Subjects -> ENERGY (Total: 414 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENERGY (12 journals)
    - ENERGY (252 journals)
    - ENERGY: GENERAL (7 journals)
    - NUCLEAR ENERGY (40 journals)
    - PETROLEUM AND GAS (58 journals)
    - RENEWABLE ENERGY (45 journals)

ENERGY (252 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Energy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Asian Bulletin of Energy Economics and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Energy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carbon Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clefs CEA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CPSS Transactions on Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Development of Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Discover Energy     Open Access  
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Distributed Generation & Alternative Energy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Electricity Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energetic Materials Frontiers     Open Access  
ENERGETIKA. Proceedings of CIS higher education institutions and power engineering associations     Open Access  
Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 40)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Energy and AI     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Energy and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Emission Control Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Environment Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Energy Conversion and Economics     Open Access  
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Energy Conversion and Management : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy Geoscience     Open Access  
Energy Informatics     Open Access  
Energy Journal The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Energy Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 73)
Energy Prices and Taxes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Energy Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Research & Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Energy Strategy Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Energy Studies Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Energy Technology & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Transitions     Open Access  
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Forces in Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Foundations and Trends® in Renewable Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Fuel Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gcb Bioenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geothermal Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Energy Interconnection     Open Access  
Global Energy Law and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
High Voltage     Open Access  
IEEE Open Access Journal of Power and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Power and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Ambient Energy     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy & Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy and Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Green Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Knowledge Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Smart Grid and Green Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Joule     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Energy in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Energy Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Nano Energy and Power Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean and Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Power Sources Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Solar Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KnE Energy     Open Access  
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Materials Reports : Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materials Today Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multequina     Open Access  
Natural Resources     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Evaluation of the Accuracy of the Identified
           Equivalent Electrical Circuit of LiPePO4 Battery through Verified

    • Authors: Michal Frivaldsky, Marek Simcak
      First page: 38
      Abstract: In this paper, the system procedure for the identification of the equivalent electrical circuit diagram of electrochemical cells is being given. Due to the fact that energy storage systems (ESS) penetrate within many applications, the availability of their accurate and simple simulation models for time–domain analysis is very desirable. This paper describes the configuration of the laboratory measuring systems required for data acquisition, curation, and analysis of received measured data required for development of equivalent electrical circuit models (EECM) of electrochemical cells. Nowadays, various types of electrochemical cells are available for packaging technology. Therefore, the evaluation of presented identification methodology is validated through measurements of two different types of LiFePO4 cells. The first cell type is prismatic labeled LFP040AHA, and the second type is NPB 60 AH of the same manufacturer. The main aim of this paper is the determination of the elements of equivalent electrical circuit schematics of selected electrochemical cells. Consequently, the development of a simulation model is described, together with the evaluation of its accuracy through comparisons with experimental measurements. From achieved results, the relative error of simulation model varies at 2%, and thus the presented methodology is suitable for identification of EECM, and consequent design of accurate and fast computing simulation models of ESS systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 39: An Incremental Capacity Parametric Model
           Based on Logistic Equations for Battery State Estimation and Monitoring

    • Authors: Matthieu Maures, Romain Mathieu, Armande Capitaine, Jean-Yves Delétage, Jean-Michel Vinassa, Olivier Briat
      First page: 39
      Abstract: An incremental capacity parametric model for batteries is proposed. The model is based on Verhulst’s logistic equations and distributions in order to describe incremental capacity peaks. The model performance is compared with polynomial models and is demonstrated on a commercial lithium-ion cell. Experimental data features low-current discharges performed at temperatures ranging from −20 °C to 55 °C. The results demonstrate several advantages of the model compared to empirical models. The proposed model enables a clear description of the geometric features of incremental capacity peaks. It also doubles as an open circuit voltage model as the voltage curve can be fully recovered from parameterization on incremental capacity curves. The study of temperature sensitivity show that peak geometric parameters can be modelled as a function of temperature. An example of practical application is then displayed by using the model to estimate battery state-of-charge from voltage and temperature measurements. This example can expand to other practical applications for battery management systems such as state-of-health monitoring.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 40: Identifying Anode and Cathode Contributions
           in Li-Ion Full-Cell Impedance Spectra

    • Authors: Marco Heinrich, Nicolas Wolff, Steffen Seitz, Ulrike Krewer
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Measured impedance spectra of Li-ion battery cells are often reproduced with equivalent circuits or physical models to determine losses due to charge transfer processes at the electrodes. The identified model parameters can usually not readily or unambiguously be assigned to the anode and the cathode. A new measurement method is presented that enables the assignment of features of impedance spectra of full cells to single electrodes. To this end, temperature gradients are imprinted perpendicular to the electrode layers of a single-layered Li-ion battery cell while impedance spectra are measured. The method exploits different dependences of the charge transfer processes at the electrodes on temperature. An equivalent circuit model of RC-elements and the effect of temperature on the related electrode properties is discussed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A reliable assignment of the change of impedance spectra to the electrode processes is shown to be possible. The assignment can be used to identify if changes in an impedance spectrum originate from the anode or the cathode.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 41: An Experimental Investigation of Thermal
           Runaway and Gas Release of NMC Lithium-Ion Pouch Batteries Depending on
           the State of Charge Level

    • Authors: Kofi Owusu Ansah Amano, Sarah-K. Hahn, Rico Tschirschwitz, Tim Rappsilber, Ulrich Krause
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In this study, 19 experiments were conducted with 25 pouch cells of NMC cathode to investigate thermal runaway and the release of gases from lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Single cells, double cells, and a four-cell battery stack were forced to undergo thermal runaway inside an air-tight reactor vessel with a volume of 100 dm3. The study involved two series of tests with two types of ignition sources. In the Series 1 tests, a heating plug was used to initiate thermal runaway in LIBs in the ranges of 80–89% and 90–100% SOC. In the Series 2 tests, a heating plate was used to trigger thermal runaway in LIBs in the ranges of 30–50%, 80–89%, and 90–100% SOC. Thermal runaway started at an onset temperature of 344 ± 5 K and 345 K for the Series 1 tests and from 393 ± 36 K to 487 ± 10 K for the Series 2 tests. Peak reaction temperatures ranged between 642 K and 1184 K, while the maximum pressures observed were between 1.2 bar and 7.28 bar. Thermal runaway induced explosion of the cells and lead to a rate of temperature increase greater than 10 K/s. The amounts of gases released from the LIBs were calculated from pressures and temperatures measured in the reactor. Then, the gas composition was analyzed using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The highest gaseous production was achieved at a range of 90–100% SOC and higher battery capacities 72 L, 1.8 L/Ah (Series 1, battery stack) and 103 L, 3.2 L/Ah (Series 2, 32 Ah cell)). Among the gases analyzed, the concentration of gaseous emissions such as C2H4, CH4, and C2H6 increased at a higher cell capacity in both series of tests. The study results revealed characteristic variations of thermal behavior with respect to the type of ignition source used.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Detection of Critical Conditions in Pouch
           Cells Based on Their Expansion Behavior

    • Authors: Pascal Vorwerk, Sarah-Katharina Hahn, Christian Daniel, Ulrich Krause, Karola Keutel
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The present work examines 75 Ah nickel–cobalt–manganese (NMC)/graphite-based pouch cells with respect to their expansion behavior. The focus is on cell expansion due to critical cells according to the installation conditions of a battery module. Strain gauges were used for monitoring. By comparing the cell expansion in standard conditioning to that in an abuse (overcharging), information can be acquired about the suitability of the expansion behavior for early detection of critical cell states and to avoid resulting damage, e.g., cell opening or cell fire. The sequence of critical cell events has been shown to be easily reproducible; especially the first significant cell expansion due to internal gas formation, which was a reliable detection criterion for critical cell states.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 28: On the Road to Sustainable Energy Storage
           Technologies: Synthesis of Anodes for Na-Ion Batteries from Biowaste

    • Authors: Nekane Nieto, Olatz Noya, Amaia Iturrondobeitia, Paula Sanchez-Fontecoba, Usue Pérez-López, Verónica Palomares, Alexander Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, Teófilo Rojo
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Hard carbon is one of the most promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. In this work, new types of biomass-derived hard carbons were obtained through pyrolysis of different kinds of agro-industrial biowaste (corncob, apple pomace, olive mill solid waste, defatted grape seed and dried grape skin). Furthermore, the influence of pretreating the biowaste samples by hydrothermal carbonization and acid hydrolysis was also studied. Except for the olive mill solid waste, discharge capacities typical of biowaste-derived hard carbons were obtained in every case (≈300 mAh·g−1 at C/15). Furthermore, it seems that hydrothermal carbonization could improve the discharge capacity of biowaste samples derived from different nature at high cycling rates, which are the closest conditions to real applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 29: Online State-of-Health Estimation of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Incremental Capacity Curve and BP Neural

    • Authors: Hongye Lin, Longyun Kang, Di Xie, Jinqing Linghu, Jie Li
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in various fields. In order to ensure the safety of LIBs, it is necessary to accurately estimate of the state of health (SOH) of the LIBs. This paper proposes a SOH hybrid estimation method based on incremental capacity (IC) curve and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The voltage and current data of the LIB during the constant current (CC) charging process are used to convert into IC curves. Taking into account the incompleteness of the actual charging process, this paper divides the IC curve into multiple voltage segments for SOH prediction. Corresponding BP neural network is established in multiple voltage segments. The experiment divides the LIBs into five groups to carry out the aging experiment under different discharge conditions. Aging experiment data are used to establish the non-linear relationship between the decline of SOH and the change of IC curve by BP neural network. Experimental results show that in all voltage segments, the maximum mean absolute error does not exceed 2%. The SOH estimation method proposed in this research makes it possible to embed the SOH estimation function in battery management system (BMS), and can realize high-precision SOH online estimation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 30: Durable Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion

    • Authors: Robin Drees, Frank Lienesch, Michael Kurrat
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries is often related to accelerated cell degradation due to lithium-plating on the negative electrode. In this contribution, an advanced electrode equivalent circuit model is used in order to simulate fast-charging strategies without lithium-plating. A novel parameterization approach based on 3-electrode cell measurements is developed, which enables precise simulation fidelity. An optimized fast-charging strategy without evoking lithium-plating was simulated that lasted about 29 min for a 0–80% state of charge. This variable current strategy was compared in experiments to a conventional constant-current–constant-voltage fast-charging strategy that lasted 20 min. The experiments showed that the optimized strategy prevented lithium-plating and led to a 2% capacity fade every 100 fast-charging cycles. In contrast, the conventional strategy led to lithium-plating, about 20% capacity fade after 100 fast-charging cycles and the fast-charging duration extended from 20 min to over 30 min due to increased cell resistances. The duration of the optimized fast charging was constant at 29 min, even after 300 cycles. The developed methods are suitable to be applied for any given lithium-ion battery configuration in order to determine the maximum fast-charging capability while ensuring safe and durable cycling conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 31: A Regression-Based Technique for Capacity
           Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Raziye Soghrati, Carlos Ziebert
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles (HEVs) are being increasingly utilized for various reasons. The main reasons for their implementation are that they consume less or do not consume fossil fuel (no carbon dioxide pollution) and do not cause sound pollution. However, this technology has some challenges, including complex and troublesome accurate state of health estimation, which is affected by different factors. According to the increase in electric and hybrid vehicles’ application, it is crucial to have a more accurate and reliable estimation of state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) in different environmental conditions. This allows improving battery management system operation for optimal utilization of a battery pack in various operating conditions. This article proposes an approach to estimate battery capacity based on two parameters. First, a practical and straightforward method is introduced to assess the battery’s internal resistance, which is directly related to the battery’s remaining useful life. Second, the different least square algorithm is explored. Finally, a promising, practical, simple, accurate, and reliable technique is proposed to estimate battery capacity appropriately. The root mean square percentage error and the mean absolute percentage error of the proposed methods were calculated and were less than 0.02%. It was concluded the geometry method has all the advantages of a recursive manner, including a fading memory, a close form of a solution, and being applicable in embedded systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 32: Optimized Nail for Penetration Test on
           Lithium-Ion Cells and Its Utilization for the Validation of a Multilayer
           Electro-Thermal Model

    • Authors: Luigi Aiello, Gregor Gstrein, Simon Erker, Bernhard Kaltenegger, Christian Ellersdorfer, Wolfgang Sinz
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Nail penetration is one of the most critical scenarios for a lithium-ion cell: it involves the superposition of electrical, thermal and mechanical abusive loads. When an electrically conductive nail is introduced into the active layers of a lithium-ion cell, an electric short circuit takes place between the conductive components (electrodes and current collectors). Hence, for this load case, electro-thermal modeling must be performed considering each and every layer of the cell in order to predict the electric quantities and the cell temperature (with numerical models). When standard conic nails are used, as is typical for this class of tests, the electrical contact between conductive components and the nail itself suffers of poor reproducibility mainly due to the separator that interposes between the electrically conductive components. This phenomenon makes it difficult to validate electro-thermal models, since the electrical contact between nail and lithium-ion cell parts cannot be safely determined. In this work, an alternative nail with an optimized ratio between the external surface and volume is presented to overcome this issue. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed nail, five tests (with the same conditions) were conducted on five commercial lithium-ion pouch cells, monitoring the tabs voltage and surface temperature. In all tests, thermal runaway was reached within 30 s and the tabs voltage showed comparable behavior, indicating that the short circuit values for all five repetitions were similar. The investigation included the implementation of a detailed layers model to demonstrate how the validation of such model would be possible with the novel data.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 33: Influence of Switching on the Aging of High
           Power Lithium-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Guy Williams Ngaleu, Michael Theiler, Xenia Straßer, Christian Hanzl, Lidiya Komsiyska, Christian Endisch, Meinert Lewerenz
      First page: 33
      Abstract: For intelligent battery systems that are able to control the current flow for each individual cell, the multilevel inverter is an interesting approach to replace the bidirectional AC/DC-converter and improve flexibility of charging system and signal quality in both directions. Therefore, the cells are modulated by switching varying the duty cycle, the current and the frequency up to the kHz-range. This is only beneficial if the switching does not lead to a significant additional aging. The scientific gap to assess and understand the impact of switching is investigated in this paper by testing 22 high-power 18650 lithium-ion cells (Samsung 25R). The cells are tested at 50 Hz and 10 kHz switching frequency during charge, discharge and charge/discharge at 50% duty cycle. The tests are compared to eight reference tests with continuous current flow performed at the average and the maximum current for charge and discharge, respectively. The results are obtained by evaluating the remaining capacity, resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dV/dQ analysis. Before reaching rollover, the investigated cells lose homogeneity and cathode capacity but no significant difference for the aging parameters are found. After rollover, the cell-to-cell variation is greater than the aging induced by the different cycling parameters.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 34: Comparison of Model-Based and Sensor-Based
           Detection of Thermal Runaway in Li-Ion Battery Modules for Automotive

    • Authors: Jacob Klink, André Hebenbrock, Jens Grabow, Nury Orazov, Ulf Nylén, Ralf Benger, Hans-Peter Beck
      First page: 34
      Abstract: In recent years, research on lithium–ion (Li-ion) battery safety and fault detection has become an important topic, providing a broad range of methods for evaluating the cell state based on voltage and temperature measurements. However, other measurement quantities and close-to-application test setups have only been sparsely considered, and there has been no comparison in between methods. In this work, the feasibility of a multi-sensor setup for the detection of Thermal Runaway failure of automotive-size Li-ion battery modules have been investigated in comparison to a model-based approach. For experimental validation, Thermal Runaway tests were conducted in a close-to-application configuration of module and battery case—triggered by external heating with two different heating rates. By two repetitions of each experiment, a high accordance of characteristics and results has been achieved and the signal feasibility for fault detection has been discussed. The model-based method, that had previously been published, recognised the thermal fault in the fastest way—significantly prior to the required 5 min pre-warning time. This requirement was also achieved with smoke and gas sensors in most test runs. Additional criteria for evaluating detection approaches besides detection time have been discussed to provide a good starting point for choosing a suitable approach that is dependent on application defined requirements, e.g., acceptable complexity.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 35: Method for In-Operando Contamination of
           Lithium Ion Batteries for Prediction of Impurity-Induced Non-Obvious Cell

    • Authors: Patrick Höschele, Simon Franz Heindl, Bernd Schneider, Wolfgang Sinz, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The safety of lithium-ion batteries within electrified vehicles plays an important role. Hazards can arise from contaminated batteries resulting from non-obvious damages or insufficient production processes. A systematic examination requires experimental methods to provoke a defined contamination. Two prerequisites were required: First, the extent and type of contamination should be determinable to exclude randomness. Second, specimens should work properly before the contamination, enabling realistic behavior. In this study, two experimental methods were developed to allow for the first time a controlled and reproducible application of water or oxygen into 11 single-layer full cells (Li4Ti5O12/LiCoO2) used as specimens during electrical cycling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to continuously monitor the specimens and to fit the parameters of an equivalent circuit model (ECM). For the first time, these parameters were used to calibrate a machine-learning algorithm which was able to predict the contamination state. A decision tree was calibrated with the ECM parameters of eight specimens (training data) and was validated by predicting the contamination state of the three remaining specimens (test data). The prediction quality proved the usability of classification algorithms to monitor for contaminations or non-obvious battery damage after manufacturing and during use. It can be an integral part of battery management systems that increases vehicle safety.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 36: Artificial Feature Extraction for Estimating
           State-of-Temperature in Lithium-Ion-Cells Using Various Long Short-Term
           Memory Architectures

    • Authors: Mike Kopp, Marco Ströbel, Alexander Fill, Julia Pross-Brakhage, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The temperature in each cell of a battery system should be monitored to correctly track aging behavior and ensure safety requirements. To eliminate the need for additional hardware components, a software based prediction model is needed to track the temperature behavior. This study looks at machine learning algorithms that learn physical behavior of non-linear systems based on sample data. Here, it is shown how to improve the prediction accuracy using a new method called “artificial feature extraction” compared to classical time series approaches. We show its effectiveness on tracking the temperature behavior of a Li-ion cell with limited training data at one defined ambient temperature. A custom measuring system was created capable of tracking the cell temperature, by installing a temperature sensor into the cell wrap instead of attaching it to the cell housing. Additionally, a custom early stopping algorithm was developed to eliminate the need for further hyperparameters. This study manifests that artificially training sub models that extract features with high accuracy aids models in predicting more complex physical behavior. On average, the prediction accuracy has been improved by △Tcell=0.01∘C for the training data and by △Tcell=0.007∘C for the validation data compared to the base model. In the field of electrical energy storage systems, this could reduce costs, increase safety and improve knowledge about the aging progress in an individual cell to sort out for second life applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 37: Simulation of the Electrochemical Response of
           Cobalt Hydroxide Electrodes for Energy Storage

    • Authors: Carvalho, Eugénio, Silva, Montemor
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Cyclic Voltammetry is an analysis method for characterizing the behaviors of electrochemically active materials by measuring current through defined potential sweeps. The current–potential relationship depends on key variables such concentration of electrolyte, electron-transfer rate, and the distance and time of species in relation to the electroactive surface of the material. A MATLAB® simulation was developed on a diffusion and kinetics basis, simulating the equations of Fick’s second law and Butler–Volmer, respectively, towards understanding the energy-storage mechanisms of cobalt hydroxide electrodes. The simulation was compared to a real cobalt hydroxide system, showing an accurate approximation to the experimentally obtained response and deviations possibly related to other physical/chemical processes influencing the involved species.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Intrinsic Defects, Diffusion and Dopants in
           AVSi2O6 (A = Li and Na) Electrode Materials

    • Authors: Navaratnarajah Kuganathan
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The alkali metal pyroxenes of the AVSi2O6 (A = Li and Na) family have attracted considerable interest as cathode materials for the application in Li and Na batteries. Computer modelling was carried out to determine the dominant intrinsic defects, Li and Na ion diffusion pathways and promising dopants for experimental verification. The results show that the lowest energy intrinsic defect is the V–Si anti-site in both LiVSi2O6 and NaVSi2O6. Li or Na ion migration is slow, with activation energies of 3.31 eV and 3.95 eV, respectively, indicating the necessity of tailoring these materials before application. Here, we suggest that Al on the Si site can increase the amount of Li and Na in LiVSi2O6 and NaVSi2O6, respectively. This strategy can also be applied to create oxygen vacancies in both materials. The most favourable isovalent dopants on the V and Si sites are Ga and Ge, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Discrimination of Poor Electrode Junctions
           within Lithium-Ion Batteries by Ultrasonic Measurement and Deep Learning

    • Authors: Young-In Hwang, Jinhyun Park, Nauman Munir, Hak-Joon Kim, Sung-Jin Song, Ki-Bok Kim
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries, which have high energy density, are the most suitable batteries for use in high-tech electromechanical applications requiring high performance. Because one of the important components that determines the efficiency of lithium-ion batteries is the electrode, the manufacturing process for this junction plays an important role in the entire production process. In particular, the process related to the resistance spot welding of the electrode is very important, directly affecting the safety of users, and greatly affecting the performance of the batteries. However, because the electrode tab is spot-welded onto the inner surface of the case, it is impossible to verify with visual testing (using the naked eye) whether the junction is well bonded. Therefore, it is very important to perform quality evaluation of the resistance welding of electrodes after completing the manufacturing process, using non-destructive testing methods. In this paper, a non-destructive ultrasonic testing technique was applied to examine the quality of lithium-ion batteries in which the negative electrode tabs were welded to the inner surface of the cell cans. The status of resistance spot welding between the electrode and the can was verified using deep-learning techniques with the experimentally acquired ultrasonic signal database.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Cycling of Double-Layered Graphite Anodes in

    • Authors: Daniel Müller, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Incremental improvement to the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion technology, for example regarding the physical or electrochemical design, can bridge the gap until the next generation of cells are ready to take Li-ions place. Previously designed two-layered porosity-graded graphite anodes, together with LixNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathodes, were analysed in small pouch-cells with a capacity of around 1 Ah. For comparison, custom-made reference cells with the average properties of two-layered anodes were tested. Ten cells of each type were examined in total. Each cell pair, consisting of one double-layer and one single-layer (reference) cell, underwent the same test procedure. Besides regular charge and discharge cycles, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, incremental capacity analysis, differential voltage analysis and current-pulse measurement are used to identify the differences in ageing behaviour between the two cell types. The results show similar behaviour and properties at beginning-of-life, but an astonishing improvement in capacity retention for the double-layer cells regardless of the cycling conditions. Additionally, the lifetime of the single-layer cells was strongly influenced by the cycling conditions, and the double-layer cells showed less difference in ageing behaviour.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 23: Stationary Battery Thermal Management:
           Analysis of Active Cooling Designs

    • Authors: Getu Hailu, Martin Henke, Todd Petersen
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Stationary battery systems are becoming more prevalent around the world, with both the quantity and capacity of installations growing at the same time. Large battery installations and uninterruptible power supply can generate a significant amount of heat during operation; while this is widely understood, current thermal management methods have not kept up with the increase of stationary battery installations. Active cooling has long been the default approach of thermal management for stationary batteries; however, there is no academic research or comparative studies available for this technology. The present work presents assessment of different active cooling methods through an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics simulation. Following model validation, several cooling system configurations were analyzed, including effects from implementing either a perforated vent plate or vortex generators. The vent plate was observed to greatly increase cooling performance while simultaneously promoting temperature uniformity between batteries. Vortex generators were shown to marginally increase cooling performance, yet, future research is recommended to study the effects and improvement of the design. The average battery temperature for the vented model is reduced by approximately 5.2 °C, while the average temperature differential among the batteries was only 2.7 °C, less than the recommend value (3 °C) by ASHRAE/IEEE Standards.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Auger- and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
           at Metallic Li Material: Chemical Shifts Related to Sample Preparation,
           Gas Atmosphere, and Ion and Electron Beam Effects

    • Authors: Steffen Oswald
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Li-based batteries are a key element in reaching a sustainable energy economy in the near future. The understanding of the very complex electrochemical processes is necessary for the optimization of their performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an accepted method used to improve understanding around the chemical processes at the electrode surfaces. Nevertheless, its application is limited because the surfaces under investigation are mostly rough and inhomogeneous. Local elemental analysis, such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), could assist XPS to gain more insight into the chemical processes at the surfaces. In this paper, some challenges in using electron spectroscopy are discussed, such as binding energy (BE) referencing for the quantitative study of chemical shifts, gas atmospheric influences, or beam damage (including both AE and XP spectroscopy). Carefully prepared and surface-modified metallic lithium material is used as model surface, considering that Li is the key element for most battery applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 25: The Electrochemical Characterization of
           Nanostructured Bi2Se3 Thin Films in an Aqueous Na Electrolyte

    • Authors: Raimonds Meija, Vitalijs Lazarenko, Anna Skrastina, Yelyzaveta Rublova, Jana Andzane, Vanda Voikiva, Arturs Viksna, Donats Erts
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Due to their layered structure and high theoretical capacity, bismuth chalcogenides have been proposed as anodes in organic electrolyte Li- and Na-ion batteries. On the other hand, their electrochemical properties in aqueous systems have not been reported. Here, the electrochemical performance of Bi2Se3 thin films in 1 M NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte is presented. This aqueous Bi2Se3 system was found to have up to two orders of magnitude increased diffusion coefficients, compared to other anode materials in Na electrolyte-based systems, as well as limited anode electrode degradation over 5 CVs and significant changes in the anode after 30 CVs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 26: A Method for Detecting the Existence of an
           Over-Discharged Cell in a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack via Measuring Total
           Harmonic Distortion

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This paper deals with a method to detect the existence of an over-discharged cell in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack by measuring the total harmonic distortion (THD) rate in the voltage response. Over-discharge of the LIB cell reduces the available capacity by irreversible chemical reactions, resulting in serious safety risks such as explosions. Even if only one over-discharged cell exists in the battery pack, it accelerates the decomposition of other cells. In general, the measurement of each cell voltage in a battery pack is required to detect one over-discharged cell. This is because if only the voltage of the battery pack is measured, it cannot be distinguished whether the voltage of each cell is uniformly low or one specific weak cell is over-discharged. The proposed method measures the frequency response through the voltage at only two terminals of the battery pack to detect the presence of one over-discharged cell. When the battery cell is discharged beyond a certain level, the system nonlinearity of the battery pack increases, and it can be detected from the increased THD rate of the battery pack. The proposed method is verified by simulation and measurement.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 27: Optimization of LIB Electrolyte and
           Exploration of Novel Compounds via the Molecular Dynamics Method

    • Authors: Ken-ichi Saitoh, Yoshihiro Takai, Tomohiro Sato, Masanori Takuma, Yoshimasa Takahashi
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Due to great interest in the development of electric vehicles and other applications, improving the performances of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial. Specifically, components of electrolytes for LIBs should be adequately chosen from hundreds of thousands of candidate compounds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate some physical properties expected for combinations of molecules for electrolytes by microscopic simulations. That is, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, degree of dissociation, diffusion coefficient, and conformation of each molecule were analyzed via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We aimed to understand how molecular-sized structures and properties collaboratively affect the behavior of electrolytes. The practical models of molecules we used were ethylene carbonate (EC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylene carbonate (BC), γ-butyrolactone (GBL), γ-valerolactone (GVL), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). Many molecular systems of electrolytes were simulated, in which one molar LiPF6 was mixed into a single or combined solvent. It was found that small solvent molecules diffused with relative ease, and they contributed to the higher ionic conductivity of electrolytes. It was clarified that the diffusion coefficient of lithium (Li) ions is greatly affected by the surrounding solvent molecules. We can conclude that high-permittivity solvents can be selectively coordinated around Li ions, and Li salts are sufficiently dissociated, even when there is only a small content of high-permittivity solvent. Thus, we can confirm solely by MD simulation that one of the better candidates for solvent molecules, formamide (F), will exhibit higher performance than the current solvents.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Multiple Scenario Analysis of Battery Energy
           Storage System Investment: Measuring Economic and Circular Viability

    • Authors: Benedikte Wrålsen, Bernhard Faessler
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Circular business models for batteries have been revealed in earlier research to achieve economic viability while reducing total resource consumption of raw materials. The objective of this study is to measure the economic performance of the preferred business model by creating different scenarios comparing second life (spent) and new battery investment for seven different European regions and four energy management strategies. Findings reveal levels of economic ability for a total of 34 scenarios simulated, including direct savings per kWh, a total change in energy costs per year, battery charge/discharge cycles, and comparative breakeven analyses. Regional effects are also measured based on day-ahead electricity prices and solar irradiation. The minimum payback time is 7 years before battery system investment costs are covered. The most viable energy management strategies also had the highest number of charge/discharge cycles, which decreases battery lifetime. Investment in a second life battery compared to a new battery reduced the payback time by 0.5 to 2 years due to lower investment costs. However, the estimated lifetime range (3 to 10 years) is lower compared to a new battery (5 to 15 years), which questions the circular business model viability for the scenarios studied. Energy management strategies should be combined and customized to increase economic benefits.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Development of a Matlab/Simulink Model for
           Monitoring Cell State-Of-Health and State-Of-Charge via Impedance of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Lithium-ion battery cells not only show different behaviors depending on degradation and charging states, but also overcharge and overdischarge of cells shorten battery life and cause safety problems, thus studies aiming to provide an accurate state of a cell are required. Measurements of battery cell impedance are used for cell SoH and SoC estimation techniques, but it generally takes a long time for a cell in each state to be prepared and cell voltage response is measured when charging and discharging under each condition. This study introduces an electrical equivalent circuit model of lithium-ion cells developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Cell SoC, SoH, temperature, and C-rate are considered for more accurate cell impedance prediction, and the simulation results are verified with the measurement results. The developed model is suitable for use in cell SoC and SoH monitoring studies by successfully outputting cell impedance through real-time prediction of cell voltage during discharge.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Batteries in

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Raman Diagnostics of Cathode Materials for
           Li-Ion Batteries Using Multi-Wavelength Excitation

    • Authors: Marcel Heber, Kathrin Hofmann, Christian Hess
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been commonly employed as power sources in portable devices and are of great interest for large-scale energy storage. To further enhance the fundamental understanding of the electrode structure, we report on the use of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of layered cathode materials for Li-ion batteries (LiCoO2, LiNixCo1−xO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2). Varying the laser excitation from the UV to the visible (257, 385, 515, 633 nm) reveals wavelength-dependent changes in the vibrational profile and overtone/combination bands, originating from resonance effects in LiCoO2. In mixed oxides, the influence of resonance effects on the vibrational profile is preserved but mitigated by the presence of Ni and/or Mn, highlighting the influence of resonance Raman spectroscopy on electronic structure changes. The use of UV laser excitation (257, 385 nm) is shown to lead to a higher scattering efficiency towards Ni in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 compared to visible wavelengths, while deep UV excitation at 257 nm allows for the sensitive detection of surface species and/or precursor species reminiscent of the synthesis. Our results demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, including phase/impurity identification and quantification, as well as electronic structure analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 11: The Impact of an Overlaid Ripple Current on
           Battery Aging: The Development of the SiCWell Dataset

    • Authors: Erik Goldammer, Marius Gentejohann, Michael Schlüter, Daniel Weber, Wolfgang Wondrak, Sibylle Dieckerhoff, Clemens Gühmann, Julia Kowal
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The ripple current generated by the main inverter is demonstrated with a measurement obtained from an electric vehicle. A simulation model is presented which is based on an artificial reference DC bus, according to ISO 21498-2, and uses driving cycles in order to obtain current profiles relevant for battery cycling. A prototype of a battery cycling tester capable of high frequency and precise ripple current generation was developed and is used to cycle cells with superimposed ripple currents within an aging study. To investigate the impact of the frequency and the amplitude of the currents on the battery’s lifetime, these ripple parameters are varied between different test series. Cell parameters such as impedance and capacity are regularly characterized and the aging of the cells is compared to standard DC cycled reference cells. The aging study includes a total of 60 automotive-sized pouch cells. The evaluation of ripple currents and their impact on the battery can improve the state-of-health diagnosis and remaining-useful life prognosis. For the development and validation of such methods, the cycled cells are monitored with a measurement system that regularly measures current and voltage with a sampling rate of 2 MHz. The resulting dataset is suitable for the design of future ripple current aging studies as well as for the development and validation of aging models and methods for battery diagnosis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogels with
           Functionalization-Mediated Disordered Stacking for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jaehyeung Park, Jaswinder Sharma, Charl J. Jafta, Lilin He, Harry M. Meyer III, Jianlin Li, Jong K. Keum, Ngoc A. Nguyen, Georgios Polizos
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Surface modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Ethylene diamine (EDA) and α-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to functionalize the surface of the graphene oxide layers. The oxygen reduction and surface modification occurred in-situ during the hydrothermal self-assembly process. The chemical functionality and structure of the resulting ethylene diamine modified (rGO-EDA) and cyclodextrin modified (rGO-CD) aerogels as well as of the pristine unmodified rGO aerogel were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, and SANS techniques. The overall surface composition showed a significant decrease in the oxygen content for all synthesized aerogels. The surface modified aerogels were characterized by a disordered stacking of the assembled rGO layers. The surface functionalities resulted in a broad distribution of the interlayer spacing and introduced structural heterogeneities. Such disordered structures can enable a better adsorption mechanism of the sodium ions. Coin cells based on the synthesized aerogels and sodium metal were assembled and tested at several charge and discharge rates. The correlation between the surface functionality of the rGO, the induced structural heterogeneities due to the disordered stacking, and the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries were investigated. Operando XRD measurements were carried out during the battery cycling to investigate the adsorption or intercalation nature of the sodiation mechanism.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Assessing the Feasibility of a Cold Start
           Procedure for Solid State Batteries in Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Ryan Hughes, Christopher Vagg
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational temperatures above 60 °C. The feasibility of a cold start procedure is examined, which would enable a solid polymer battery to be used, without preconditioning, in a wide variety of ambient temperatures. The proposed solution involves dividing the solid-state battery into smaller sub-packs, which can be heated and brought online more quickly. Thermal modelling shows a cold start procedure is theoretically feasible when using a small liquid electrolyte lithium battery at the start. The key bottlenecks are the rate at which the solid-state batteries can be heated, and the discharge rates they can provide. After resistive heating is used for the first solid-state module, all subsequent heating can be provided by waste heat from the motor and operating battery modules. Due to the insulation required, the proposed system has lower volumetric, but higher gravimetric energy density than liquid electrolyte systems. This work suggests that with suitable system-level design, solid-state batteries could be widely adopted despite temperature constraints.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 14: Quantitative Lithiation Depth Profiling in
           Silicon Containing Anodes Investigated by Ion Beam Analysis

    • Authors: Sören Möller, Hyunsang Joo, Marcin Rasinski, Markus Mann, Egbert Figgemeier, Martin Finsterbusch
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The localisation and quantitative analysis of lithium (Li) in battery materials, components, and full cells are scientifically highly relevant, yet challenging tasks. The methodical developments of MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) presented here open up new possibilities for simultaneous elemental quantification and localisation of light and heavy elements in Li and other batteries. It describes the technical prerequisites and limitations of using IBA to analyse and solve current challenges with the example of Li-ion and solid-state battery-related research and development. Here, nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can provide spatial resolutions down to 70 nm and 1% accuracy. To demonstrate the new insights to be gained by IBA, SiOx-containing graphite anodes are lithiated to six states-of-charge (SoC) between 0–50%. The quantitative Li depth profiling of the anodes shows a linear increase of the Li concentration with SoC and a match of injected and detected Li-ions. This unambiguously proofs the electrochemical activity of Si. Already at 50% SoC, we derive C/Li = 5.4 (< LiC6) when neglecting Si, proving a relevant uptake of Li by the 8 atom % Si (C/Si ≈ 9) in the anode with Li/Si ≤ 1.8 in this case. Extrapolations to full lithiation show a maximum of Li/Si = 1.04 ± 0.05. The analysis reveals all element concentrations are constant over the anode thickness of 44 µm, except for a ~6-µm-thick separator-side surface layer. Here, the Li and Si concentrations are a factor 1.23 higher compared to the bulk for all SoC, indicating preferential Li binding to SiOx. These insights are so far not accessible with conventional analysis methods and are a first important step towards in-depth knowledge of quantitative Li distributions on the component level and a further application of IBA in the battery community.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 15: Combined Thermal Runaway Investigation of
           Coin Cells with an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter and a Tian–Calvet

    • Authors: Wenjiao Zhao, Magnus Rohde, Ijaz Ul Mohsin, Carlos Ziebert, Yong Du, Hans J. Seifert
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Commercial coin cells with LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 positive electrode material were investigated using an accelerating rate calorimeter and a Tian–Calvet calorimeter. After cycling and charging to the selected states of charge (SOCs), the cells were studied under thermal abuse conditions using the heat-wait-seek (HWS) method with the heating step of 5 K and a threshold for self-heating detection of 0.02 K/min. The onset temperature and the rate of the temperature rise, i.e., the self-heating rate for thermal runaway events, were determined. The morphology of the positive electrode, negative electrode and the separator of fresh and tested cells were compared and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the microstructure and the chemical compositions of the individual components were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. In the Tian–Calvet calorimeter, the coin cells with the selected SOCs and the individual components (positive electrode, negative electrode and separator) were heated up with a constant heating rate of 0.1 °C/min (ramp heating mode). Simultaneously, the heat flow signals were recorded to analyze the heat generation. The combination of the three different methods—the HWS method using the ES-ARC, ramp heating mode on both cells and the individual components using the Tian–Calvet calorimeter—together with a post-mortem analysis, give us a complete picture of the processes leading to thermal runaway.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Radial Thermal Conductivity Measurements of
           Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries—An Uncertainty Study of the Pipe

    • Authors: Markus Koller, Johanna Unterkofler, Gregor Glanz, Daniel Lager, Alexander Bergmann, Hartmut Popp
      First page: 16
      Abstract: A typical method for measuring the radial thermal conductivity of cylindrical objects is the pipe method. This method introduces a heating wire in combination with standard thermocouples and optical Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors into the core of a cell. This experimental method can lead to high uncertainties due to the slightly varying setup for each measurement and the non-homogenous structure of the cell. Due to the lack of equipment on the market, researchers have to resort to such experimental methods. To verify the measurement uncertainties and to show the possible range of results, an additional method is introduced. In this second method the cell is disassembled, and the thermal conductivity of each cell component is calculated based on measurements with the laser flash method and differential scanning calorimetry. Those results are used to numerically calculate thermal conductivity and to parameterize a finite element model. With this model, the uncertainties and problems inherent in the pipe method for cylindrical cells were shown. The surprising result was that uncertainties of up to 25% arise, just from incorrect assumption about the sensor position. Furthermore, the change in radial thermal conductivity at different states of charge (SOC) was measured with fully functional cells using the pipe method.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 17: Effect of Internal AC Heating on the
           Temperature Homogeneity of Different Size Battery Cells

    • Authors: Howard Richards, Christopher Vagg
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Rapidly warming up batteries is an important challenge both for conventional lithium-ion batteries, which operate best over 15 °C, and for most solid-state batteries, which currently require operating temperatures over 60 °C. Internal heating using an alternating current (AC) has been proposed as a possible solution in automotive applications, with faster heating rates possible than conventional external heating methods. This paper investigates the performance of internal AC heating on cells of different sizes, for both cylindrical and pouch formats. A novel experimental arrangement is used in which two cells are tested in series while connected with opposing polarity to create a zero-voltage string, allowing the use of less expensive testing equipment. The results show that larger cells exhibit a considerably greater distribution of surface temperature than smaller format cells during internal heating. This is likely due to the more extreme spatial variation in current density in the current collectors, causing an uneven distribution of internal heat generation. This highlights a significant difference compared to external heating methods, which are not affected by this, and has important implications for temperature measurement and battery management if this type of internal heating is to be used, since temperature sensors must be placed in hot spots or supplemented by validated models to ensure all parts of the battery stay within safe temperature limits.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 18: A New Charging Algorithm for Li-Ion Battery
           Packs Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    • Authors: João P. D. Faria, Ricardo L. Velho, Maria R. A. Calado, José A. N. Pombo, João B. L. Fermeiro, Sílvio J. P. S. Mariano
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the real-time conditions of the Li-ion batteries. To test and validate the proposed approach, a low-cost battery management system (BMS) was developed, supporting up to 168 cells in series and n cells in parallel. When compared with the multistage charging algorithm, the proposed charging algorithm revealed a shorter charging time (7.85%) and a smaller temperature increase (32.95%). Thus, the results show that the proposed algorithm based on AI is able to effectively charge and balance batteries and can be regarded as a subject of interest for future research.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Concept Review of a Cloud-Based Smart Battery
           Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Feasibility, Logistics, and

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Satyam Panchal, Tran Dinh Khang, Kirti Panchal, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB systems, battery management systems (BMSs) are required. The current design and functionality of BMSs suffer from a few critical drawbacks including low computational capability and limited data storage. Recently, there has been some effort in researching and developing smart BMSs utilizing the cloud platform. A cloud-based BMS would be able to solve the problems of computational capability and data storage in the current BMSs. It would also lead to more accurate and reliable battery algorithms and allow the development of other complex BMS functions. This study reviews the concept and design of cloud-based smart BMSs and provides some perspectives on their functionality and usability as well as their benefits for future battery applications. The potential division between the local and cloud functions of smart BMSs is also discussed. Cloud-based smart BMSs are expected to improve the reliability and overall performance of LIB systems, contributing to the mass adoption of renewable energy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 2: Lithium Silicates in Anode Materials for
           Li-Ion and Li Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Yu-Sheng Su, Kuang-Che Hsiao, Pedaballi Sireesha, Jen-Yen Huang
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The structural and interfacial stability of silicon-based and lithium metal anode materials is essential to their battery performance. Scientists are looking for a better inactive material to buffer strong volume change and suppress unwanted surface reactions of these anodes during cycling. Lithium silicates formed in situ during the formation cycle of silicon monoxide anode not only manage anode swelling but also avoid undesired interfacial interactions, contributing to the successful commercialization of silicon monoxide anode materials. Additionally, lithium silicates have been further utilized in the design of advanced silicon and lithium metal anodes, and the results have shown significant promise in the past few years. In this review article, we summarize the structures, electrochemical properties, and formation conditions of lithium silicates. Their applications in advanced silicon and lithium metal anode materials are also introduced.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 3: LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 Composite Solid-State
           Electrolyte for Safe Energy Storage Application

    • Authors: Samuel Adjepong Danquah, Jacob Strimaitis, Clifford F. Denize, Sangram K. Pradhan, Messaoud Bahoura
      First page: 3
      Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are gaining traction in the arena of energy storage due to their promising results in producing high energy density and long cycle life coupled with their capability of being safe. The key challenges facing ASSBs are low conductivity and slow charge transfer kinetics at the interface between the electrode and the solid electrolyte. Garnet solid-state electrolyte has shown promising results in improving the ion conductivity but still suffers from poor capacity retention and rate performance due to the interfacial resistance between the electrodes. To improve the interfacial resistance, we prepared a composite consisting of Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) garnet material as the ceramic, polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the polymer, and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) as the salt. These compounds are mixed in a stoichiometric ratio and developed into a very thin disc-shaped solid electrolyte. The LLCZN provides a lithium-ion transport path to enhance the lithium-ion conduction during charging and discharging cycles, while the LiPF6 contributes more lithium ions via the transport path. The PEO matrix in the composite material aids in bonding the compounds together and creating a large contact area, thereby reducing the issue of large interfacial resistance. FESEM images show the porous nature of the electrolyte which promotes the movement of lithium ions through the electrolyte. The fabricated LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 solid-state electrolyte shows outstanding electrochemical stability that remains at 130 mAh g−1 up to 150 charging and discharging cycles at 0.05 mA cm−2 current. All the specific capacities were calculated based on the mass of the cathode material (LiCoO2). In addition, the coin cell retains 85% discharge capacity up to 150 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98% and energy efficiency of 90% during the entire cycling process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 4: A Fast Approach to Obtain Layered
           Transition-Metal Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries

    • Authors: Shofirul Sholikhatun Nisa, Mintarsih Rahmawati, Cornelius Satria Yudha, Hanida Nilasary, Hartoto Nursukatmo, Haryo Satriya Oktaviano, Soraya Ulfa Muzayanha, Agus Purwanto
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Li-ion batteries as a support for future transportation have the advantages of high storage capacity, a long life cycle, and the fact that they are less dangerous than current battery materials. Li-ion battery components, especially the cathode, are the intercalation places for lithium, which plays an important role in battery performance. This study aims to obtain the LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC) cathode material using a simple flash coprecipitation method. As precipitation agents and pH regulators, oxalic acid and ammonia are widely available and inexpensive. The composition of the NMC mole ratio was varied, with values of 333, 424, 442, 523, 532, 622, and 811. As a comprehensive study of NMC, lithium transition-metal oxide (LMO, LCO, and LNO) is also provided. The crystal structure, functional groups, morphology, elemental composition and material behavior of the particles were all investigated during the heating process. The galvanostatic charge–discharge analysis was tested with cylindrical cells and using mesocarbon microbeads/graphite as the anode. Cells were tested at 2.7–4.25 V at 0.5 C. Based on the analysis results, NMC with a mole ratio of 622 showed the best characteristicd and electrochemical performance. After 100 cycles, the discharged capacity reaches 153.60 mAh/g with 70.9% capacity retention.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Direct Double Coating of Carbon and Nitrogen
           on Fluoride-Doped Li4Ti5O12 as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lukman Noerochim, Alvalo Toto Wibowo, Widyastuti, Achmad Subhan, Bambang Prihandoko, Wahyu Caesarendra
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Graphite as a commercial anode for lithium-ion batteries has significant safety concerns owing to lithium dendrite growth at low operating voltages. Li4Ti5O12 is a potential candidate to replace graphite as the next-generation anode of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 was successfully synthesized with a direct double coating of carbon and nitrogen using a solid-state method followed by the pyrolysis process of polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the addition of fluoride is successfully doped to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12 without any impurities being detected. The carbon and nitrogen coating are distributed on the surface of Li4Ti5O12 particles, as shown in the Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) image. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows a thin layer of carbon coating on the Li4Ti5O12 surface. The fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 has the highest specific discharge capacity of 165.38 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and capacity fading of 93.51% after 150 cycles compared to other samples, indicating improved electrochemical performance. This is attributed to the synergy between the appropriate amount of carbon and nitrogen coating, which induced a high mobility of electrons and larger crystallite size due to the insertion of fluoride to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12, enhancing lithium-ion transfer during the insertion/extraction process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of
           Na0.67MnO2 Cathode for Na-Ion Batteries Prepared with Novel
           Tetrabutylammonium Alginate Binder

    • Authors: Gints Kucinskis, Beate Kruze, Prasad Korde, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Arturs Viksna, Julija Hodakovska, Gunars Bajars
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Both the binder and solid–electrolyte interface play an important role in improving the cycling stability of electrodes for Na-ion batteries. In this study, a novel tetrabutylammonium (TBA) alginate binder is used to prepare a Na0.67MnO2 electrode for sodium-ion batteries with improved electrochemical performance. The ageing of the electrodes is characterized. TBA alginate-based electrodes are compared to polyvinylidene fluoride- (PVDF) and Na alginate-based electrodes and show favorable electrochemical performance, with gravimetric capacity values of up to 164 mAh/g, which is 6% higher than measured for the electrode prepared with PVDF binder. TBA alginate-based electrodes also display good rate capability and improved cyclability. The solid–electrolyte interface of TBA alginate-based electrodes is similar to that of PVDF-based electrodes. As the only salt of alginic acid soluble in non-aqueous solvents, TBA alginate emerges as a good alternative to PVDF binder in battery applications where the water-based processing of electrode slurries is not feasible, such as the demonstrated case with Na0.67MnO2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 1: Symmetric Aqueous Batteries of Titanium
           Hexacyanoferrate in Na+, K+, and Mg2+ Media

    • Authors: Min Li, Alessandro Bina, Mariam Maisuradze, Marco Giorgetti
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Symmetric batteries, in which the same active material is used for the positive and the negative electrode, simplifying the manufacture process and reducing the fabrication cost, have attracted extensive interest for large-scale stationary energy storage. In this paper, we propose a symmetric battery based on titanium hexacyanoferrate (TiHCF) with two well-separated redox peaks of Fe3+/Fe2+ and Ti4+/Ti3+ and tested it in aqueous Na-ion/ K-ion/Mg-ion electrolytes. The result shows that all the symmetric batteries exhibit a voltage plateau centered at around 0.6 V, with discharge capacity around 30 mAhg−1 at C/5. Compared to a Mg-ion electrolyte, the TiHCF symmetric batteries in Na-ion and K-ion electrolytes have better stability. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Na+, K+, and Mg2+ are in the same order of magnitude, which indicates that the three-dimensional ionic channels and interstices in the lattice of TiHCF are large enough for an efficient Na+, K+ and Mg2+ insertion and extraction.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 64: High-Potential Test for Quality Control of
           Separator Defects in Battery Cell Production

    • Authors: Louisa Hoffmann, Manuel Kasper, Maik Kahn, Georg Gramse, Gabriela Ventura Silva, Christoph Herrmann, Michael Kurrat, Ferry Kienberger
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for electromobility; thus, quality control in cell production is a central aspect for the success of electric vehicles. The detection of defects and poor insulation behavior of the separator is essential for high-quality batteries. Optical quality control methods in cell production are unable to detect small but still relevant defects in the separator layer, e.g., pinholes or particle contaminations. This gap can be closed by executing high-potential testing to analyze the insulation performance of the electrically insulating separator layer in a pouch cell. Here, we present an experimental study to identify different separator defects on dry cell stacks on the basis of electric voltage stress and mechanical pressure. In addition, finite element modeling (FEM) is used to generate physical insights into the partial discharge by examining the defect structures and the corresponding electric fields, including topographical electrode roughness, impurity particles, and voids in the separator. The test results show that hard discharges are associated with significant separator defects. Based on the study, a voltage of 350 to 450 V and a pressure of 0.3 to 0.6 N/mm2 are identified as optimum ranges for the test methodology, resulting in failure detection rates of up to 85%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 65: Effect of the Etching Profile of a Si
           Substrate on the Capacitive Characteristics of Three-Dimensional
           Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Sergei Kurbatov, Alexander Mironenko, Victor Naumov, Alexander Skundin, Alexander Rudy
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Along with the soaring demands for all-solid-state thin-film lithium-ion batteries, the problem of their energy density rise becomes very acute. The solution to this problem can be found in development of 3D batteries. The present work deals with the development of a technology for a 3D solid-state lithium-ion battery (3D SSLIB) manufacturing by plasma-chemical etching and magnetron sputtering technique. The results on testing of experimental samples of 3D SSLIB are presented. It was found that submicron-scale steps appearing on the surface of a 3D structure formed on Si substrate by the Bosch process radically change the crystal structure of the upper functional layers. Such changes can lead to disruption of the layers’ continuity, especially that of the down conductors. It is shown that surface polishing by liquid etching of the SiO2 layer and silicon reoxidation leads to surface smoothing, the replacement of the dendrite structure of functional layers by a block structure, and a significant improvement in the capacitive characteristics of the battery.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 66: Attention-Based Long Short-Term Memory
           Recurrent Neural Network for Capacity Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Tadele Mamo, Fu-Kwun Wang
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Monitoring cycle life can provide a prediction of the remaining battery life. To improve the prediction accuracy of lithium-ion battery capacity degradation, we propose a hybrid long short-term memory recurrent neural network model with an attention mechanism. The hyper-parameters of the proposed model are also optimized by a differential evolution algorithm. Using public battery datasets, the proposed model is compared to some published models, and it gives better prediction performance in terms of mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error. In addition, the proposed model can achieve higher prediction accuracy of battery end of life.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 67: Influence of Temperature and Electrolyte
           Composition on the Performance of Lithium Metal Anodes

    • Authors: Sanaz Momeni Boroujeni, Alexander Fill, Alexander Ridder, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Lithium metal anodes have again attracted widespread attention due to the continuously growing demand of cells with higher energy density. However, the lithium deposition mechanism and the affecting process of influencing factors, such as temperature, cycling current density, and electrolyte composition are not fully understood and require further investigation. In this article, the behavior of lithium metal anode at different temperatures (25, 40, and 60 ∘C), lithium salts, electrolyte concentrations (1 and 2 M), and the applied cell current (equivalent to 0.5 C, 1 C, and 2 C). is investigated. Two different salts were evaluated: lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesul-fonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The cells at a medium temperature (40 ∘C) show the highest Coulombic efficiency (CE). However, shorter cycle life is observed compared to the experiments at room temperature (25 ∘C). Regardless of electrolyte type and C-rate, the higher temperature of 60 ∘C provides the worst Coulombic efficiency and cycle life among those at the examined temperatures. A higher C-rate has a positive effect on the stability over the cycle life of the lithium cells. The best performance in terms of long cycle life and relatively good Coulombic efficiency is achieved by fast charging the cell with high concentration LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) electrolyte at a temperature of 25 ∘C. The cell has an average Coulombic efficiency of 0.987 over 223 cycles. In addition to galvanostatic experiments, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were performed to study the evolution of the interface under different conditions during cycling.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 68: Thermal Runaway Modelling of Li-Ion Cells at
           Various States of Ageing with a Semi-Empirical Model Based on a Kinetic

    • Authors: Mathilde Grandjacques, Pierre Kuntz, Philippe Azaïs, Sylvie Genies, Olivier Raccurt
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The thermal runaway model used is a semi-empirical model based on a kinetic equation, parametrised by three parameters (m,n,p). It is believed that this kinetic equation can describe any reaction. The choice of parameters is often made without justifications. We assumed it necessary to develop a method to select the parameters. The method proposed is based on data coming from an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) test. The method has been applied on data obtained for cells aged on different conditions. Thanks to a post-mortem analysis and simulations carried out using the parameters obtained, we have shown that the ageing mechanisms have a major impact on the parameters.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 69: High-Performance Amorphous Carbon Coated
           LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material with Improved Capacity Retention for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Anish Raj Kathribail, Arlavinda Rezqita, Daniel Lager, Raad Hamid, Yuri Surace, Maitane Berecibar, Joeri Van Mierlo, Annick Hubin, Marcus Jahn, Jürgen Kahr
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Coating conducting polymers onto active cathode materials has been proven to mitigate issues at high current densities stemming from the limited conducting abilities of the metal-oxides. In the present study, a carbon coating was applied onto nickel-rich NMC622 via polymerisation of furfuryl alcohol, followed by calcination, for the first time. The formation of a uniform amorphous carbon layer was observed with scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of the coated active material was confirmed and the electrochemical behaviour as well as the cycling stability was evaluated. The impact of the heat treatment on the electrochemical performance was studied systematically and was shown to improve cycling and high current performance alike. In-depth investigations of polymer coated samples show that the improved performance can be correlated with the calcination temperatures. In particular, a heat treatment at 400 °C leads to enhanced reversibility and capacity retention even after 400 cycles. At 10C, the discharge capacity for carbon coated NMC increases by nearly 50% compared to uncoated samples. This study clearly shows for the first time the synergetic effects of a furfuryl polymer coating and subsequent calcination leading to improved electrochemical performance of nickel-rich NMC622.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 70: Comprehensive Insights into the Porosity of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes: A Comparative Study on Positive Electrodes
           Based on LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622)

    • Authors: Thomas Beuse, Mathias Fingerle, Christian Wagner, Martin Winter, Markus Börner
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Porosity is frequently specified as only a value to describe the microstructure of a battery electrode. However, porosity is a key parameter for the battery electrode performance and mechanical properties such as adhesion and structural electrode integrity during charge/discharge cycling. This study illustrates the importance of using more than one method to describe the electrode microstructure of LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622)-based positive electrodes. A correlative approach, from simple thickness measurements to tomography and segmentation, allowed deciphering the true porous electrode structure and to comprehend the advantages and inaccuracies of each of the analytical techniques. Herein, positive electrodes were calendered from a porosity of 44–18% to cover a wide range of electrode microstructures in state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. Especially highly densified electrodes cannot simply be described by a close packing of active and inactive material components, since a considerable amount of active material particles crack due to the intense calendering process. Therefore, a digital 3D model was created based on tomography data and simulation of the inactive material, which allowed the investigation of the complete pore network. For lithium-ion batteries, the results of the mercury intrusion experiments in combination with gas physisorption/pycnometry experiments provide comprehensive insight into the microstructure of positive electrodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 71: Evaluation of Computational Chemistry Methods
           for Predicting Redox Potentials of Quinone-Based Cathodes for Li-Ion

    • Authors: Xuan Zhou, Abhishek Khetan, Süleyman Er
      First page: 71
      Abstract: High-throughput computational screening (HTCS) is an effective tool to accelerate the discovery of active materials for Li-ion batteries. For the evaluation of organic cathode materials, the effectiveness of HTCS depends on the accuracy of the employed chemical descriptors and their computing cost. This work was focused on evaluating the performance of computational chemistry methods, including semi-empirical quantum mechanics (SEQM), density-functional tight-binding (DFTB), and density functional theory (DFT), for the prediction of the redox potentials of quinone-based cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In addition, we evaluated the accuracy of three energy-related descriptors: (1) the redox reaction energy, (2) the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy of reactant molecules, and (3) the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy of lithiated product molecules. Among them, the LUMO energy of the reactant compounds, regardless of the level of theory used for its calculation, showed the best performance as a descriptor for the prediction of experimental redox potentials. This finding contrasts with our earlier results on the calculation of quinone redox potentials in aqueous media for redox flow batteries, for which the redox reaction energy was the best descriptor. Furthermore, the combination of geometry optimization using low-level methods (e.g., SEQM or DFTB) followed by energy calculation with DFT yielded accuracy as good as the full optimization of geometry using the DFT calculations. Thus, the proposed calculation scheme is useful for both the optimum use of computational resources and the systematic generation of robust calculation data on quinone-based cathode compounds for the training of data-driven material discovery models.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Investigation of a Novel Ecofriendly
           Electrolyte-Solvent for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Increased Thermal

    • Authors: Marco Ströbel, Larissa Kiefer, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 72
      Abstract: This study presents tributyl acetylcitrate (TBAC) as a novel ecofriendly high flash point and high boiling point solvent for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The flash point (TFP=217∘C) and the boiling point (TBP=331∘C) of TBAC are approximately 200 K greater than that of conventional linear carbonate components, such as ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) or diethyl carbonate (DEC). The melting point (TMP=−80∘C) is more than 100 K lower than that of ethylene carbonate (EC). Furthermore, TBAC is known as an ecofriendly solvent from other industrial sectors. A life cycle test of a graphite/NCM cell with 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in TBAC:EC:EMC:DEC (60:15:5:20 wt) achieved a coulombic efficiency of above 99% and the remaining capacity resulted in 90 percent after 100 cycles (C/4) of testing. As a result, TBAC is considered a viable option for improving the thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 73: Understanding Solid Electrolyte Interphase
           Nucleation and Growth on Lithium Metal Surfaces

    • Authors: Stefany Angarita-Gomez, Perla B. Balbuena
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Experiments and theory are needed to decode the exact structure and distribution of components of a passivation layer formed at the anode surface of Li metal batteries, known as the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI). Due to the inherent dynamic behavior as well as the lithium reactivity, the SEI structure and its growth mechanisms are still unclear. This study uses molecular simulation and computational chemistry tools to investigate the initial nucleation and growth dynamics of LiOH and Li2O that provide us with thermodynamics and structural information about the nucleating clusters of each species. Following the most favorable pathways for the addition of each of the components to a given nascent SEI cluster reveals their preferential nucleation mechanisms and illustrates different degrees of crystallinity and electron density distribution that are useful to understand ionic transport through SEI blocks.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 74: Optimization of Disassembly Strategies for
           Electric Vehicle Batteries

    • Authors: Sabri Baazouzi, Felix Paul Rist, Max Weeber, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Various studies show that electrification, integrated into a circular economy, is crucial to reach sustainable mobility solutions. In this context, the circular use of electric vehicle batteries (EVBs) is particularly relevant because of the resource intensity during manufacturing. After reaching the end-of-life phase, EVBs can be subjected to various circular economy strategies, all of which require the previous disassembly. Today, disassembly is carried out manually and represents a bottleneck process. At the same time, extremely high return volumes have been forecast for the next few years, and manual disassembly is associated with safety risks. That is why automated disassembly is identified as being a key enabler of highly efficient circularity. However, several challenges need to be addressed to ensure secure, economic, and ecological disassembly processes. One of these is ensuring that optimal disassembly strategies are determined, considering the uncertainties during disassembly. This paper introduces our design for an adaptive disassembly planner with an integrated disassembly strategy optimizer. Furthermore, we present our optimization method for obtaining optimal disassembly strategies as a combination of three decisions: (1) the optimal disassembly sequence, (2) the optimal disassembly depth, and (3) the optimal circular economy strategy at the component level. Finally, we apply the proposed method to derive optimal disassembly strategies for one selected battery system for two condition scenarios. The results show that the optimization of disassembly strategies must also be used as a tool in the design phase of battery systems to boost the disassembly automation and thus contribute to achieving profitable circular economy solutions for EVBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 75: Perovskite Solid-State Electrolytes for
           Lithium Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Shuo Yan, Chae-Ho Yim, Vladimir Pankov, Mackenzie Bauer, Elena Baranova, Arnaud Weck, Ali Merati, Yaser Abu-Lebdeh
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Solid-state lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have become increasingly important in recent years due to their potential to offer higher energy density and enhanced safety compared to conventional liquid electrolyte-based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, they require highly functional solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) and, therefore, many inorganic materials such as oxides of perovskite La2/3−xLi3xTiO3 (LLTO) and garnets La3Li7Zr2O12 (LLZO), sulfides Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS), and phosphates Li1+xAlxTi2−x(PO4)3x (LATP) are under investigation. Among these oxide materials, LLTO exhibits superior safety, wider electrochemical window (8 V vs. Li/Li+), and higher bulk conductivity values reaching in excess of 10−3 S cm−1 at ambient temperature, which is close to organic liquid-state electrolytes presently used in LIBs. However, recent studies focus primarily on composite or hybrid electrolytes that mix LLTO with organic polymeric materials. There are scarce studies of pure (100%) LLTO electrolytes in solid-state LMBs and there is a need to shed more light on this type of electrolyte and its potential for LMBs. Therefore, in our review, we first elaborated on the structure/property relationship between compositions of perovskites and their ionic conductivities. We then summarized current issues and some successful attempts for the fabrication of pure LLTO electrolytes. Their electrochemical and battery performances were also presented. We focused on tape casting as an effective method to prepare pure LLTO thin films that are compatible and can be easily integrated into existing roll-to-roll battery manufacturing processes. This review intends to shed some light on the design and manufacturing of LLTO for all-ceramic electrolytes towards safer and higher power density solid-state LMBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 76: A Method for Monitoring State-of-Charge of
           Lithium-Ion Cells Using Multi-Sine Signal Excitation

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 76
      Abstract: In this paper, a method for monitoring SoC of a lithium-ion battery cell through continuous impedance measurement during cell operation is introduced. A multi-sine signal is applied to the cell operating current, and the cell SoH and SoC can be simultaneously monitored via impedance at each frequency. Unlike existing studies in which cell impedance measurement is performed ex situ through EIS equipment, cell state estimation is performed in situ. The measured impedance takes into account cell temperature and cell SoH, enabling accurate SoC estimation. The measurement system configured for the experiment and considerations for the selection of measurement parameters are described, and the accuracy of cell SoC estimation is presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 77: Preparation of Composite Electrodes for
           All-Solid-State Batteries Based on Sulfide Electrolytes: An
           Electrochemical Point of View

    • Authors: Sara Giraldo, Koki Nakagawa, Ferley A. Vásquez, Yuta Fujii, Yongming Wang, Akira Miura, Jorge A. Calderón, Nataly C. Rosero-Navarro, Kiyoharu Tadanaga
      First page: 77
      Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are a promising response to the need for safety and high energy density of large-scale energy storage systems in challenging applications such as electric vehicles and grid integration. ASSBs based on sulfide solid electrolytes (SEs) have attracted much attention because of their high ionic conductivity and wide electrochemical windows of the sulfide SEs. Here, we study the electrochemical performance of ASSBs using composite electrodes prepared via two processes (simple mixture and solution processes) and varying the ionic conductor additive (80Li2S∙20P2S5 and argyrodite-type Li6PS5Cl). The composite electrodes consist of lithium-silicate-coated LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC), a sulfide SE, and carbon additives. The charge-transfer resistance at the interface of the solid electrolyte and NMC is the main parameter related to the ASSB’s status. This value decreases when the composite electrodes are prepared via a solution process. The lithium silicate coating and the use of a high-Li-ion additive conductor are also important to reduce the interfacial resistance and achieve high initial capacities (140 mAh g−1).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 78: Implementation of Battery Digital Twin:
           Approach, Functionalities and Benefits

    • Authors: Singh, Weeber, Birke
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The concept of Digital Twin (DT) is widely explored in literature for different application fields because it promises to reduce design time, enable design and operation optimization, improve after-sales services and reduce overall expenses. While the perceived benefits strongly encourage the use of DT, in the battery industry a consistent implementation approach and quantitative assessment of adapting a battery DT is missing. This paper is a part of an ongoing study that investigates the DT functionalities and quantifies the DT-attributes across the life cycles phases of a battery system. The critical question is whether battery DT is a practical and realistic solution to meeting the growing challenges of the battery industry, such as degradation evaluation, usage optimization, manufacturing inconsistencies or second-life application possibility. Within the scope of this paper, a consistent approach of DT implementation for battery cells is presented, and the main functions of the approach are tested on a Doyle-Fuller-Newman model. In essence, a battery DT can offer improved representation, performance estimation, and behavioral predictions based on real-world data along with the integration of battery life cycle attributes. Hence, this paper identifies the efforts for implementing a battery DT and provides the quantification attribute for future academic or industrial research.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 79: Virtual Detection of Mechanically Induced
           Short Circuits in a Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Based on Finite
           Element Simulation

    • Authors: Klemens Jantscher, Christoph Breitfuß, Martin Miklau, Khaled Ismail, Peter Dobusch
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are commonly used in today’s electric vehicles. Studying their behaviour under mechanical loading, including short circuits, is vital for vehicle safety. This paper covers three major topics, (1) a general literature review for the state-of-the-art of LIBs, (2) physical cell tests for model validation are performed, wherein the occurrence of short circuits is detected and (3) creating a finite element model (FEM) of an 18650 cylindrical LIB using the most recent testing and simulation techniques. A variety of short-circuit criteria based on stresses, strains and geometric parameters have been implemented in the simulation and compared to the test results. It will be demonstrated that a combination of two geometric criteria, in the radial and axial directions of the cell, is best suited for virtual short-circuit detection in the simulation. Finally, the short-circuit criteria are implemented in a post-processing tool that allows fast short-circuit analysis of cells of different loadings. In the future, this method of short-circuit detection will be used to analyse an assembly of several battery cells such as, for instance, an automotive or maritime battery pack. Furthermore, the developed method enables mechanical integration with respect to crash safety in vehicles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 80: The Emerging Electric Vehicle and Battery
           Industry in Indonesia: Actions around the Nickel Ore Export Ban and a SWOT

    • Authors: Andante Hadi Pandyaswargo, Alan Dwi Wibowo, Meilinda Fitriani Nur Maghfiroh, Arlavinda Rezqita, Hiroshi Onoda
      First page: 80
      Abstract: As the automotive industry shifts from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs), many countries are setting new strategies in their transportation sector. The Li-ion battery is currently the most common battery used in EVs due to its high energy density, durability, safety, and cost competitiveness. Nickel is predicted to be an essential component for the lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NMC) as a cathode material of choice for EV applications. Indonesia, one of the world’s largest nickel ore suppliers, put an export ban on nickel ore effective from 2020. The bold movement was intended to initiate the domestic EV industry and encourage investors abroad to drive their manufacturing activities into the country. On the other hand, the global Li-ion battery manufacturers who imported nickel from Indonesia had to restrategize their businesses. This review discussed the chronological events leading to the ban and after the ban from the media, government regulations, and literature reviews. The authors of this study also conducted interviews and attended seminars with the national experts and key players in the battery and EV industry to gain their most pertinent insights. The SWOT analysis of the reviewed materials indicated that while the Indonesian battery industry is still new, it needs to diversify its research and development activities and collaborate internationally to optimize the utilization of its resources and meet the purchasing power of the domestic EV market. Finally, this study summarized six key factors to support Indonesia’s ambition to be a new regional hub for EVs. These factors are: (1) pricing, (2) technology, (3) policy, (4) investment, (5) infrastructure, and (6) compliance with sustainability standards.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040080
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 81: Effects of State-of-Charge and Penetration
           Location on Variations in Temperature and Terminal Voltage of a
           Lithium-Ion Battery Cell during Penetration Tests

    • Authors: Yiqun Liu, Yitian Li, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The nail penetration test has been widely adopted as a battery safety test for reproducing internal short-circuits. In this paper, the effects of cell initial State-of-Charge (SOC) and penetration location on variations in cell temperature and terminal voltage during penetration tests are investigated. Three different initial SOCs (10%, 50%, and 90%) and three different penetration locations (one is at the center of the cell, the other two are close to the edge of the cell) are used in the tests. Once the steel cone starts to penetrate the cell, the cell terminal voltage starts to drop due to the internal short-circuit. The penetration tests with higher initial cell SOCs have larger cell surface temperature increases during the tests. Also, the penetration location always has the highest temperature increment during all penetration tests, which means the heat source is always at the penetration location. The absolute temperature increment at the penetration location is always higher when the penetration is close to the edge of the cell, compared to when the penetration is at the center of the cell. The heat generated at the edges of the cell is more difficult to dissipate. Additionally, a battery cell internal short-circuit model with different penetration locations is built in ANSYS Fluent, based on the specifications and experimental data of the tested battery cells. The model is validated with an acceptable discrepancy range by using the experimental data. Simulated data shows that the temperature gradually reduces from penetration locations to their surroundings. The gradients of the temperature distributions are much larger closer to the penetration locations. Overall, this paper provides detailed information on the temperature and terminal voltage variations of a lithium-ion polymer battery cell with large capacity and high power under penetration tests. The presented information can be used for assessing the safety of the onboard battery pack of electric vehicles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 82: A Perspective on Li/S Battery Design:
           Modeling and Development Approaches

    • Authors: Chase McCreary, Yuhui An, Sun Ung Kim, Yoon Hwa
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells that offer an ultrahigh theoretical specific energy of 2600 Wh/kg are considered one of the most promising next-generation rechargeable battery systems for the electrification of transportation. However, the commercialization of Li/S cells remains challenging, despite the recent advancements in materials development for sulfur electrodes and electrolytes, due to several critical issues such as the insufficient obtainable specific energy and relatively poor cyclability. This review aims to introduce electrode manufacturing and modeling methodologies and the current issues to be overcome. The obtainable specific energy values of Li/S pouch cells are calculated with respect to various parameters (e.g., sulfur mass loading, sulfur content, sulfur utilization, electrolyte-volume-to-sulfur-weight ratio, and electrode porosity) to demonstrate the design requirements for achieving a high specific energy of >300 Wh/kg. Finally, the prospects for rational modeling and manufacturing strategies are discussed, to establish a new design standard for Li/S batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 83: Copper Chloro-Complexes Concentrated
           Solutions: An Electrochemical Study

    • Authors: Giampaolo Lacarbonara, Luigi Faggiano, Stefania Porcu, Pier Carlo Ricci, Stefania Rapino, Declan P. Casey, James F. Rohan, Catia Arbizzani
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Basic studies on concentrated solutions are becoming more and more important due to the practical industrial and geological applications. The use in redox flow batteries is one of the most important applications of these solutions. Specifically, in this paper we investigated high-concentrated copper chloro-complexes solutions with different additives. The concentration of ligands and additives affects the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of 2 M solutions of Cu(I) and Cu(II). Solutions with calcium chloride and HCl as Cl− source were investigated with Cu:Cl ratios of 1:5 and 1:7, the 1:5 Cu:Cl ratio being the best performing. The substitution of calcium chloride with ammonium chloride increased the conductivity. However, while the effect on the positive electrode process was not very evident, the reversibility of the copper deposition–stripping process was greatly improved. Orthophosphoric acid could be a viable additive to decrease the complexation of calcium with chloride anions and to improve the stability of Cu(II) chloro-complexes. Absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that phosphate ions do not coordinate copper(II) but lead to a shift in the distribution of copper chloro-complexes toward more coordinated species. Electrochemically, the increased availability of chloride anions in solution stabilized the Cu(II)-rich solution and led to increased reversibility of the Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 84: Recent Development of Nickel-Rich and
           Cobalt-Free Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lukman Noerochim, Suwarno Suwarno, Nurul Hayati Idris, Hermawan K. Dipojono
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The exponential growth in the production of electric vehicles requires an increasing supply of low-cost, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The increased production of lithium-ion batteries raises concerns over the availability of raw materials, especially cobalt for batteries with nickel-rich cathodes, in which these constraints can impact the high price of cobalt. The reliance on cobalt in these cathodes is worrisome because it is a high-cost, rare material, with an unstable supply chain. This review describes the need and feasibility of developing cobalt-free high-nickel cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The new type of cathode material, LiNi1−x−yMnxAlyO2 promises a completely cobalt-free composition with almost the same electrochemical performance as that of the conventional high-nickel cathode. Therefore, this new type of cathode needs further research for its commercial applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 85: Impedance Based Temperature Estimation of
           Lithium Ion Cells Using Artificial Neural Networks

    • Authors: Marco Ströbel, Julia Pross-Brakhage, Mike Kopp, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Tracking the cell temperature is critical for battery safety and cell durability. It is not feasible to equip every cell with a temperature sensor in large battery systems such as those in electric vehicles. Apart from this, temperature sensors are usually mounted on the cell surface and do not detect the core temperature, which can mean detecting an offset due to the temperature gradient. Many sensorless methods require great computational effort for solving partial differential equations or require error-prone parameterization. This paper presents a sensorless temperature estimation method for lithium ion cells using data from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in combination with artificial neural networks (ANNs). By training an ANN with data of 28 cells and estimating the cell temperatures of eight more cells of the same cell type, the neural network (a simple feed forward ANN with only one hidden layer) was able to achieve an estimation accuracy of ΔT= 1 K (10 ∘C <T< 60 ∘C) with low computational effort. The temperature estimations were investigated for different cell types at various states of charge (SoCs) with different superimposed direct currents. Our method is easy to use and can be completely automated, since there is no significant offset in monitoring temperature. In addition, the prospect of using the above mentioned approach to estimate additional battery states such as SoC and state of health (SoH) is discussed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 86: Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management
           Systems: A Survey and New CFD Results

    • Authors: Morena Falcone, Eleonora Palka Bayard De Volo, Ali Hellany, Claudio Rossi, Beatrice Pulvirenti
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The environment has gained significant importance in recent years, and companies involved in several technology fields are moving in the direction of eco-friendly solutions. One of the most discussed topics in the automotive field is lithium-ion battery packs for electric vehicles and their battery thermal management systems (BTMSs). This work aims to show the most used lithium-ion battery pack cooling methods and technologies with best working temperature ranges together with the best performances. Different cooling methods are presented and discussed, with a focus on the comparison between air-cooling systems and liquid-cooling systems. In this context, a BTMS for cylindrical cells is presented, where the cells are arranged in staggered lines embedded in a solid structure and cooled through forced convection within channels. The thermal behavior of this BTMS is simulated by employing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The effect of the geometry of the BTMS on the cell temperature distribution is obtained. It is shown that the use of materials with additives for the solid structure enhances the performance of the system, giving lower temperatures to the cells. The system is tested with air-cooling and water-cooling, showing that the best performances are obtained with water-cooling in terms of cell packing density and lowest cell temperatures.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040086
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 87: Temperature-Induced Precipitation of V2O5 in
           Vanadium Flow Batteries—Revisited

    • Authors: Emil Holm Kirk, Filippo Fenini, Sara Noriega Oreiro, Anders Bentien
      First page: 87
      Abstract: The maximum operation temperature of the vanadium solution in vanadium flow batteries is typically limited to 40 °C to prevent the damaging thermal precipitation of V2O5. Therefore, the operation of batteries at high ambient temperatures is an important aspect to tackle for stationary storage. In the present work, a comprehensive study of the high temperature stability of redox solutions for vanadium flow batteries was performed. In particular, focus was placed on a comparison between batch and in operando precipitation experiments. It was found that, despite being a widely used method in the literature, caution should be taken when assessing the precipitation through capacity fade due to the large influence of external oxidation and cycling parameters, plausibly leading to an incorrect interpretation of the results. The in operando experiments consistently show a precipitation temperature almost 10–20 °C higher than in the batch tests at a 100% state of charge for the same time lapse.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040087
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 88: The Battery Life Estimation of a Battery
           under Different Stress Conditions

    • Authors: Natascia Andrenacci, Francesco Vellucci, Vincenzo Sglavo
      First page: 88
      Abstract: The prediction of capacity degradation, and more generally of the behaviors related to battery aging, is useful in the design and use phases of a battery to help improve the efficiency and reliability of energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic model for the prediction of battery cell degradation is presented. The proposed model takes its cue from an approach based on Markov chains, although it is not comparable to a Markov process, as the transition probabilities vary with the number of cycles that the cell has performed. The proposed model can reproduce the abrupt decrease in the capacity that occurs near the end of life condition (80% of the nominal value of the capacity) for the cells analyzed. Furthermore, we illustrate the ability of this model to predict the capacity trend for a lithium-ion cell with nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) at the cathode and graphite at the anode, subjected to a life cycle in which there are different aging factors, using the results obtained for cells subjected to single aging factors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7040088
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Thermal Conductivity in Aged Li-Ion Cells
           under Various Compression Conditions and State-of-Charge

    • Authors: Georgi Kovachev, Andrea Astner, Gregor Gstrein, Luigi Aiello, Johann Hemmer, Wolfgang Sinz, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Thermal conductivity (TC) is a parameter, which significantly influences the spatial temperature gradients of lithium ion batteries in operative or abuse conditions. It affects the dissipation of the generated heat by the cell during normal operation or during thermal runaway propagation from one cell to the next after an external short circuit. Hence, the thermal conductivity is a parameter of great importance, which concurs to assess the safety of a Li-ion battery. In this work, an already validated, non-destructive measurement procedure was adopted for the determination of the evolution of the through-plane thermal conductivity of 41 Ah commercially available Li-ion pouch cells (LiNiMnCoO2-LiMn2O4/Graphite) as function of battery lifetime and state of charge (SOC). Results show a negative parabolic behaviour of the thermal conductivity over the battery SOC-range. In addition, an average decrease of TC in thickness direction of around 4% and 23% was measured for cells cycled at 60 °C with and without compression, respectively. It was shown that pretension force during cycling reduces battery degradation and thus minimises the effect of ageing on the thermal parameter deterioration. Nevertheless, this study highlights the need of adjustment of the battery pack cooling system due to the deterioration of thermal conductivity after certain battery lifetime with the aim of reducing the risk of battery overheating after certain product life.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Correction: Paccha-Herrera et al. Thermal
           Modeling Approaches for a LiCoO2 Lithium-ion Battery—A Comparative Study
           with Experimental Validation. Batteries 2020, 6, 40

    • Authors: Edwin Paccha-Herrera, Williams R. Calderón-Muñoz, Marcos Orchard, Francisco Jaramillo, Kamal Medjaher
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 44: Investigation into the Lithium-Ion Battery
           Fire Resistance Testing Procedure for Commercial Use

    • Authors: Daniel Darnikowski, Magdalena Mieloszyk
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have many advantages (e.g., high voltage and long-life cycle) in comparison to other energy storage technologies (e.g., lead acid), resulting in their applicability in a wide variety of structures. Simultaneously, the thermal stability of LIBs is relatively poor and can be damaged by exposure to fire. This paper presents an investigation into a fire resistance safety test for LIBs and the use of thermal sensors to evaluate exposure conditions and estimate the temperatures to which cells are subjected. Temperature distribution data and statistical analysis show significant differences of over 200 ∘C, indicating the stochastic nature of the heating curve despite following the testing procedure requirements. We concluded that the current testing procedure is inadequate for the reliable testing of LIBs, leaving an alarming loophole in the fire safety evaluation. The observed instability is mostly related to wind speed and direction, and fire source size.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 45: An ASIC-Based Miniaturized System for Online
           Multi-Measurand Monitoring of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Giuseppe Manfredini, Andrea Ria, Paolo Bruschi, Luca Gerevini, Michele Vitelli, Mario Molinara, Massimo Piotto
      First page: 45
      Abstract: To better asses the ageing and to reduce the hazards involved in the use of Lithium-Ion Batteries, multi-measurand monitoring units and strategies are urged. In this paper, a Cell Management Unit, based on the SENSIPLUS chip, a recently introduced multichannel, multi-mode sensor interface, is described. SENSIPLUS is a single System on a Chip combined with a reduced number of external components, resulting in a highly miniaturized device, built on 20 × 8 mm2 printed circuit board. Thanks to SENSIPLUS’ versatility, the proposed system is capable of performing direct measurements (EIS, cell voltage) on the cell it is applied to, and reading different kinds of sensors. The SENSIPLUS versatile digital communication interface, combined with a digital isolator, enable connection of several devices to a single bus for parallel monitoring a large number of cells connected in series. Experiments performed by connecting the proposed system to a commercial Lithium-Ion Battery and to capacitive and resistive sensors are described. In particular, the capability of measuring the cell internal impedance with a resolution of 120 μΩ is demonstrated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 46: Detection of Lithium Plating in Li-Ion Cell
           Anodes Using Realistic Automotive Fast-Charge Profiles

    • Authors: Matteo Dotoli, Emanuele Milo, Mattia Giuliano, Riccardo Rocca, Carlo Nervi, Marcello Baricco, Massimiliano Ercole, Mauro Francesco Sgroi
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The widespread use of electric vehicles is nowadays limited by the “range anxiety” of the customers. The drivers’ main concerns are related to the kilometric range of the vehicle and to the charging time. An optimized fast-charge profile can help to decrease the charging time, without degrading the cell performance and reducing the cycle life. One of the main reasons for battery capacity fade is linked to the Lithium plating phenomenon. This work investigates two methodologies, i.e., three-electrode cell measurement and internal resistance evolution during charging, for detecting the Lithium plating conditions. From this preliminary analysis, it was possible to develop new Multi-Stage Constant-Current profiles, designed to improve the performance in terms of charging time and cells capacity retention with respect to a reference profile. Four new profiles were tested and compared to a reference. The results coming from the new profiles demonstrate a simultaneous improvement in terms of charging time and cycling life, showing the reliability of the implemented methodology in preventing Lithium plating.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Versatile AC Current Control Technique for a
           Battery Using Power Converters

    • Authors: S. M. Rakiul Islam, Sung-Yeul Park
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Although a battery is a DC device, AC current is often necessary for testing, preheating, impedance spectroscopy, and advanced charging. This paper presents a versatile control technique to inject AC current to a battery. Synchronous buck and H-bridge topologies are operated in bidirectional mode and controlled by uni-polar and bi-polar pulse width modulation techniques for the AC current injection. The input and output passive circuits are specially designed considering AC current and the properties of the battery. A controller is proposed considering a small internal impedance, small AC ripple voltage, and variable DC offset voltage of a battery. The controller is capable of maintaining stable operation of AC current injection in two power quadrant within a small DC voltage boundary of a battery. The controller is comprised of a feedback compensator, a feedforward term, and an estimator. The feedback gain is designed considering the internal impedance. The feedforward gain is designed based on estimated open circuit battery voltage and input voltage. The open circuit voltage estimator is designed based on filters and battery model. For validation, AC current is injected to a Valence U-12XP battery. The battery is rated for 40 Ah nominal capacity and 13.8 V nominal voltage The controller successfully injected AC current to a battery with +10 A, 0 A and −10 A DC currents. The magnitude and frequency of the AC current was up to 5 A and 2 kHz respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 48: Identification of Degradation Mechanisms by
           Post-Mortem Analysis for High Power and High Energy Commercial Li-Ion
           Cells after Electric Vehicle Aging

    • Authors: Kuntz, Raccurt, Azaïs, Richter, Waldmann, Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Bardet, Buzlukov, Genies
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Driven by the rise of the electric automotive industry, the Li-ion battery market is in strong expansion. This technology does not only fulfill the requirements of electric mobility, but is also found in most portable electric devices. Even though Li-ion batteries are known for their numerous advantages, they undergo serious performance degradation during their aging, and more particularly when used in specific conditions such as at low temperature or high charging current rates. Depending on the operational conditions, different aging mechanisms are favored and can induce physical and chemical modifications of the internal components, leading to performance decay. In this article, the identification of the degradation mechanisms was carried out thanks to an in-depth ante- and post mortem study on three high power and high energy commercial 18,650 cells. Li-ion cells were aged using a battery electric vehicle (BEV) aging profile at −20 °C, 0 °C, 25 °C, and 45 °C in accordance with the international standard IEC 62-660, and in calendar aging mode at 45 °C and SOC 100%. Internal components recovered from fresh and aged cells were investigated through different electrochemical (half-coin cell), chemical (EDX, GD-OES, NMR), and topological (SEM) characterization techniques. The influence of power and energy cells’ internal design and Si content in the negative electrode on cell aging has been highlighted vis-à-vis the capacity and power fade.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 49: Analysis and Investigation of Thermal Runaway
           Propagation for a Mechanically Constrained Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell Module

    • Authors: Luigi Aiello, Ilie Hanzu, Gregor Gstrein, Eduard Ewert, Christian Ellersdorfer, Wolfgang Sinz
      First page: 49
      Abstract: In this paper, tests and analysis of thermal runaway propagation for commercial modules consisting of four 41 Ah Li-ion pouch cells are presented. Module samples were tested at 100% state-of-charge and mechanically constrained between two steel plates to provide thermal and mechanical contact between the parts. Voltage and temperature of each cell were monitored during the whole experiment. The triggering of the exothermal reactions was obtained by overheating one cell of the stack with a flat steel heater. In preliminary studies, the melting temperature of the separator was measured (from an extracted sample) with differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis techniques, revealing a tri-layers separator with two melting points (≈135 °C and ≈170 °C). The tests on module level revealed 8 distinct phases observed and analyzed in the respective temperature ranges, including smoking, venting, sparkling, and massive, short circuit condition. The triggering temperature of the cells resulted to be close to the melting temperature of the separator obtained in preliminary tests, confirming that the violent exothermal reactions of thermal runaway are caused by the internal separator failure. Postmortem inspections of the modules revealed the internal electrical failure path in one cell and the propagation of the internal short circuit in its active material volume, suggesting that the expansion of the electrolyte plays a role in the short circuit propagation at the single cell level. The complete thermal runaway propagation process was repeated on 5 modules and ended on average 60 s after the first thermal runaway triggered cell reached a top temperature of 1100 °C.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Biopolimer Peptide Batteries—A New Concept
           for Environmentally Friendly and Safer Energy Storage

    • Authors: Volodymyr Moklyak, Andrii Hrubiak, Zurab Gogitidze, Yurii Yavorskyi
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The work shows a new approach to improving the performance of lithium power sources by using polypeptides as an active component of the cathode composition. Specifically, the experimental results of testing prototypes of lithium current sources with cathodes based on polypeptides, which demonstrate the value of the specific discharge capacity at the level of 2000–2700 mAh/g, depending on the content of the organic component, are presented. The use of the intermittent galvanostatic titration mode during the discharge showed an increase in the specific indicators of the current sources in comparison with the continuous discharge at different specific load currents. Based on this, the effect of “relaxation recovery” of the cathode material based on polypeptides was discovered, the essence of which is a significant increase (recovery) of the open-circuit voltage when the load of the lithium current source is disconnected, which leads to an increase of the discharge capacity without external energy influences. The functionalization of the surface of thermally expanded graphite with polypeptide components made it possible to create a cathode material, the use of which in lithium current source models increased the specific discharge capacity to 19,000 mA h/g at a discharge current of 10 mA/h.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Comparative Study of Equivalent Circuit
           Models Performance in Four Common Lithium-Ion Batteries: LFP, NMC, LMO,

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Andre DaCosta, Anosh Mevawalla, Satyam Panchal, Michael Fowler
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are an important component of energy storage systems used in various applications such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. There are many chemistries of Li-ion battery, but LFP, NMC, LMO, and NCA are four commonly used types. In order for the battery applications to operate safely and effectively, battery modeling is very important. The equivalent circuit model (ECM) is a battery model often used in the battery management system (BMS) to monitor and control Li-ion batteries. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate the performance of three different ECMs (1RC, 2RC, and 1RC with hysteresis) on four Li-ion battery chemistries (LFP, NMC, LMO, and NCA). The results indicated that all three models are usable for the four types of Li-ion chemistries, with low errors. It was also found that the ECMs tend to perform better in dynamic current profiles compared to non-dynamic ones. Overall, the best-performed model for LFP and NCA was the 1RC with hysteresis ECM, while the most suited model for NMC and LMO was the 1RC ECM. The results from this study showed that different ECMs would be suited for different Li-ion battery chemistries, which should be an important factor to be considered in real-world battery and BMS applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 52: Combining the Distribution of Relaxation
           Times from EIS and Time-Domain Data for Parameterizing Equivalent Circuit
           Models of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Leo Wildfeuer, Philipp Gieler, Alexander Karger
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are a widely used modeling approach for lithium-ion batteries in engineering applications. The RC elements, which display the dynamic loss processes of the cell, are usually parameterized by fitting the ECM to experimental data in either the time-domain or the frequency-domain. However, both types of data have limitations with regard to the observable time constants of electrochemical processes. This work proposes a method to combine time-domain and frequency-domain measurement data for parameterization of RC elements by exploiting the full potential of the distribution of relaxation times (DRT). Instead of using only partial information from the DRT to supplement a conventional fitting algorithm, we determine the parameters of an arbitrary number of RC elements directly from the DRT. The difficulties of automated deconvolution of the DRT, including regularization and the choice of an optimal regularization factor, is tackled by using the L-curve criterion for optimized calculation of the DRT via Tikhonov regularization. Three different approaches to merge time- and frequency-domain data are presented, including a novel approach where the DRT is simultaneously calculated from electrochemical impedance spectoscropy (EIS) and pulse relaxation measurements. The parameterized model for a commercial 18650 NCA cell was validated during a validation cycle consisting of constant current and real-world automotive cycling and yields a relative improvement of over 40% compared to a conventional EIS-fitting algorithm.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 53: In-Situ Tools Used in Vanadium Redox Flow
           Battery Research—Review

    • Authors: Purna C. Ghimire, Arjun Bhattarai, Tuti M. Lim, Nyunt Wai, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Qingyu Yan
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Progress in renewable energy production has directed interest in advanced developments of energy storage systems. The all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is one of the attractive technologies for large scale energy storage due to its design versatility and scalability, longevity, good round-trip efficiencies, stable capacity and safety. Despite these advantages, the deployment of the vanadium battery has been limited due to vanadium and cell material costs, as well as supply issues. Improving stack power density can lower the cost per kW power output and therefore, intensive research and development is currently ongoing to improve cell performance by increasing electrode activity, reducing cell resistance, improving membrane selectivity and ionic conductivity, etc. In order to evaluate the cell performance arising from this intensive R&D, numerous physical, electrochemical and chemical techniques are employed, which are mostly carried out ex situ, particularly on cell characterizations. However, this approach is unable to provide in-depth insights into the changes within the cell during operation. Therefore, in situ diagnostic tools have been developed to acquire information relating to the design, operating parameters and cell materials during VRFB operation. This paper reviews in situ diagnostic tools used to realize an in-depth insight into the VRFBs. A systematic review of the previous research in the field is presented with the advantages and limitations of each technique being discussed, along with the recommendations to guide researchers to identify the most appropriate technique for specific investigations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 54: Layered Iron Vanadate as a High-Capacity
           Cathode Material for Nonaqueous Calcium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Munseok S. Chae, Dedy Setiawan, Hyojeong J. Kim, Seung-Tae Hong
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Calcium-ion batteries represent a promising alternative to the current lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, calcium-ion intercalating materials in nonaqueous electrolytes are scarce, probably due to the difficulties in finding suitable host materials. Considering that research into calcium-ion batteries is in its infancy, discovering and characterizing new host materials would be critical to further development. Here, we demonstrate FeV3O9∙1.2H2O as a high-performance calcium-ion battery cathode material that delivers a reversible discharge capacity of 303 mAh g−1 with a good cycling stability and an average discharge voltage of ~2.6 V (vs. Ca/Ca2+). The material was synthesized via a facile co-precipitation method. Its reversible capacity is the highest among calcium-ion battery materials, and it is the first example of a material with a capacity much larger than that of conventional lithium-ion battery cathode materials. Bulk intercalation of calcium into the host lattice contributed predominantly to the total capacity at a lower rate, but became comparable to that due to surface adsorption at a higher rate. This stimulating discovery will lead to the development of new strategies for obtaining high energy density calcium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 55: Carbon Monoliths with Hierarchical Porous
           Structure for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Jose Francisco Vivo-Vilches, Blagoj Karakashov, Alain Celzard, Vanessa Fierro, Ranine El Hage, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour, Mathieu Etienne
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Carbon monoliths were tested as electrodes for vanadium redox batteries. The materials were synthesised by a hard-templating route, employing sucrose as carbon precursor and sodium chloride crystals as the hard template. For the preparation process, both sucrose and sodium chloride were ball-milled together and molten into a paste which was hot-pressed to achieve polycondensation of sucrose into a hard monolith. The resultant material was pyrolysed in nitrogen at 750 °C, and then washed to remove the salt by dissolving it in water. Once the porosity was opened, a second pyrolysis step at 900 °C was performed for the complete conversion of the materials into carbon. The products were next characterised in terms of textural properties and composition. Changes in porosity, obtained by varying the proportions of sucrose to sodium chloride in the initial mixture, were correlated with the electrochemical performances of the samples, and a good agreement between capacitive response and microporosity was indeed observed highlighted by an increase in the cyclic voltammetry curve area when the SBET increased. In contrast, the reversibility of vanadium redox reactions measured as a function of the difference between reduction and oxidation potentials was correlated with the accessibility of the active vanadium species to the carbon surface, i.e., was correlated with the macroporosity. The latter was a critical parameter for understanding the differences of energy and voltage efficiencies among the materials, those with larger macropore volumes having the higher efficiencies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 56: Analysis of Electrochemical Impedance
           Spectroscopy on Zinc-Air Batteries Using the Distribution of Relaxation

    • Authors: Robert Franke-Lang, Julia Kowal
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Zinc-air batteries could be a key technology for higher energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems. Many questions remain unanswered, however, and new methods for analyses and quantifications are needed. In this study, the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) based on ridge regression was applied to the impedance data of primary zinc-air batteries in a temperature range of 253 K and 313 K and at different State-of-Charges for the first time. Furthermore, the problem of the regularization parameter on real impedance spectroscopic measurements was addressed and a method was presented using the reconstruction of impedance data from the DRT as a quality criterion. The DRT was able to identify a so far undiscussed process and thus explain why some equivalent circuit models may fail.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 57: Life Cycle Modelling of Extraction and
           Processing of Battery Minerals—A Parametric Approach

    • Authors: Nelson Bunyui Manjong, Lorenzo Usai, Odne Stokke Burheim, Anders Hammer Strømman
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Sustainable battery production with low environmental footprints requires a systematic assessment of the entire value chain, from raw material extraction and processing to battery production and recycling. In order to explore and understand the variations observed in the reported footprints of raw battery materials, it is vital to re-assess the footprints of these material value chains. Identifying the causes of these variations by combining engineering and environmental system analysis expands our knowledge of the footprints of these battery materials. This article disaggregates the value chains of six raw battery materials (aluminum, copper, graphite, lithium carbonate, manganese, and nickel) and identifies the sources of variabilities (levers) for each process along each value chain. We developed a parametric attributional process-based life cycle model to explore the effect of these levers on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the value chains, expressed in kg of CO2e. The parametric life cycle inventory model is used to conduct distinct life cycle assessments (LCA) for each material value chain by varying the identified levers within defined engineering ranges. 570 distinct LCAs are conducted for the aluminum value chain, 450 for copper, 170 for graphite, 39 for lithium carbonate via spodumene, 20 for lithium carbonate via brine, 260 for manganese, and 440 for nickel. Three-dimensional representations of these results for each value chain in kg of CO2e are presented as contour plots with gradient lines illustrating the intensity of lever combinations on the GHG emissions. The results of this study convey multidimensional insights into how changes in the lever settings of value chains yield variations in the overall GHG emissions of the raw materials. Parameterization of these value chains forms a flexible and high-resolution backbone, leading towards a more reliable life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries (LIB).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Thermal Analysis of LMO/Graphite Batteries
           Using Equivalent Circuit Models

    • Authors: Nadjiba Mahfoudi, M’hamed Boutaous, Shihe Xin, Serge Buathier
      First page: 58
      Abstract: An efficient thermal management system (TMS) of electric vehicles requires a high-fidelity battery model. The model should be able to predict the electro-thermal behavior of the battery, considering the operating conditions throughout the battery’s lifespan. In addition, the model should be easy to handle for the online monitoring and control of the TMS. Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used because of their simplicity and suitable performance. In this paper, the electro-thermal behavior of a prismatic 50 Ah LMO/Graphite cell is investigated. A dynamic model is adopted to describe the battery voltage, current, and heat generation. The battery model parameters are identified for a single cell, considering their evolution versus the state of charge and temperature. The needed experimental data are issued from the measurements carried out, thanks to a special custom electrical bench able to impose a predefined current evolution or driving cycles, controllable by serial interface. The proposed battery parameters, functions of state of charge (SOC), and temperature (T) constitute a set of interesting and complete data, not available in the literature, and suitable for further investigations. The thermal behavior and the dynamic models are validated using the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), with a large operating time, higher than 3 h. The measurement and model prediction exhibit a temperature difference less than 1.2 °C and a voltage deviation less than 3%, showing that the proposed model accurately predicts current, voltage, and temperature. The combined effects of temperature and SOC provides a more efficient modeling of the cell behavior. Nevertheless, the simplified model with only temperature dependency remains acceptable. Hence, the present modeling constitutes a confident prediction and a real step for an online control of the complete thermal management of electrical vehicles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 59: Grid-Scale Battery Energy Storage for
           Arbitrage Purposes: A Colombian Case

    • Authors: Andrés F. Peñaranda, David Romero-Quete, Camilo A. Cortés
      First page: 59
      Abstract: This study seeks to determine a suitable arbitrage strategy that allows a battery energy storage system (BESS) owner to obtain the maximum economic benefits when participating in the Colombian electricity market. A comparison of different arbitration strategies from the literature, such as seasonal, statistical, and neural networks-based models, is performed. To determine BESS’s optimal operation, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization problem is formulated, including a battery degradation model based on an upper piecewise linear approximation method. A financial evaluation of the different arbitrage strategies is carried out, resulting, for all the analyzed cases, in a negative net present value (NPV); thus, the results show that the income obtained from BESS when only performing energy arbitrage in the Colombian market do not compensate the investment costs. Results have also shown that strategies based on statistical and prediction models have a better performance than seasonal strategies, especially in atypical circumstances such as COVID-19.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Review of Achieved Purities after Li-ion
           Batteries Hydrometallurgical Treatment and Impurities Effects on the
           Cathode Performance

    • Authors: Olimpia A. Nasser, Martina Petranikova
      First page: 60
      Abstract: This paper is a product purity study of recycled Li-ion batteries with a focus on hydrometallurgical recycling processes. Firstly, a brief description of the current recycling status was presented based on the research data. Moreover, this work presented the influence of impurities such as Cu, Fe and Mg on recovered cathode materials performance. The impact of the impurities was described depending on their form (metallic or ionic) and concentration. This work also reviewed hydrometallurgical recycling processes depending on the recovered material, obtained purity and recovery methods. This purity data were obtained from both research and battery industry actors. Finally, the purity study was completed by collecting data regarding commercial battery-grade chemical compounds and active lithium cathode materials, including required purity levels and allowed impurity limitations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Non-Uniform Circumferential Expansion of
           Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells—The Potato Effect

    • Authors: Jessica Hemmerling, Jajnabalkya Guhathakurta, Falk Dettinger, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 61
      Abstract: This paper presents the non-uniform change in cell thickness of cylindrical Lithium (Li)-ion cells due to the change of State of Charge (SoC). Using optical measurement methods, with the aid of a laser light band micrometer, the expansion and contraction are determined over a complete charge and discharge cycle. The cell is rotated around its own axis by an angle of α=10° in each step, so that the different positions can be compared with each other over the circumference. The experimental data show that, contrary to the assumption based on the physical properties of electrode growth due to lithium intercalation in the graphite, the cell does not expand uniformly. Depending on the position and orientation of the cell coil, there are different zones of expansion and contraction. In order to confirm the non-uniform expansion around the circumference of the cell in 3D, X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the cells are performed at low and at high SoC. Comparison of the high resolution 3D reconstructed volumes clearly visualizes a sinusoidal pattern for non-uniform expansion. From the 3D volume, it can be confirmed that the thickness variation does not vary significantly over the height of the battery cell due to the observed mechanisms. However, a slight decrease in the volume change towards the poles of the battery cells due to the higher stiffness can be monitored.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 62: Power and Energy Rating Considerations in
           Integration of Flow Battery with Solar PV and Residential Load

    • Authors: Purnima Parmeshwarappa, Ravendra Gundlapalli, Sreenivas Jayanti
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Integration of renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) generation with variable power demand systems like residential electricity consumption requires the use of a high efficiency electrical energy system such as a battery. In the present study, such integration has been studied using vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) as the energy storage system with specific focus on the sizing of the power and energy storage capacities of the system components. Experiments have been carried out with a seven-day simulated solar insolation and residential load characteristics using a 1 kW VRFB stack and variable amounts of electrolyte volume. Several scenarios have been simulated using power and energy scale factors. Battery response, in terms of its power, state of charge and efficiency, has been monitored in each run. Results show that the stack power rating should be based on peak charging characteristics while the volume of electrolyte should be based on the expected daily energy discharge through the battery. The PV source itself should be sized at about 25% more energy rating than the average daily load. The ability to design a VRFB with a high power-to-energy ratio makes it particularly attractive for PV-load integration.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 63: Battery Crush Test Procedures in Standards
           and Regulation: Need for Augmentation and Harmonisation

    • Authors: Bhavya Kotak, Yash Kotak, Katja Brade, Tibor Kubjatko, Hans-Georg Schweiger
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Battery safety is a prominent concern for the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs). The battery powering an EV contains highly energetic active materials and flammable organic electrolytes. Usually, an EV battery catches fire due to its thermal runaway, either immediately at the time of the accident or can take a while to gain enough heat to ignite the battery chemicals. There are numerous battery abuse testing standards and regulations available globally. Therefore, battery manufacturers are always in dilemma to choose the safest one. Henceforth, to find the optimal outcome of these two major issues, six standards (SAE J2464:2009, GB/T 31485-2015:2015, FreedomCAR:2006, ISO 12405-3:2014, IEC 62660-2:2010, and SAND2017-6295:2017) and two regulations (UN/ECE-R100.02:2013 and GTR 20:2018), that are followed by more than fifty countries in the world, are investigated in terms of their abuse battery testing conditions (crush test). This research proves that there is a need for (a) augmenting these standards and regulations as they do not consider real-life vehicle crash scenarios, and (b) one harmonised framework should be developed, which can be adopted worldwide. These outcomes will solve the battery manufacturers dilemma and will also increase the safety of EV consumers.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7030063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Advanced Monitoring and Prediction of the
           Thermal State of Intelligent Battery Cells in Electric Vehicles by
           Physics-Based and Data-Driven Modeling

    • Authors: Jan Kleiner, Magdalena Stuckenberger, Lidiya Komsiyska, Christian Endisch
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Novel intelligent battery systems are gaining importance with functional hardware on the cell level. Cell-level hardware allows for advanced battery state monitoring and thermal management, but also leads to additional thermal interactions. In this work, an electro-thermal framework for the modeling of these novel intelligent battery cells is provided. Thereby, a lumped thermal model, as well as a novel neural network, are implemented in the framework as thermal submodels. For the first time, a direct comparison of a physics-based and a data-driven thermal battery model is performed in the same framework. The models are compared in terms of temperature estimation with regard to accuracy. Both models are very well suited to represent the thermal behavior in novel intelligent battery cells. In terms of accuracy and computation time, however, the data-driven neural network approach with a Nonlinear AutoregRessive network with eXogeneous input (NARX) shows slight advantages. Finally, novel applications of temperature prediction in battery electric vehicles are presented and the applicability of the models is illustrated. Thereby, the conventional prediction of the state of power is extended by simultaneous temperature prediction. Additionally, temperature forecasting is used for pre-conditioning by advanced cooling system regulation to enable energy efficiency and fast charging.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 32: Electrical Characterization of Li-Ion Battery
           Modules for Second-Life Applications

    • Authors: Daniel Kehl, Torben Jennert, Frank Lienesch, Michael Kurrat
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The reuse and repurposing of lithium-ion batteries for transportation in stationary energy systems improve the economic value of batteries. A precise suitability test at the beginning of the second life is therefore necessary. Common methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and current interrupt (CI) analysis, as well as capacity analysis, can be used for testing. In this paper, these methods are studied from the aspects of test duration, sensitivity and acquisition costs of the measuring instruments. For this purpose, tests are carried out on battery modules, which were used for transportation. It is shown that subtle differences are better detected with EIS and less accurately with the CI method. The test duration is fastest with the CI method, followed by EIS and the capacity test. Strongly aged modules are reliably detected with all methods.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 33: The Influence of Li4Ti5O12 Preparation Method
           on Lithium-Ion Capacitor Performance

    • Authors: Taofeek Akintola, Annadanesh Shellikeri, Tawakalt Akintola, Jim P. Zheng
      First page: 33
      Abstract: In this study, the importance of the preparation technique of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on its performance in a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) application was investigated. These desired characteristics include energy density, rate capability, and cycle life. The samples were prepared using three approaches, and the same sol-gel synthesis procedure is applied to obtain phase-pure samples and keep the structural properties similar. The influence of these methods on the LTO anodes was then explored in both half-cell and full-cell LIC devices with an activated carbon (AC) cathode. It was observed that the samples had similar specific capacities and energy densities at low specific currents. However, significant differences were observed in the samples’ morphological properties, the rate capability, and the full-cell cycle life performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to identify the electrochemical kinetics and revealed that the LIC with the best performance was influenced by the LTO anode having the least charge transfer and diffusion resistances prepared using a surfactant. This was due to the small particle size, good particle dispersion, and high specific surface area of the LTO anode. This result points to the importance of the choice of synthesis technique in LIC material’s overall performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Factors Influencing the Formation of Sodium
           Hydroxide by an Ion Exchange Membrane Cell

    • Authors: Jimmy Aurelio Rosales-Huamani, Juan Taumaturgo Medina-Collana, Zoila Margarita Diaz-Cordova, Jorge Alberto Montaño-Pisfil
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the factors that influence the formation of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by means of an electrolytic cell with ion exchange membranes. To achieve this experiment, the NaOH production cell had to be designed and built inexpensively, using graphite electrodes. The operational parameters in our study were: initial NaOH concentration, applied voltage, and temperature. All experiments were carried out using model NaCl solutions with a concentration of 40 g/L for 150 min. The results of the experiment were that the NaOH concentration, conductivity, and pH presented an increasing linear trend with the electrolysis time. Finally, it was possible to obtain the efficiency level of the electric current in our investigation, which was an average of 80.2%, that indicated good performance of the built cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Unified Evaluation Framework for Stochastic
           Algorithms Applied to Remaining Useful Life Prognosis Problems

    • Authors: Mikel Arrinda, Mikel Oyarbide, Haritz Macicior, Eñaut Muxika
      First page: 35
      Abstract: A unified evaluation framework for stochastic tools is developed in this paper. Firstly, we provide a set of already existing quantitative and qualitative metrics that rate the relevant aspects of the performance of a stochastic prognosis algorithm. Secondly, we provide innovative guidelines to detect and minimize the effect of side aspects that interact on the algorithms’ performance. Those aspects are related with the input uncertainty (the uncertainty on the data and the prior knowledge), the parametrization method and the uncertainty propagation method. The proposed evaluation framework is contextualized on a Lithium-ion battery Remaining Useful Life prognosis problem. As an example, a Particle Filter is evaluated. On this example, two different data sets taken from NCA aged batteries and two semi-empirical aging models available in the literature fed up the Particle Filter under evaluation. The obtained results show that the proposed framework gives enough details to take decisions about the viability of the chosen algorithm.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 36: Determination of the Distribution of
           Relaxation Times by Means of Pulse Evaluation for Offline and Online
           Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Erik Goldammer, Julia Kowal
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis of impedance spectra is a proven method to determine the number of occurring polarization processes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), their polarization contributions and characteristic time constants. Direct measurement of a spectrum by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), however, suffers from a high expenditure of time for low-frequency impedances and a lack of general availability in most online applications. In this study, a method is presented to derive the DRT by evaluating the relaxation voltage after a current pulse. The method was experimentally validated using both EIS and the proposed pulse evaluation to determine the DRT of automotive pouch-cells and an aging study was carried out. The DRT derived from time domain data provided improved resolution of processes with large time constants and therefore enabled changes in low-frequency impedance and the correlated degradation mechanisms to be identified. One of the polarization contributions identified could be determined as an indicator for the potential risk of plating. The novel, general approach for batteries was tested with a sampling rate of 10 Hz and only requires relaxation periods. Therefore, the method is applicable in battery management systems and contributes to improving the reliability and safety of LIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Methodology for the Optimisation of Battery
           Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Mass and Volume Using a Power-To-Energy
           Ratio Analysis

    • Authors: Gregory Tzermias, Sam Akehurst, Richard Burke, Chris Brace, Sunoj George, Johan Bernards, Christopher Smith
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Increasingly stringent emission regulations and environmental concerns have propelled the development of electrification technology in the transport industry. Yet, the greatest hurdle to developing fully electric vehicles is electrochemical energy storage, which struggles to achieve profitable specific power, specific energy and cost targets. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which combine energy- and power-optimised sources, seem to be the most promising solution for improving the overall performance of energy storage. The potential for gravimetric and volumetric reduction is strictly dependent on the overall power-to-energy ratio (PE ratio) of the application, packaging factors, the minimum and maximum PE ratio achievable for the system’s energy- and power-optimised sources and the performance of power electronics. This paper presents a simple optimisation methodology that considers these factors and identifies the optimal HESS requirements that may present new opportunities for a variety of vehicles where low weight and volume are of high importance. The simplicity of the method means that decisions relating to a HESS can be made earlier in the system design process. This method of analysis showed that a battery HESS has the potential to reduce cell mass and volume by over 30% for applications that are well suited to optimal HESS characteristics.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 38: A Comparison of Lithium-Ion Cell Performance
           across Three Different Cell Formats

    • Authors: Grace Bridgewater, Matthew J. Capener, James Brandon, Michael J. Lain, Mark Copley, Emma Kendrick
      First page: 38
      Abstract: To investigate the influence of cell formats during a cell development programme, lithium-ion cells have been prepared in three different formats. Coin cells, single layer pouch cells, and stacked pouch cells gave a range of scales of almost three orders of magnitude. The cells used the same electrode coatings, electrolyte and separator. The performance of the different formats was compared in long term cycling tests and in measurements of resistance and discharge capacities at different rates. Some test results were common to all three formats. However, the stacked pouch cells had higher discharge capacities at higher rates. During cycling tests, there were indications of differences in the predominant degradation mechanism between the stacked cells and the other two cell formats. The stacked cells showed faster resistance increases, whereas the coin cells showed faster capacity loss. The difference in degradation mechanism can be linked to the different thermal and mechanical environments in the three cell formats. The correlation in the electrochemical performance between coin cells, single layer pouch cells, and stacked pouch cells shows that developments within a single cell format are likely to lead to improvements across all cell formats.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Methodology for Determining Time-Dependent
           Lead Battery Failure Rates from Field Data

    • Authors: Rafael Conradt, Frederic Heidinger, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The safety requirements in vehicles continuously increase due to more automated functions using electronic components. Besides the reliability of the components themselves, a reliable power supply is crucial for a safe overall system. Different architectures for a safe power supply consider the lead battery as a backup solution for safety-critical applications. Various ageing mechanisms influence the performance of the battery and have an impact on its reliability. In order to qualify the battery with its specific failure modes for use in safety-critical applications, it is necessary to prove this reliability by failure rates. Previous investigations determine the fixed failure rates of lead batteries using data from teardown analyses to identify the battery failure modes but did not include the lifetime of these batteries examined. Alternatively, lifetime values of battery replacements in workshops without knowing the reason for failure were used to determine the overall time-dependent failure rate. This study presents a method for determining reliability models of lead batteries by investigating individual failure modes. Since batteries are subject to ageing, the analysis of lifetime values of different failure modes results in time-dependent failure rates of different magnitudes. The failure rates of the individual failure modes develop with different shapes over time, which allows their ageing behaviour to be evaluated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 40: Comparison of Aqueous- and Non-Aqueous-Based
           Binder Polymers and the Mixing Ratios for Zn//MnO2 Batteries with Mildly
           Acidic Aqueous Electrolytes

    • Authors: Oliver Fitz, Stefan Ingenhoven, Christian Bischoff, Harald Gentischer, Kai Peter Birke, Dragos Saracsan, Daniel Biro
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Considering the literature for aqueous rechargeable Zn//MnO2 batteries with acidic electrolytes using the doctor blade coating of the active material (AM), carbon black (CB), and binder polymer (BP) for the positive electrode fabrication, different binder types with (non-)aqueous solvents were introduced so far. Furthermore, in most of the cases, relatively high passive material (CB+BP) shares ~30 wt% were applied. The first part of this work focuses on different selected BPs: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), cellulose acetate (CA), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). They were used together with (non-)aqueous solvents: DI-water, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). By performing mechanical, electrochemical and optical characterizations, a better overall performance of the BPs using aqueous solvents was found in aqueous 2 M ZnSO4 + 0.1 M MnSO4 electrolyte (i.e., BP LA133: 150 mAh·g−1 and 189 mWh·g−1 @ 160 mA·g−1). The second part focuses on the mixing ratio of the electrode components, aiming at the decrease of the commonly used passive material share of ~30 wt% for an industrial-oriented electrode fabrication, while still maintaining the electrochemical performance. Here, the absolute CB share and the CB/BP ratio are found to be important parameters for an application-oriented electrode fabrication (i.e., high energy/power applications).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
  • Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 41: Absolute Local Quantification of Li as
           Function of State-of-Charge in All-Solid-State Li Batteries via 2D MeV
           Ion-Beam Analysis

    • Authors: Sören Möller, Takahiro Satoh, Yasuyuki Ishii, Britta Teßmer, Rayan Guerdelli, Tomihiro Kamiya, Kazuhisa Fujita, Kota Suzuki, Yoshiaki Kato, Hans-Dieter Wiemhöfer, Kunioki Mima, Martin Finsterbusch
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Direct observation of the lithiation and de-lithiation in lithium batteries on the component and microstructural scale is still difficult. This work presents recent advances in MeV ion-beam analysis, enabling quantitative contact-free analysis of the spatially-resolved lithium content and state-of-charge (SoC) in all-solid-state lithium batteries via 3 MeV proton-based characteristic x-ray and gamma-ray emission analysis. The analysis is demonstrated on cross-sections of ceramic and polymer all-solid-state cells with LLZO and MEEP/LIBOB solid electrolytes. Different SoC are measured ex-situ and one polymer-based operando cell is charged at 333 K during analysis. The data unambiguously show the migration of lithium upon charging. Quantitative lithium concentrations are obtained by taking the physical and material aspects of the mixed cathodes into account. This quantitative lithium determination as a function of SoC gives insight into irreversible degradation phenomena of all-solid-state batteries during the first cycles and locations of immobile lithium. The determined SoC matches the electrochemical characterization within uncertainties. The presented analysis method thus opens up a completely new access to the state-of-charge of battery cells not depending on electrochemical measurements. Automated beam scanning and data-analysis algorithms enable a 2D quantitative Li and SoC mapping on the µm-scale, not accessible with other methods.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries7020041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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