Subjects -> ENERGY (Total: 414 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENERGY (12 journals)
    - ENERGY (252 journals)
    - ENERGY: GENERAL (7 journals)
    - NUCLEAR ENERGY (40 journals)
    - PETROLEUM AND GAS (58 journals)
    - RENEWABLE ENERGY (45 journals)

ENERGY (252 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted by number of followers
Energy Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 77)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Nature Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
IEEE Power and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 34)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 32)
Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Energy Journal The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy Research & Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Oil and Gas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Solar Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Joule     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ocean and Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy Strategy Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
ACS Energy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Green Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Energy and Environment Focus     Free   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ACS Applied Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Energy Prices and Taxes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Atomic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Studies Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Geothermal Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wind Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nano Energy and Power Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology for Energy Transition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Development of Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Energy Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Foundations and Trends® in Renewable Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Energy and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Global Energy Law and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Power Technology and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Functional Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Distributed Generation & Alternative Energy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Emission Control Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bulletin of Energy Economics and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Nuclear Knowledge Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Electricity Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gcb Bioenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Technology & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials Today Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Radioprotection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nuclear Law Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clefs CEA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology Audit and Production Reserves     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Smart Grid and Green Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Conversion and Management : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality     Hybrid Journal  
Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Energy     Open Access  
Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College     Open Access  
Global Energy Interconnection     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Systems     Open Access  
International Journal of Energy & Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Energy and Smart Grid     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Energy Policy     Open Access  
Energy Informatics     Open Access  
High Voltage     Open Access  
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
ENERGETIKA. Proceedings of CIS higher education institutions and power engineering associations     Open Access  
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
International Journal of Ambient Energy     Hybrid Journal  
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access  
Multequina     Open Access  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Wind Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nuclear Data Sheets     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 | Last

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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 479: Molybdenum-Based Electrode Materials Applied
           in High-Performance Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Yu Wang, Hai Wang, Gan Qu
      First page: 479
      Abstract: As a novel type of green energy storage device, supercapacitors exhibit several orders of magnitude higher capacities than the traditional dielectric capacitors and significantly higher power density than the traditional secondary batteries. Supercapacitors have been widely applied in energy storage fields. Electrode materials, as pivotal components of supercapacitors, play an important role in electrochemical performance. Molybdenum-based materials have attracted widespread attention for their high theoretical capacitance, abundant resources, and facile synthesis tactics. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically summarize the application of Mo-based electrode materials in high-performance supercapacitors and unveil their developmental direction and trends. In this paper, we provide a review of binary Mo-based materials, ternary Mo-based materials, nanocomposites of Mo-based materials, and Mo-based MOFs and derivative materials. In addition, we further point out the key issues on the development of Mo-based materials in supercapacitors. This review may inspire more insightful works and enlighten other electrochemical areas concerning Mo-based materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9090479
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 480: Optimization of Annealing Process of
           Li6PS5Cl for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries by Box–Behnken Design

    • Authors: Zhihua Zhang, Yan Chai, De Ning, Jun Wang, Dong Zhou, Yongli Li
      First page: 480
      Abstract: Li6PS5Cl possesses high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial stability to electrodes and is known as a promising solid-state electrolyte material for all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs). However, the optimal annealing process of Li6PS5Cl has not been studied systematically. Here, a Box–Behnken design is used to investigate the interactions of the heating rate, annealing temperature, and duration of annealing process for Li6PS5Cl to optimize the ionic conductivity. The response surface methodology with regression analysis is employed for simulating the data obtained, and the optimized parameters are verified in practice. As a consequence, Li6PS5Cl delivers a rather high conductivity of 4.45 mS/cm at 25 °C, and ASSB consisting of a LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode and lithium anode shows a high initial discharge capacity of 151.7 mAh/g as well as excellent cycling performances for more than 350 cycles, highlighting the importance of the design of experiments.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9090480
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 481: Multi-Layer TiO2−x-PEDOT-Decorated
           Industrial Fe2O3 Composites as Anode Materials for
           Cycle-Performance-Enhanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Yangzhou Ma, Qi Li, Haoduo Li, Zhenfei Cai, Shuai Wang, Li Zhang, Jian Li, Guangsheng Song, Youlong Xu, Tingfeng Yi
      First page: 481
      Abstract: An industrial submicron-sized Fe2O3 with no special shape was decorated by a multi-layer coating of oxygen-deficient TiO2−x and conducting polymer PEDOT (poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). A facile sol–gel method followed by an EDOT polymerization process was adopted to synthesize the hierarchical coating composite. The microstructure and phase composition were characterized using an X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, the existence state of PEDOT was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and a thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The characterization results indicated the dual phase was well-coated on the Fe2O3 and its thickness was nano scale. Electrochemical characterization indicated that the multi-layer coating was helpful for significantly enhancing the cycle stability of the Fe2O3, and its electrochemical performance was even better than that of the single-layer coating samples. The synergistic effects of the ceramic phase and conducting polymer were demonstrated to be useful for improving electrochemical properties. The obtained FTP-24 sample exhibited a specific discharge capacity of 588.9 mAh/g after 360 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g, which effectively improved the intrinsic cycling performance of the Fe2O3, with a corresponding discharge capacity of 50 mAh/g after 30 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9090481
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 562: Impedimetric Early Sensing of Volatile

    • Authors: Palwinder Kaur, Isaac K. Stier, Sudeshna Bagchi, Vilas G. Pol, Amol P. Bhondekar
      First page: 562
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries prove to be a promising technology for achieving present and future goals regarding energy resources. However, a few cases of lithium-ion battery fires and failures caused by thermal runaway have been reported in various news articles; therefore, it is important to enhance the safety of the batteries and their end users. The early detection of thermal runaway by detecting gases/volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released at the initial stages of thermal runaway can be used as a warning to end users. An interdigitated platinum electrode spin-coated with a sub-micron thick layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) showed sensitivity for two VOCs (ethyl-methyl carbonate and methyl formate) released from Li-ion batteries during thermal runaway, as well as their binary mixtures at elevated temperatures, which were measured using impedance spectroscopy over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 1 Hz. The sensor response was tested at three different high temperatures (40 °C, 55 °C, and 70 °C) for single analytes and binary mixtures of two VOCs at 5 ppm, 15 ppm, and 30 ppm concentrations. Equivalent electrical parameters were derived from impedance data. A machine learning approach was used to classify the sensor’s response. Classification algorithms classify the sensor’s response at elevated temperatures for different analytes with an accuracy greater than 70%. The success of the reported sensors will enhance battery safety via the early detection of thermal runaway.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120562
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 563: Online Fast Charging Model without Lithium
           Plating for Long-Dimensional Cells in Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Yu Wang, Shuoyuan Mao, Quanwei Chen, Fei Chen, Xue Zhang, Minggao Ouyang, Xuebing Han, Yuejiu Zheng
      First page: 563
      Abstract: The internal negative electrode potential in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is intricately linked to the lithium-ion intercalation and plating reactions occurring within the cell. With the expansion of cell sizes, the internal negative electrode potential distribution gradually becomes inconsistent. However, the existing negative electrode potential estimation models and fast charging strategies have not yet considered the impact of consistency, and the model estimation accuracy will be greatly influenced by different temperatures and charging rates. This study proposes an online lithium-free fast charging equivalent circuit model (OLFEM) for estimating the negative electrode potential terminal voltage and developing fast charging strategies of long-dimensional LIBs in real vehicles. This study employs distributed reference electrodes integrated into long-dimensional LIBs and compares the negative electrode potential measured in the vicinity of both the negative and positive tabs. Subsequently, based on the lowest negative electrode potential point, model parameters were obtained at different temperatures and charging rates. This model is further verified under different operating conditions. Finally, a fast-charging strategy without lithium plating is developed in real-time based on the negative electrode potential estimated by the model. The results demonstrate that long-dimensional cells exhibit a lower negative electrode potential on the positive tab side. Across various temperatures and charging rates, the calibrated model achieves a negative electrode potential estimated error within 25 mV, and the estimation error for terminal voltage is within 5 mV. The proposed fast-charging method prevents lithium plating and charges the cell up to 96.8% within an hour. After 100 cycles, the cell experiences a capacity degradation of less than 2%, and the disassembly results indicate that no lithium precipitation has occurred. The methods outlined in this study provide valuable insights for online fast charging of large-dimensional batteries without lithium plating.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120563
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 564: Primary-Frequency-Regulation Coordination
           Control of Wind Power Inertia and Energy Storage Based on Compound Fuzzy

    • Authors: Suliang Ma, Dixi Xin, Yuan Jiang, Jianlin Li, Yiwen Wu, Guanglin Sha
      First page: 564
      Abstract: The increasing proportion of wind power systems in the power system poses a challenge to frequency stability. This paper presents a novel fuzzy frequency controller. First, this paper models and analyzes the components of the wind storage system and the power grid and clarifies the role of each component in the frequency regulation process. Secondly, a combined fuzzy controller is designed in this paper, which realizes the cooperative control of frequency regulation considering wind power running state, battery energy management, and power grid stability. Finally, this paper establishes typical operation scenarios of various time scales to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control strategy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120564
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 565: State-of-Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion
           Battery Based on Constant Voltage Charging Duration

    • Authors: Jinyu Chen, Dawei Chen, Xiaolan Han, Zhicheng Li, Weijun Zhang, Chun Sing Lai
      First page: 565
      Abstract: It is imperative to determine the State of Health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries precisely to guarantee the secure functioning of energy storage systems including those in electric vehicles. Nevertheless, predicting the SOH of lithium-ion batteries by analyzing full charge–discharge patterns in everyday situations can be a daunting task. Moreover, to conduct this by analyzing relaxation phase traits necessitates a more extended idle waiting period. In order to confront these challenges, this study offers a SOH prediction method based on the features observed during the constant voltage charging stage, delving into the rich information about battery health contained in the duration of constant voltage charging. Innovatively, this study suggests using statistics of the time of constant voltage (CV) charging as health features for the SOH estimation model. Specifically, new features, including the duration of constant voltage charging, the Shannon entropy of the time of the CV charging sequence, and the Shannon entropy of the duration increment sequence, are extracted from the CV charging phase data. A battery’s State-of-Health estimation is then performed via an elastic net regression model. The experimentally derived results validate the efficacy of the approach as it attains an average mean absolute error (MAE) of only 0.64%, a maximum root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.81%, and an average coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.98. The above statement serves as proof that the suggested technique presents a substantial level of precision and feasibility for the estimation of SOH.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120565
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 566: Freestanding Carbon Nanofibers Derived from
           Biopolymer (Kraft Lignin) as Ultra-Microporous Electrodes for

    • Authors: Yasmin J. Dias, Vinícius D. Silva, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Eliton S. Medeiros, Alexander L. Yarin
      First page: 566
      Abstract: Lignin-derived carbon nanofibers (LCNFs) formed via the solution blowing of a biopolymer are developed here as a promising replacement for polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-derived carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) formed via electrospinning for such applications as supercapacitor (SC) electrodes. Accordingly, it is demonstrated here that a biopolymer (kraft lignin, which is, essentially, a waste material) can substitute a petroleum-derived polymer (PAN). Moreover, this can be achieved using a much faster and safer fiber-forming method. The present work employs the solution blowing of lignin-derived nonwovens and their carbonization to form electrode materials. These materials are characterized and explored as the electrodes in supercapacitor prototypes. Given the porosity importance of carbon fibers in SC applications, N2 gas adsorption tests were performed for characterization. LCNFs revealed the specific surface area (SSA) and capacitance values as high as 1726 m2/g and 11.95 F/g, which are about one-half of those for PCNFs, 3624 m2/g and 25.5 F/g, respectively. The capacitance values of LCNFs are comparable with those reported in the literature, but the SSA observed here is much higher. Moreover, no further post-carbonization activation steps were performed here in comparison with those materials reported in the literature. It was also found here that fiber pre-oxidation in air prior to carbonization and the addition of zinc chloride affect the SSA and capacitance values of both LCNFs and PCNFs. The electrochemical tests of the SCs prototypes were used to evaluate their capacitance at different charging rates, voltage windows, and the number of cycles. The capacitance of PCNFs decreased by about 47% during fast charging, while the capacitance of LCNFs improved during fast charging, bringing them to the level of only 21% below that of PCNFs. These changes were correlated with the packing density of the electrodes. It should be emphasized that LCNFs revealed a much higher mass yield, which was 4–5 times higher than that of PCNFs. LCNFs also possess a higher packing density, a lower price, and cause a significantly lower environmental impact than PCNFs. The best cell supercapacitor delivered a maximum specific energy of 1.77 Wh/kg and a maximum specific power of 156 kW/kg, surpassing conventional electrochemical supercapacitors. Remarkably, it retained 95.2% of its initial capacitance after 10,000 GCD cycles at a current density of 0.25 A/g, indicating robust stability. Accordingly, kraft lignin, a bio-waste material, holds great promise as a raw material for supercapacitor electrodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120566
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 567: Sustainable Lithium Ferro-Phosphate Cathode
           Manufacturing: A Semi-Dry Approach with Water-Based Processing and
           Polytetrafluorethylene Binders

    • Authors: Eike Wiegmann, Steffen Fischer, Matthias Leeb, Arno Kwade
      First page: 567
      Abstract: A novel water-based lithium ferro-phosphate (LFP) cathode manufacturing process characterized by a significant reduction in the amount of solvent has been developed (semi-dry). To establish and validate this new process, Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) is used as a binder, with a binder content of 1 wt.%, minimizing the amount of inactive material within the electrode. Extrusion screws with multiple kneading zones stress the PTFE more intensively and thus produce more and smaller fibrils. The resulting extent of fibrillation is quantified by melting enthalpy as well as mechanical electrode properties. The degree of fibrillation of the binder in an electrode is known to influence the conductive electric and ionic pathways, which in turn affect the discharge capacity. It is shown that this process provides a flexible cathode layer that achieves a specific capacitance of 155 mAh g−1 in initial cycling tests at 0.1 C. Compared to a conventionally processed LFP cathode, the discharge capacity and overall energy output are significantly increased, and the overall energy consumption decreases for the semi-dry processed LFP cathodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120567
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 568: The Influence of Testing Conditions on State
           of Health Estimations of Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an
           Incremental Capacity Analysis

    • Authors: Alejandro Gismero, Matthieu Dubarry, Jia Guo, Daniel-Ioan Stroe, Erik Schaltz
      First page: 568
      Abstract: The increasing growth of the second-hand electric vehicle market demands reliable methods for evaluating the state of health of deployed electric vehicle batteries. Among these methods, incremental capacity analysis is a commonly used technique for state of health evaluation via the quantification of degradation modes. While the optimal conditions for its application typically involve low currents and a controlled temperature, this cannot be easily applied to deployed batteries. It is therefore essential to understand the impact of varying charging rates and temperatures on the accuracy of the analysis. In this study, the characteristics and behavior of incremental capacity features for seven electric vehicle batteries tested under different calendar aging conditions were investigated. The results show that accurate state of health estimations under different test conditions could be obtained using specific electrochemical features.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120568
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 569: Electrospun Si and Si/C Fiber Anodes for
           Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Abhishek N. Mondal, Ryszard Wycisk, John Waugh, Peter N. Pintauro
      First page: 569
      Abstract: Due to structural changes in silicon during lithiation/delithiation, most Li-ion battery anodes containing silicon show rapid gravimetric capacity fade upon charge/discharge cycling. Herein, we report on a new Si powder anode in the form of electrospun fibers with only poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) binder and no electrically conductive carbon. The performance of this anode was contrasted to a fiber mat composed of Si powder, PAA binder, and a small amount of carbon powder. Fiber mat electrodes were evaluated in half-cells with a Li metal counter/reference electrode. Without the addition of conductive carbon, a stable capacity of about 1500 mAh/g (normalized to the total weight of the anode) was obtained at 1C for 50 charge/discharge cycles when the areal loading of silicon was 0.30 mgSi/cm2, whereas a capacity of 800 mAh/g was obtained when the Si loading was increased to ~1.0 mgSi/cm2. On a Si weight basis, these capacities correspond to >3500 mAh/gSi. The capacities were significantly higher than those found with a slurry-cast powdered Si anode with PAA binder. There was no change in fiber anode performance (gravimetric capacity and constant capacity with cycling) when a small amount of electrically conductive carbon was added to the electrospun fiber anodes when the Si loading was ≤1.0 mgSi/cm2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120569
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 570: Recent Research Progress on All-Solid-State
           Mg Batteries

    • Authors: Jayaraman Pandeeswari, Gunamony Jenisha, Kumlachew Zelalem Walle, Masashi Kotobuki
      First page: 570
      Abstract: Current Li battery technology employs graphite anode and flammable organic liquid electrolytes. Thus, the current Li battery is always facing the problems of low energy density and safety. Additionally, the sustainable supply of Li due to the scarce abundance of Li sources is another problem. An all-solid-state Mg battery is expected to solve the problems owing to non-flammable solid-state electrolytes, high capacity/safety of divalent Mg metal anode and high abundance of Mg sources; therefore, solid-state electrolytes and all-solid-state Mg batteries have been researched intensively last two decades. However, the realization of all-solid-state Mg batteries is still far off. In this article, we review the recent research progress on all-solid-state Mg batteries so that researchers can pursue recent research trends of an all-solid-state Mg battery. At first, the solid-state electrolyte research is described briefly in the categories of inorganic, organic and inorganic/organic composite electrolytes. After that, the recent research progress of all-solid-state Mg batteries is summarized and analyzed. To help readers, we tabulate electrode materials, experimental conditions and performances of an all-solid-state Mg battery so that the readers can find the necessary information at a glance. In the last, challenges to realize the all-solid-state Mg batteries are visited.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120570
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 571: Second-Life Batteries: A Review on Power
           Grid Applications, Degradation Mechanisms, and Power Electronics Interface

    • Authors: Ali Hassan, Shahid Khan, Rongheng Li, Wencong Su, Xuan Zhou, Mengqi Wang, Bin Wang
      First page: 571
      Abstract: The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing due to governmental policies focused on curbing climate change. EV batteries are retired when they are no longer suitable for energy-intensive EV operations. A large number of EV batteries are expected to be retired in the next 5–10 years. These retired batteries have 70–80% average capacity left. Second-life use of these battery packs has the potential to address the increasing energy storage system (ESS) demand for the grid and also to create a circular economy for EV batteries. The needs of modern grids for frequency regulation, power smoothing, and peak shaving can be met using retired batteries. Moreover, these batteries can also be employed for revenue generation for energy arbitrage (EA). While there are articles reviewing the general applications of retired batteries, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the research work on applications of the second-life batteries (SLBs) specific to the power grid and SLB degradation. The power electronics interface and battery management systems for the SLB are also thoroughly reviewed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120571
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 572: Achieving Stable Copper Ion Storage in
           Layered Vanadium Pentoxide

    • Authors: Yan Jiang, Jun Lu, Ao Xiang, Xiangguang Zhang, Dahui Liu, Ze Yang, Pei Hu
      First page: 572
      Abstract: Copper metal is a promising anode in aqueous batteries due to its low price, noble reaction potential (0.34 V), high theoretical specific capacity, abundance and chemical stability. However, only a few copper ion storage materials have been reported. Herein, layered vanadium pentoxide is chosen to store copper ions for the first time. Ex situ XRD reveals a unique two phase transition process during cycling. The V2O5 electrode shows stable copper ion storage performance. It delivers 91.9 mAh g−1 for the first cycle with a cycle life of as high as 4000 cycles at 1.0 A g−1. This work provides an intriguing copper ion storage material and expands the available options of electrode materials for copper ion storage.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120572
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 573: Disparate Redox Potentials in Mixed Isomer
           Electrolytes Reduce Voltage Efficiency of Energy Dense Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Casey M. Davis, Scott E. Waters, Brian H. Robb, Jonathan R. Thurston, David Reber, Michael P. Marshak
      First page: 573
      Abstract: Electrolytes containing multiple redox couples are promising for improving the energy density of flow batteries. Here, two chelated chromium complexes that are structural isomers are characterized and combined to generate electrolytes containing up to 2 M of active species, corresponding to 53.6 Ah L−1. The mixed isomer approach enables a significantly higher active material content than the individual materials would allow, affording energy dense cells with Coulombic efficiencies of ≥99.6% at 100 mA cm−2 and an open circuit voltage of 1.65 V at 50% state-of-charge. This high concentration, however, comes with a caveat; at a given concentration, an equimolar mixed electrolyte leads to lower voltage efficiency compared to using the individual isomers, while Coulombic efficiency remains constant. Our work demonstrates that exploiting structural isomerism is an efficient approach to improve capacity, but active materials must be selected carefully in mixed systems as differences in operating potentials negatively affect energy efficiency.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120573
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 574: Selective Precipitation of Rare Earth Double
           Sulfate Salts from Industrial Ni–MH Battery Leachates: Impact of
           Downstream Processing on Product Quality

    • Authors: Boris Guzhov, Laurent Cassayre, Antoine Barnabé, Nicolas Coppey, Béatrice Biscans
      First page: 574
      Abstract: This work focuses on the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs = La, Ce, Nd, Pr) from spent nickel–metal hydride batteries by hydrometallurgical processing. The REEs were precipitated in the form of sodium-lanthanide double sulfate salts by adding Na2SO4 to a leach liquor prepared from industrially processed spent batteries. The objectives were to better understand the parameters driving the purity of the product and to identify the phases involved, as well as their crystallographic structure. The methodology included experiments performed in a 2 L reactor, thermodynamic calculations and product characterization. We confirmed that high REE precipitation yields (>95%) can be achieved under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated and quantified how appropriately washing the product allows for a significant reduction in nickel losses while maintaining control over REE product purity. Finally, using X-ray Diffraction analyses, it was established that REEs form a solid solution with a chemical formula (Na0.9K0.1)(La0.65Ce0.24Pr0.04Nd0.07)(SO4)2·H2O, which has not been reported so far.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120574
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 575: Layer-Resolved Mechanical Degradation of a
           Ni-Rich Positive Electrode

    • Authors: Priyank Gupta, Moritz Streb, Aamer Siddiqui, Matilda Klett, Göran Lindbergh, Peter Gudmundson
      First page: 575
      Abstract: The effects of electrochemical aging on the mechanical properties of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are challenging to measure and are largely unknown. Mechanochemical degradation processes occur at different scales within an electrode and understanding the correlation between the degradation of mechanical properties, electrochemical aging, and morphological changes is crucial for mitigating battery performance degradation. This paper explores the evolution of mechanical and electrochemical properties at the layer level in a Ni-rich positive electrode during the initial stages of electrochemical cycling. The investigation involves complementary cross-section analyses aimed at unraveling the connection between observed changes on both macroscopic and microscopic scales. The macroscopic constitutive properties were assessed using a U-shaped bending test method that had been previously developed. The compressive modulus exhibited substantial dependency on both the porous structure and binder properties. It experienced a notable reduction with electrolyte wetting but demonstrated an increase with cycling and aging. During the initial stages of aging, electrochemical impedance spectra revealed increased local resistance near the particle–electrolyte interface. This is likely attributable to factors such as secondary particle grain separation and the redistribution of carbon black. The swelling of particles, compression of the binder phase, and enhanced particle contact were identified as probable factors adding to the elevation of the elastic modulus within the porous layer as a result of cycling.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120575
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 576: Silicon Negative Electrodes—What Can
           Be Achieved for Commercial Cell Energy Densities

    • Authors: William Yourey
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Historically, lithium cobalt oxide and graphite have been the positive and negative electrode active materials of choice for commercial lithium-ion cells. It has only been over the past ~15 years in which alternate positive electrode materials have been used. As new positive and negative active materials, such as NMC811 and silicon-based electrodes, are being developed, it is crucial to evaluate the potential of these materials at a stack or cell level to fully understand the possible increases in energy density which can be achieved. Comparisons were made between electrode stack volumetric energy densities for designs containing either LCO or NMC811 positive electrode and silicon-graphite negative electrodes, where the weight percentages of silicon were evaluated between zero and ninety percent. Positive electrode areal loadings were evaluated between 2.00 and 5.00 mAh cm−2. NMC811 at 200 mAh g−1 has the ability to increase stack energy density between 11% and 20% over LCO depending on percentage silicon and areal loading. At a stack level, the percentage of silicon added results in large increases in energy density but delivers a diminishing return, with the greatest increase observed as the percentage of silicon is increased from zero percent to approximately 25–30%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120576
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 577: Battery Impedance Spectroscopy Embedded
           Measurement System

    • Authors: Gabriele Cicioni, Alessio De Angelis, Fernando M. Janeiro, Pedro M. Ramos, Paolo Carbone
      First page: 577
      Abstract: The evolution of rechargeable battery characteristics have led to their use in almost every device in our everyday life. This importance has also increased the relevance of estimating the remaining battery charge (state of charge, SOC) and their health (state of health, SOH). One of the methods for the estimation of these parameters is based on the impedance spectroscopy obtained from the battery output impedance measured at multiple frequencies. This paper proposes an embedded measurement system capable of measuring the battery output impedance while in operation (either charging or supplying power to the intended device). The developed system generates a small amplitude stimulus that is added to the battery current. The system then measures the battery voltage and current to estimate the impedance at the stimulus frequencies. Three batteries were measured at different SOC levels, demonstrating the system principle of operation. Complementarily, a battery impedance equivalent circuit was used, together with genetic algorithms, to estimate the circuit parameters and assess their dependence on the battery SOC.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120577
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 578: SoC Estimation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with
           Noisy Measurements and Absence of Excitation

    • Authors: Miquel Martí-Florences, Andreu Cecilia Piñol, Alejandro Clemente, Ramon Costa-Castelló
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Accurate State-of-Charge estimation is crucial for applications that utilise lithium-ion batteries. In real-time scenarios, battery models tend to present significant uncertainty, making it desirable to jointly estimate both the State of Charge and relevant unknown model parameters. However, parameter estimation typically necessitates that the battery input signals induce a persistence of excitation property, a need which is often not met in practical operations. This document introduces a joint state of charge/parameter estimator that relaxes this stringent requirement. This estimator is based on the Generalized Parameter Estimation-Based Observer framework. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time it has been applied in the context of lithium-ion batteries. Its advantages are demonstrated through simulations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120578
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 524: A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Batteries:
           Materials and Cell Design

    • Authors: Salvatore Gianluca Leonardi, Mario Samperi, Leone Frusteri, Vincenzo Antonucci, Claudia D’Urso
      First page: 524
      Abstract: The widespread electrification of various sectors is triggering a strong demand for new energy storage systems with low environmental impact and using abundant raw materials. Batteries employing elemental sodium could offer significant advantages, as the use of a naturally abundant element such as sodium is strategic to satisfy the increasing demand. Currently, lithium-ion batteries represent the most popular energy storage technology, owing to their tunable performance for various applications. However, where large energy storage systems are required, the use of expensive lithium-ion batteries could result disadvantageous. On the other hand, high-temperature sodium batteries represent a promising technology due to their theoretical high specific energies, high energy efficiency, long life and safety. Therefore, driven by the current market demand and the awareness of the potential that still needs to be exploited, research interest in high-temperature sodium batteries has regained great attention. This review aims to highlight the most recent developments on this topic, focusing on actual and prospective active materials used in sodium-metal chloride batteries. In particular, alternative formulations to conventional nickel cathodes and advanced ceramic electrolytes are discussed, referring to the current research challenges centered on cost reduction, lowering of the operating temperature and performance improvement. Moreover, a comprehensive overview on commercial tubular cell design and prototypal planar design is presented, highlighting advantages and limitations based on the analysis of research papers, patents and technical documents.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110524
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 525: Polydopamine-Modified Carboxymethyl
           Cellulose as Advanced Polysulfide Trapping Binder

    • Authors: Daniel A. Gribble, Vilas G. Pol
      First page: 525
      Abstract: The search for a high-energy-density alternative to lithium-ion batteries has led to great interest in the lithium sulfur battery (LSB). However, poor cycle lifetimes and coulombic efficiencies (CEs) due to detrimental lithium polysulfide (LiPS) shuttling has hindered its widespread adoption. To address this challenge, a modified sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymer with integrated dopamine moieties and polydopamine nanoparticles was created through a facile one-pot dopamine (DOP) amidation reaction to strengthen noncovalent interactions with LiPSs and mitigate the shuttling effect. The resulting CMC-DOP binder improved electrode wettability, adhesion, and electrochemical performance. Compared to LSBs with a standard CMC binder, CMC-DOP 5:1 (with a 5:1 weight ratio of CMC to dopamine precursor) improves the specific capacity at cycle 100 by 38% to 552 mAh g−1 and CE from 96.8 to 98.9%. LSBs show good stability, even after 500 cycles. Post-mortem electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) studies confirmed the effectiveness of the CMC-DOP in confining LiPS in the cathode. This simple but effective nature-inspired strategy promises to enhance the viability of LSBs without using harmful chemicals or adding excess bulk.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110525
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 526: Optimizing Li Ion Transport in a Garnet-Type
           Solid Electrolyte via a Grain Boundary Design

    • Authors: Tao Sun, Xiaopeng Cheng, Tianci Cao, Mingming Wang, Jiao Tian, Tengfei Yan, Dechen Qin, Xianqiang Liu, Junxia Lu, Yuefei Zhang
      First page: 526
      Abstract: Garnet-type solid electrolytes have gained considerable attention owing to their exceptional ionic conductivity and broad electrochemical stability window, making them highly promising for solid-state batteries (SSBs). However, this polycrystalline ceramic electrolyte contains an abundance of grain boundaries (GBs). During the repetitive electroplating and stripping of Li ions, uncontrolled growth and spreading of lithium dendrites often occur at GBs, posing safety concerns and resulting in a shortened cycle life. Reducing the formation and growth of lithium dendrites can be achieved by rational grain boundary design. Herein, the garnet-type solid electrolyte LLZTO was firstly coated with Al2O3 using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Subsequently, an annealing treatment was employed to introduce Al2O3 into grain boundaries, effectively modifying them. Compared with the Li/LLZTO/Li cells, the Li/LLZTO@Al2O3-annealed/Li symmetric batteries exhibit a more stable cycling performance with an extended period of 200 h at 1 mA cm−2. After matching with the NMC811 cathode, the capacity retention rate of batteries can reach 96.8% after 50 cycles. The infusion of Al2O3 demonstrates its capability to react with LLZTO particles, creating an ion-conducting interfacial layer of Li-Al-O at the GBs. This interfacial layer effectively inhibits Li nucleation and filament growth within LLZTO, contributing to the suppression of lithium dendrites. Our work provides new suggestions for optimizing the synthesis of solid-state electrolytes, which can help facilitate the commercial application of solid-state batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110526
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 527: Enabling LVRT Compliance of Electrolyzer
           Systems Using Energy Storage Technologies

    • Authors: Pankaj Saha, Weihao Zhao, Daniel-Ioan Stroe, Florin Iov, Stig Munk-Nielsen
      First page: 527
      Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of different energy storage systems (ESSs) in providing low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) support for power electronics-based electrolyzer systems. A framework for analyzing the performance of a grid-integrated electrolyzer-ESS system is developed, taking into account realistic scenarios and accurate models. The system components consist of a 500 kW alkaline electrolyzer module integrated with a medium-voltage grid and three different commercially available ESSs based on Li-ion battery, Li-ion capacitor, and supercapacitor technology, respectively. The performance of these ESSs is extensively studied for three LVRT profiles, with a primary focus on the upcoming Danish grid code. In order to perform simulation studies, the system is implemented on the MATLAB®/Simulink®-PLECS® platform. The results demonstrate that all three energy storage technologies are capable of supporting the electrolyzer systems during low-voltage abnormalities in the distribution grid. The study also reveals that the supercapacitor-based technology seems to be more appropriate, from a techno-economic perspective, for fault ride-through (FRT) compliance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110527
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 528: Electrolyte Optimization to Improve the
           High-Voltage Operation of Single-Crystal LiNi0.83Co0.11Mn0.06O2 in
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Wengao Zhao, Mayan Si, Kuan Wang, Enzo Brack, Ziyan Zhang, Xinming Fan, Corsin Battaglia
      First page: 528
      Abstract: Single-crystal Ni-rich layered oxide materials LiNi1−x−yCoxMnyO2 (NCM, 1 – x − y ≥ 0.6) are emerging as promising cathode materials that do not show intergranular cracks as a result of the lack of grain boundaries and anisotropy of the bulk structure, enabling extended cyclability in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) operating at high voltage. However, SC-NCM materials still suffer from capacity fading upon extended cycling. This degradation of capacity can be attributed to a reconstruction of the surface. A phase transformation from layered structures to disordered spinel/rock-salt structures was found to be responsible for impedance growth and capacity loss. Film-forming additives are a straightforward approach for the mitigation of surface reconstruction via the formation of a robust protection layer at the cathode’s surface. In this work, we investigate various additives on the electrochemical performance of single-crystal LiNi0.83Co0.11Mn0.06O2 (SC-NCM83). The results demonstrate that the use of 1% lithium difluoroxalate borate (LiDFOB) and 1% lithium difluorophosphate (LiPO2F2) additives substantially enhanced the cycling performance (with a capacity retention of 93.6% after 150 cycles) and rate capability in comparison to the baseline electrolyte (72.7%) as well as electrolytes using 1% LiDFOB (90.5%) or 1% LiPO2F2 (88.3%) individually. The superior cycling stability of the cell using the combination of both additives was attributed to the formation of a conformal cathode/electrolyte interface (CEI) layer, resulting in a stabilized bulk structure and decreased impedance upon long-term cycling, as evidenced via a combination of state-of-the-art analytical techniques.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110528
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 529: The Polarization and Heat Generation
           Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Battery with Electric–Thermal Coupled

    • Authors: Jiayong Guo, Qiang Guo, Jie Liu, Hewu Wang
      First page: 529
      Abstract: This paper investigates the polarization and heat generation characteristics of batteries under different ambient temperatures and discharge rates by means of using a coupled electric–thermal model. This study found that the largest percentage of polarization is ohmic polarization, followed by concentration polarization and electrochemical polarization. The values of the three types of polarization are generally small and stable under normal-temperature environments and low discharge rates. However, they increase significantly in low-temperature environments and at high discharge rates and continue to rise during the discharge process. Additionally, ohmic heat generation and polarization generation also increase significantly under these conditions. Reversible entropy heat is less sensitive to ambient temperature but increases significantly with the increase in the discharge rate. Ohmic heat generation and polarization heat generation contribute to the total heat generation of the battery at any ambient temperature, while reversible entropy heat only contributes to the total heat generation of the battery at the end of discharge.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110529
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 530: Deciphering Electrolyte Degradation in
           Sodium-Based Batteries: The Role of Conductive Salt Source, Additives, and
           Storage Condition

    • Authors: Mahir Hashimov, Andreas Hofmann
      First page: 530
      Abstract: This work investigates the stability of electrolyte systems used in sodium-ion-based batteries. The electrolytes consist of a 1:1 (v:v) mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC), a sodium-conducting salt (either NaPF6 or NaTFSI), and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), respectively, sodium difluoro(oxalato) borate (NaDFOB), as additives. Through systematic evaluation using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we analyze the formation of degradation products under different conditions including variations in temperature, vial material, and the presence or absence of sodium metal. Our results reveal the significant influence of the conductive salt’s source on degradation. Furthermore, we observe that FEC’s stability is affected by the storage temperature, vial material, and presence of sodium metal, suggesting its active involvement in the degradation process. Additionally, our results highlight the role of NaDFOB as an additive in mitigating degradation. The study provides crucial insights into the complex network of degradation reactions occurring within the electrolyte, thus informing strategies for improved electrolyte systems in sodium-based batteries. Since the production, material selection and storage of electrolytes are often insufficiently described, we provide here an insight into the different behavior of electrolytes for Na-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110530
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 531: PEI/Super P Cathode Coating: A Pathway to
           Superior Lithium–Sulfur Battery Performance

    • Authors: Junhee Heo, Gyeonguk Min, Jae Bin Lee, Patrick Joohyun Kim, Kyuchul Shin, In Woo Cheong, Hyunchul Kang, Songhun Yoon, Won-Gwang Lim, Jinwoo Lee, Jin Joo
      First page: 531
      Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries exhibit a high energy density of 2500–2600 Wh/kg with affordability and environmental advantages, positioning them as a promising next-generation energy source. However, the insulating nature of sulfur/Li2S and the rapid capacity fading due to the shuttle effect have hindered their commercialization. In this study, we propose a method to boost the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries by modifying the sulfur cathode with a coating layer composed of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and Super P conductive carbon. The PEI/Super P-modified electrode retained 73% of its discharge capacity after 300 cycles at the 2 C scan rate. The PEI/Super P coated layer effectively adsorbs lithium polysulfides, suppressing the shuttle effect and acting as an auxiliary electrode to facilitate the electrochemical reactions of sulfur/Li2S. We analyzed the PEI/Super P-modified electrodes using symmetric cells, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The battery manufacturing method presented here is not only cost-effective but also industrially viable due to its compatibility with the roll-to-roll process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110531
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 532: In-Situ Polymerized Solid-State Polymer
           Electrolytes for High-Safety Sodium Metal Batteries: Progress and

    • Authors: Sijia Hu, Duo Wang, Zhixiang Yuan, Hao Zhang, Songwei Tian, Yalan Zhang, Botao Zhang, Yongqin Han, Jianjun Zhang, Guanglei Cui
      First page: 532
      Abstract: The practical usage of sodium metal batteries is mainly hampered by their potential safety risks caused by conventional liquid-state electrolytes. Hence, solid-state sodium metal batteries, which employ inorganic solid electrolytes and/or solid-state polymer electrolytes, are considered an emerging technology for addressing the safety hazards. Unfortunately, these traditional inorganic/polymer solid electrolytes, most of which are prepared via ex-situ methods, frequently suffer from inadequate ionic conductivity and sluggish interfacial transportation. In light of this, in-situ polymerized solid-state polymer electrolytes are proposed to simplify their preparation process and simultaneously address these aforementioned challenges. In this review, the up-to-date research progress of the design, synthesis, and applications of this kind of polymer electrolytes for sodium batteries of high safety via several in-situ polymerization methods (including photoinduced in-situ polymerization, thermally induced in-situ free radical polymerization, in-situ cationic polymerization, and cross-linking reaction) are summarized. In addition, some perspectives, opportunities, challenges, and potential research directions regarding the further development of in-situ fabricated solid-state polymer electrolytes are also provided. We expect that this review will shed some light on designing high-performance solid-state polymer electrolytes for building next-generation sodium batteries with high safety and high energy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110532
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 533: Lithium-Ion Capacitors: A Review of
           Strategies toward Enhancing the Performance of the Activated Carbon

    • Authors: Obinna Egwu Eleri, Fengliu Lou, Zhixin Yu
      First page: 533
      Abstract: Lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) are promising hybrid devices bridging the gap between batteries and supercapacitors by offering simultaneous high specific power and specific energy. However, an indispensable critical component in LiC is the capacitive cathode for high power. Activated carbon (AC) is typically the cathode material due to its low cost, abundant raw material for production, sustainability, easily tunable properties, and scalability. However, compared to conventional battery-type cathodes, the low capacity of AC remains a limiting factor for improving the specific energy of LiC to match the battery counterparts. This review discusses recent approaches for achieving high-performance LiC, focusing on the AC cathode. The strategies are discussed with respect to active material property modifications, electrodes, electrolytes, and cell design techniques which have improved the AC’s capacity/capacitance, operating potential window, and electrochemical stability. Potential strategies and pathways for improved performance of the AC are pinpointed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110533
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 534: Differentiating Cyclability and Kinetics of
           Na+ Ions in Surface-Functionalized and Nanostructured Graphite Using
           Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Sonjoy Dey, Gurpreet Singh
      First page: 534
      Abstract: The revolution in lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology was partly due to the invention of graphite as a robust negative electrode material. However, equivalent negative electrode materials for complementary sodium ion battery (NIB) technologies are yet to be commercialized due to sluggish reaction kinetics, phase instability, and low energy density originating from the larger size of Na+-ion. Therefore, in search of the next-generation electrode materials for NIBs, we first analyze the failure of graphite during reversible Na+ ion storage. Building upon that, we suggest surface-functionalized and nanostructured forms of analogous carbon allotropes for enhancing Na+ ion storage. During long-term rigorous cycling conditions, Graphene Oxide (GO) and Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) exhibit higher Na+ ion storage (157 mAh g−1 and 50 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles, respectively) compared to graphite (27 mAh g−1). Optimizing alternative NIBs requires a comprehensive analysis of cycling behavior and kinetic information. Therefore, in this investigation, we further examine ex-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at progressive cycles and correlate capacity degradation with impedance arising from the electrolyte, solid electrolyte interphase formation, and charge transfer.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110534
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 535: Gravure Printing for Lithium-Ion Batteries
           Manufacturing: A Review

    • Authors: Maria Montanino, Giuliano Sico
      First page: 535
      Abstract: Interest in printed batteries is growing due to their applications in our daily lives, e.g., for portable and wearable electronics, biomedicals, and internet of things (IoT). The main advantages offered by printing technologies are flexibility, customizability, easy production, large area, and high scalability. Among the printing techniques, gravure is the most appealing for the industrial manufacture of functional layers thanks to its characteristics of high quality and high speed. To date, despite its advantages, such technology has been little investigated, especially in the field of energy since it is difficult to obtain functionality and adequate mass loading using diluted inks. In this review, the recent results for printed lithium-ion batteries are reported and discussed. A methodology for controlling the ink formulation and process based on the capillary number was proposed to obtain high printing quality and layer functionality. Specific concerns were found to play a fundamental role for each specific material and its performance when used as a film. Considering all such issues, gravure can provide high performance layers. A multilayer approach enables the desired layer mass loading to be achieved with advantages in terms of bulk homogeneity. Such results can boost the future industrial employment of gravure printing in the field of printed batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110535
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 536: Microwave-Assisted Recovery of Spent LiCoO2
           Battery from the Corresponding Black Mass

    • Authors: Matteo Scaglia, Antonella Cornelio, Alessandra Zanoletti, Daniele La Corte, Giada Biava, Ivano Alessandri, Angelo Forestan, Catya Alba, Laura Eleonora Depero, Elza Bontempi
      First page: 536
      Abstract: The literature indicates that utilizing pyrometallurgical methods for processing spent LiCoO2 (LCO) batteries can lead to cobalt recovery in the forms of Co3O4, CoO, and Co, while lithium can be retrieved as Li2O or Li2CO3. However, the technology’s high energy consumption has also been noted as a challenge in this recovery process. Recently, an innovative and sustainable approach using microwave (MW) radiation has been proposed as an alternative to traditional pyrometallurgical methods for treating used lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). This method aims to address the shortcomings of the conventional approach. In this study, the treatment of the black mass (BM) from spent LCO batteries is explored for the first time using MW–materials interaction under an air atmosphere. The research reveals that the process can trigger carbothermic reactions. However, MW makes the BM so reactive that it causes rapid heating of the sample in a few minutes, also posing a fire risk. This paper presents and discusses the benefits and potential hazards associated with this novel technology for the recovery of spent LCO batteries and gives information about real samples of BM. The work opens the possibility of using a microwave for raw material recovery in spent LIBs, allowing to obtain rapid and more efficient reactions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110536
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 537: State of Health Assessment of Spent
           Lithium–Ion Batteries Based on Voltage Integral during the Constant
           Current Charge

    • Authors: Ote Amuta, Julia Kowal
      First page: 537
      Abstract: Lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) are used in many personal electronic devices (PED) and energy-demanding applications such as electric vehicles. After their first use, rather than dispose of them for recycling, some may still have reasonable capacity and can be used in secondary applications. The current test methods to assess them are either slow, complex or expensive. The voltage integral during the constant current (CC) charge of the same model of LIBs strongly correlates with the state of health (SOH) and is faster than a full capacity check. Compared to the filtering requirement in the incremental capacity (IC) and differential voltage (DV) or the complex analysis in the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS), the voltage integral offers a simple integration method, just like the simple capacity Coulomb’s counter that is installed in many BMS for estimating the SOC of LIBs. By obtaining the voltage integral of a relatively new cell and an old cell of the same model with known SOH at a given ambient temperature and CC charge, the SOH of other similar cells can be easily estimated by finding their voltage integrals.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110537
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 538: Performance Analysis of the Liquid Cooling
           System for Lithium-Ion Batteries According to Cooling Plate Parameters

    • Authors: Nayoung You, Jeonggyun Ham, Donghyeon Shin, Honghyun Cho
      First page: 538
      Abstract: In this study, the effects of battery thermal management (BTM), pumping power, and heat transfer rate were compared and analyzed under different operating conditions and cooling configurations for the liquid cooling plate of a lithium-ion battery. The results elucidated that when the flow rate in the cooling plate increased from 2 to 6 L/min, the average temperature of the battery module decreased from 53.8 to 50.7 °C, but the pumping power increased from 0.036 to 0.808 W. In addition, an increase in the width of the cooling channel and number of channels resulted in a decrease in the average temperature of the battery module and a reduction in the pumping power. The most influential variable for the temperature control of the battery was an increase in the flow rate. In addition, according to the results of the orthogonal analysis, an increase in the number of cooling plate channels resulted in the best cooling performance and reduced pumping power. Based on this, a cooling plate with six channels was applied to both the top and bottom parts, and the top and bottom cooling showed sufficient cooling performance in maintaining the average temperature of the battery module below 45 °C.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110538
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 539: Online State-of-Health Estimation for
           Fast-Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on a Transformer–Long
           Short-Term Memory Neural Network

    • Authors: Yuqian Fan, Yi Li, Jifei Zhao, Linbing Wang, Chong Yan, Xiaoying Wu, Pingchuan Zhang, Jianping Wang, Guohong Gao, Liangliang Wei
      First page: 539
      Abstract: With the rapid development of machine learning and cloud computing, deep learning methods based on big data have been widely applied in the assessment of lithium-ion battery health status. However, enhancing the accuracy and robustness of assessment models remains a challenge. This study introduces an innovative T-LSTM prediction network. Initially, a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1DCNN) is employed to effectively extract local and global features from raw battery data, providing enriched inputs for subsequent networks. Subsequently, LSTM and transformer models are ingeniously combined to fully utilize their unique advantages in sequence modeling, further enhancing the accurate prediction of battery health status. Experiments were conducted using both proprietary and open-source datasets, and the results validated the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The experimental results on the proprietary dataset show that the T-LSTM-based estimation method exhibits excellent performance in various evaluation metrics, with MSE, RMSE, MAE, MAPE, and MAXE values of 0.43, 0.66, 0.53, 0.58, and 1.65, respectively. The performance improved by 30–50% compared to that of the other models. The method demonstrated superior performance in comparative experiments, offering novel insights for optimizing intelligent battery management and maintenance strategies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110539
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 540: Arcing in Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Theo Ledinski, Andrey W. Golubkov, Oskar Schweighofer, Simon Erker
      First page: 540
      Abstract: Lithium-Ion battery cells and automotive battery systems are constantly improving as a result of the rising popularity of electric vehicles. With higher energy densities of the cells, the risks in case of failure rise as well. In the worst case, a fast exothermic reaction known as thermal runaway can occur. During thermal runaway, the cell can emit around 66% of its mass as gas and particles. An experimental setup was designed and showed that the gas-particle-vent of a cell going through thermal runaway can cause electric breakthroughs. These breakthroughs could start electric arcing in the battery system, which could lead to additional damages such as burning through the casing or igniting the vent gas, making the damage more severe and difficult to control. Uncontrollable battery fires must be prevented. The emitted gas was analyzed and the ejected particles were examined to discuss the potential causes of the breakthroughs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110540
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 541: Mechanical and Optical Characterization of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Components/Cross-Ply Lamination Effect

    • Authors: David Sypeck, Feng Zhu, Jie Deng, Chulheung Bae
      First page: 541
      Abstract: Excessive mechanical loading of lithium-ion batteries can impair performance and safety. Their ability to resist loads depends upon the properties of the materials they are made from and how they are constructed and loaded. Here, prismatic lithium-ion battery cell components were mechanically and optically characterized to examine details of material morphology, construction, and mechanical loading response. Tensile tests were conducted on the cell case enclosure, anodes, cathodes, and separators. Compression tests on stacks of anodes, cathodes, separators, and jellyrolls were made from them. Substantially differing behaviors were observed amongst all components tested. An optical examination of the anodes, cathodes, and separators revealed homogeneities, anisotropies, and defects. Substantial texturing was present parallel to the winding direction. When highly compressed, jellyrolls develop well-defined V-shaped cracks aligned parallel to the texturing. Like many laminates, altering the lay-up construction affects jellyroll mechanical performance. To demonstrate, a cross-ply jellyroll was fabricated by rotating every other complete component set (cathode/separator/anode/separator), reassembling, and compressing. A distinctly different fracture pattern and increased compressive strength were observed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110541
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 542: Assessment of Health Indicators to Detect
           the Aging State of Commercial Second-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
           through Basic Electrochemical Cycling

    • Authors: Emanuele Michelini, Patrick Höschele, Syed Muhammad Abbas, Christian Ellersdorfer, Jörg Moser
      First page: 542
      Abstract: Upon reaching certain limits, electric vehicle batteries are replaced and may find a second life in various applications. However, the state of such batteries in terms of aging and safety remains uncertain when they enter the second-life market. The aging mechanisms within these batteries involve a combination of processes, impacting their safety and performance. Presently, direct health indicators (HIs) like state of health (SOH) and internal resistance increase are utilized to assess battery aging, but they do not always provide accurate indications of the battery’s health state. This study focuses on analyzing various HIs obtained through a basic charging–discharging cycle and assessing their sensitivity to aging. Commercial 50 Ah pouch cells with different aging histories were tested, and the HIs were evaluated. Thirteen HIs out of 31 proved to be highly aging-sensitive, and thus good indicators. Namely, SOH upon charging and discharging, Coulombic efficiency, constant current discharge time, voltage relaxation profile trend, voltage–charge area upon discharging, hysteresis open circuit voltage HIs, and temperature difference between the tabs upon charging. The findings offer valuable insights for developing robust qualification algorithms and reliable battery health monitoring systems for second-life batteries, ensuring safe and efficient battery operation in diverse second-life applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110542
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 543: Co-Sintering of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 and

    • Authors: Jean Philippe Beaupain, Katja Waetzig, Henry Auer, Nicolas Zapp, Kristian Nikolowski, Mareike Partsch, Mihails Kusnezoff, Alexander Michaelis
      First page: 543
      Abstract: Solid-state batteries (SSBs) with Li-ion conductive electrolytes made from polymers, thiophosphates (sulfides) or oxides instead of liquid electrolytes have different challenges in material development and manufacturing. For oxide-based SSBs, the co-sintering of a composite cathode is one of the main challenges. High process temperatures cause undesired decomposition reactions of the active material and the solid electrolyte. The formed phases inhibit the high energy and power density of ceramic SSBs. Therefore, the selection of suitable material combinations as well as the reduction of the sintering temperatures are crucial milestones in the development of ceramic SSBs. In this work, the co-sintering behavior of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) as a solid electrolyte with Li-ion conductivity of ≥0.38 mS/cm and LiFePO4 with a C-coating (LFP) as a Li-ion storage material (active material) is investigated. The shrinkage behavior, crystallographic analysis and microstructural changes during co-sintering at temperatures between 650 and 850 °C are characterized in a simplified model system by mixing, pressing and sintering the LATP and LFP and compared with tape-casted composite cathodes (d = 55 µm). The tape-casted and sintered composite cathodes were infiltrated by liquid electrolyte as well as polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrolyte and electrochemically characterized as half cells against a Li metal anode. The results indicate the formation of reaction layers between LATP and LFP during co-sintering. At Ts > 750 °C, the rhombohedral LATP phase is transformed into an orthorhombic Li1.3+xAl0.3−yFex+yTi1.7−x(PO4)3 (LAFTP) phase. During co-sintering, Fe3+ diffuses into the LATP phase and partially occupies the Al3+ and Ti4+ sites of the NASICON structure. The formation of this LAFTP leads to significant changes in the electrochemical properties of the infiltrated composite tapes. Nevertheless, a high specific capacity of 134 mAh g−1 is measured by infiltrating the sintered composite tapes with liquid electrolytes. Additionally, infiltration with a PEO electrolyte leads to a capacity of 125 mAh g−1. Therefore, the material combination of LATP and LFP is a promising approach to realize sintered ceramic SSBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110543
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 544: Hybrid Estimation Method for the State of
           Charge of Lithium Batteries Using a Temporal Convolutional Network and

    • Authors: Jong-Hyun Lee, In-Soo Lee
      First page: 544
      Abstract: Lithium batteries have recently attracted significant attention as highly promising energy storage devices within the secondary battery industry. However, it is important to note that they may pose safety risks, including the potential for explosions during use. Therefore, achieving stable and safe utilization of these batteries necessitates accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation. In this study, we propose a hybrid model combining temporal convolutional network (TCN) and eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) to investigate the nonlinear and evolving characteristics of batteries. The primary goal is to enhance SOC estimation performance by leveraging TCN’s long-effective memory capabilities and XGBoost’s robust generalization abilities. We conducted experiments using datasets from NASA, Oxford, and a vehicle simulator to validate the model’s performance. Additionally, we compared the performance of our model with that of a multilayer neural network, long short-term memory, gated recurrent unit, XGBoost, and TCN. The experimental results confirm that our proposed TCN–XGBoost hybrid model outperforms the other models in SOC estimation across all datasets.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110544
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 545: Ion-Selective Membranes Fabricated Using
           Finely Controlled Swelling of Non-Ionic Fluoropolymer for Redox Flow

    • Authors: Fengjing Jiang, Rui Xue
      First page: 545
      Abstract: Ion-selective membranes based on non-ionic polymers are promising for redox flow batteries due to their superior chemical stability and low cost. In this work, a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ion-selective membrane is successfully prepared using a solvent-controlled swelling method, where Nafion is used as a channel-forming promoter. The influences of Nafion on the channel formation of the membranes are studied. The results indicate that the addition of Nafion resin can greatly promote the formation of ion-conducting channels in the PVDF matrix. The obtained membranes show well-controlled proton conductivity and proton/vanadium selectivity. A battery test on a vanadium redox flow single cell is successfully performed. The energy efficiency of the cell equipped with the PVDF-based ion-selective membrane reaches 81.7% at a current density of 60 mA cm−2 and possesses excellent cycling stability and suppressed self-discharge after modification with Nafion.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110545
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 546: Three-Dimensional Printing, an Emerging
           Advanced Technique in Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion

    • Authors: Shu Zhang, Shuyue Xue, Yaohui Wang, Gufei Zhang, Nayab Arif, Peng Li, Yu-Jia Zeng
      First page: 546
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing, as an advanced additive manufacturing technique, is emerging as a promising material-processing approach in the electrical energy storage and conversion field, e.g., electrocatalysis, secondary batteries and supercapacitors. Compared to traditional manufacturing techniques, 3D printing allows for more the precise control of electrochemical energy storage behaviors in delicately printed structures and reasonably designed porosity. Through 3D printing, it is possible to deeply analyze charge migration and catalytic behavior in electrocatalysis, enhance the energy density, cycle stability and safety of battery components, and revolutionize the way we design high-performance supercapacitors. Over the past few years, a significant amount of work has been completed on 3D printing to explore various high-performance energy-related materials. Although impressive strides have been made, challenges still exist and need to be overcome in order to meet the ever-increasing demand. In this review, the recent research progress and applications of 3D-printed electrocatalysis materials, battery components and supercapacitors are systematically presented. Perspectives on the prospects for this exciting field are also proposed with applicable discussion and analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110546
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 547: Adaptation of Deep Network in Transfer
           Learning for Estimating State of Health in Electric Vehicles during

    • Authors: Wenbin Zheng, Xinyu Zhou, Chenyu Bai, Di Zhou, Ping Fu
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Battery state of health (SOH) is a significant metric for evaluating battery life and predicting battery safety. Currently, SOH research is largely based on laboratory data, with a dearth of research on electric vehicle (EV) operating data. Due to the difficulty in obtaining complete charge data under EV operating conditions, this study presents a SOH estimation method utilizing deep network adaptation. First, a data-driven approach is employed to extract voltage, current, state of charge (SOC), and incremental capacity (IC) data features. To compensate for the lack of aging information in the EV operation data domain, transfer learning is employed to construct the SOH estimation model. Additionally, to resolve inconsistent data distribution between the source laboratory battery data domain and the target EV operation data domain, an adaptive layer is added to the network, and adaptation of deep network (ADN) is utilized to enhance the model’s performance. Finally, the model is validated using electric bus operational data. Results indicate that this model’s average Mean Absolute Error (MAE) is less than 3.0%, and, compared to support vector machine (SVM) regression and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) algorithms, the MAE is reduced by 27.7% and 38.4%, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110547
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 548: Gaining a New Technological Readiness Level
           for Laser-Structured Electrodes in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells

    • Authors: Alexandra Meyer, Penghui Zhu, Anna Smith, Wilhelm Pfleging
      First page: 548
      Abstract: For the first time, the laser structuring of large-footprint electrodes with a loading of 4 mAh cm−2 has been validated in a relevant environment, including subsequent multi-layer stack cell assembly and electrochemical characterization of the resulting high-capacity lithium-ion pouch cell prototypes, i.e., a technological readiness level of 6 has been achieved for the 3D battery concept. The structuring was performed using a high-power ultrashort-pulsed laser, resulting in well-defined line structures in electrodes without damaging the current collector, and without melting or altering the battery active materials. For cells containing structured electrodes, higher charge and discharge capacities were measured for C-rates >1C compared to reference cells based on unstructured electrodes. In addition, cells with structured electrodes showed a three-fold increase in cycle lifetime at a C-rate of 1C compared to those with reference electrodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110548
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 549: Sequential Recovery of Critical Metals from
           Leached Liquor of Processed Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Ayorinde Emmanuel Ajiboye, Trevor L. Dzwiniel
      First page: 549
      Abstract: The processing and extraction of critical metals from black mass is important to battery recycling. Separation and recovery of critical metals (Co, Ni, Li, and Mn) from other metal impurities must yield purified metal salts, while avoiding substantial losses of critical metals. Solvent extraction in batch experiments were conducted using mixed metal sulphates obtained from the leach liquor obtained from spent and shredded lithium-ion batteries. Selective extraction of Mn2+, Fe3+, Al3+ and Cu2+ from simulated and real leached mixed metals solution was carried out using di-2-ethylhexylphophoric acid (D2EPHA) and Cyanex-272 at varying pH. Further experiments with the preferred extractant (D2EPHA) were performed under different conditions: changing the concentration of extractant, organic to aqueous ratio, and varying the diluents. At optimum conditions (40% v/v D2EPHA in kerosene, pH 2.5, O:A = 1:1, 25 °C, and 20 min), 85% Mn2+, 98% Al3+, 100% Fe3+, and 43% Cu2+ were extracted with losses of only trace amounts (<5.0%) of Co2+, Ni2+, and Li+. The order of extraction efficiency for the diluents was found to be kerosene > Exxal-10 >>> dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) > toluene. Four stages of stripping of metals loaded on D2EPHA were performed as co-extracted metal impurities were selectively stripped, and a purified MnSO4 solution was produced. Spent extractant was regenerated after Fe3+ and Al3+ were completely stripped using 1.0 M oxalic acid (C2H2O4).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110549
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 550: Melt-Spinning Mesophase Pitch-Based Graphite
           Fibers as Anode Materials for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jianlin Li, Qian Wang, Jianhui Zhang
      First page: 550
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have rapidly become the most widely used energy storage devices in mobile electronic equipment, electric vehicles, power grid energy storage devices and other applications. Due to their outstanding stability and high conductivity, carbon materials are among the most preferred anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In this study, mesophase pitch-based graphite fibers (GFs) were successfully prepared through melt-spinning, thermo-oxidative stabilization, carbonization and graphitization and used as anode materials. The radial fiber structure can lower the activation energy and minimize the distance of the Li+ diffusion, while the highly conductive cross-linked network within the fibers benefits the speed up charge transmission. Thus, the as-synthesized graphite fibers demonstrate superior rate capability and cycle stability. GFs exhibit a capacity retention rate of 97.94% and reversible capacity of 327.8 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C, which is higher than that of natural graphite anode materials (85.66% and 289.7 mA h g−1, respectively). Moreover, the as-synthesized graphite fibers deliver a capacity retention of 64.7% at a high rate of 5 C, which is considerably higher than that of natural graphite (19.7%).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110550
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 551: Bi-Continuous Si/C Anode Materials Derived
           from Silica Aerogels for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Yunpeng Shan, Junzhang Wang, Zhou Xu, Shengchi Bai, Yingting Zhu, Xiaoqi Wang, Xingzhong Guo
      First page: 551
      Abstract: Poor cycling performance caused by massive volume expansion of silicon (Si) has always hindered the widespread application of silicon-based anode materials. Herein, bi-continuous silicon/carbon (Si/C) anode materials are prepared via magnesiothermic reduction of silica aerogels followed by pitch impregnation and carbonization. To fabricate the expected bi-continuous structure, mesoporous silica aerogel is selected as the raw material for magnesiothermic reduction. It is successfully reduced to mesoporous Si under the protection of NaCl. The as-obtained mesoporous Si is then injected with molten pitch via vacuuming, and the pitch is subsequently converted into carbon at a high temperature. The innovative point of this strategy is the construction of a bi-continuous structure, which features both Si and carbon with a cross-linked structure, which provides an area to accommodate the colossal volume change of Si. The pitch-derived carbon facilitates fast lithium ion transfer, thereby increasing the conductivity of the Si/C anode. It can also diminish direct contact between Si and the electrolyte, minimizing side reactions between them. The obtained bi-continuous Si/C anodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a high initial discharge capacity of 1481.7 mAh g−1 at a current density of 300 mA g−1 and retaining as 813.5 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles and an improved initial Coulombic efficiency of 82%. The as-prepared bi-continuous Si/C anode may have great potential applications in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110551
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 552: Experimental Investigation of Thermal
           Runaway Propagation in a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack: Effects of State of
           Charge and Coolant Flow Rate

    • Authors: Wanyi Wu, Qiaomin Ke, Jian Guo, Yiwei Wang, Yishu Qiu, Jiwen Cen, Fangming Jiang
      First page: 552
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used as power sources for electric vehicles due to their various advantages, including high energy density and low self-discharge rate. However, the safety challenges associated with LIB thermal runaway (TR) still need to be addressed. In the present study, the effects of the battery SOC value and coolant flow rate on the TR behavior in a LIB pack are comprehensively investigated. The battery pack consists of 10 18650-type LIBs applied with the serpentine channel liquid-cooling thermal management system (TMS). The TR tests for various SOC values (50%, 75% and 100%) and coolant flow rates (0 L/h, 32 L/h, 64 L/h and 96 L/h) are analyzed. The retarding effect of the TMS on TR propagation is found to be correlated with both the coolant flow rate and the battery SOC value, and a larger coolant flow rate and lower SOC generally result in fewer TR batteries. Furthermore, the TR propagation rate, evaluated by the time interval of TR occurrence between the adjacent batteries, increases with the battery SOC. The battery pack with 100% SOC shows more rapid TR propagation, which can be completed in just a few seconds, in contrast to several minutes for 50% and 75% SOC cases. In addition, the impact of the battery SOC and coolant flow rate on the maximum temperature of the TR battery is also examined, and no determined association is observed between them. However, it is found that the upstream batteries (closer to the external heater) show a slightly higher maximum temperature than the downstream ones, indicating a weak association between the TR battery maximum temperature and the external heating duration or the battery temperature at which the TR starts to take place.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110552
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 553: Comprehensive Study of Failure Mechanisms of
           Field-Aged Automotive Lead Batteries

    • Authors: Rafael Conradt, Philipp Schröer, Martin Dazer, Jonathan Wirth, Florian Jöris, Dominik Schulte, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Modern vehicles have increasing safety requirements and a need for reliable low-voltage power supply in their on-board power supply systems. Understanding the causes and probabilities of failures in a 12 V power supply is crucial. Field analyses of aged and failed 12 V lead batteries can provide valuable insights regarding this topic. In a previous study, non-invasive electrical testing was used to objectively determine the reasons for failure and the lifetime of individual batteries. By identifying all of the potential failure mechanisms, the Latin hypercube sampling method was found to effectively reduce the required sample size. To ensure sufficient confidence in validating diagnostic algorithms and calculating time-dependent failure rates, all identified aging phenomena must be considered. This study presents a probability distribution of the failure mechanisms that occur in the field, as well as provides insights into potential opportunities, but it also challenges diagnostic approaches for current and future vehicles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110553
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 554: A Facile Two-Step Thermal Process for
           Producing a Dense, Phase-Pure, Cubic Ta-Doped Lithium Lanthanum Zirconium
           Oxide Electrolyte for Upscaling

    • Authors: Diwakar Karuppiah, Dmitrii Komissarenko, Nur Sena Yüzbasi, Yang Liu, Pradeep Vallachira Warriam Sasikumar, Amir Hadian, Thomas Graule, Frank Clemens, Gurdial Blugan
      First page: 554
      Abstract: An inorganic solid electrolyte is the most favorable candidate for replacing flammable liquid electrolytes in lithium batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZO) is considered a promising solid electrolyte due to its safe operating potential window (0–5 V) combined with its good electrochemical stability. In this work, 250 g batches of pre-sintered Ta-doped LLZO (Li7La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12, Ta-LLZO) were synthesized for bulk production of a dense LLZO electrolyte. A simple two-step thermal treatment process was developed. The first thermal step at 950 °C initiates nucleation of LLZO, with carefully controlled process parameters such as heating atmosphere, temperature, and dopant concentration. In the second thermal step at 1150 °C, sintered discs were obtained as solid electrolytes, with relative densities of 96%. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase purity of the sintered Ta-LLZO disc, and refined data were used to calculate the lattice parameter (12.944 Å). Furthermore, the presence of the Ta dopant in the disc was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The ionic and electronic conductivity values of the Ta-LLZO disc were 10−4 S cm−1 and 10−10 S cm−1, respectively. These values confirm that the prepared (Ta-LLZO) discs exhibit ionic conductivity while being electronically insulating, being suitable for use as solid electrolytes with the requisite electrical properties.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110554
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 555: Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing:
           Industrial View on Processing Challenges, Possible Solutions and Recent

    • Authors: Aslihan Örüm Aydin, Franziska Zajonz, Till Günther, Kamil Burak Dermenci, Maitane Berecibar, Lisset Urrutia
      First page: 555
      Abstract: Developments in different battery chemistries and cell formats play a vital role in the final performance of the batteries found in the market. However, battery manufacturing process steps and their product quality are also important parameters affecting the final products’ operational lifetime and durability. In this review paper, we have provided an in-depth understanding of lithium-ion battery manufacturing in a chemistry-neutral approach starting with a brief overview of existing Li-ion battery manufacturing processes and developing a critical opinion of future prospectives, including key aspects such as digitalization, upcoming manufacturing technologies and their scale-up potential. In this sense, the review paper will promote an understanding of the process parameters and product quality.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110555
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 556: Crosslinked PVA/Citric Acid Nanofibrous
           Separators with Enhanced Mechanical and Thermal Properties for Lithium-Ion

    • Authors: Shuangyang Cai, Yuexi Liang, Jialu Wu, Haizhen Chen, Zhenzhen Wei, Yan Zhao
      First page: 556
      Abstract: Electrospinning polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous membranes have gained increased attention for their uses as separators for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high porosity and excellent electrolyte wettability, but their poor mechanical and thermal properties have limited their further development. In this work, a crosslinked PVA composite separator (PVA/CA-H) was first prepared via the electrospinning of the PVA and citric acid (CA) mixed solution and then the heating of the nanofibrous membrane, and the effects of the amount of CA on the structure and performance of the PVA/CA-H separator were investigated. The hydroxyl group of PVA and the carboxyl group of CA were crosslinked under the heat treatment, resulting in a slight reduction in the porosity and pore size of the composite separator compared to pure PVA, and to compensate for this issue, the mechanical strengths, as well as the thermal dimensional stability of the PVA/CA-H separator, were significantly improved. Meanwhile, the PVA/CA-H separator exhibited good electrolyte uptake (158.1%) and high ionic conductivity (1.63 mS cm−1), and, thus, the battery assembled with the PVA/CA-H separator exhibited a capacity retention of 96.3% after 150 cycles at 1 C. These features mean that the crosslinked PVA composite separator can be considered as a prospective high-safety and high-performance separator for LIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110556
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 557: The Role of Binders for Water-Based Anode
           Dispersions in Inkjet Printing

    • Authors: Cara Greta Kolb, Alessandro Sommer, Maja Lehmann, Carys-May Teixeira, Hannes Panzer, Saeed Maleksaeedi, Michael Friedrich Zaeh
      First page: 557
      Abstract: Binders play a pivotal role in the production and the operation of lithium-ion batteries. They influence a number of key dispersion characteristics and battery parameters. In the light of growing interest in additive manufacturing technologies, binders were found to decisively govern the processability due to the induced complex non-Newtonian behavior. This paper examines the relevance of various binder derivatives for aqueous graphite dispersions that can be employed in inkjet printing. Two different carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) derivatives with strongly deviating molecular weights were employed. The impact of the inherent polymer characteristics on the processability and the electrode characteristics were explored. Therefore, miscellaneous studies were carried out at the dispersion, the electrode, and the cell levels. The results revealed that the CMC with the lower molecular weight affected most of the studied characteristics more favorably than the counterpart with a higher molecular weight. In particular, the processability, encompassing drop formation and drop deposition, the cohesion behavior, and the electrochemical characteristics, were positively impacted by the low-molecular-weight CMC. The adhesion behavior was enhanced using the high-molecular-weight CMC. This demonstrates that the selection of a suitable binder derivative merits close attention.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110557
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 558: Modeling Silicon-Dominant Anodes:
           Parametrization, Discussion, and Validation of a Newman-Type Model

    • Authors: Axel Durdel, Sven Friedrich, Lukas Hüsken, Andreas Jossen
      First page: 558
      Abstract: Silicon is a promising anode material and can already be found in commercially available lithium-ion cells. Reliable modeling and simulations of new active materials for lithium-ion batteries are becoming more and more important, especially regarding cost-efficient cell design. Because literature lacks an electrochemical model for silicon-dominant electrodes, this work aims to close the gap. To this end, a Newman p2D model for a lithium-ion cell with a silicon-dominant anode and a nickel-cobalt-aluminum-oxide cathode is parametrized. The micrometer silicon particles are partially lithiated to 1200mAh/gSi. The parametrization is based on values from the electrode manufacturing process, measured values using lab cells, and literature data. Charge and discharge tests at six different C-rates up to 2C serve as validation data, showing a root-mean-squared error of about 21mV and a deviation in discharge capacity of about 1.3 , both during a 1 C constant current discharge. Overall, a validated parametrization for a silicon-dominant anode is presented, which, to the best of our knowledge, is not yet available in literature. For future work, more in-depth studies should investigate the material parameters for silicon to expand the data available in the literature and facilitate further simulation work.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110558
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 559: Artificial Neural Network Modeling to
           Predict Thermal and Electrical Performances of Batteries with Direct Oil

    • Authors: Kunal Sandip Garud, Jeong-Woo Han, Seong-Guk Hwang, Moo-Yeon Lee
      First page: 559
      Abstract: The limitations of existing commercial indirect liquid cooling have drawn attention to direct liquid cooling for battery thermal management in next-generation electric vehicles. To commercialize direct liquid cooling for battery thermal management, an extensive database reflecting performance and operating parameters needs to be established. The development of prediction models could generate this reference database to design an effective cooling system with the least experimental effort. In the present work, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling is demonstrated to predict the thermal and electrical performances of batteries with direct oil cooling based on various operating conditions. The experiments are conducted on an 18650 battery module with direct oil cooling to generate the learning data for the development of neural network models. The neural network models are developed considering oil temperature, oil flow rate, and discharge rate as the input operating conditions and maximum temperature, temperature difference, heat transfer coefficient, and voltage as the output thermal and electrical performances. The proposed neural network models comprise two algorithms, the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) training variant with the Tangential-Sigmoidal (Tan-Sig) transfer function and that with the Logarithmic-Sigmoidal (Log-Sig) transfer function. The ANN_LM-Tan algorithm with a structure of 3-10-10-4 shows accurate prediction of thermal and electrical performances under all operating conditions compared to the ANN_LM-Log algorithm with the same structure. The maximum prediction errors for the ANN_LM-Tan and ANN_LM-Log algorithms are restricted within 0.97% and 4.81%, respectively, considering all input and output parameters. The ANN_LM-Tan algorithm is suggested to accurately predict the thermal and electrical performances of batteries with direct oil cooling based on a maximum determination coefficient (R2) and variance coefficient (COV) of 0.99 and 1.65, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110559
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 560: Micro-Sized MoS6@15%Li7P3S11 Composite
           Enables Stable All-Solid-State Battery with High Capacity

    • Authors: Mingyuan Chang, Mengli Yang, Wenrui Xie, Fuli Tian, Gaozhan Liu, Ping Cui, Tao Wu, Xiayin Yao
      First page: 560
      Abstract: All-solid-state lithium batteries without any liquid organic electrolytes can realize high energy density while eliminating flammability issues. Active materials with high specific capacity and favorable interfacial contact within the cathode layer are crucial to the realization of good electrochemical performance. Herein, we report a high-capacity polysulfide cathode material, MoS6@15%Li7P3S11, with a particle size of 1–4 μm. The MoS6 exhibited an impressive initial specific capacity of 913.9 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1. When coupled with the Li7P3S11 electrolyte coating layer, the resultant MoS6@15%Li7P3S11 composite showed improved interfacial contact and an optimized ionic diffusivity range from 10−12–10−11 cm2 s−1 to 10−11–10−10 cm2 s−1. The Li/Li6PS5Cl/MoS6@15%Li7P3S11 all-solid-state lithium battery delivered ultra-high initial and reversible specific capacities of 1083.8 mAh g−1 and 851.5 mAh g−1, respectively, at a current density of 0.1 A g−1 within 1.0–3.0 V. Even under 1 A g−1, the battery maintained a reversible specific capacity of 400 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles. This work outlines a promising cathode material with intimate interfacial contact and superior ionic transport kinetics within the cathode layer as well as high specific capacity for use in all-solid-state lithium batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110560
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 561: Developing a Se Quantum Dots@ CoFeOx
           Composite Nanomaterial as a Highly Active and Stable Cathode Material for
           Rechargeable Zinc–Air Batteries

    • Authors: Donghao Zhang, Yang Wang, Xiaopeng Han, Wenbin Hu
      First page: 561
      Abstract: With the urgent demand for clean energy, rechargeable zinc–air batteries (ZABs) are attracting increasing attention. Precious-metal-based electrocatalysts (e.g., commercial Pt/C and IrO2) are reported to be highly active towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Nevertheless, the limited catalytic kinetics, along with the scarcity of noble metals, still hinder the practical applications of ZABs. Consequently, it is of great importance to explore efficient bifunctional ORR/OER electrocatalysts with abundant reserves. Although iron oxides are considered to have some of the greatest potential as catalysts among the metal oxides, owing to their excellent redox properties, lower toxicity, simple preparation, and natural abundance, their poor electrical conductivity and high agglomeration still limit their development. In this work, we report a special Se quantum dots@ CoFeOx (Se-FeOx-Co) composite material, which exhibits outstanding bifunctional catalytic properties. And the potential gap between ORR and OER is low at 0.87 V. In addition, the ZAB based on Se-FeOx-Co achieves a satisfactory open-circuit voltage (1.46 V) along with an operation durability over 800 min. This research explores an effective strategy to fabricate iron oxide-based bifunctional catalysts, which contributes to the future design of related materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9110561
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 482: Fe3O4 Nanoparticle-Decorated Bimodal Porous
           Carbon Nanocomposite Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Juti Rani Deka, Diganta Saikia, Yuan-Hung Lai, Hsien-Ming Kao, Yung-Chin Yang
      First page: 482
      Abstract: A new nanocomposite system based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles confined in three-dimensional (3D) dual-mode cubic porous carbon is developed using the nanocasting and wet-impregnation methods to assess its performance as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. Several Fe3O4 precursor concentrations are chosen to optimize and determine the best-performing nanocomposite composition. The cubic mesoporous carbon CMK-9 offers a better ability for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles to be accommodated inside the mesopores, efficiently buffering the variation in volume and equally enhancing electrode/electrolyte contact for rapid charge and mass transfer. Among the prepared nanocomposites, the Fe3O4(13)@C9 anode delivers an excellent reversible discharge capacity of 1222 mA h g−1 after 150 cycles at a current rate of 100 mA g−1, with a capacity retention of 96.8% compared to the fourth cycle (1262 mA h g−1). At a higher current rate of 1000 mA g−1, the nanocomposite anode offers a superior discharge capacity of 636 mA h g−1 beyond 300 cycles. The present study reveals the use of a 3D mesoporous carbon material as a scaffold for anchoring Fe3O4 nanoparticles with impressive potential as an anode for new-generation lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100482
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 483: Battery Degradation Impact on Long-Term
           Benefits for Hybrid Farms in Overlapping Markets

    • Authors: Pedro Luis Camuñas García-Miguel, Jaime Alonso-Martinez, Santiago Arnaltes Gómez, Manuel García Plaza, Andrés Peña Asensio
      First page: 483
      Abstract: Participation in the electricity market requires making commitments without knowing the real generation or electricity prices. This is problematic for renewable generators due to their fluctuating output. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) integrated with renewable sources in a hybrid farm (HF) can alleviate imbalances and increase power system flexibility. However, the impact of battery degradation on long-term profitability must be taken into account when choosing the correct market participation strategy. This study evaluates the state-of-the-art on energy management systems (EMS) for HFs participating in day-ahead and intraday markets, incorporating both BESSs’ calendar and cycling degradation. Results suggest that efforts to attain additional profits in intraday markets can be detrimental, especially when the degradation effect is considered in the analysis. A new market participation strategy is proposed that aims to address the limitations of market overlapping and forecasting errors. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can enhance long-term benefits while also reducing battery degradation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100483
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 484: Modeling and Experimental Investigation of
           the Interaction between Pressure-Dependent Aging and Pressure Development
           Due to the Aging of Lithium-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Arber Avdyli, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 484
      Abstract: In order to meet the increasing demands of the battery in terms of range, safety and performance, it is necessary to ensure optimal operation conditions of a lithium-ion cell. In this thesis, the influence of mechanical boundary conditions on the cell is investigated theoretically and experimentally. First, fundamental equations are derived that lead to coupled models that can be parameterized based on specific cell measurements and predict the pressure evolution due to capacity aging and vice versa. The model is used to derive optimal operating points of the cell, which can be considered in the module design.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100484
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 485: Functional Surface Coating to Enhance the
           Stability of LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2

    • Authors: Yingying Xie, Matthew Li, Jiantao Li, Xiaozhou Huang, Jiyu Cai, Zhenzhen Yang, Hoai Nguyen, Baasit ali Shaik sulaiman, Niloofar Karami, Natalya A. Chernova, Shailesh Upreti, Brad Prevel, Feng Wang, Zonghai Chen
      First page: 485
      Abstract: Parasitic reactions are responsible for continuous performance loss during the normal operation and storage of lithium-ion batteries, particularly for those using nickel-rich cathode materials. Among many contributors, residual Li2CO3 on the surface of nickel-rich cathodes plays a detrimental role in promoting parasitic reactions, and hence accelerates the performance loss of those cathode materials. In this work, a wet impregnation process was utilized to convert the detrimental Li2CO3 and LiOH impurities into a beneficial functional surface coating comprising phosphates. Specifically, hydro-phosphates were used as the functional surface modification agents to mitigate the detrimental effect of surface residuals. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by modifying LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 with a diluted dihydro-phosphate solution (pKa = 7.2), while the metal cation had a negligible impact on the electrochemical performance. This work provides a cheap and simple method for enabling the high performance of nickel-rich cathodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100485
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 486: Cloud-Based Optimization of a Battery Model
           Parameter Identification Algorithm for Battery State-of-Health Estimation
           in Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Roberto Di Rienzo, Niccolò Nicodemo, Roberto Roncella, Roberto Saletti, Nando Vennettilli, Salvatore Asaro, Roberto Tola, Federico Baronti
      First page: 486
      Abstract: Connectivity and cloud computing are key elements in the future of electric mobility. They allow manufacturers to provide advanced fleet management and predictive diagnostic services. In particular, cloud computing dramatically enhances data availability and enables the use of more complex and accurate state estimation algorithms for electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries. A tuning procedure for a moving window least squares algorithm to estimate the parameters of a 2-RC equivalent circuit battery model is presented in this paper. The tuning procedure uses real data collected from a test vehicle and uploaded to the Stellantis-CRF cloud. The tuned algorithm was applied to eight months of road tests and showed very small estimation errors. The errors are comparable to other literature data, even when the literature results were obtained in laboratory tests. The estimated model parameters are tracked through time and seem accurate enough to show the first signs of battery aging.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100486
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 487: Interfacial Tuning of Polymeric Composite
           Materials for High-Performance Energy Devices

    • Authors: Balaraman Vedhanarayanan, K. C. Seetha Lakshmi, Tsung-Wu Lin
      First page: 487
      Abstract: Polymeric composite materials attracted attention when pristine polymers alone could not fulfill the necessity of high-performance functional materials for wide applications. Mixing two or more polymers (blends) together or compositing the polymers with inorganic compounds/carbon-based nanomaterials greatly solved the problem associated with the mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties along with the chemical stability, which paves a new pathway for optimizing the functional properties of active materials. However, a mere mixing of individual components sometimes would not provide enhanced properties due to the formation of phase-separated, larger domains of components. In particular, the grain boundaries of components, also known as “interfaces”, actually determine the properties of these composite materials. The tuning of interfacial properties is significant to achieve composites with higher electrical conductivity and better charge transfer kinetics if they are targeted toward high-performance energy devices. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advancements in the area of polymeric composite materials with tuned interfacial characteristics towards energy conversion (solar cells, photocatalytic hydrogen production, and nanogenerators) and energy storage (supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries) devices with very recent representative examples.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100487
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 488: Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur
           Batteries: Progress and Challenges

    • Authors: Mingxun Jia, Tunan Li, Daotong Yang, Luhua Lu, Limei Duan, Jinghai Liu, Tong Wu
      First page: 488
      Abstract: The lithium-sulfur battery has garnered significant attention from both researchers and industry due to its exceptional energy density and capacity. However, the conventional liquid electrolyte poses safety concerns due to its low boiling point, hence, research on liquid electrolytes has gradually shifted towards solid electrolytes. The polymer electrolyte exhibits significant potential for packaging flexible batteries with high energy density owing to its exceptional flexibility and processability, but it also has inherent disadvantages such as poor ionic conductivity, high crystallinity, and lack of active groups. This article critically examines recent literature to explore two types of polymer electrolytes, namely gel polymer electrolyte and solid polymer electrolyte. It analyzes the impact of polymers on the formation of lithium dendrites, addresses the challenges posed by multiple interfaces, and investigates the underlying causes of capacity decay in polymer solid-state batteries. Clarifying the current progress and summarizing the specific challenges encountered by polymer-based electrolytes will significantly contribute to the development of polymer-based lithium-sulfur battery. Finally, the challenges and prospects of certain polymer solid electrolytes in lithium-sulfur battery are examined, thereby facilitating the commercialization of solid polymer electrolytes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100488
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 489: Analytic Free-Energy Expression for the
           2D-Ising Model and Perspectives for Battery Modeling

    • Authors: Daniel Markthaler, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 489
      Abstract: Although originally developed to describe the magnetic behavior of matter, the Ising model represents one of the most widely used physical models, with applications in almost all scientific areas. Even after 100 years, the model still poses challenges and is the subject of active research. In this work, we address the question of whether it is possible to describe the free energy A of a finite-size 2D-Ising model of arbitrary size, based on a couple of analytically solvable 1D-Ising chains. The presented novel approach is based on rigorous statistical-thermodynamic principles and involves modeling the free energy contribution of an added inter-chain bond ΔAbond(β,N) as function of inverse temperature β and lattice size N. The identified simple analytic expression for ΔAbond is fitted to exact results of a series of finite-size quadratic N×N-systems and enables straightforward and instantaneous calculation of thermodynamic quantities of interest, such as free energy and heat capacity for systems of an arbitrary size. This approach is not only interesting from a fundamental perspective with respect to the possible transfer to a 3D-Ising model, but also from an application-driven viewpoint in the context of (Li-ion) batteries where it could be applied to describe intercalation mechanisms.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100489
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 490: Solid-State Lithium Batteries with
           Cathode-Supported Composite Solid Electrolytes Enabling High-Rate
           Capability and Excellent Cyclic Performance

    • Authors: Kang-Feng Chang, Pradeep Kumar Panda, Chien-Te Hsieh, Po-Chih Yang, Navish Kataria, Kuan Shiong Khoo
      First page: 490
      Abstract: In this study, robust composite solid electrolytes were developed and employed to enhance the performance of Li-metal batteries significantly. The robust composite solid electrolytes are composed of a soft polymer, poly(ethylene oxide), a Li salt, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), and super ionic conductive ceramic fillers such as Li1.5Al0.5Ti1.5(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO). The main goal of this study is to enhance the electrochemical stability and ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivities of the composite solid electrolytes were found to be 2.08 × 10−4 and 1.64 × 10−4 S cm−1 with the introduction of LATP and LLZTO fillers, respectively. The results prove that the fabricated solid electrolyte was electrochemical stable at voltage exceeding 4.25 V vs. Li/Li+. The internal resistance of the solid electrolyte significantly reduced compared to gel electrolyte. This reduction can be attributed to the alleviation of bulk electrolyte, charge-transfer, and interfacial electrolyte/electrode impedance. When LiFePO4 cathode sheets are coated with a composite solid electrolyte containing LATP powders, the resulting Li-metal battery displays high capacity at 5 C (with a capacity retention of 65.2% compared to the original capacity at 0.2 C) as well as superior cyclic stability and excellent Coulombic efficiency (>99.5%, 200 cycles). These results confirm that the composite solid electrolyte acts as a protective layer which has the ability to prevent the growth of Li dendrites. Consequently, the fabricated electrolyte configuration can be engineered to enable high energy/power density and electrochemical stable cyclability in Li-metal batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100490
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 491: Classification of Lithium-Ion Batteries
           Based on Impedance Spectrum Features and an Improved K-Means Algorithm

    • Authors: Qingping Zhang, Jiaqiang Tian, Zhenhua Yan, Xiuguang Li, Tianhong Pan
      First page: 491
      Abstract: This article presents a classification method that utilizes impedance spectrum features and an enhanced K-means algorithm for Lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, a parameter identification method for the fractional order model is proposed, which is based on the flow direction algorithm (FDA). In order to reduce the dimensionality of battery features, the Pearson correlation coefficient is employed to analyze the correlation between impedance spectrum features. The battery classification is carried out using the improved K-means algorithm, which incorporates the optimization of the initial clustering center using the grey wolf optimization (GWO) algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in accurately classifying batteries and its high level of accuracy and robustness. Consequently, this method can be relied upon to provide robust support for battery performance evaluation and fault diagnosis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100491
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 492: Chemically and Physically Cross-Linked
           Inorganic–Polymer Hybrid Solvent-Free Electrolytes

    • Authors: Yamato Kanai, Koji Hiraoka, Mutsuhiro Matsuyama, Shiro Seki
      First page: 492
      Abstract: Safe, self-standing, all-solid-state batteries with improved solid electrolytes that have adequate mechanical strength, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability are strongly desired. Hybrid electrolytes comprising flexible polymers and highly conductive inorganic electrolytes must be compatible with soft thin films with high ionic conductivity. Herein, we propose a new type of solid electrolyte hybrid comprising a glass–ceramic inorganic electrolyte powder (Li1+x+yAlxTi2−xSiyP3−yO12; LICGC) in a poly(ethylene)oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolyte that prevents decreases in ionic conductivity caused by grain boundary resistance. We investigated the cross-linking processes taking place in hybrid electrolytes. We also prepared chemically cross-linked PEO/LICGC and physically cross-linked poly(norbornene)/LICGC electrolytes, and evaluated them using thermal and electrochemical analyses, respectively. All of the obtained electrolyte systems were provided with homogenous, white, flexible, and self-standing thin films. The main ionic conductive phase changed from the polymer to the inorganic electrolyte at low temperatures (close to the glass transition temperature) as the LICGC concentration increased, and the Li+ ion transport number also improved. Cyclic voltammetry using [Li metal Ni] cells revealed that Li was reversibly deposited/dissolved in the prepared hybrid electrolytes, which are expected to be used as new Li+-conductive solid electrolyte systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100492
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 493: Boosting the Lithium Storage Properties of a
           Flexible Li4Ti5O12/Graphene Fiber Anode via a 3D Printing Assembly

    • Authors: Chenpeng Zhao, Rui Wang, Biao Fang, Han Liang, Biyuan Nie, Ruyi Wang, Biao Xu, Songyang Feng, Ruqing Li, Shuaifei Li, Yuhui Xiong, Yuye Shao, Runwei Mo
      First page: 493
      Abstract: Traditional lithium-ion batteries cannot meet the high flexibility and bendability requirements of modern flexible electronic devices due to the limitations of the electrode material. Therefore, the development of high-performance flexible energy storage devices is of great significance for promoting flexible electronics. In recent years, one-dimensional flexible fiber lithium-ion batteries have been rapidly developed due to their advantages of high flexibility and bendability. However, it remains highly challenging to realize 1D flexible fiber lithium-ion batteries with excellent electrochemical properties and good mechanical performance. In this work, a reduced graphene oxide-based printing ink is proposed for the fabrication of flexible Li4Ti5O12/graphene fiber electrodes using a 3D printing assembly strategy. It is noteworthy that the green reducing agent vitamin C was used to reduce the graphene oxide in one step, which improved the conductivity of the fiber electrode. Furthermore, a 3D conductive network was constructed inside the fiber electrodes due to the high specific surface area of the reduced graphene oxide, which enhanced the electronic conductivity and ion mobility. The fiber electrode not only exhibits good mechanical performance, but also has excellent electrochemical properties. Equally importantly, the method is simple and efficient, and the working environment is flexible. It can precisely control the shape, size and structure of the one-dimensional fiber flexible electrode, which is of great significance for the development of future flexible electronic devices.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100493
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 494: Online State-of-Health Estimation for NMC
           Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Observer Structure

    • Authors: Jan Neunzling, Hanno Winter, David Henriques, Matthias Fleckenstein, Torsten Markus
      First page: 494
      Abstract: State-of-health (SoH) estimation is one of the key tasks of a battery management system, (BMS) as battery aging results in capacity- and power fade that must be accounted for by the BMS to ensure safe operation over the battery’s lifetime. In this study, an online SoH estimator approach for NMC Li-ion batteries is presented which is suitable for implementation in a BMS. It is based on an observer structure in which the difference between a calculated and expected open-circuit voltage (OCV) is used for online SoH estimation. The estimator is parameterized and evaluated using real measurement data. The data were recorded for more than two years on an electrified bus fleet of 10 buses operated in a mild European climate and used regularly in the urban transport sector. Each bus is equipped with four NMC Li-ion batteries. Every battery has an energy of 30.6 kWh. Additionally, two full-capacity checkup measurements were performed for one of the operated batteries: one directly after production and one after two years of operation. Initial validation results demonstrated a SoH estimation accuracy of ±0.5% compared to the last checkup measurement.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100494
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 495: Effect of the Calcination Duration on the
           Electrochemical Properties of Na2Ti3O7 as Anode Material for Na-Ion

    • Authors: Caroline Piffet, Nicolas Eshraghi, Gregory Mottet, Frédéric Hatert, Jolanta Światowska, Rudi Cloots, Frédéric Boschini, Abdelfattah Mahmoud
      First page: 495
      Abstract: The growing interest in Na-ion batteries as a “beyond lithium” technologies for energy storage drives the research for high-performance and environment-friendly materials. Na2Ti3O7 (NTO) as an eco-friendly, low-cost anode material shows a very low working potential of 0.3 V vs. Na+/Na but suffers from poor cycling stability, which properties can be significantly influenced by materials synthesis and treatment. Thus, in this work, the influence of the calcination time on the electrochemical performance and the reaction mechanism during cycling were investigated. NTO heat-treated for 48 h at 800 °C (NTO-48h) demonstrated enhanced cycling performance in comparison to NTO heat-treated for only 8 h (NTO-8h). The pristine material was thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and specific surface area measurements. The reaction mechanisms induced by sodiation/desodiation and cycling were investigated by operando XRD. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evidence the evolution of the solid electrolyte interface layer (SEI) and modification of charge transfer resistances as well as the influence of cycling on capacity decay. The evolution of the crystallographic structure of NTO-48h revealed a more ordered structure and lower surface contamination compared to NTO-8h. Moreover, the residual Na4Ti3O7 phase detected after the sodium extraction step in NTO-8h seems correlated to the lower electrochemical performance of NTO-8h compared to NTO-48h.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100495
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 496: Triggering and Characterisation of Realistic
           Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells—A New Approach
           Using Precise Needle Penetration

    • Authors: Jens Grabow, Jacob Klink, Nury Orazov, Ralf Benger, Ines Hauer, Hans-Peter Beck
      First page: 496
      Abstract: The internal short circuit (ISC) in lithium-ion batteries is a serious problem since it is probably the most common cause of a thermal runaway (TR) that still presents many open questions, even though it has been intensively investigated. Therefore, this article focusses on the generation and characterisation of the local single-layer ISC, which is typically caused by cell-internal impurity particles that cannot be completely eliminated in the cell production. A new, very promising method of precise and slow (1 μm s−1) needle penetration made it possible to generate the most safety-critical reliable short-circuit type—the contact between the Al-Collector and the graphite active material of the anode—as demonstrated on a 10 Ah Graphite/NMC pouch cell. The special efforts in achieving high reproducibility as well as the detailed analysis of the initiated internal short-circuit conditions led to more reliable and meaningful results. A comprehensive approach to characterisation has been made by detailed measurement of the dynamic short-circuit evolution and a subsequent post-characterisation, which included the application of different electrochemical measurement techniques as well as a post-abuse analysis. It was shown that the cells demonstrated a very individual and difficult-to-predict behaviour, which is a major challenge for early failure detection and risk assessment of cells with an existing or former ISC. On the one hand, it is found that despite high local temperatures of over 1260 ∘C and significant damage to the cell-internal structure, the cell did not develop a TR even with further cycling. On the other hand, it was observed that the TR occurs spontaneously without any previous abnormalities. Based on the overall test results, it was shown that at the high state of charge (SOC = 100%), even small, dynamically developing voltage drops (<10 mV) must be classified as safety-critical for the cell. For reliable and early failure detection, the first voltage drops of the ISC must already be detected.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100496
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 497: High-Performance Full Sodium Cells Based on
           MgO-Treated P2-Type Na0.67(Mn0.5Fe0.5)1−xCoxO2 Cathodes

    • Authors: Nermin Taskiran, Sebahat Altundag, Violeta Koleva, Emine Altin, Muhammad Arshad, Sevda Avci, Mehmet Nurullah Ates, Serdar Altin, Radostina Stoyanova
      First page: 497
      Abstract: Herein, we design a cathode material based on layered Na2/3(Mn1/2Fe1/2)O2 for practical application by combining the Co substitution and MgO treatment strategies. The oxides are prepared via solid-state reactions at 900 °C. The structure, morphology, and oxidation state of transition metal ions for Co-substituted and MgO-treated oxides are carefully examined via X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopies, FESEM with EDX, specific surface area measurement, and XPS spectroscopy. The ability of oxides to store sodium reversibly is analyzed within a temperature range of 10 to 50 °C via CV experiments, galvanostatic measurements, and EIS, using half and full sodium ion cells. The changes in the local structure and oxidation state of transition metal ions during Na+ intercalation are monitored via operando XAS experiments. It is found that the Co substituents have a positive impact on the rate capability of layered oxides, while Mg additives lead to a strong increase in the capacity and an enhancement of the cycling stability. Thus, the highest capacity is obtained for 2 at.%-MgO-treated Na2/3(Mn1/2Fe1/2)0.9Co0.1O2 (175 mAh/g, with a capacity fade of 28% after 100 cycles). In comparison with Co substituents, the Mg treatment has a crucial role in the improvement of the lattice stability during the cycling process. The best electrode materials, with a chemical formula of 2 at.%-MgO treated Na2/3(Mn1/2Fe1/2)0.9Co0.1O2, were also used for the full cells design, with hard carbon as an anode. In the voltage window of 2–4 V, the capacity of the cells was obtained as 78 mAh/g and 51 mAh/g for applied current densities of 12 mA/g and 60 mA/g, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100497
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 498: Room-Temperature Eutectic Synthesis for
           Upcycling of Cathode Materials

    • Authors: Hawley, Li, Li
      First page: 498
      Abstract: Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 (NMC) materials have been adopted in a range of applications, including electric vehicles. The recycled NMC material from a spent cell would be much more valuable if it could be upgraded to a Ni-rich, more energy-dense version of the material. This work demonstrates a simple, inexpensive, and facile method to upcycle LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111, 160 mAh∙g−1), a cathode used in early generations of electric vehicle batteries, to LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811, 190 mAh∙g−1), a more energy-dense cathode material. In this study, a preliminary investigation into a room-temperature eutectic synthesis of NMC811 is performed using NMC111, LiOH, and nickel nitrate as precursors. The synthesized material showed the desired crystal structure and stoichiometry, though the cycle life and Li diffusion coefficient need improvement when compared to commercially available NMC811. This study demonstrates an interesting proof of concept of the room-temperature eutectic synthesis process for LIB cathodes and could be improved by tuning the synthesis conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100498
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 499: State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion
           Batteries Based on Vector Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Square and
           Improved Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    • Authors: Yiyi Guo, Jindong Tian, Xiaoyu Li, Bai Song, Yong Tian
      First page: 499
      Abstract: Accurate online parameter identification and state of charge (SOC) estimation are both very crucial for ensuring the operating safety of lithium-ion batteries and usually the former is a base of the latter. To achieve accurate and stable SOC estimation results, this paper proposes a model-based method, which incorporates a vector forgetting factor least square (VFFLS) algorithm and an improved adaptive cubature Kalman filter (IACKF). Firstly, considering it is difficult for the traditional forgetting factor recursive least square (FFRLS) algorithm to balance the accuracy, convergence, and stability for multiple parameters with different time-varying periods, an improved VFFLS method is employed to determine the multiple parameters of the first-order RC battery model online. It supersedes the single forgetting factor in the FFRLS with multiple forgetting factors in a vector form for improving adaptive capability to multiple time-varying parameters. Secondly, aiming at the fact that the standard cubature Kalman filter (CKF) cannot operate properly when the error covariance matrix is non-positive definite, which is caused by disturbance, initial error, and the limit of the computer word length, the UR decomposition rather than the Cholesky decomposition is applied, thus improving the algorithm stability. In addition, an adaptive update strategy is added to the CKF to enhance accuracy and convergence speed. Finally, comparative experiments with different operating patterns, positive and non-positive definite error covariance matrices, and temperatures are carried out. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can estimate the SOC accurately and stably.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100499
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 500: Application of TiS2 as an Active Material
           for Aqueous Calcium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Calcium Intercalation
           into TiS2 from Aqueous Solutions

    • Authors: Sujin Seong, Hajin Lee, Sangyup Lee, Paul Maldonado Nogales, Changhee Lee, Yangsoo Kim, Soon-Ki Jeong
      First page: 500
      Abstract: This study explores the potential of titanium disulfide (TiS2) as an active material for aqueous calcium-ion batteries (CIBs). We investigate the electrochemical redox reactions of calcium ions within TiS2 and assess its suitability for use in aqueous CIBs. Additionally, we examine the impact of varying electrolyte concentrations, ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 mol dm−3, on TiS2 electrode reactions. Our findings reveal that TiS2 exhibits distinct charge–discharge behaviors in various aqueous calcium-ion electrolytes. Notably, at higher electrolyte concentrations, TiS2 effectively suppresses the hydrogen generation reaction caused by water decomposition. In situ X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the intercalation of Ca2+ ions between the TiS2 layers during charging, which is a groundbreaking discovery, signifying TiS2’s applicability in aqueous CIBs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis further supports the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the TiS2 electrode surface, contributing to the suppression of electrolyte decomposition reactions. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of anions in the electrolyte on charge–discharge behavior. Our findings suggest that the choice of anion coordinated with Ca2+ ions affects the SEI formation and cycling performance. Understanding the role of anions in SEI formation is crucial for optimizing aqueous CIBs. In conclusion, this research underscores TiS2’s potential as an active material for aqueous calcium-ion batteries and emphasizes the importance of the electrolyte composition in influencing SEI formation and battery performance, contributing to sustainable and efficient energy storage technologies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100500
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 501: Impact of Multiple Module Collectors on the
           Cell Current Distribution within the Battery Pack

    • Authors: Zhihao Yu, Zhezhe Sun, Long Chang, Chen Ma, Changlong Li, Hongyu Li, Chunxiao Luan, Mohammad Y. M. Al-saidi
      First page: 501
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are usually connected in series and parallel to form a pack for meeting the voltage and capacity requirements of energy storage systems. However, different pack configurations and battery module collector positions result in different equivalent connected resistances, leading to pack current inhomogeneity, which seriously reduces the lifetime and safety of the pack. Therefore, in order to quantitatively analyze the influence of the connected resistance on the current distribution, this study researched the initial cell current distribution of the parallel module by developing mathematical models of different configurations. Then, this study explored the influence of multiple module collector positions on the current inhomogeneity of the pack under the dynamic current condition. The results show that the inhomogeneity of cell current and discharge capacity in the pack with parallel modules connected in series can be improved by keeping each cell in a parallel module with the same distance to its module collector. Furthermore, the current homogeneity of the edge parallel modules in the pack is seriously affected by the position of the single module collector. Therefore, this study innovatively proposes the symmetrical multiple module collectors of the pack, which can greatly improve the current homogeneity of the edge parallel modules, thereby improving the lifetime and safety of the pack.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100501
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 502: Stress Distribution Inside a Lithium-Ion
           Battery Cell during Fast Charging and Its Effect on Degradation of

    • Authors: Mustapha Makki, Cheol W. Lee, Georges Ayoub
      First page: 502
      Abstract: The automotive industry is rapidly transitioning to electric vehicles (EVs) in response to the global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) has emerged as the main tool for energy storage in electric vehicles. A widespread adoption of EVs, however, requires a fast-charging technology that can significantly reduce charging time while avoiding any unsafe conditions including short circuits due to failure of the separator in an LIB cell. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanical stresses during fast charging and their long-term effect on the integrity of the separator. This paper presents a novel hybrid model for the prediction of the stress distribution in the separator of a pouch cell under various charging speeds, ambient temperatures, and pack assembly conditions, such as compressive pressures. The proposed hybrid model consists of three sub-models, namely, an electrochemical cell model, a lumped-parameter model, and a solid mechanics model. A robust parameter identification scheme is implemented to determine the model parameters using the experimental data. The separator within the test setup will experience maximum von Mises stress of 74 MPa during 4C charging, i.e., when the charge current in A is four times as high as the capacity of the battery cell in Ah. To assess the evolution of the damage in the separator under the estimated stress during fast charging, creep and fatigue tests are conducted on the separator. Their results indicate a progressive accumulation of damage in the separator, further emphasizing the importance of understanding and mitigating mechanical degradation in separator materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100502
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 503: New Insights of Infiltration Process of
           Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl Solid Electrolyte into Conventional Lithium-Ion
           Electrodes for Solid-State Batteries

    • Authors: Artur Tron, Andrea Paolella, Alexander Beutl
      First page: 503
      Abstract: All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on solid electrolytes are attractive for electric applications due to their potential high energy density and safety. The sulfide solid electrolyte (e.g., argyrodite) shows a high ionic conductivity (10−3 S cm−1). There is an open question related to the sulfide electrode’s fabrication by simply infiltrating methods applied for conventional lithium-ion battery electrodes via homogeneous solid electrolyte solutions, the structure of electrolytes after drying, chemical stability of binders and electrolyte, the surface morphology of electrolyte, and the deepening of the infiltrated electrolyte into the active materials to provide better contact between the active material and electrolyte and favorable lithium ionic conduction. However, due to the high reactivity of sulfide-based solid electrolytes, unwanted side reactions between sulfide electrolytes and polar solvents may occur. In this work, we explore the chemical and electrochemical properties of the argyrodite-based film produced by infiltration mode by combining electrochemical and structural characterizations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100503
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 504: Molecular Engineering of Redox Couples for
           Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Casey M. Davis, Claire E. Boronski, Tianyi Yang, Tuo Liu, Zhiming Liang
      First page: 504
      Abstract: Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have attracted significant attention as a promising electrochemical energy storage technology, offering various advantages such as grid-scale electricity production with variable intermittent electricity delivery, enhanced safety compared to metal-ion batteries, decoupled energy and power density, and simplified manufacturing processes. For this review, we exclusively focus on organic, non-aqueous redox flow batteries. Specifically, we address the most recent progress and the major challenges related to the design and synthesis of robust redox-active organic compounds. An extensive examination of the synthesis and characterization of a wide spectrum of redox-active molecules, focusing particularly on derivatives of posolytes such as quinone, nitroxyl radicals, dialkoxybenzenes, and phenothiazine and negolytes such as viologen and pyridiniums, is provided. We explore the incorporation of various functional groups as documented in the references, aiming to enhance the chemical and electrochemical stability, as well as the solubility, of both the neutral and radical states of redox-active molecules. Additionally, we offer a comprehensive assessment of the cell-cycling performance exhibited by these redox-active molecules.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100504
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 505: Bismuth Nano-Rods Wrapped with Graphene and
           N-Doped C as Anode Materials for Potassium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Shuangyan Qiao, Yongning Liu, Kai Wang, Shaokun Chong
      First page: 505
      Abstract: Alloying-type anode materials have considerably promoted the development of potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), enabling them to achieve high-energy-density. However, large volume expansion and sluggish dynamic behavior have become key issues affecting electrochemical performance. Herein, bismuth (Bi) nano-rods are anchored on reduced graphene (rGO) and encapsulated via N-doped C (NC) to construct Bi@rGO@NC architecture as anode materials for SIBs and PIBs. The hierarchical confinement effect of three-dimensional conductive networks can not only improve electrode stability upon cycling via suppressing the large volume variation, but also eliminate the band gap of Bi and accelerate ion diffusion, thereby exhibiting favorable electrochemical reaction kinetics. Thus, Bi@rGO@NC contributes an ultra-long lifetime, over 1000 cycles, and an outstanding rate property to SIBs and PIBs. This work can pave the way for the construction of high-performance alloying-type anode materials for SIBs and PIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100505
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 506: Synchrotron-Based X-ray Photoelectron
           Microscopy of LMO/LAGP/Cu Thin-Film Solid-State Lithium Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Majid Kazemian, Matteo Amati, Luca Gregoratti, Maya Kiskinova, Benedetto Bozzini
      First page: 506
      Abstract: Solid-state batteries (SSB), characterized by solid-state electrolytes—in particular inorganic ones (ISSE)—are an ideal option for the safe implementation of metallic Li anodes. Even though SSBs with ISSEs have been extensively investigated over the last two decades, they still exhibit a series of technological drawbacks. In fact, mechano-chemical issues, mainly the stability of the electrolyte/anode interface, hinder their widespread application. The present investigation focusses on a thin-film LMO (Lithium-Manganese-Oxide)/LAGP (LiAlGe Phosphate)/Copper, anodeless Lithium-metal battery and explores the morphochemical evolution of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces with synchrotron-based Scanning Photoelectron Microscopy (SPEM) of intact pristine and cycled cells. Chemical images were acquired with submicrometer resolution, to highlight the coupled geometrical and chemical-state changes caused by electrochemical ageing. Geometrical changes of the electrolyte/cathode interface were induced by periodic volume changes, causing de-cohesion of the solid-solid contact, but no chemical-state changes accompany the cathodic damaging mode. Instead, shape changes of the electrolyte/anode region pinpoint the correlation between mechanical damaging with the decomposition of the LAGP ISSE, due to the reduction of Ge, triggered by the contact with elemental Li. The micro-spectroscopic approach adopted in this study enabled the assessment of the highly localized nature of the cathodic and anodic degradation modes in SSB devices and to single out the chemical and mechanical contributions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100506
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 507: A Layered Hybrid Oxide–Sulfide
           All-Solid-State Battery with Lithium Metal Anode

    • Authors: Juliane Hüttl, Nicolas Zapp, Saoto Tanikawa, Kristian Nikolowski, Alexander Michaelis, Henry Auer
      First page: 507
      Abstract: Different classes of solid electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries (ASSB) are currently being investigated, with each of them suitable for a different ASSB concept. Their combination in hybrid battery cells enables the use of their individual benefits while mitigating their disadvantages. The cubic stuffed garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), for example, is stable in contact with metallic lithium but has only moderate ionic conductivity, whereas the thiophosphate Li10SnP2S12 (LSPS) is processable using conventional battery manufacturing technologies and has an excellent lithium-ion conductivity but an inferior electrochemical stability. In this work, we, therefore, present a layered hybrid all-solid-state full-cell concept that accommodates a lithium metal anode, a LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2-based composite cathode with an LSPS catholyte (LSPS/NCM811) and a sintered monolithic LLZO separator. The electrochemical stability of LLZO and LSPS at cathodic potentials (up to 4.2 V) was investigated via cyclic voltammetry in test cells, as well as by cycling half cells with LSPS or a mixed LSPS/LLZO catholyte. Furthermore, the pressure-dependency of the galvanostatic cycling of a Li LLZO LSPS/NCM811 full cell was investigated, as well as the according effect of the Li LLZO interface in symmetric test cells. An operation pressure of 12.5 MPa was identified as the optimal value, which assures both sufficient inter-layer contact and impeded lithium penetration through the separator and cell short-circuiting.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100507
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 508: Fiber-Bragg-Grating-Based Sensor System to
           Measure Battery State of Charge Based on a Machine Learning Model

    • Authors: Sankhyabrata Bandyopadhyay, Matthias Fabian, Kang Li, Tong Sun, Kenneth T. V. Grattan
      First page: 508
      Abstract: Real-time monitoring of the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries used in a wide variety of applications is becoming increasingly important, especially given the impetus by the current targets towards “net-zero”. In this research, an advanced approach was used involving fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors that were developed and implemented for the measurement of the key parameters required to ensure optimum battery performance. In this work, one of the biggest challenges to assess (and then map) the data from the sensor system developed is tackled in order to better understand the key parameters of the battery in an efficient and improved way. It is well known that the relationship between the changes in the resonance wavelength of the FBGs used in the sensor system, arising due to change in the electrical parameters of the battery, is complex and dependent on several different factors. In this work, this effect was evaluated by coupling the sensor data to a data-driven regression model approach that was developed for the measurement of the SOC of the batteries used, and this was obtained directly and conveniently from the FBG data. In this comprehensive study, FBG-based sensors were fabricated and then installed onto the battery, which then was subjected to a range of charging–discharging cycles, following which the electrical parameters of the battery were estimated from recorded data using a black-box machine learning (ML) model. Data-driven regression algorithms were employed for the training of the black-box model. The efficiency of the estimation of the SOC of the battery from the FBG-based sensor data was found to be high, at 99.62% (R2 values of Estimated SOC and True SOC line), creating a very satisfactory result for this key measurement. Thus, the work shows the robustness of the FBG-based sensor system combined with the neural network algorithm as an effective way to evaluate the electrical parameters of the battery, which is particularly important, as no physical/electrochemical/electrical model of the system is thus required.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100508
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 509: Co-Estimation of State-of-Charge and
           State-of-Health for High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Ran Xiong, Shunli Wang, Fei Feng, Chunmei Yu, Yongcun Fan, Wen Cao, Carlos Fernandez
      First page: 509
      Abstract: To address the challenges of efficient state monitoring of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles, a co-estimation algorithm of state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) is developed. The algorithm integrates techniques of adaptive recursive least squares and dual adaptive extended Kalman filtering to enhance robustness, mitigate data saturation, and reduce the impact of colored noise. At 25 °C, the algorithm is tested and verified under dynamic stress test (DST) and Beijing bus DST conditions. Under the Beijing bus DST condition, the algorithm achieves a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.17% and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.19% for SOC estimation, with a convergence time of 4 s. Under the DST condition, the corresponding values are 0.05% for MAE, 0.07% for RMSE, and 5 s for convergence time. Moreover, in this research, the SOH is described as having internal resistance. Under the Beijing bus DST condition, the MAE and the RMSE of the estimated internal resistance of the proposed approach are 0.018% and 0.075%, with the corresponding values of 0.014% and 0.043% under the DST condition. The results of the experiments provide empirical evidence for the challenges associated with the efficacious estimation of SOC and SOH.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100509
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 510: Unraveling the Correlation between Structure
           and Lithium Ionic Migration of Metal Halide Solid-State Electrolytes via
           Neutron Powder Diffraction

    • Authors: Hao Zhang, Feilong Xu, Xingyu Chen, Wei Xia
      First page: 510
      Abstract: Metal halide solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) (Li-M-X system, typically Li3MX6 and Li2MX4; M is metal or rare-earth element, X is halogen) exhibit significant potential in all solid-state batteries (ASSB) due to wide stability windows (0.36–6.71 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent compatibility with cathodes, and a water-mediated facile synthesis route for large-scale fabrication. Understanding the dynamics of Li+ transportation and the influence of the host lattice is the prerequisite for developing advanced Metal halide SSEs. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD), as the most cutting-edge technology, could essentially reflect the nuclear density map to determine the whole crystal structure. Through NPD, the Li+ distribution and occupation are clearly revealed for transport pathway analysis, and the influence of the host ion lattice on Li+ migration could be discussed. In this review, we stress NPD utilization in metal halide SSEs systems in terms of defect chemistry, phase transition, cation/anion disorder effects, dual halogen, lattice dynamics/polarizability, and in situ analysis of phase evolution. The irreplaceable role of NPD technology in designing metal halide SSEs with enhanced properties is stressed, and a perspective on future developments of NPD in metal halide SSEs is also presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100510
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 511: An Enhanced Single-Particle Model Using a
           Physics-Informed Neural Network Considering Electrolyte Dynamics for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Chenyu Xue, Bo Jiang, Jiangong Zhu, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
      First page: 511
      Abstract: As power sources for electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have many advantages, such as high energy density and wide temperature range. In the algorithm design process for LIBs, various battery models with different model structures are needed, among which the electrochemical model is widely used due to its high accuracy. However, the electrochemical model is composed of multiple nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) that make the simulating process time-consuming. In this paper, a physics-informed neural network single-particle model (PINN SPM) is proposed to improve the accuracy of the single-particle model (SPM) under high C-rates, while ensuring high solving speed. In PINN SPM, an SPM-Net is designed to solve the distribution of lithium-ion concentration in the electrolyte. In the neural network learning process, a loss function is designed based on the physical constraints brought by the PDEs, which reduces the error of the neural network under dynamic working conditions. Finally, the PINN SPM proposed in this paper can achieve a maximum relative error of up to 1.2% compared with the high-fidelity data generated from the P2D model under various conditions. Additionally, the PINN SPM is 20.8% faster than traditional numerical solution methods with the same computational resources.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100511
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 512: Rheological and Electrochemical Properties
           of Biodegradable Chia Mucilage Gel Electrolyte Applied to Supercapacitor

    • Authors: Inkyum Kim, Su Thiri San, Avinash C. Mendhe, Suprimkumar D. Dhas, Seung-Bae Jeon, Daewon Kim
      First page: 512
      Abstract: The flexible energy storage device of high demand in wearable and portable electronics. Flexible supercapacitors have benefits over flexible batteries, and their development relies on the use of flexible components. Gel polymer electrolytes have the merits of liquid and solid electrolytes and are used in flexible devices. In this study, a gel derived from chia seed was used as a flexible electrolyte material, and its rheological, thermal, and electrochemical properties were investigated. High thermal stability and shear thinning behavior were observed via the electrolyte state of the chia mucilage gel. Compared to the conventional salt electrolyte, the chia mucilage gel electrolyte-based supercapacitor exhibited a more rectangular cyclic voltammetry (CV) curve, longer discharging time in galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) analysis, and low charge transfer resistance in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The maximum specific capacitance of 7.77 F g−1 and power density of 287.7 W kg−1 were measured, and stable capacitance retention of 94% was achieved after 10,000 cycles of charge/discharge with harsh input conditions. The biodegradability was also confirmed by the degraded mucilage film in soil after 30 days. The plant-driven chia mucilage gel electrolyte can facilitate the realization of flexible supercapacitors for the energy storage devices of the future.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100512
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 513: Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Composite Phase
           Change Material for Inhibiting the Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion

    • Authors: Jie Mei, Guoqing Shi, He Liu, Zhi Wang
      First page: 513
      Abstract: To deal with the flammability of PA (paraffin), this paper proposes a CPCM (composite phase change material) with a high heat-absorbing capacity for mitigating the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries. Two heating power levels were used to trigger thermal runaway in order to investigate the influence of heating power on thermal runaway characteristics and the mitigation effect of the PCM (phase change material). Thermal runaway processes and temperature changes were recorded. The results showed that heating results in a violent reaction of the battery, generating a high temperature and a bright flame, and the burning of PA increases the duration of a steady flame, indicating an increased threat. SA (sodium acetate trihydrate) effectively inhibited PA combustion, and the combustion time was reduced by 40.5%. PA/SA effectively retarded the rise in temperature of the battery, and the temperature rise rate was reduced by 87.3%. Increased heating power caused faster thermal runaway, and the thermal runaway mitigation effect of the CPCM was dramatically reduced. This study may provide a reference for the safe design and improvement of thermal management systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100513
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 514: Influence of the Crusher Settings and a
           Thermal Pre-Treatment on the Properties of the Fine Fraction (Black Mass)
           from Mechanical Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling

    • Authors: Christian Wilke, Denis Manuel Werner, Alexandra Kaas, Urs Alexander Peuker
      First page: 514
      Abstract: With the increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) rises the need to recycle their used lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). During the mechanical process of the recycling of the LIB cells, a fine fraction, the so-called black mass, is created. This black mass consists mostly of the coatings originating from the cells’ electrodes and residues from the electrolyte, together with a low amount of Al and Cu from the crushed current collector foils. The amount of black mass as well as its composition is influenced by the chosen grid size at the crusher discharge. To reduce solvent emissions during the recycling process, a thermal pre-treatment can be added before crushing, which also influences the black mass and its properties due to changes in the adhesion between electrode foils and coating. This study investigates the influence of the crusher settings as well as the pre-treatment temperatures to find an optimum between the recovery of the coating and conductive salt, while limiting the amount of Al and Cu in the black mass.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100514
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 515: The Effect of Different Amounts of
           Conductive Carbon Material on the Electrochemical Performance of the
           LiFePO4 Cathode in Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Debabrata Mohanty, Min-Jie Chang, I-Ming Hung
      First page: 515
      Abstract: LiFePO4 (LFP) has undergone extensive research and is a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. The high interest is due to its low raw material cost, good electrochemical stability, and high-capacity retention. However, poor electronic conductivity and a low Li+ diffusion rate decrease its electrochemical reactivity, especially at fast charge/discharge rates. In this work, the volumetric energy density of lithium-ion batteries is successfully increased by using different amounts of conductive carbon (Super P) in the active material content. The particle size and morphology of the electrode material samples are studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Two-point-probe DC measurements and adhesive force tests are used to determine the conductivity and evaluate adhesion for the positive electrode. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge/discharge tests are used to analyze the electrochemical properties of the battery. The samples containing 88% LFP, 5.5% Super P, and 6.5% PVDF perform best, with discharge capacities reaching 169.8 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C, and they can also manage charging/discharging of 5 C. EIS indicates that this combination produces the lowest charge-transfer impedance (67 Ω) and the highest Li+ ion diffusion coefficient (5.76 × 10−14 cm2 s−1).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100515
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 516: Synthetic Battery Data Generation and
           Validation for Capacity Estimation

    • Authors: Moinak Pyne, Benjamin J. Yurkovich, Stephen Yurkovich
      First page: 516
      Abstract: Simple parameter-based models are typically unable to function in all situations due to the rapidly tightening margins for error in the use of contemporary estimation techniques. The development of data-driven models as a result has made the availability of trustworthy battery data essential. The generation of such data from battery systems necessitates prolonged cycling tests that can last for months, which makes data collection challenging. In this article, a combination of approaches is presented that uses measured operational data from battery packs to generate synthetic data utilizing Markov chains and neural networks in order to ultimately estimate the capacity fade based on operational drive cycle data. The experimental data used for this study are generated using scaled operational cycles with multiple charge/discharge pulses applied repetitively on a commercially available battery pack. The synthetically generated data have the flexibility of matching user-imposed conditions, and have potential for a variety of applications in the analysis and safety of commercial battery systems. Finally, capacity estimation results present the outcome of a comprehensive study into capacity fade estimation in battery packs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100516
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 517: A Novel Battery State of Charge Estimation
           Based on Voltage Relaxation Curve

    • Authors: Suhyeon Lee, Dongho Lee
      First page: 517
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries, known for their high efficiency and high energy output, have gained significant attention as energy storage devices. Monitoring the state of charge through battery management systems plays a crucial role in enhancing the safety and extending the lifespan of lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, we propose a state-of-charge estimation method to overcome the limitations of the traditional open-circuit voltage method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We verified changes in the shape of the voltage relaxation curve based on battery impedance through simulations and analyzed the impact of individual impedance on the voltage relaxation curve using differential equations. Based on this relationship, we estimated the impedance from the battery’s voltage relaxation curve through curve fitting and subsequently estimated the state of charge using a pre-established lookup table. In addition, we introduced a partial curve-fitting method to reduce the estimation time compared to the existing open-circuit voltage method and confirmed the trade-off relationship between the estimation time and estimation error.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100517
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 518: Scale-Up of Lithium Iron Phosphate Cathodes
           with High Active Materials Contents for Lithium Ion Cells

    • Authors: Geanina Apachitei, Rob Heymer, Michael Lain, Daniela Dogaru, Marc Hidalgo, James Marco, Mark Copley
      First page: 518
      Abstract: The size of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode mix was increased by a factor of thirty, and the capacity of the cells produced with it by a factor of three-hundred. As well as rate and cycling tests, the coatings were also characterised for adhesion and resistivity. The adhesion and total through-plane resistance were both dependent on the drying conditions during coating. The discharge capacities at high rates and the pulse resistances showed much less influence from the drying temperature. The mix formulation contained 97 wt% LFP, and was based on an earlier design of experiments (DoE) study, using relatively high active material contents. Overall, the mix exceeded the performance predicted by the modelling study.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100518
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 519: A System for Determining the Surface
           Temperature of Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries Using a Thermal Imaging

    • Authors: Nadezhda Kafadarova, Sotir Sotirov, Franz Herbst, Anna Stoynova, Stefan Rizanov
      First page: 519
      Abstract: The topic of battery state-of-health monitoring via electrical and non-electrical testing procedures has become of increased interest for scientific researchers, due to the imposed goal of expanded industrial sustainability. Within the present study, we propose a novel approach for monitoring the temperature of batteries by means of infrared thermography. In order to improve the accuracy of the performed measurements and to overcome the limitations imposed by the cylindrical housing of the batteries, we have developed a unique method for monitoring and capturing the temperature of the battery over the entire housing. An experimental system was built, through which the battery performs a rotational movement relative to its axis, with this rotation motion being synchronized with the frame rate of the thermal camera. The resulting thermographic images are processed using specifically developed software. This software enables the segmentation of certain sections of the battery’s surface from a defined spatial perspective. These selected segments are subsequently utilized to generate a three-dimensional representation of the battery’s surface temperature’s distribution. In this way, errors in the obtained results which are caused by the viewing angle are avoided. Additionally, we developed and presented a method for the increasing of the resolution of captured thermograms.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100519
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 520: Correction: Liebig et al. The Impact of
           Environmental Factors on the Thermal Characteristic of a Lithium–ion
           Battery. Batteries 2020, 6, 3

    • Authors: Gerd Liebig, Ulf Kirstein, Stefan Geißendörfer, Omio Zahid, Frank Schuldt, Carsten Agert
      First page: 520
      Abstract: Mr [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100520
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 521: A Data-Driven Digital Twin of Electric
           Vehicle Li-Ion Battery State-of-Charge Estimation Enabled by Driving
           Behavior Application Programming Interfaces

    • Authors: Reda Issa, Mohamed M. Badr, Omar Shalash, Ali A. Othman, Eman Hamdan, Mostafa S. Hamad, Ayman S. Abdel-Khalik, Shehab Ahmed, Sherif M. Imam
      First page: 521
      Abstract: Accurately estimating the state-of-charge (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles is a challenging task due to the complex dynamics of the battery and the varying operating conditions. To address this, this paper proposes the establishment of an Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT)-based digital twin (DT) through the Microsoft Azure services, incorporating components for data collection, time synchronization, processing, modeling, and decision visualization. Within this framework, the readily available measurements in the LIB module, including voltage, current, and operating temperature, are utilized, providing advanced information about the LIBs’ SOC and facilitating accurate determination of the electric vehicle (EV) range. This proposed data-driven SOC-estimation-based DT framework was developed with a supervised voting ensemble regression machine learning (ML) approach using the Azure ML service. To facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of historical driving cycles and ensure the SOC-estimation-based DT framework is accurate, this study used three application programming interfaces (APIs), namely Google Directions API, Google Elevation API, and OpenWeatherMap API, to collect the data and information necessary for analyzing and interpreting historical driving patterns, for the reference EV model, which closely emulates the dynamics of a real-world battery electric vehicle (BEV). Notably, the findings demonstrate that the proposed strategy achieves a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 1.1446 and 0.02385 through simulation and experimental studies, respectively. The study’s results offer valuable insights that can inform further research on developing estimation and predictive maintenance systems for industrial applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100521
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 522: A Generic Approach to Simulating Temperature
           Distributions within Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    • Authors: Alexander Reiter, Susanne Lehner, Oliver Bohlen, Dirk Uwe Sauer
      First page: 522
      Abstract: Determining both the average temperature and the underlying temperature distribution within a battery system is crucial for system design, control, and operation. Therefore, thermal battery system models, which allow for the calculation of these distributions, are required. In this work, a generic thermal equivalent circuit model for commercial battery modules with passive cooling is introduced. The model approach can be easily adopted to varying system designs and sizes and is accompanied by a corresponding low-effort characterization process. The validation of the model was performed on both synthetic and measured load profiles from stationary and marine applications. The results show that the model can represent both the average temperature and the occurring temperature spread (maximum to minimum temperature) with deviations below 1 K. In addition to the introduced full-scale model, further simplifying assumptions were tested in order to reduce the computational effort required by the model. By comparing the resulting simplified models with the original full-scale model, it can be shown that both reducing the number of simulated cells and assuming electrical homogeneity between the cells in the module offer a reduction in the computation time within one order of magnitude while still retaining a high model accuracy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100522
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 523: Correction: Liebig et al. Parameterization
           and Validation of an Electrochemical Thermal Model of a Lithium-Ion
           Battery. Batteries 2019, 5, 62

    • Authors: Gerd Liebig, Gaurav Gupta, Ulf Kirstein, Frank Schuldt, Carsten Agert
      First page: 523
      Abstract: Mr. O. Zahid was not included in the acknowledgement section with respect toillustrations created from geometric and thermal battery cell data he generated during his master’s thesis study independent of the original publication [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9100523
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2023)
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