Subjects -> ENERGY (Total: 414 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENERGY (12 journals)
    - ENERGY (252 journals)
    - ENERGY: GENERAL (7 journals)
    - NUCLEAR ENERGY (40 journals)
    - PETROLEUM AND GAS (58 journals)
    - RENEWABLE ENERGY (45 journals)

ENERGY (252 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Energy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Asian Bulletin of Energy Economics and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Energy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carbon Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clefs CEA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CPSS Transactions on Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Development of Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Discover Energy     Open Access  
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Distributed Generation & Alternative Energy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Electricity Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energetic Materials Frontiers     Open Access  
ENERGETIKA. Proceedings of CIS higher education institutions and power engineering associations     Open Access  
Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 40)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Energy and AI     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Energy and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Emission Control Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Environment Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Energy Conversion and Economics     Open Access  
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Energy Conversion and Management : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy Geoscience     Open Access  
Energy Informatics     Open Access  
Energy Journal The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Energy Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 73)
Energy Prices and Taxes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Energy Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Research & Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Energy Strategy Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Energy Studies Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Energy Technology & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Transitions     Open Access  
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Forces in Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Foundations and Trends® in Renewable Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Fuel Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gcb Bioenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geothermal Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Energy Interconnection     Open Access  
Global Energy Law and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
High Voltage     Open Access  
IEEE Open Access Journal of Power and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Power and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Ambient Energy     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy & Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy and Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Green Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Knowledge Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Smart Grid and Green Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Joule     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Energy in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Energy Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Nano Energy and Power Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean and Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Power Sources Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Solar Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
KnE Energy     Open Access  
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Materials Reports : Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materials Today Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multequina     Open Access  
Natural Resources     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.565
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9499
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science information for authors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The Affiliate Plan, established by the IEEE Board of Directors, enables individuals who are not members of the IEEE, but who have an interest in the field of plasma science, to join the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. Admission as an affiliate requires only membership in a professional society listed here. Affiliates pay a special fee, and have all Society privileges except that of holding elective office. Affiliates receive the IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Comments by the Senior Editor

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gian-Franco Dalla Betta;Adriana Morana;Barbara Obryk;Maria Grazia Pia;Sara Pozzi;Lei Raymond Cao;Sacit Cetiner;Peter Jansson;Massimo Manghisoni;Richard Kouzes;Abdallah Lyoussi;
      Pages: 647 - 647
      Abstract: The 7th edition of the International Conference on “Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation Measurement Methods and their Applications” (ANIMMA) was held in Prague, Czech Republic, on June 21–25, 2021, in hybrid mode. The ANIMMA-2021 welcomed 320 attendees from 29 nationalities including 65 graduated students coming from academy, research institutes, and industry to discuss new scientific and technical prospects in all fields where nuclear instrumentation and measurements techniques play a major role. 30% of the attendees participated physically and 70% attended remotely.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio of CABRI Hodoscope: Monte Carlo Calculation Versus
           Experiments

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: J. Di Salvo;S. Mirotta;V. Chevalier;
      Pages: 648 - 655
      Abstract: The CABRI experimental pulse reactor is devoted to the study of reactivity-initiated accidents (RIAs), for the purpose of the CABRI International Program (CIP), managed by the French Safety and Radiation Protection Institute (IRSN). CABRI’s hodoscope equipment detects the fast neutrons emitted during a power pulse by a tested rod, positioned inside a dedicated test loop reproducing either sodium reactor or pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions. One of the most important parameters measured by the hodoscope detectors is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), characterizing the fraction of neutrons directly coming from the test rod (“signal”) over neutrons coming from the core (“noise”). In this article, the method used to calculate the SNR using a 2-D model of CABRI, with the MCNP6.2 Monte Carlo code, will be detailed. Comparisons between the calculated and measured SNRs for different configurations are in quite good agreement. Another parameter of interest is the so-called “scattering coefficient,” which corresponds to the fraction of neutrons coming from the test rod and being scattered between their birth and their detection. This parameter is used to enhance the analysis of the fuel displacement that may happen during the power transient. To estimate this coefficient, an innovative method using a combination of different options available in MCNP6.2 has been used. Computed coefficients show a slight discrepancy with the measurements. Finally, the sensitivity of the SNR and scattering coefficient to technological parameters and nuclear data libraries is discussed.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Postirradiation Transmission Characteristics of CYTOP Fiber Exposed by
           Gamma Radiation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ivan Chapalo;Andrei Gusarov;Damien Kinet;Karima Chah;Ying-Gang Nan;Patrice Mégret;
      Pages: 656 - 662
      Abstract: We investigated offline the evolution of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in polymer perfluorinated cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP) optical fiber irradiated with different gamma radiation doses of 1–50 kGy. We considered the wavelength range varying from 800 up to 1750 nm. The RIA spectra measured at different times after irradiation have qualitatively similar shapes. However, quantitatively the RIA evolution significantly depends on the spectral range: in the short-wavelength part, the transmission partly recovers, while in the infrared, at wavelengths above 1300 nm the RIA grows and then saturates becoming permanent. The effects of temperature and photobleaching on RIA dynamics are examined. The ability of the fiber transmission recovery is investigated in the 600–1750-nm range with the use of climatic chamber.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Calibration of Large Photonis Fission Chambers in Standard Neutron Fields
           of the BR1 Reactor

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      Authors: A. Kochetkov;A. Krása;L. Borms;E. Malambu;G. Vittiglio;J. Wagemans;J. Willems;
      Pages: 663 - 667
      Abstract: Small fission chambers manufactured by Photonis, Reuter-Stokes, CEA, and Centronic are routinely calibrated in standard neutron fields of the BR1 reactor at SCK CEN in Mol, Belgium. Two irradiation fields are available: fast spectrum in the MARK3 convertor and thermal spectrum in the Empty Cavity. In this work, for the first time the calibration procedure of larger fission chambers (Photonis CFUL01 and CFUM21 type) with the deposit length exceeding the length of the convertor is presented. Spatial energy correction factors taking into account the neutron flux shape beyond the convertor and radial gradient of the neutron flux were calculated with MCNP and experimentally validated. The combination of calibration (i.e., effective mass measurement) in fast and thermal irradiation fields allows for determination of the purity of 238U deposit. This is demonstrated on three CFUL01-type fission chambers with purity between 99.8% and 99.998%.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Novel Detector Assembly for Neutron/Gamma-Ray Discrimination Applications
           Based on Large-Sized Scintillators Coupled to Large Area SiPM Arrays

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      Authors: Felix Pino;Jessica Delgado;Giorgia Mantovani;Lucio Pancheri;Michele Bello;Daniela Fabris;Cristiano L. Fontana;Matteo Polo;Vladimir Ruíz;Davide Brunelli;Alberto Quaranta;Sandra Moretto;
      Pages: 668 - 676
      Abstract: In this work, we propose a prototype of a compact detector assembly capable of discriminating between neutrons and gamma rays, by performing pulse shape analysis. The device takes advantage of recent improvements in silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology and the excellent neutron/gamma-ray discrimination capabilities of new plastics and standard liquid scintillators. Our work is focused on the read-out of small-, medium-, and large-sized organic scintillators with large-area SiPM arrays ( $4 times 4$ NUV and RGB-SiPM arrays, 17 mm $times$ 17 mm). In particular, we used EJ-276 (and its old version EJ-299) and EJ-276G plastic scintillators of several sizes (ranging from 20- to 50-mm diameter) and two large liquid scintillator cells (EJ-301 and EJ-309, 50 mm diameter $times 50$ mm thickness). Moreover, we show the comparison of neutron/gamma-ray discrimination performance between SiPM and standard photomultiplier read-out configurations. The presented innovative device could be used in different fields, first in fundamental nuclear physics experiments, as an ancillary neutron detector for the active target at the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories in Italy. Additionally, it could be used in radiation monitoring applications, as a fast neutron/gamma-ray counter to be embedded in unmanned vehicles for radiation monitoring.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A High Granularity Timing Detector for the ATLAS Detector Phase-II Upgrade

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      Authors: H. Imam;
      Pages: 677 - 686
      Abstract: To boost the performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and increase the potential of discoveries after 2027, the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project has been announced, with the aim of increasing the luminosity by a factor of 10 above the design value of the LHC. This will lead to an increase of the pile-up interactions and will negatively impact the reconstruction of objects in the ATLAS detector, as well as its triggering performance. In particular, at the forward region, where the inner detector has a lower momentum resolution and the electromagnetic calorimeter has a coarser granularity. Therefore, a high granularity timing detector (HGTD) has been proposed to mitigate the pile-up effect; complementing the inner tracker (ITk) and providing a luminosity measurement, it will be located in front of the LAr end-cap calorimeter. The HGTD will cover the pseudo-rapidity region between 2.4 and 4.0, with two layers of double-sided silicon sensors that will provide a time resolution of 30 ps per track. Each readout cell has a cross Section of 1.3 mm $times1.3$ mm, ensuring a high granular detector with 3.7 million channels. To achieve the required high signal-to-noise ratio and provide sufficient gain, Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) technology was chosen. The general specifications and requirements of LGAD will be outlined, as well as the technical design and status of the project. The ongoing research and development effort to study the sensors, readout ASIC, and other components, supported by laboratory and test beam results, will also be presented, in addition to some physics and performance results.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The Data Acquisition System for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II
           Upgrade Demonstrator

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: F. Carrió;
      Pages: 687 - 695
      Abstract: The tile calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). In 2025, the LHC will be upgraded leading to the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The HL-LHC will deliver an instantaneous luminosity up to seven times larger than the LHC nominal luminosity. The ATLAS Phase-II upgrade (2025–2027) will accommodate the subdetectors to the HL-LHC requirements. As part of this upgrade, the majority of the TileCal on-detector and off-detector electronics will be replaced using a new readout strategy, where the on-detector electronics will digitize and transmit digitized detector data to the off-detector electronics at the bunch crossing frequency (40 MHz). In the counting rooms, the off-detector electronics will compute reconstructed trigger objects for the first-level trigger and will store the digitized samples in pipelined buffers until the reception of a trigger acceptance signal. The off-detector electronics will also distribute the LHC clock to the on-detector electronics embedded within the digital data stream. The TileCal Phase-II upgrade project has undertaken an extensive research and development program that includes the development of a Demonstrator module to evaluate the performance of the new clock and readout architecture envisaged for the HL-LHC. The Demonstrator module equipped with the latest version of the on-detector electronics was built and inserted into the ATLAS experiment. The Demonstrator module is operated and read out using a Tile PreProcessor (TilePPr) Demonstrator which enables backward compatibility with the present ATLAS Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TDAQ), and the timing, trigger, and command (TTC) systems. This article describes in detail the main hardware and firmware components of the clock distribution and data acquisition systems for the Demonstrator module, focusing on the TilePPr Demonstrator.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Proton Radiographs Using Position-Sensitive Silicon Detectors and
           High-Resolution Scintillators

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      Authors: J. A. Briz;A. N. Nerio;C. Ballesteros;M. J. G. Borge;P. Martínez;A. Perea;V. G. Távora;O. Tengblad;M. Ciemala;A. Maj;P. Olko;W. Parol;A. Pedracka;B. Sowicki;M. Zieblinski;E. Nácher;
      Pages: 696 - 702
      Abstract: Proton therapy is a cancer treatment technique currently in growth since it offers advantages with respect to conventional X-ray and $gamma $ -ray radiotherapy. In particular, better control of the dose deposition allowing to reach higher conformity in the treatments causing less secondary effects. However, in order to take full advantage of its potential, improvements in treatment planning and dose verification are required. A new prototype of proton computed tomography scanner is proposed to design more accurate and precise treatment plans for proton therapy. Our prototype is formed by double-sided silicon strip detectors and scintillators of LaBr3(Ce) with high energy resolution and fast response. Here, the results obtained from an experiment performed using a 100-MeV proton beam are presented. Proton radiographs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) samples of 50-mm thickness with spatial patterns in aluminum were taken. Their properties were studied, including reproduction of the dimensions, spatial resolution, and sensitivity to different materials. Structures of up to 2 mm are well resolved and the sensitivity of the system was enough to distinguish the thicknesses of 10 mm of aluminum or PMMA. The spatial resolution of the images was 0.3 line pairs per mm (MTF-10%). This constitutes the first step to validate the device as a proton radiography scanner.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A Computational Methodology for Estimating the Detected Energy Spectra of
           the Gamma-Ray Flux From Irradiated Nuclear Fuel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: L. Senis;Z. Elter;V. Rathore;E. Andersson Sundén;P. Jansson;S. Holcombe;M. Åberg Lindell;A. Håkansson;P. Andersson;
      Pages: 703 - 713
      Abstract: Gamma-ray spectrometry using collimated detectors is a well-established examination method for irradiated nuclear fuel. However, the feasibility of examining a particular nuclide of interest is subject to constraints; the peak must be statistically determinable with the desired precision, and the total spectrum count rate in the detector should not cause throughput issues. Methods were assembled for gamma spectrum prediction to optimize instruments for gamma emission tomography and to enable a priori feasibility evaluation of determination of single peaks of irradiated nuclear fuel. The aim was to find reliable results (~10% accuracy) regarding total spectrum and peak count rates with faster computation time than a full-Monte Carlo approach. For this purpose, the method is based on depletion calculations with SERPENT2, a point-source kernel method for the collimator response, and a rig response matrix and a detector response matrix, both computed with MCNP6. The computational methodology uses the fuel properties (dimensions, materials, power history, and cooling time) and the instrumental setup (collimator and detector dimensions and materials) as an input. The prediction method was validated using the measured data from a high-burnup, short-cooled test fuel rodlet from the Halden reactor. Absolute count rates and ratios of characteristic peaks were compared between predicted and measured spectra, showing a total count rate overestimation of 7% and discrepancies between 2% and 20% for the single peaks (the same order of magnitude of the uncertainty). This level of agreement is deemed sufficient for measurement campaigns planning and the optimization of spectroscopic instruments for use in gamma scanning and tomography of nuclear fuel.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Calculation of Spatial Response of a Collimated Segmented HPGe Detector
           for Gamma Emission Tomography by MCNP Simulations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vikram Rathore;Lorenzo Senis;Peter Jansson;Erik Andersson Sundén;Ane Håkansson;Peter Andersson;
      Pages: 714 - 721
      Abstract: We have proposed a planar electronically segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector concept in combination with a multislit collimator for gamma emission tomography. In this work, the spatial resolution achievable using the collimated segmented HPGe detector was evaluated, prior to the manufacture and operation of the detector. The spatial response of a collimated segmented HPGe detector concept was evaluated using simulations performed with Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code MCNP6. The full detector and multislit collimator system were modeled, and for the quantification of the spatial response, the modulation transfer function (MTF) was chosen as a performance metric. The MTF curve was obtained through the calculation of the line spread function (LSF) by analyzing the simulated projection data. In addition, tomographic reconstructions of the simulated simplified test objects were made to demonstrate the performance of the segmented HPGe detector in planned application. For 662-keV photons, the spatial resolution obtained was approximately the same as the collimator slit width for both the 100- and 150-mm-long collimators. The corresponding spatial resolution at 1596-keV photon energy was almost twice the slit width for the 100-mm collimator, due to the partial penetration of the high-energy gamma rays through the collimator bulk. For a 150-mm-long collimator, an improved resolution was obtained.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Toward Confocal Chromatic Sensing in Nuclear Reactors: In Situ Optical
           Refractive Index Measurements of Bulk Glass

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      Authors: Marion Agoyan;Gary Fourneau;Guy Cheymol;Ayoub Ladaci;Hicham Maskrot;Christophe Destouches;Damien Fourmentel;Sylvain Girard;Aziz Boukenter;
      Pages: 722 - 730
      Abstract: To measure fuel rod swelling in a nuclear research reactor, our research has focused on the development of an optical confocal chromatic sensor, allowing contactless measurements of radial changes in fuel rods. This sensor must be able to operate in the harsh and hot environment of a reactor, especially under high neutron fluences up to $10^{19}~{n}_{mathrm{ fast}}/text {cm}^{2}$ and gamma doses of a few GGy. When exposed to such radiation levels, the properties of bulk optical glasses are known to be affected by two main phenomena: radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) and radiation-induced refractive index change (RIRIC). With the objective of testing glasses as candidates for a future confocal chromatic sensor, we created a dedicated setup for the online monitoring of the glasses’ RIRIC in the core reactor with a measurement principle relying on interferometry. Since not only the refractive index (RI) but also the length of the samples changes under neutron radiation through compaction, we measured the variation of the optical path (OP) ( $nL$ ). To assess the performance of our setup, preliminary in-lab tests were performed to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the small RI changes caused by external temperature changes. Due to this study, we were able to obtain data that were not yet available in the literature regarding the temperature-induced RI variation of several bulk glasses, including radiation-hardened glasses, up to 350 °C. This information is crucial for the targeted application, as the confocal chromatic sensor will have to operate at such elevated temperatures.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • On the Use of Pixelated Plastic Scintillator and Silicon Photomultipliers
           Array for Coded Aperture Gamma-Neutron Imaging

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      Authors: C. Lynde;C. Frangville;R. Woo;V. Schoepff;G. H. V. Bertrand;J. -M. Bourbotte;M. Hamel;J. Dumazert;F. Carrel;
      Pages: 731 - 737
      Abstract: We report the investigations made on the use of pixelated plastic scintillator (PS) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) array applied to coded aperture gamma-neutron imaging. Specifically, verification of the ability of a multiplexing readout to discriminate and localize neutron interactions was studied. In its intended configuration, the gamma-neutron imager design consists of a coded aperture aligned with a matrix of $12times12$ PS each coupled to a SiPM. The coded aperture is a rank 7 modified uniformly redundant array (MURA), composed of 1.2 cm of tungsten, with a surface area of 100.4 mm $times100.4$ mm and placed at 5 cm from the detector. The pixelated PS is composed of polystyrene and standard fluorophores (20 wt% PPO, 0.03 wt% POPOP) loaded with a lithium carboxylate (Li $alpha $ -valerate), which allows the triple discrimination between thermal neutrons, fast neutrons, and photons. Each pixel of PS has a dimension of 3.6 mm $times3.6$ mm $times3.6$ mm and they are separated from each other by 0.6 mm of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The photonic and electronic readout consists of the ArrayC-30035-144P SiPM from SensL, Cork, Ireland, connected to the diode coupled charge division readout from AiT. First, this neutron imager design was modeled and simulated using the MCNP6 Monte Carlo code. The encoding capability, field of view, and spatial resolution of the neutron imager were therefore evaluated by simulation. Then, we detailed the experimental setups implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of coupling pixelated PS to SiPM to localize radioactive sou-ces and showed the results obtained. Finally, based on this position-sensitive gamma-neutron detector, a gamma-neutron imager was prototyped and tested.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • C/O Logging by Using the Associated Alpha Particle Method: Proof of
           Principle

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      Authors: D. Sudac;V. Valkovic;Josip Batur;I. Meric;H. Pettersen;K. Nad;J. Obhodas;
      Pages: 738 - 744
      Abstract: The possibility of using a fast neutron beam with the associated alpha particle (AAP) technique in conjunction with a specially designed probe for carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) nuclear well logging was investigated. Measurements were performed to show the influence of borehole fluid, iron casing, and the cement around the casing in the C/O analysis. Tests were conducted by using fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA), as the conventional approach for C/O measurements in well logging and by using AAP. Analyzed samples were made from quartz sand and graphite powder mixed in different C/O ratios characteristic for the oil-containing formations. Diesel fuel was used as a simulant of the borehole fluid. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were conducted and the results were compared with the experimental data. In both tests, the linear relation between the measured and real C/O ratios was obtained, but when the FNAA was used, the linear relation was significantly influenced mainly by the presence of the borehole fluid. Contrary to FNAA, the AAP technique resulted in a significant reduction of the background signal coming from the borehole fluid.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The Mini Labyrinth Benchmark for Radiation Protection and Shielding
           Analysis

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      Authors: Branislav Vrban;Štefan Čerba;Jakub Lüley;Vladimír Nečas;Vendula Filová;Karel Katovský;Ondrej Štastný;Marko Gloginjić;Marko Erich;Željko Mravik;Srdjan Petrović;
      Pages: 745 - 752
      Abstract: The Mini Labyrinth experiment is a neutron and gamma shielding experiment currently being developed at the Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava (STU). The STU Mini Labyrinth consists of NEUTRONSTOP shielding blocks, water tank, PuBe neutron source, and graphite prism. This article describes the second construction version of the Mini Labyrinth experiment and presents the newest results of the neutron and gamma fields’ simulation and measurement. The PuBe neutron source with the emission rate of 1.06E7 $text{n}cdot text{s}^{-1}$ was used in the experiment. The measurement of gamma ambient dose equivalent H*(10) and neutron count rates is performed by the Thermo Scientific RadEye portable survey meter and the SNM-11 BF3-filled corona detector. The simulation part was carried out using the state-of-the-art MCNP6 and SCALE6 MONACO stochastic calculation tools, considering the detailed geometry of the Mini Labyrinth and a combined neutron and gamma source of particles. The comparisons were performed between codes and the experiment. The propagation of cross-sectional uncertainties was investigated through the shielding analysis. Almost perfect agreements between simulation codes were achieved. The comparison with measurement suggests the further needs of room effect assessment.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Applicability of Large-Area Single-Photon Counting Detectors Timepix for
           High-Resolution and High-Contrast X-Ray Imaging of Biological Samples

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      Authors: Jan Dudak;Jan Zemlicka;Jana Mrzilkova;Petr Zach;Katarina Holcova;
      Pages: 753 - 760
      Abstract: High-resolution X-ray imaging techniques, usually known as microradiography and micro-computed tomography (CT), have become highly required and frequently used tools for biology, biomedical and preclinical research. State-of-the-art micro-CT scanners are capable of achieving a spatial resolution of few micrometers or even less, thanks to the constant development of compact microfocus X-ray sources together with simultaneous progress in detector technologies. The current standard in X-ray detection is a digital imaging device containing read-out circuitry coupled with a scintillation sensor. Such detectors are available in a variety of different sizes, and are easy to use and relatively affordable. Nevertheless, the mentioned technology suffers from inherent limitations like, for example, undesirable generation of dark current, that compromise the quality of the provided data. This work demonstrates the applicability of Timepix large-area hybrid-pixel photon-counting detectors (PCDs) for high-resolution X-ray imaging in biology research. Photon-counting detection technology provides dark-current-free quantum-counting operation. Therefore, an enhanced contrast-to-noise ratio of the acquired data is achieved. Furthermore, the biased semiconductor sensor achieves almost ideal point-spread function (PSF) resulting in images with high spatial-resolution. Both above-mentioned features make PCDs to be excellent tools for high-resolution X-ray imaging especially for samples with low intrinsic absorption contrast. We evaluated the imaging performance of large-area Timepix detectors compared to a state-of-the-art flat-panel detector dedicated for high-resolution X-ray imaging. The presented data demonstrate the versatility of the used detectors as it covers a wide range of samples from laboratory animals to single-cell marine organisms.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Low-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry of Uranium Ores to Determine U
           Concentration and U/Rn Imbalance

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      Authors: Thomas Marchais;Bertrand Pérot;Cédric Carasco;Pierre-Guy Allinei;Hervé Toubon;Romain Goupillou;Youcef Bensedik;
      Pages: 761 - 767
      Abstract: The measurement of uranium ore samples by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy requires long measurement time and expensive high-purity germanium detectors. In this work, we present the possibility to measure uranium concentration by low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with an easy-to-operate and cost-effective NaI(Tl) detector. This method is based on the analysis of two energy bands of the NaI gamma spectrum, which allows estimating a possible “U/Rn” imbalance between the top (238U and its daughters up to 230Th) and the bottom (226Ra, 222Rn and their daughters) of the 238U decay chain in roll-front deposits. Indeed, in case of secular equilibrium, more than 95% of gamma rays emitted by uranium ores come from 214Pb and 214Bi isotopes, which are in the backend of the 238U chain. Consequently, a disequilibrium in the chain might produce an overestimation of uranium concentration if U/Rn < 1, or an underestimation if U/Rn > 1. Therefore, the estimation of the disequilibrium between the beginning and the end of the chain represents a crucial issue in uranium mining and exploitation. Finally, the uranium concentration is derived from the U/Rn activity ratio and from the “Rn” activity of the backend chain that is measured by conventional gamma-ray spectroscopy with the 609-keV peak of 214Bi. The total uncertainty is less than 30% within a few minutes of acquisition, and we observe a very good agreement with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses performed on real samples.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The Long-Term Stability of Liquid Organic Scintillators Used for
           Gamma–Neutron Separation

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      Authors: Jiří Janda;Jaroslav Jánský;Věra Mazánková;František Cvachove;
      Pages: 768 - 776
      Abstract: Since the beginning of using liquid scintillators for gamma–neutron separation, there have been many articles dealing with long-term degradation, especially due to oxygen dissolved in the cocktail or presented during scintillator encapsulation. Oxygen is a well-known quenching agent causing a significant reduction of light yield. The effect of aging of liquid organic scintillators, namely EJ301, EJ309 (both Eljen Technology), and new custom-made cocktails based on 1-Phenyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-pyrazoline and 2,5-Bis (5-tert-butyl-benzoxazol-2-yl)thiophene luminophores, were investigated for more than half a year. The research was focused on the Compton edge shifting of gamma particles since the position is proportional to the light yield of the selected scintillator. It was proven that all investigated cocktails suffered from different deterioration of the light yield in the investigated period, especially those containing a low concentration of luminophore. On the other hand, the gamma–neutron separation was improving up to the 100th day of measurement. Furthermore, the gamma–neutron separation was observed and quantified using figure of merit (FoM) for samples prepared and filled under normal and nitrogen atmosphere during the mentioned period. All stated parameters of liquid scintillator NE213 manufactured by Nuclear Enterprises Ltd. opened more than three decades ago were measured and used for comparison. It was observed that even after 30 years, this cocktail was still able to discriminate gammas from neutrons.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Development of a Gamma Radiotracer Method for the Analysis of Clogging in
           Steam Generators With COLENTEC Loop

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      Authors: Laurent Loubet;Marion Ledieu;Véronique Pointeau;
      Pages: 777 - 785
      Abstract: The tube support plate (TSP) clogging is a complex phenomenon that can occur in the steam generator (SG) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and induce several consequences, such as thermohydraulic flow changes, vibrational or oscillatory risks, mechanical resistance of SG tubes, and internal structures or impact on water inventory. The deposit at the origin of this issue is mainly composed of iron oxides (Fe3O4). In addition to observations and feedback on real reactors since 2014, an experimental installation dedicated to preventive studies, COLmatage ENTretoise Etudes Cinétiques (COLENTEC) loop, has already provided a large number of data on the physicochemical properties of the deposit formed on a TSP in specific thermohydraulic and chemical conditions. This loop has been recently improved to allow the injection of a gamma radiotracer 59Fe inside the circuit and follow the presence of 59Fe, especially on the TSP. For that purpose, three dedicated gamma-measuring stations are used to follow online the presence of 59Fe and the kinetic of deposition during the test in order to determine the impact of parameters (such as pH, temperature, and fluids velocity) without opening or dismounting the test section. This article presents the qualitative results acquired online from these three gamma detectors during the first active test. It becomes possible to detect and monitor the active iron remaining in solution in the pipes, the activity along the straight tubes, and the global accumulation of active iron. In complement of the first kinetics observations, it then details the iterative modeling method implemented, allowing the analysis and discrimination of the observed effects. The iterative method starts with the modelization of the simplest low-background gamma-measuring station to quantify the initial injection of 59Fe in the experimental loop. Then, the modelization of the second -tation aiming at a section of the loop provides a first estimation of the residual 59Fe deposit along the straight tubes. Finally, a detailed model of the main TSP measuring station allows determining the clogging amount. The optimization of the model and sensitivity studies of the main parameters are reported. The iterative method makes it possible to quantify and discriminate the main clogging effect from secondary phenomena taking place in the specifically selected thermohydraulic and chemical conditions. Therefore, it improves the understanding of clogging phenomena and will lead to better management of SG maintenance in PWR with next active tests to come.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • MERARG Experimental Loop: A Forward Fitting Method for Fission Gas Release
           Analysis

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      Authors: J. Losfeld;L. Desgranges;S. Clement;Y. Pontillon;
      Pages: 786 - 791
      Abstract: Moyens d’Etude des Rejets de Gaz de fission par Recuit (MERARG) experimental facility in LECA-STAR Laboratory at the CEA Cadarache center allows characterizing nuclear fuels with respect to the behavior of fission gases during thermal transients. In MERARG, fission gas release (F.G.R.) measurement is carried out remotely from the sample where the release occurs, in a dedicated counting chamber located outside the hot cell itself. It is therefore necessary to deconvolve the acquired experimental data in order to infer the release kinetics at the sample position. An analytical deconvolution method allows us to determine, from the experimental data, the kinetics of the F.G.R. at the sample level located in the MERARG furnace with, in some few cases, a margin of error. It is established that the F.G.R. takes the form of successive bursts depending, in part, upon temperature and characteristics of the fuel sample. For the better understanding of the mechanisms at the origin of the characteristic kinetics of F.G.R., this article aims to expose a new mathematical method for reprocessing the experimental data obtained using a forward-fitting approach, allowing us to overcome the difficulties encountered with the analytical method. This forward-fitting approach poses the question of the nature of the mechanisms underlying F.G.R. as an inverse problem. By making assumptions about these mechanisms, the forward-fitting method allows the F.G.R. interpretation by comparing them to analytically deconvoluted F.G.R. signals. This method provides a different way to analyze the annealing test data, making it possible to describe physical phenomena directly related to the gas release from the samples, such as the sudden release occurring at different temperatures.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Silicon Carbide Neutron Detectors for Harsh Nuclear Environments: A Review
           of the State of the Art

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      Authors: Frank H. Ruddy;Laurent Ottaviani;Abdallah Lyoussi;Christophe Destouches;Olivier Palais;Christelle Reynard-Carette;
      Pages: 792 - 803
      Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor is an ideal material for solid-state nuclear radiation detectors to be used in high-temperature, high-radiation environments. Such harsh environments are typically encountered in nuclear reactor measurement locations as well as high-level radioactive waste and/or “hot” dismantling–decommissioning operations. In the present fleet of commercial nuclear reactors, temperatures in excess of 300 °C are often encountered, and temperatures up to 800 °C are anticipated in advanced reactor designs. The wide bandgap for SiC (3.27 eV) compared to more widely used semiconductors such as silicon (1.12 eV at room temperature) has allowed low-noise measurements to be carried out at temperatures up to 700 °C. The concentration of thermally induced charge carriers in SiC at 700 °C is about four orders of magnitude less than that of silicon at room temperature. Furthermore, SiC radiation detectors have been demonstrated to be much more resistant to the effects of radiation-induced damage than more conventional semiconductors, such as silicon, germanium, or cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), and have been demonstrated to be operational after extremely high gamma-ray, neutron, and charged-particle doses. The purpose of the present review is to provide an updated state of the art for SiC neutron detectors and to explore their applications in harsh high-temperature, high-radiation nuclear reactor applications. Conclusions related to the current state-of-the-art of SiC neutron detectors will be presented, and specific ideal applications will be discussed.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Boron-Coated Straws Imaging Panel Capability for Neutron Emission Computed
           Tomography for Source Localization Inside Radioactive Drums

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      Authors: Mehdi Ben Mosbah;Cyrille Eleon;David Tisseur;Alexis Doghmane;Houda Bakhabba;
      Pages: 804 - 810
      Abstract: The evaluation of fissile mass inside radioactive waste drums by neutron measurements is essential for radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, and criticality issues. However, passive and active neutron measurements can be strongly impacted by the uncertainty on the neutron source position within the drum and by the matrix effects. Therefore, an imaging panel proposed by Proportional Technologies Inc., and composed of seven boron-coated straw (BCS) detectors has been tested to localize neutron interactions, in view to reduce uncertainties associated with plutonium or uranium position inside radioactive waste drums. In a previous work, a numerical model of the imaging panel has been developed and validated from a comparison with experimental profiles obtained with a 252Cf source. In the first section, the feasibility of neutron emission tomography by a setup composed of five extended imaging BCS panels is demonstrated by numerical Monte Carlo simulation. The second section details the experimental validation of the neutron emission tomography. Measurements are carried out with AmBe and 252Cf sources located inside an empty 118 L drum by rotating the BCS imaging panel around it. Afterward, the Richardson–Lucy deconvolution algorithm is applied to provide 2-D neutron source images for each angle. Finally, the 3-D images are reconstructed using the reconstruction toolkit (RTK) backprojection projection routine. The results demonstrate the capability of the BCS imaging to provide the 3-D location, i.e., axial and radial positions of one and two neutron sources. Furthermore, the first tests with this passive neutron measurement system show a satisfactory 3-D reconstruction for 252Cf and AmBe sources separated by 20 cm. Consequently, BCS imaging panels open interesting prospects to reduce the uncertainty associated with plutonium or uranium localization in neutron measurements. Work is undergoing to assess the capa-ility of this system for 118 L drums filled with organic and metallic matrices. Additionally, further prospects concern the performance of other deconvolution and reconstruction algorithms.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • AGILE Instrument: Advanced Energetic Ion Electron Telescope

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      Authors: C. Royon;W. d’Assignies;F. Gautier;A. Greeley;S. G. Kanekal;T. Isidori;N. Minafra;A. Novikov;E. Oberla;Q. Schiller;R. Young;
      Pages: 811 - 817
      Abstract: Identifying charged particles using crucial features of the reconstructed waveforms is a widely exploited strategy for signal analysis in the class of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques. This document details the design, development, and characterization of the hardware of a compact and low-power consumption telescope for data collection in space. The advanced energetic ion electron telescope (AGILE) experimental apparatus includes a stack of three 20-mm-diameter circular Si detector layers read-out by custom-made double-gain electronics that is optimized for the wide spectrum of expected energy depositions (1–100 MeV/nucleon). At the end of its front-end chain, the instrument uses a fast digitizing and sampler device based on commercial components, integrated in a control board developed by the collaboration. In this report, we motivate AGILE’s hardware design and report the results obtained during the instrument’s prototype laboratory test characterization.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Detection of Fission Coincidences With Plastic Scintillators for the
           Characterization of Radioactive Waste Drums

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      Authors: Vincent Bottau;Cédric Carasco;Bertrand Perot;Cyrille Eleon;Roberto De Stefano;Lise Isnel;Igor Tsekhanovich;
      Pages: 818 - 824
      Abstract: This work addresses the use of plastic scintillators as an alternative to 3He neutron detectors for radioactive waste drum characterization. The time response of scintillators is three orders of magnitude faster than that of gas proportional counters, and they offer similar neutron detection efficiency at lower cost. However, they are sensitive to gamma rays and the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is not possible with standard PVT scintillators. The proposed approach uses the neutron and gamma times of flight in triple coincidences recorded with 252Cf, AmBe, and 60Co sources. A 2-D histogram of time delays between the second and first detected pulses, on the $x$ -axis, and between the third and second pulses, on the $y$ -axis, evidences a specific region of interest for spontaneous fission coincidences. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations are performed, which are in good agreement with previous experiments and allow for investigating the types of coincidences ( $gamma gamma gamma $ , nnn, $gamma $ nn, $gamma gamma text{n}$ ) and optimizing the rejection of neutron and gamma scattering crosstalk. The method was also experimentally tested with a 118-L mock-up drum filled with a metallic or an organic matrix, showing a correct estimation of the net fission signal up to an “alpha ratio” of 12 between fission and ( $alpha $ ,n) neutron emissions. Matrix and localization effects were also measured, showing a sensitivity (useful signal per gram of 240Pu-q) for a homogeneous distribution of plutonium in the iron matrix about three times larger than in the wood matrix, due to neutron slowing-down in the latter. This difference can be taken into account by the prior knowledge of the matrix characteristics or by neutron and gamma attenuation measurements. In contrast, in case of a point source with an unknown position in the matrix, the relative localization uncertainty is 26% for the metallic drum, and 41% for the organic one.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of High Harmonic Frequencies in Reactor Noise Experiments
           Within the CORTEX Project

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      Authors: Klemen Ambrožič;Vincent Larmirand;Andreas Pautz;
      Pages: 825 - 831
      Abstract: We present a novel technique of neutron noise detection and experimental data interpretation developed during the EU H2020 project CORTEX aiming to improve the capabilities for identification and localization of neutron noise sources. The experimental data analysis is performed in the frequency domain by extracting the spectral power density and the phase angle using a novel spectral variance reduction technique based on per cycle-based bootstrapping with replacement. This technique allows for variance reduction of measured spectral power and phase angle not only at base frequency, but at higher harmonic frequency contributions as well. This allows for a more representative treatment of experimental data and validation of codes for neutron noise propagation, some of which have been developed within the project. The detector response is not necessarily linearly dependent on the oscillator movement, and the study of nonlinear terms provides additional information which can improve the accuracy of neutron noise source identification and localization. Moreover, these terms can be used in a Taylor series to identify a more complex dependence. The process is simplified in the sense that these contributions are linearized in the frequency domain as higher harmonic frequency contributions and can be easily identified and extracted due to spectral peaks prominence provided by the bootstrapping with replacement method. Combined with the spectral power and phase, we present a preliminary investigation of usability of higher-order terms for noise source identification and localization. In this article, we outline the CORTEX project, the experiments, and the measurement analysis methodology based on the bootstrapping with replacement along with the initial developments on the study of nonlinear terms in CROCUS reactor, using several different noise source configurations at a set frequency.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Design of 4π High-Efficiency Directional Radiation Detector Based on
           Compton Scattering

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      Authors: Max Ghelman;Natan Kopeika;Stanley Rotman;Tal Edvabsky;Eran Vax;Alon Osovizky;
      Pages: 832 - 839
      Abstract: Obtaining directional information is required in many applications such as nuclear homeland security, contamination mapping after a nuclear incident and radiological events, or during the decontamination work. However, many directional radiation detectors are based on directional shielding, made of lead or tungsten collimators, introducing two main drawbacks. The first is the size and weight, making those detectors too heavy and irrelevant for utilization in handheld devices, drone mapping, or space applications. The second drawback is the limited field of view (FOV), which requires multiple detectors to cover the whole required FOV or machinery to rotate the detector’s narrow FOV detector. We propose a novel $4pi $ directional detector based on a segmented hollow cubic detector, which uses the Compton effect interactions with no heavy collimators. The symmetrical cubical design provides both higher efficiency and $4pi $ detection ability. Instead of the traditional two types of detectors (scatterer and absorber) structure, we use the same type of detector, based on Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG) (Ce) scintillator coupled to silicon photomultiplier. An additional advantage of the proposed detector is obtained by locating the photon sensors inside the detector, behind the scintillators, which improves the radiation hardness required for space applications. Furthermore, such an arrangement flattens the temperature variation across the detector, providing better gain stability. The main advantage of the proposed detector is an efficient $4pi $ radiation detection for high-energy gamma rays without the use of heavy collimators.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Review of CALORRE Calorimeter Characterizations Under Laboratory and
           Irradiation Conditions

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      Authors: A. Volte;M. Carette;A. Lyoussi;G. Kohse;J. Rebaud;V. Valero;C. Reynard-Carette;
      Pages: 840 - 848
      Abstract: This article reviews the work to date on the CALOrimeter with Radial thermal transfers for nuclear REactors (CALORRE) differential calorimeter patented by Aix-Marseille University (AMU) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in 2015. The article presents the results obtained with the first prototype of the CALORRE calorimeter qualified under real conditions during an irradiation campaign in the MARIA reactor in 2015, including previously unpublished details. Then, studies of different CALORRE calorimetric cells characterized by experiments under laboratory conditions are described. Several configurations were studied to determine the influence of cell height, horizontal fin geometry, and structural material composition on calorimeter response. These calculations provide for a calibration protocol by generating a heat source inside each cell, with evaluation of linearity, sensitivity, range, reproducibility, response time, and absolute temperatures. Finally, within the framework of a new research program called Compact-CALORimeter Irradiations inside the MIT research reactor (CALOR-I) and financed by AMU Foundation (A*Midex), a design optimization of the calorimeter assembly was carried out in order to remove contact thermal resistances and provide a new very compact CALORRE calorimeter suited for the in-core water loop of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor (2 $text{W}cdot text{g}^{-1}$ peak nuclear heating rate). The response of this new very compact calorimeter is estimated using 3-D numerical thermal simulations under real conditions.
      PubDate: April 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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