaoning He, Shuqi Shang, Zhuang Zhao, Haiqing Wang, Ying Tan, Chengpeng Li, Dongwei Wang
      First page: 862
      Abstract: Severe plant entanglement and high power consumption are the main problems of the up-cut rotary blade during Cyperus esculentus harvesting. Optimization of the rotary blade edge can enhance the soil-cutting and plant-crushing performance. In this study, the double-eccentric circle method was used to design the edge curve of the IT245 rotary blade. The edge curve’s dynamic sliding-cutting angle of equidistant points was analyzed to verify that the optimized rotary blade (IT245P) met the requirements of Cyperus esculentus harvesting. In order to accurately simulate the fragmentation of Cyperus esculentus plants after interaction with the rotary blade, the Hertz–Mindlin with Bonding contact model was selected to establish the flexible model of Cyperus esculentus plants. The plant–soil–rotary blade discrete element model was constructed to conduct simulation tests with power consumption and the plant-crushing ratio as evaluation indexes. The field experiment was carried out with tillage depth stability and power consumption as the experimental indexes. The results of the simulation test and field experiment showed that the power consumption of the IT245P rotary blade was reduced by 13.10%, and the plant-crushing rate was increased by 11.75% compared with the IT245 rotary blade. The optimal operating parameters were 1.08 m/s for forward speed, 107.11 mm for tillage depth, and 258.05 r/min for shaft speed. Under such a combination, the tillage depth stability and the power consumption were 94.63% and 42.35 kW. This study showed that a rotary blade with a double-eccentric circular curve could better realize plant-crushing and consumption reduction and meet the operation requirements of Cyperus esculentus and other Chinese medicinal materials’ harvesting.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060862
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 863: An Improved EfficientNet for Rice Germ
           Integrity Classification and Recognition

    • Authors: Bing Li, Bin Liu, Shuofeng Li, Haiming Liu
      First page: 863
      Abstract: Rice is one of the important staple foods for human beings. Germ integrity is an important indicator of rice processing accuracy. Traditional detection methods are time-consuming and highly subjective. In this paper, an EfficientNet–B3–DAN model is proposed to identify the germ integrity. Firstly, ten types of rice with different germ integrity are collected as the training set. Secondly, based on EfficientNet–B3, a dual attention network (DAN) is introduced to sum the outputs of two channels to change the representation of features and further focus on the extraction of features. Finally, the network is trained using transfer learning and tested on a test set. Comparing with AlexNet, VGG16, GoogleNet, ResNet50, MobileNet, and EfficientNet–B3, the experimental illustrate that the detection overall accuracy of EfficientNet–B3–DAN is 94.17%. It is higher than other models. This study can be used for the classification of rice germ integrity to provide guidance for rice and grain processing industries.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060863
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 864: Could Surplus Food in Blind Box Form
           Increase Consumers’ Purchase Intention'

    • Authors: Chun Yang, Xuqi Chen, Jie Sun, Wei Wei, Wei Miao, Chao Gu
      First page: 864
      Abstract: Surplus foods are fresh raw material of food that has not been processed, and a large number of surplus foods are discarded and wasted every day. As a new business model, a surplus food blind box can attract consumers to purchase to reduce food waste. The main purpose of this study is to find out how to improve consumers’ degree of cognition of surplus food blind box to improve the purchase intention. Therefore, this study analyzes the relevant factors affecting consumers’ purchase intention of surplus food blind box, and through conceptualization and hypothesis verification, establishes a perceived model of consumers’ purchase intention of surplus food blind box that can be used for future research. The results can be used by relevant practitioners, consumers, governments, and researchers to reduce food waste.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060864
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 865: Humic and Acetic Acids Have the Potential
           to Enhance Deterioration of Select Plastic Soil-Biodegradable Mulches in a
           Mediterranean Climate

    • Authors: Brenda Madrid, Huan Zhang, Carol A. Miles, Michael Kraft, Deirdre Griffin-LaHue, Lisa Wasko DeVetter
      First page: 865
      Abstract: The perceived variability of plastic soil-biodegradable mulch (BDM) degradation has generated concerns about its functionality and sustainability, especially in climates and regions where biodegradation may be limited. This study evaluated the effects of surface-applied products (compost tea, dairy-based compost, humic and acetic acids) on the surface deterioration and visible degradation of three plastic BDMs (BASF 0.6, Novamont 0.6, and Novamont 0.7) and one cellulose paper mulch (WeedGuard Plus) in a Mediterranean climate. Deterioration was monitored for 10 months, and degradation was evaluated 6- and 12 months following soil incorporation. Deterioration varied between the two years of the study; however, the average deterioration for WeedGuard Plus reached 100%, BASF 0.6 and Novamont 0.6 achieved ≥80%, while Novamont 0.7 reached ≥70%. Application of humic and acetic acids increased BASF 0.6 deterioration, but only humic acid increased Novamont 0.7 deterioration. Scanning electron microscopy of mulch surfaces demonstrated evidence of microbial colonization; however, the surface-applied products did not enhance microbial counts. In-soil degradation of BDMs was inconsistent, but faster degradation occurred overall for starch- and polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT)-based BDMs. Future studies should continue to explore on-farm strategies to enhance in-soil degradation to meet the production system’s goals.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060865
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 866: A Conceptual Model for Development of
           Small Farm Management Information System: A Case of Indonesian Smallholder
           Chili Farmers

    • Authors: Henriyadi Henriyadi, Vatcharaporn Esichaikul, Chutiporn Anutariya
      First page: 866
      Abstract: Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS) assists farmers in managing their farms more effectively and efficiently. However, the use of FMIS to support crop cultivation is, at the present time, relatively expensive for smallholder farmers. Due to some handicaps, providing an FMIS that is suitable for small-holder farmers is a challenge. To analyze this gap, this study followed 3 steps, namely: (1) identified commodity and research area, (2) performed Farmers’ Information Needs Assessment (FINA), and (3) developed the conceptual model using the Soft System Methodology. Indonesian smallholder chili farmers are used as a case study. The most required information of smallholder’ farmers was identified through a qualitative questionnaire. Despite this, not all identified information needs could be accurately mapped. Thus, this indicates the need for a new FMIS conceptual model that is suitable for smallholder farmers. This study proposes an FMIS conceptual model for farm efficiency that incorporates five layers, namely farmers’ information needs, data quality assessment, data extraction, SMM (split, match and merge), and presentation layer. SMM layer also provides a method to comprehensively tackle three main problems in data interoperability problems, namely schema heterogeneity, schema granularity, and mismatch entity naming.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060866
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 867: Structural Design and Simulation of
           Pneumatic Conveying Line for a Paddy Side-Deep Fertilisation System

    • Authors: Qingzhen Zhu, Hengyuan Zhang, Zhihao Zhu, Yuanyuan Gao, Liping Chen
      First page: 867
      Abstract: To improve the consistency of sectional gas velocities in different rows in the pneumatic conveying line for a paddy side-deep fertilisation system, a new airflow equaliser was designed based on the mechanism of gas flow in ventilation engineering. Subsequently, the effects of key structural parameters and a position parameter of the airflow equaliser on the consistency of sectional gas velocities in different rows were investigated using the method of single-factor tests in Fluent, which provided a reasonable range for the next orthogonal test (notch angle (A): 120–180°, extended length (B): 18–30 mm and distance between adjacent branches (C): 120–160 mm). Thereafter, the parameters were optimised through an orthogonal test, using the coefficient of variation of the consistency of the sectional gas velocities in different rows (CV) as an indicator and using Fluent software. The results revealed that the order of primary and secondary factors was evaluated as B > A × B > C > A, and when A, B and C were selected as 150°, 30 mm and 120 mm, respectively, the consistency of the sectional gas velocities in different rows could get a very effective result (CV = 7.07%). Finally, to validate the feasibility of simulations of the performance of the airflow equalisers and to practically evaluate the contribution of the optimised airflow equalisers to improve the consistency of the sectional gas velocities in different rows, a bench test for the line with the optimised airflow equalisers and a simulation test for the line without the optimised airflow equalisers were carried out and the results showed that the CV values were 9.53%, 20.69%, respectively. It concluded that the optimised airflow equalisers could significantly improve the consistency of the sectional gas velocities in different rows by comparing the CV in the three tests including the simulation test for the line with the optimised airflow equalisers. This research provides a good reference for optimising the pneumatic conveying line for a paddy side-deep fertilisation system.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060867
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 868: Farrowing Pens for Individually
           Loose-Housed Sows: Results on the Development of the SowComfort Farrowing
           Pen

    • Authors: Inger Lise Andersen, Marko Ocepek
      First page: 868
      Abstract: The objective of the present paper was to discuss the design of farrowing pens and present the first production results of the “SowComfort farrowing pen” (SOWCOMF). The biggest difference between this pen and the traditional pen (TRAD) presented in the study, is that SOWCOMF contains a nest area equipped with a rubber mattress, floor heating, a rack for straw and no separate creep area. It was predicted that SOWCOMF would result in lower piglet mortality compared to TRAD due to a more stimulating and comfortable environment, and that the use of rubber mats in SOWCOMF would reduce the incidence of carpal joint lesions of the piglets. Results from both farms showed that percent mortality of live born piglets was lower in SOWCOMF than TRAD (p = 0.004), especially due to starvation (p < 0.0001) and other causes (p < 0.0001). In contrast, percentage of overlying was higher in SOWCOMF (p < 0.0001). The lower incidence of starved piglets in SOWCOMF than TRAD can possibly be explained by more sow-initiated communication with the piglets (p < 0.001). Most causes of mortality declined over consecutive batches. Percentage of piglets per litter without carpal lesions were significantly higher in the SOWCOMF than in TRAD (p < 0.0001), showing that rubber mats provide more protection of carpal joints.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060868
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 869: Multi-Residue Determination of 244
           Chemical Contaminants in Chicken Eggs by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass
           Spectrometry after Effective Lipid Clean-Up

    • Authors: Lin Zhang, Qi Jia, Guangqin Liao, Yongzhong Qian, Jing Qiu
      First page: 869
      Abstract: In this study, we aimed to establish a multi-residue analytical method for the simultaneous detection of chemical contaminants in eggs. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we developed an analytical method that can separate 244 compounds (including β-agonists (25), imidazole and benzimidazoles (31), sulfonamides (22), antihistamines (10), β-lactam (5), insecticides (7), quinolones (24), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (13), and steroidal hormones (38)) within 30 min. A new enhanced matrix removal-lipid (EMR-Lipid) material was used as a purified sorbent in the QuEChERS clean-up method. Excellent linearity (r > 0.9905) was achieved. Additionally, recoveries ranged between 51.33% and 118.28%, with repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDwR) in the range of 1.01–14.22% and 1.08–14.96%, respectively. In all of the compounds, low limits of quantification (LOQs) ≤ 5 μg kg−1 were found. Meanwhile, the detection limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were 1.88–40.60 μg kg−1 and 2.85–407.19 μg kg−1, respectively. In conclusion, the evaluated method was shown to provide reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 244 multi-class chemicals in eggs and was successfully applied in real samples.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060869
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 870: Simulation Parameter Calibration and
           Experimental Study of a Discrete Element Model of Cotton Precision Seed
           Metering

    • Authors: Shenghe Bai, Yanwei Yuan, Kang Niu, Liming Zhou, Bo Zhao, Liguo Wei, Lijing Liu, Shi Xiong, Zenglu Shi, Yihua Ma, Yuankun Zheng, Gaoyong Xing
      First page: 870
      Abstract: To improve the accuracy of the parameters used in the discrete element simulation test, this study calibrated the simulation parameters of cotton seeds by combining a physical test and simulation test. Based on the intrinsic parameters used for the physical test of cotton seed, according to the freefall collision method, inclined plane sliding method, and inclined plane rolling method, the contact parameters of cotton seeds and cotton seeds, stainless steel, and nylon were measured, respectively. The physical test of the accumulation angle and angle of repose of the cotton seeds was conducted. It was obtained to process the image of the seed pile with Matrix Laboratory software. The Plackett–Burman test was used to screen the significance of the simulation parameters. The optimal value range of the significant parameters was determined according to the steepest climbing test. The second-order regression model of the significant parameters, the stacking-angle error, and the angle-of-repose error were obtained according to the Box–Behnken design test. Taking the minimum stacking-angle error and angle-of-repose error as the optimization target values, the following optimal parameter combination was obtained: the interspecies collision recovery coefficient was 0.413, the interspecies static friction coefficient was 0.695, and the interspecies rolling friction coefficient was 0.214. Three repetitive simulation experiments were conducted to prove the reliability of the calibration results. The research results can be used for discrete element simulation experiments for cotton precision seed metering.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060870
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 871: Nutrient Utilization and Double Cropping
           Rice Yield Response to Dense Planting with a Decreased Nitrogen Rate in
           Two Different Ecological Regions of South China

    • Authors: Kang Luo, Yongjun Zeng, Ziming Wu, Lin Guo, Xiaobing Xie, Qinghua Shi, Xiaohua Pan
      First page: 871
      Abstract: An increased planting density and decreased nitrogen (N) rate combination may obtain a stable yield and enhance N utilization. However, the effects of an increased planting density and decreased N rate combination on the yield and nutrient utilization in different ecological regions are unclear. The aim of this research was to assess the interactive impacts of the N rates and planting densities on double cropping rice yields and nutrient utilization in two ecological regions in field experiments during 2018 and 2019. The results showed that, at Shanggao, increased planting densities of 67% and 200% compensated for the biomass, nutrient uptake and yield losses from N application reductions of 20% and 27% and increased the nutrient utilization of the early and late seasons. However, at Xingguo, compared with the N2D1 treatment (165 kg ha−1 with 57 plants per m2), the late rice yield under the N1D2 treatment (120 kg ha−1 with 114 plants per m2) decreased by 6.71% and 5.02% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The photosynthetic rate and nutrient uptake were likely related to the positive interaction on the double cropping rice yield in the two ecological regions. Our results indicate that dense planting is a feasible cultivation strategy to decrease N inputs for double cropping rice, but the low soil nutrient supplies negatively affect stable yields in different ecological regions.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060871
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 872: Causality in Relation to Futures and Cash
           Prices in the Wheat Market

    • Authors: Anna Szczepańska-Przekota
      First page: 872
      Abstract: Mutual interactions between the agricultural commodities futures market and the spot market are some of the most important relationships that can be observed between the financial market and the real economy. The process of the flow of price impulses between these markets has long been of interest to researchers. It is important both for stock market investors and agricultural producers, as well as for decision-makers responsible for food policy. The studies conducted so far do not provide unambiguous answers about the strength and direction of flows of price impulses. This is one example of the need for continuous process monitoring. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the process of the flow of price impulses between the futures market and the wheat spot market. The study was carried out based on the US example. The futures prices from the CBOT exchange and the wheat producer price index were analyzed. The data covers the period between 01.2010 and 01.2022. The Granger causality test and the VAR model were used for the study. The results are in the minority, as a causal relationship was obtained from the spot market to the futures market, which is a less common result.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060872
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 873: Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium from
           Non-Agricultural Soil Improves Okra Plant Growth

    • Authors: Heba Adel AlAli, Ashraf Khalifa, Mohammed Almalki
      First page: 873
      Abstract: Beneficial soil microorganisms influence nutrient recycling, soil fertility, plant growth, and productivity and reduce chemical fertilizer application. This study aimed to isolate bacteria from non-agricultural soils in the Al-Ahsa region and characterize the bacteria with the best biostimulating characteristics at the physiological, biochemical, and molecular level. DPM17, a bacterial isolate, promotes plant growth through phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. DPM17 also produces the phytohormones, indole acetic acid (IAA; 4.516 μg mL−1) and gibberellin (1.33 µg mL−1), and ammonia (0.06 µg mL−1). Additionally, DPM17 grows in the presence of up to 10% NaCl, indicating its halophilic nature. DPM17 was identified as Bacillus baekryungensis based on comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses indicated that DPM17 was 96.51% identified to Bacillus sp. DPM17 inoculation substantially improved Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) root length, lateral root count, and dry weight from 7.03 to 9.41 (p = 0.03), 3.2 to 7.2, and 6 to 13 mg (p = 0.032), respectively. The results suggest that DPM17 enhances plant growth and can be exploited to develop efficient formulations for sustainable agriculture and food security in Saudi Arabia.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060873
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 874: Essential Oils in Broiler Chicken
           Production, Immunity and Meat Quality: Review of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum
           vulgare, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    • Authors: Nikola Puvača, Vincenzo Tufarelli, Ilias Giannenas
      First page: 874
      Abstract: The use of essential oils in animal nutrition has attracted attention as a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters in the past twenty-five years. This paper will review the current scientific evidence on the usage of essential oils from Lamiaceae family members such as Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Origanum vulgare (oregano), and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) in broiler nutrition in terms of production results, immunity, and meat quality properties. Essential oils are effective in broiler nutrition when incorporated into the diet on a variety of levels, such as dietary composition, level of feed inclusion, and bird genetics. Moreover, the efficacy of essential oils is influenced by many factors, such as the composition of the oil. Due to big differences in the composition and sources of essential oils, comparing different studies using them can be challenging. Therefore, biological effects may differ significantly. Despite this, a great deal of research supports essential oils’ potential use as natural, antibiotic-free growth promoters for broilers. Growth promotion mechanisms are still not clearly understood as there is limited information on essential oils’ effect on nutrient digestibility, gut function, and the immune system. There is no question that essential oil consumption can reduce pathogen growth in the gut, but their effects on the intricate gut ecosystem as yet remain unclear. This review concludes with further recommendations regarding the application of dietary essential oils in broiler nutrition.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060874
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 875: Design of and Experiments with an
           Automatic Cuttage Device for an Arch Shed Pillar with Force Feedback

    • Authors: Kezhou Chen, Xing Liu, Shiteng Jin, Longfei Li, Xin He, Tao Wang, Guopeng Mi, Yinggang Shi, Wei Li
      First page: 875
      Abstract: In order to realize the automatic cutting of arch shed pillars, an automatic cuttage device for an arch shed pillar with force feedback was designed in this study. First, the wind resistance of the arch shed was simulated and analyzed using ANSYS, and the cuttage depth of the arch shed pillar was determined. According to the environment for the cuttage operation of the arch shed pillar and the agronomic requirements, such as the arch shed span, arch shed height, and cuttage depth, the function, structure, and basic design parameters of the arch shed automatic cuttage device were determined. Then, to reduce the damage rate of the pillar and achieve equal-depth cuttage, a force feedback system for the actuator of the cuttage device was constructed to estimate the cuttage resistance and depth in real time. To reduce the impact of the starting and stopping of each motor in the actuator, trajectory planning of the execution end in the pillar transfer stage was performed in the Cartesian coordinate system. The motion law of portal trajectory based on the Láme curve was analyzed, and MATLAB simulations were used to solve the relevant motion parameters. In addition, the modality of key components of the cuttage device was simulated and analyzed by using the SOLIDWORKS simulation plug-in. Finally, the experimental prototype was constructed according to the simulation results. The simulation and field cuttage experiments showed that the cuttage device produced equal-depth cuttage for the arch shed pillar, where the depth of the arch shed pillar was 10 cm, the average cuttage time of a single pillar was 6.2 s, and the error of the cuttage depth was ±0.5 cm in wet soil. The operation of the device was stable, as evidenced by the smooth and mutation-free operation trajectory and speed curve of the execution end. The results of the modal experiment suggest that resonance would not occur during the operation for resonance frequencies between 303 Hz and 565 Hz. This arch shed pillar automatic cuttage device has an optimal operation performance and meets the agronomic requirements of arch shed pillar cuttage.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060875
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 876: How Perceived Stress Affects
           Farmers’ Continual Adoption of Farmland Quality Improvement
           Practices

    • Authors: Na Li, Caixia Xue
      First page: 876
      Abstract: Regarding the fact that smallholder farmers form the main part of agriculture, actively guiding smallholder farmers to continually adopt the farmland quality improvement practice in their agricultural production process is considered as the critical path to improve farmland sustainability for the agricultural sector in China especially smallholder farmers planting economic crops, such as tea, that have long relied on heavy inputs of chemical fertilizers that seriously undermine the quality of farmland. However, the state efforts towards the promotion of farmers’ adoption of farmland quality improvement practices for years have not obtained remarkable results. In this context, based on expectation confirmation theory and conservation of resources theory, the study classified farmers’ perceived stress towards continual adoption of farmland quality improvement practice into three categories: stress from uselessness perception, difficulty perception, and in-adaptability perception. A structural equation model was utilized to explore the impact of perceived stress on farmers’ continual adoption of the practice in a sample of 494 tea farmers from Qinba Mountain Area in China. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-efficacy and moderating effect of social support are discussed theoretically and empirically in the paper. The research findings show that the stress from in-adaptability perception has the strongest inhibitory effect of the three on farmers’ continual behavior while the stress from difficulty perception is the weakest. Further, the mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between perceived stress and farmers’ continual adoption behaviors was confirmed. Additionally, the study indicated that social support can buffer the negative impact of perceived stress from uselessness perception and difficulty perception on farmers‘ continual adoption behaviors. Therefore, fully considering farmers’ perceived stress, providing farmers with support in a targeted manner, would strengthen the coordination between the government and the household on farmland improvement practices, accelerating the achievement of farmland sustainability.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060876
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 877: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on
           Physiological Response of Maize to Soil Salinity

    • Authors: Kaixuan Du, Yanqun Zhang, Shanshan Qin, Lijuan Wang, Baozhong Zhang, Shuji Wang
      First page: 877
      Abstract: Soil salinization is a global problem that causes huge losses in agricultural production. Salt can interfere with crop absorption and metabolism of nutrients and water, affect plant physiological responses and reduce plant biomass. Maize, a very important economic crop, can adapt to a certain degree of saline-alkali soil. It is essential to understand the physiological indexes of response to soil salinity concentrations and explore the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer treatments on maize growth. In this study, three soil salinity gradients (S1, S2 and S3 were with soil salt concentration, Ssc, of 0, 0.1% and 0.25%, respectively) and two nitrogen application rates (N0 and N1 were without and with nitrogen applied (13.2 g per pot), respectively) were set up. Plant growth and photosynthetic parameters were measured. Whether nitrogen was applied or not, with the increase in Ssc, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, SPAD, leaf water potential, RuBP carboxylase, and PEP carboxylase activities, photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), the maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), and the stomatal morphological parameters such as stomatal width and maximum stomatal area (amax), all showed a downward trend. Under the S1 and S2 treatments, compared with the N0, the N1 treatment alleviated the stress effect of the Ssc on these indicators. However, under S3 treatment, the stress degrees of leaf water potential, gs, gsmax and amax, were aggravated after nitrogen application. This indicated that under the high Ssc of S3, the interaction between nitrogen application and soil salinity should be considered. WUEin increased with the increase in Ssc. Moreover, under N1 treatments, the increase in WUEin with Ssc was greater than that with N0. With the increase in Ssc, whether nitrogen was applied or not, the dry weight of maize declined by 44.2% and 73.0%, respectively, for the S2 and S3 treatments. Under S2 treatment, N1 significantly improved the dry matter mass of maize compared with the N0 treatment. The results showed that soil salt stress can inhibit crop growth, physiology and dry matter accumulation, and that nitrogen application can alleviate this within a specific salinity range. Such results indicate that in saline-alkali areas, whether nitrogen fertilizer is applied or not should depend on the level of Ssc to improve plant growth.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060877
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 878: Sex and Body Colour Affect the Variation
           in Internal Body Temperature of Oedaleus decorus asiaticus in Natural
           Habitats in Inner Mongolia, China

    • Authors: Yumeng Cheng, Hongmei Li, Lulu Liu, Guangjun Wang, Haojing Gu, Belinda Luke
      First page: 878
      Abstract: Oedaleus decorus asiaticus is one of the most harmful locusts in agricultural and pastoral areas in China. Plagues of this grasshopper can aggravate grassland degradation and cause huge damage to the livestock industry. Fungal biopesticides are seen as a suitable means of controlling grasshoppers and locusts. However, the efficiency of fungal biopesticides is dependent on temperature. Currently, there is limited knowledge on the thermal biology of this grasshopper in natural habitats. In this study, ground temperature measurements were made in conjunction with measurements of internal body temperatures using thermocouples and hand-held thermometers. The grasshoppers were randomly caught during the daytime in 2017 and 2018 in eight different locations in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Our results indicated that the average internal body temperature of nymphs as well as adults of O. d. asiaticusis was higher than the ground temperature and that it increases/decreases with increases/decreases in ground temperature, respectively, during the daytime. Moreover, the adult internal body temperature is significantly higher than that of the nymphs at different times of the day, specifically around 6:00, 10:00, 13:00, and 18:00. Female internal body temperatures were significantly higher than those of the males by an average of 0.90 °C. Additionally, the average internal body temperature of the brown morphs was higher than that of the green morphs by approximately 1.17 °C. These findings demonstrate that brown morph insects might be more tolerant of fungal biopesticides and hence the biopesticides may take longer to kill them. Hence, ecophysiological adaptations to climate change may affect how fungal biopesticides could be used in the future.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060878
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 879: Pesticide Use and Associated Greenhouse
           Gas Emissions in Sugar Beet, Apples, and Viticulture in Austria from 2000
           to 2019

    • Authors: Ramona Cech, Friedrich Leisch, Johann G. Zaller
      First page: 879
      Abstract: The production of synthetic pesticides is energy intensive and can emit even more greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg than the production of synthetic fertilizers. However, this aspect is largely neglected when it comes to agriculture’s contribution to GHG emissions. Using official pesticide sales data from Austria from 2000 to 2019, we analyzed (i) trends in insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide use and calculated production-related GHG emissions, and (ii) the share of pesticide-related versus fertilizer-related GHG emissions in three agricultural crops with different pesticide intensities: sugar beets, apples, and grapevines. We found that between 2000 and 2019, insecticide amounts increased by 58%, fungicide amounts increased by 29%, and herbicide amounts decreased by 29%; associated GHG emissions showed similar patterns. During the same period, acreage under conventional arable crops, orchards, and vineyards decreased by an average of 19%, indicating an increase in management intensity. In intensive apple production, GHG emissions associated with pesticide production and application accounted for 51% of total GHG emissions, in viticulture 37%, and in sugar beets 12%. We have shown that GHG emissions due to pesticide production and application can be significant, especially for pesticide-intensive crops. We therefore recommend that these pesticide-derived GHG emissions should also be attributed to the agricultural sector.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060879
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 880: The Joint Application of Phosphorus and
           Ammonium Enhances Soybean Root Growth and P Uptake

    • Authors: Ciro Antonio Rosolem, Thiago Barbosa Batista, Patrícia Pereira Dias, Laudelino Vieira da Motta Neto, Juliano Carlos Calonego
      First page: 880
      Abstract: It has been shown that the joint application of phosphorus (P) and ammonium (N-NH+4) increases maize root proliferation and P acquisition by maize in alkaline soils, but this has not been shown in acidic soils for legumes. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of the joint application of P and NH4+ on soybean root growth and P acquisition. Soybean was grown in glass-walled pots without P, with monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and triple super phosphate (TSP) applied on the soil surface or localized. The soil P increased irrespective of the P source and localization. The rhizosphere pH was decreased by MAP, while the soil bulk pH was not affected. The TSP increased the root length by 55% and MAP by 76% over the control, and the number of root tips increased by 21% with TSP, 58% with MAP applied on the soil surface, and 78% with MAP localized. The soybean dry matter, N and P uptake, and P use efficiency were increased by P fertilization, mainly with MAP localized. The joint application of P and ammonium decreases the soybean rhizosphere pH, which results in root proliferation early in the cycle, and eventually in higher P uptake and use efficiency.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060880
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 881: Impact of Fiscal Expenditure on
           Farmers’ Livelihood Capital in the Ethnic Minority Mountainous
           Region of Sichuan, China

    • Authors: Shili Guo, Beibei Wang, Kui Zhou, Hui Wang, Qiuping Zeng, Dingde Xu
      First page: 881
      Abstract: Poverty alleviation is the first battle to realize the rural revitalization strategy in China, and research on the sustainable livelihood of rural households is of great significance to solving the problem of rural poverty. Based on the sustainable livelihood framework, the reasonable scale and structure of fiscal expenditure is an inevitable requirement in producing sustainable livelihood capital toward this aim. In this study, the system Gaussian mixed model was used to analyze the impact of fiscal expenditure on farmers’ livelihoods. Representative survey data uses panel data from 48 counties across Liangshan Prefecture, Ganzi Prefecture, and Aba Prefecture in Sichuan, China. The results are as follows: (1) The average stock of human capital in 2010 to 2015 was the highest in the composition of farmers’ livelihood capital; (2) natural capital and physical capital were positively affected by the total scale of fiscal expenditure, agriculture, forestry, and water expenditure, and the former was negatively affected by general public service expenditure, education expenditure, social security and employment expenditure, and medical expenditure; (3) financial capital and the total amount of livelihood capital were positively affected by the total scale of fiscal expenditure, agriculture, forestry and water expenditure, education expenditure, social security and employment expenditure, and medical expenditure, and negatively affected by general public service expenditure; (4) human capital was positively affected by the total scale of fiscal expenditure, education expenditure, social security and employment expenditure, and medical expenditure; and (5) social capital was positively affected by agriculture, forestry and water expenditure, and education expenditure.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060881
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 882: Friction and Wear Properties of Wheat
           Straw Powder Third Body on Steel-Steel Friction Pair

    • Authors: Chenglong Lian, Wei Zhao, Shumei Wang, Peng Zhang, Xiaoying Dong, Yongfeng Li
      First page: 882
      Abstract: Third body plant fibers have an important influence on the friction and wear properties of metal friction pairs. In this study, wheat straw powder with different particle sizes was prepared, and a pin-on-disk friction tester was employed to evaluate the friction and wear properties of the wheat straw powder third body on steel friction pairs under various conditions. The results show that the straw powder played an isolation role in the steel–steel friction pair, which reduced the contact area between the pin and the disc and thus reduced the friction coefficient. Compared with the large particle size powder, the small particle size powder became embedded in the friction interface or in the groove caused by wear, buffered the friction stress, and reduced the friction coefficient and wear. When lubricants such as lubricating oil or lubricating grease were added, the friction coefficient was significantly reduced. Under the influence of lubricant, the particle size of straw powder had no significant effect on the wear. The results of this study can provide a reference for the third body friction and wear properties of straw powder and the design of friction pairs for metal parts.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060882
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 883: Soil Electrical Conductivity and
           Satellite-Derived Vegetation Indices for Evaluation of Phosphorus,
           Potassium and Magnesium Content, pH, and Delineation of Within-Field
           Management Zones

    • Authors: Piotr Mazur, Dariusz Gozdowski, Elżbieta Wójcik-Gront
      First page: 883
      Abstract: The optimization of soil sampling is very important in precision agriculture. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between selected spectral indices (NDWI—normalized difference water index and NDVI—normalized difference vegetation index) and apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC) with soil nutrient content (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) and pH. Moreover, the usefulness of these variables for the delineation of within-field management zones was assessed. The study was conducted in 2021 in central Poland at three maize fields with a total area approximately 100 ha. The analyses were performed based on 47 management zones, which were used for soil sampling. Significant positive correlations were observed between the NDVI for the bare soil and all the studied nutrient contents in the soil and pH. A very strong positive correlation was observed between the soil EC and the potassium content and a moderate correlation was found with the magnesium content. A multiple-regression analysis proved that the soil nutrient content, especially potassium and phosphorus, was strongly related to the EC and NDVI. The novelty of this study is that it proves the relationships between soil and the crop attributes, EC and NDVI, which can be measured at field scale relatively simply, and the crucial soil nutrients, phosphorus and potassium. This allows the results to be used for optimized variable-rate fertilization.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060883
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 884: Transformer Help CNN See Better: A
           Lightweight Hybrid Apple Disease Identification Model Based on
           Transformers

    • Authors: Xiaopeng Li, Shuqin Li
      First page: 884
      Abstract: The complex backgrounds of crop disease images and the small contrast between the disease area and the background can easily cause confusion, which seriously affects the robustness and accuracy of apple disease- identification models. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a Vision Transformer-based lightweight apple leaf disease- identification model, ConvViT, to extract effective features of crop disease spots to identify crop diseases. Our ConvViT includes convolutional structures and Transformer structures; the convolutional structure is used to extract the global features of the image, and the Transformer structure is used to obtain the local features of the disease region to help the CNN see better. The patch embedding method is improved to retain more edge information of the image and promote the information exchange between patches in the Transformer. The parameters and FLOPs (Floating Point Operations) of the model are significantly reduced by using depthwise separable convolution and linear-complexity multi-head attention operations. Experimental results on a complex background of a self-built apple leaf disease dataset show that ConvViT achieves comparable identification results (96.85%) with the current performance of the state-of-the-art Swin-Tiny. The parameters and FLOPs are only 32.7% and 21.7% of Swin-Tiny, and significantly ahead of MobilenetV3, Efficientnet-b0, and other models, which indicates that the proposed model is indeed an effective disease-identification model with practical application value.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060884
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 885: Position Accuracy Assessment of a
           UAV-Mounted Sequoia+ Multispectral Camera Using a Robotic Total Station

    • Authors: Dimitrios S. Paraforos, Galibjon M. Sharipov, Andreas Heiß, Hans W. Griepentrog
      First page: 885
      Abstract: Remote sensing data in agriculture that are originating from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-mounted multispectral cameras offer substantial information in assessing crop status, as well as in developing prescription maps for site-specific variable rate applications. The position accuracy of the multispectral imagery plays an important role in the quality of the final prescription maps and how well the latter correspond to the specific spatial characteristics. Although software products and developed algorithms are important in offering position corrections, they are time- and cost-intensive. The paper presents a methodology to assess the accuracy of the imagery obtained by using a mounted target prism on the UAV, which is tracked by a ground-based total station. A Parrot Sequoia+ multispectral camera was used that is widely utilized in agriculture-related remote sensing applications. Two sets of experiments were performed following routes that go along the north–south and east–west axes, while the cross-track error was calculated for all three planes, but also three-dimensional (3D) space. From the results, it was indicated that the camera’s D-GNSS receiver can offer imagery with a 3D position accuracy of up to 3.79 m, while the accuracy in the horizontal plane is higher compared to the vertical ones.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060885
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 886: Post-Anthesis Heat Influences Grain
           Yield, Physical and Nutritional Quality in Wheat: A Review

    • Authors: Edward Fernie, Daniel K. Y. Tan, Sonia Y. Liu, Najeeb Ullah, Ali Khoddami
      First page: 886
      Abstract: Climate change threatens to impact wheat productivity, quality and global food security. Maintaining crop productivity under abiotic stresses such as high temperature is therefore imperative to managing the nutritional needs of a growing global population. The article covers the current knowledge on the impact of post-anthesis heat on grain yield and quality of wheat crops. The objectives of the current article were to review (1) the effect of post-anthesis heat stress events (above 30.0 °C) on wheat grain yield, (2) the effect of heat stress on both the physical and chemical quality of wheat grain during grain development, (3) identify wheat cultivars that display resilience to heat stress and (4) address gaps within the literature and provide a direction for future research. Heat stress events at the post-anthesis stage impacted wheat grain yield mostly at the grain filling stage, whilst the effect on physical and chemical quality was varied. The overall effect of post-anthesis heat on wheat yield and quality was genotype-specific. Additionally, heat tolerance mechanisms were identified that may explain variations in yield and quality data obtained between studies.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060886
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 887: GrapeNet: A Lightweight Convolutional
           Neural Network Model for Identification of Grape Leaf Diseases

    • Authors: Jianwu Lin, Xiaoyulong Chen, Renyong Pan, Tengbao Cao, Jitong Cai, Yang Chen, Xishun Peng, Tomislav Cernava, Xin Zhang
      First page: 887
      Abstract: Most convolutional neural network (CNN) models have various difficulties in identifying crop diseases owing to morphological and physiological changes in crop tissues, and cells. Furthermore, a single crop disease can show different symptoms. Usually, the differences in symptoms between early crop disease and late crop disease stages include the area of disease and color of disease. This also poses additional difficulties for CNN models. Here, we propose a lightweight CNN model called GrapeNet for the identification of different symptom stages for specific grape diseases. The main components of GrapeNet are residual blocks, residual feature fusion blocks (RFFBs), and convolution block attention modules. The residual blocks are used to deepen the network depth and extract rich features. To alleviate the CNN performance degradation associated with a large number of hidden layers, we designed an RFFB module based on the residual block. It fuses the average pooled feature map before the residual block input and the high-dimensional feature maps after the residual block output by a concatenation operation, thereby achieving feature fusion at different depths. In addition, the convolutional block attention module (CBAM) is introduced after each RFFB module to extract valid disease information. The obtained results show that the identification accuracy was determined as 82.99%, 84.01%, 82.74%, 84.77%, 80.96%, 82.74%, 80.96%, 83.76%, and 86.29% for GoogLeNet, Vgg16, ResNet34, DenseNet121, MobileNetV2, MobileNetV3_large, ShuffleNetV2_×1.0, EfficientNetV2_s, and GrapeNet. The GrapeNet model achieved the best classification performance when compared with other classical models. The total number of parameters of the GrapeNet model only included 2.15 million. Compared with DenseNet121, which has the highest accuracy among classical network models, the number of parameters of GrapeNet was reduced by 4.81 million, thereby reducing the training time of GrapeNet by about two times compared with that of DenseNet121. Moreover, the visualization results of Grad-cam indicate that the introduction of CBAM can emphasize disease information and suppress irrelevant information. The overall results suggest that the GrapeNet model is useful for the automatic identification of grape leaf diseases.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060887
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 888: Advanced Technologies in On-Site
           Detection of Genetically Modified Products

    • Authors: Jiale Li, Jie Li, Shenghao Lin, Longjiao Zhu, Xiangyang Li, Wentao Xu
      First page: 888
      Abstract: Transgenic technology is significantly impacting life today. However, with the advancement of genetically modified technologies and the success of genetically modified product commercialization, new challenges have arisen for associated detecting technologies. The need for fast, precise, and portable systems for the on-site detection of genetically modified products has increased dramatically in recent years. This perspective examined the currently available technological support for portable immune biosensing, discussed a portable detection device for ultrafast PCR, and an on-site detection biosensor based on functional nucleic acid and superior detection devices in the field. Moreover, the on-site sequencing of genetically modified organisms was mentioned briefly. Lastly, the future outlook of genetically modified products detection was concluded and discussed in order to provide a comprehensive reference for future research and development in related fields.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060888
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 889: Experimental Study on the Droplet Size
           and Charge-to-Mass Ratio of an Air-Assisted Electrostatic Nozzle

    • Authors: Shiqun Dai, Jiayao Zhang, Weidong Jia, Mingxiong Ou, Huitao Zhou, Xiang Dong, Hong Chen, Ming Wang, Yu Chen, Shuai Yang
      First page: 889
      Abstract: An air-assisted electrostatic nozzle uses a combination of air-assisted atomization and electrostatic spray technology. This article optimizes the existing air-assisted electrostatic nozzles in terms of structural design to obtain a higher charge-to-mass ratio and a smaller droplet size. The optimized air-assisted electrostatic nozzle was studied experimentally, and the effects of liquid pressure, air pressure and applied voltage on the droplet size and charge-to-mass ratio were investigated. Comparing the effects of air pressure, liquid pressure and applied voltage on the charge-to-mass ratio and droplet size, the relationship curves of the droplet size and charge-to-mass ratio under each voltage were fitted using the Rayleigh charge limit theory. For a higher CMR during the spray operation, applied voltages between 2.5 kV and 3 kV, an air pressure between 0.4 bar and 0.6 bar, and a liquid pressure of less than 0.9 bar could be chosen. The optimized air-assisted electrostatic nozzles not only have small droplets but also have high charge-to-mass ratios, reducing the need for pesticide use and thus protecting human health and the environment.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060889
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 890: The Design and Test of the Chassis of a
           Triangular Crawler-Type Ratooning Rice Harvester

    • Authors: Weijian Liu, Xiwen Luo, Shan Zeng, Li Zeng, Zhiqiang Wen
      First page: 890
      Abstract: Due to the high rolling rate of a regular crawler paddy harvester and the absence of mature first season harvester products of ratooning rice, combined with the planting mode and harvest requirements of ratooning rice, a triangular crawler ratooning rice harvester is specifically designed. The structure and steering principle of the triangular crawler chassis are described. The hydraulic system is simulated and analyzed by AMESim2020 (Guangzhou, China) to verify the rationality of its design; RecurDynV9R4 (Guangzhou, China) is used to simulate and analyze the field straight/turning situation of differential steering chassis and rear-axle steering chassis. The results show that the rear axle steering chassis has a smaller turning radius and lower rolling loss rate and the change of track tension is more stable during steering. The field test is conducted to verify the reliability of the simulation results. The field test shows that the rolling loss rate of the rear axle steering chassis is reduced by 27.9% compared with the differential steering chassis. The machine’s operating speed is 2.8 km/h, the minimum turning radius is 780 mm, and the straight rolling rate is 26.8%. The operating performance is stable, and the operational process is smooth. Compared with the existing conventional harvester, the linear rolling rate of the first harvest of ratooning rice is reduced by 26.1%, and the test results are consistent with the RecurDyn simulation results. The results are reliable, providing a reference for the theoretical research of the chassis of the later ratoon rice harvester.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060890
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 891: Effect of Fans’ Placement on the
           Indoor Thermal Environment of Typical Tunnel-Ventilated Multi-Floor Pig
           Buildings Using Numerical Simulation

    • Authors: Xiaoshuai Wang, Mengbing Cao, Feiyue Hu, Qianying Yi, Thomas Amon, David Janke, Tian Xie, Guoqiang Zhang, Kaiying Wang
      First page: 891
      Abstract: An increasing number of large pig farms are being built in multi-floor pig buildings (MFPBs) in China. Currently, the ventilation system of MFPB varies greatly and lacks common standards. This work aims to compare the ventilation performance of three popular MFPB types with different placement of fans using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique. After being validated with field-measured data, the CFD models were extended to simulate the air velocity, air temperature, humidity, and effective temperature of the three MFPBs. The simulation results showed that the ventilation rate of the building with outflowing openings in the endwall and fans installed on the top of the shaft was approximately 25% less than the two buildings with fans installed on each floor. The ventilation rate of each floor increased from the first to the top floor for both buildings with a shaft, while no significant difference was observed in the building without a shaft. Increasing the shaft’s width could mitigate the variation in the ventilation rate of each floor. The effective temperature distribution at the animal level was consistent with the air velocity distribution. Therefore, in terms of the indoor environmental condition, the fans were recommended to be installed separately on each floor.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060891
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 892: Improving Wheat Yield Prediction Accuracy
           Using LSTM-RF Framework Based on UAV Thermal Infrared and Multispectral
           Imagery

    • Authors: Yulin Shen, Benoît Mercatoris, Zhen Cao, Paul Kwan, Leifeng Guo, Hongxun Yao, Qian Cheng
      First page: 892
      Abstract: Yield prediction is of great significance in agricultural production. Remote sensing technology based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offers the capacity of non-intrusive crop yield prediction with low cost and high throughput. In this study, a winter wheat field experiment with three levels of irrigation (T1 = 240 mm, T2 = 190 mm, T3 = 145 mm) was conducted in Henan province. Multispectral vegetation indices (VIs) and canopy water stress indices (CWSI) were obtained using an UAV equipped with multispectral and thermal infrared cameras. A framework combining a long short-term memory neural network and random forest (LSTM-RF) was proposed for predicting wheat yield using VIs and CWSI from multi-growth stages as predictors. Validation results showed that the R2 of 0.61 and the RMSE value of 878.98 kg/ha was achieved in predicting grain yield using LSTM. LSTM-RF model obtained better prediction results compared to the LSTM with n R2 of 0.78 and RMSE of 684.1 kg/ha, which is equivalent to a 22% reduction in RMSE. The results showed that LSTM-RF considered both the time-series characteristics of the winter wheat growth process and the non-linear characteristics between remote sensing data and crop yield data, providing an alternative for accurate yield prediction in modern agricultural management.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060892
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 893: Research on Comprehensive Operation and
           Maintenance Based on the Fault Diagnosis System of Combine Harvester

    • Authors: Weipeng Zhang, Bo Zhao, Liming Zhou, Jizhong Wang, Kang Niu, Fengzhu Wang, Ruixue Wang
      First page: 893
      Abstract: In view of the difficulty in diagnosing and discriminating fault conditions during the operation of combine harvesters, difficulty in real-time processing of health status, and low timeliness of fault processing, a comprehensive operation and maintenance platform for combine harvesters was developed in this study which realized the functions of data monitoring and the full operation and maintenance of a combine harvester. At the same time, through the comprehensive operation and maintenance platform, the harvester information was obtained in real-time, the diagnosis results were obtained, and the maintenance service was effectively carried out through the platform. The IPSO-SVM fault diagnosis algorithm was proposed, and the performance of the fault diagnosis of the combine harvester was verified by the simulation test. The experimental verification showed that the system met the requirements of remote monitoring of combine harvesters, and the prediction accuracy of this method was 97.96%. Compared with SVM (87.51%), GA-SVM (89.44%), and PSO-SVM (92.56%), this system had better generalization ability and effectively improved the management level of the comprehensive operation and maintenance of the combine harvester. A theoretical basis and technical reference will be provided for the follow-up research for the comprehensive operation and maintenance platform of the combine harvester in this paper.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060893
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Agriculture, Vol. 12, Pages 894: Finite Element Model Construction and
           Cutting Parameter Calibration of Wild Chrysanthemum Stem

    • Authors: Tao Wang, Zhengdao Liu, Xiaoli Yan, Guopeng Mi, Suyuan Liu, Kezhou Chen, Shilin Zhang, Xun Wang, Shuo Zhang, Xiaopeng Wu
      First page: 894
      Abstract: Due to a lack of an accurate model in finite element simulation of mechanized harvesting of wild chrysanthemum, the stem of wild chrysanthemum in the harvesting period is taken as the research object. ANSYS Workbench 19.0 software and LS-DYNA software (LS-PrePOST-4.3-X64) are used to calibrate the finite element simulation model of wild chrysanthemum stem cutting. The stem diameter distribution at the cutting height of the chrysanthemum is obtained. The maximum shear forces at different diameters (7 mm, 8 mm, 9 mm, 10 mm, and 11 mm) within the cutting range are determined as 120.0 N, 159.2 N, 213.8 N, 300.0 N, and 378.2 N, respectively, by using a biomechanical testing machine and a custom-made shear blade. The Plastic_Kinematic failure model is used to simulate the cutting process by the finite element method. The Plackett–Burman test is employed to screen out the test factors that significantly affect the results, namely, the yield stress, failure strain, and strain rate parameter C. The regression model between the shear force and significant parameters is obtained by central composite design experiments. To obtain the model parameters, the measured values are substituted into the regression equation as the simulation target values. In other words, the yield stress is 17.96 MPa, the strain rate parameter C is 87.27, and the failure strain is 0.0387. The maximum shear force simulation test is carried out with the determined parameters. The results showed that the maximum error between the simulated and the actual value of the maximum shear force of wild chrysanthemum stems with different diameters is 7.8%. This indicates that the calibrated parameters of the relevant stem failure model can be used in the finite element method simulation and provide a basis for subsequent simulations.
      Citation: Agriculture
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agriculture12060894
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2022)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.192.65.228
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-