Subjects -> ENERGY (Total: 414 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENERGY (12 journals)
    - ENERGY (252 journals)
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ENERGY (252 journals)            First | 1 2 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 406 Journals sorted alphabetically
Natural Resources     Open Access  
Nature Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nuclear Data Sheets     Full-text available via subscription  
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Oil and Energy Trends : Annual Statistical Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Oil and Gas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Technology and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radioprotection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Technology for Energy Transition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Smart Energy     Open Access  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Solar Compass     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Solar Energy Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments     Full-text available via subscription  
Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Technology Audit and Production Reserves     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Energy Policy     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment     Open Access  
Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Wind Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wind Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal  

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Wind Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.296
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-524X - ISSN (Online) 2048-402X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Complying the LVRT grid code requirement of a fixed speed wind energy
           system using unified voltage and pitch angle control strategy

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      Authors: Kanasottu Anil Naik, Chandra Prakash Gupta, Eugene Fernandez
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a Unified Voltage and Pitch angle Control (UVPC) strategy for fixed speed wind farm. The focus put on guaranteeing the LVRT grid code requirement when the wind farm subjected to severe faults. The UVPC consist of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) voltage control loops with adequate pitch angle control loops which are coordinated to enhance the low-voltage ride-through capability of the wind generators thereby, complying the low voltage ride through (LVRT) grid code requirement as desired by the Germany grid code. Different scenarios such as system without STATCOM and pitch-angle controller, with STATCOM only, and system with STATCOM and pitch-angle control (i.e. UVPC) are simulated. The simulation results show that the adoption of STATCOM and pitch angle controller fulfilling the LVRT grid code requirement to ensure the continuous operation of wind turbines. Furthermore, a concept of critical clearing time (CCT) is discussed and its utility has been emphasized. Calculations, simulations and measurements provide how the increased STATCOM rating can offer an enhanced stability margin.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T11:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221114351
       
  • Dynamic modeling of power network-integrated wind turbine

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      Authors: Lilik J Awalin, Syahirah Abd Halim, Syahiman, Azuana Ramli, Kanendra Naidu, Bazilah Ismail, Wani Rosli, Ibrahim Ali
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the performance investigation of voltage and current for dynamic model of the wind turbine. In this study, the various numbers of wind turbine speed are applied in the simulation. This treatment is intended to see how much influence the turbine speed has on the voltage and current output. IEEE 14 bus system is integrated to the wind turbine in order to observe the impact of on-grid connection to the voltage and current performance. How to model wind turbine in PSCAD simulation software also discussed in this paper. The detail of supporting components in designing a wind turbine system and their functions are also explained. Several values of turbine speed are also considered in this paper as a study material in seeing the performance of wind turbines. The relationship between wind speed and pitch angle will also be discussed to ensure that the wind turbine is not damaged. In order to prove the accuracy of the simulation model, the obtained measurement generation of active power from the wind turbine is matched with the manual calculation. Based on the various wind speed values that have been tested, this can be the basis for the application of wind turbine (renewable energy) design development for further research.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T01:04:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221108465
       
  • Comparison of primary frequency control methods for wind turbines based on
           the doubly fed induction generator

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      Authors: Mauro Amaro Pinazo, Ronal Antara Arias, Jorge Mirez Tarrillo
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The penetration of large levels of wind energy leads to technical problems affecting the frequency stability of the power system. Naturally, a wind power plant does not provide an inertial response nor does it regulate the system frequency in case of generation-demand imbalance due to the decoupling between the rotor speed and the grid frequency through the electronic converter (AC/DC/AC). This paper reviews, analysis and compares the performance of four control methods based on the modification of the electromagnetic torque set point and one of the mechanical torque. These methods allow that activation of the wind turbine inertia when a frequency deviation occurs, contributing to the regulation of the system frequency similarly to a conventional synchronous generator. However, wind turbines only change their operating point for a limited time and not permanently.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T06:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221114350
       
  • Health assessment of wind turbine bearings progressive degradation based
           on unsupervised machine learning

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      Authors: Hamida Maatallah, Kais Ouni
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      High-speed shaft bearing (HSSB) failures are exorbitant since they lead electrical energy generation to halt suddenly. In order to identify the health condition of the wind turbine and preserve the sustainability of energy production, a nonlinear vibration-based monitoring technique based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) has been developed. After extracting degradation characteristics from the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains. The most sensitive features are then fused using KPCA to capture the monitored bearing’s operating conditions; this method demonstrated its efficiency in dealing with the nonlinearity of the system. To detect flaws in HSSB and assess whether it is healthy, degraded, or broken, [math], and SPE charts have been used. Real run-to-failure data from a wind turbine HSSB is used to validate the proposed technique. The suggested strategy caught the nonlinear relationship in the process variables more successfully than existing techniques, including linear PCA, and demonstrated enhanced process monitoring performance.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T06:48:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221114054
       
  • A multi-scale feature fusion network-based fault diagnosis method for wind
           turbine bearings

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      Authors: Minghan Ma, Yuejia Hou, Yonggang Li
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A fault diagnosis method based on a multi-scale feature fusion network (MSFF-CNN) is proposed for the problem that the vibration signals of wind turbine bearings are easily disturbed by noise, and feature extraction is harrowing. Compared with the traditional diagnosis method, which has two stages of manual feature extraction and fault classification, this method combines the two into one. First, based on the characteristics of the bearing vibration signal, the multi-scale kernel algorithm is used to learn features in parallel at different scales. Then, the features extracted at different scales are fused to obtain complementary and rich diagnostic information. Finally, the Softmax classifier is used to output the fault diagnosis results. The simulation is carried out through the bearing vibration data of Case Western Reserve University. The results show that the accuracy of bearing fault diagnosis reaches 99.17%, proving the proposed method’s high accuracy and effectiveness.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-23T12:31:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221114621
       
  • Wind resource assessment considering the influence of humidity

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      Authors: Abdul Goffar Al Mubarok, De Tian
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The current study presents a wind resource assessment (WRA) approach by combining existing approaches, including wind probability density estimation based on hourly wind speed frequency, wind power density (WPD) and wind energy density (WED), wind turbine (WT) power output and power curve modeling, and annual energy production (AEP). Wind probability density investigation employed various probability density functions (PDF), including parametric probability density functions such as Weibull, Normal, and Gamma, and non-parametric distribution, including Kernel Density Estimator (KDE). The present study also models the influence of humidity on air density for estimating WPD, WT power output, and AEP. The current study validated the proposed approach by conducting case studies for selected sites of remote Indonesian archipelago islands. AEP estimation proposed by this study can assist the site-turbine fitting design, especially for relatively moist locations.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T01:43:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221113018
       
  • Predicting wind power generation using machine learning and CNN-LSTM
           approaches

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      Authors: Seyed Matin Malakouti, Amir Rikhtehgar Ghiasi, Amir Aminzadeh Ghavifekr, Parvin Emami
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind power has grown significantly over the last decade regarding its combability with emission targets and climate change in many countries. A reliable and accurate approach to wind power forecasting is critical for power system operations and day-to-day grid functioning. However, regarding to the nonstationary nature of wind power series, classic forecasting methods can hardly provide the desired accuracy and cause risks and uncertainties for system operation, which substantially affects how wind power companies make energy market decisions. This study proposes novel algorithmic approaches utilizing machine learning techniques to predict wind turbine power. Applied algorithms include extremely randomized trees, light gradient boosting machine, ensemble methods, and the CNN-LSTM method. Based on the provided results, the lowest mean square error value is related to the CNN-LSTM method, indicating that this method is more accurate. Also, the ensemble method provides admissible results despite the high speed of the algorithm.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T01:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221113013
       
  • Numerical visualization of wind turbine wakes using passive scalar
           advection–diffusion equation and its application for wake management

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      Authors: Takanori Uchida, Susumu Takakuwa, Keiichiro Watanabe, Seiya Hasegawa, Yoshitaka Baba, Reo Murakami, Masahide Yamasaki, Kunihiko Hidaka
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To visualize and characterize the unsteady properties of the wake trailing behind a wind turbine, we propose a novel numerical methodology in this study. Through a wind-tunnel experiment using a smoke generator, we succeeded in visualizing a compact-type small-scale wind turbine wake using continuous scalar plumes from a single point source. Next, to simulate the above wind-tunnel experiment, we proposed a method using the passive scalar advection–diffusion equation based on a high-fidelity large-eddy simulation (LES). The actuator-line method (ALM) was adopted for the wind turbine model. We succeeded in qualitatively reproducing the wake visualization experiment in the wind tunnel described above and verified the effectiveness of the proposed numerical visualization method. To evaluate the characteristics of wakes generated by wind turbines in more detail, we conducted a quantitative comparison using a disk-shaped volume source with the same size as the swept area, set behind the wind turbine model. The results indicated that the non-dimensional time-averaged passive scalar profile in the near- and far-wake regions qualitatively matched the shape of the stream-wise velocity profile, despite having opposite signs. In other words, it was shown that if a disk-shaped volume source with the same size as the swept area is placed just behind the wind turbine, it is possible to accurately predict the behavior of the wind turbine wake. Finally, to validate the proposed method for wind farm wake management, we performed a visualization of wake flows in a virtual offshore wind farm consisting of 12 wind turbines with short separation distances. Through detailed comparison of two types of numerical results with different wind directions, we showed that the proposed method can effectively demonstrate the range of spatial influence of the wakes formed by the wind turbine with special attention.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T12:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221113011
       
  • Short-term wind speed forecasting using neural network models for Taiwan
           Strait

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      Authors: Yee-Sheng Soon, Chao-hong Lu, Qian-cheng Tu, Ta-Hui Lin
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, renewable energy has received rapidly growing attention due to its eco-friendly and sustainable properties. Taiwan as an island nation that is planning to develop offshore wind power to reduce the dependence on imported energy. Due to the intermittent and variable nature of wind, a study on wind characteristics and forecasting will make it possible to obtain valuable information on local wind conditions and enhance local forecasting abilities. In this study, wind data from 2017 to 2019, obtained from the Taipower Meteorological Mast in the Taiwan Strait, was used to develop a short-term multistep wind forecasting model. This model was based on a combination of an artificial neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models. The results revealed that the northeast winds in winter and autumn were steadier, in terms of both speed and direction, than those in spring and summer. The prediction accuracies of this three-step forecasting model reached 0.991, 0.981, and 0.970, respectively. These findings will greatly improve our ability to forecast this important Taiwan Strait wind resource.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-09T11:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221108423
       
  • Wake reduction in horizontal axis wind turbine: A review of advancements
           in techniques

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      Authors: Osama Ali Ahmed Awan, Ali Sarosh
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Renewable energy systems have experienced exponential growth toward producing zero-carbon energy. In this context, wind turbines continue to play a significant role. To extract maximum power, wind turbines are installed in array-like formation in wind farms. This arrangement though beneficial, also leads to detrimental wind-wakes effects. The wakes reduce wind speed and induce undesirable turbulence of flow field in downstream direction. To address this issue, several innovative techniques have been proposed. This paper surveys the best methods by classifying these into passive and active techniques. The passive techniques affect the wake flow by modifying only the geometrical or operating characteristics of wind turbines such as adjustment of forward and backward sweeps, etc. The active techniques use additional surfaces/devices for wake handling such as vortex generators, leading edge protuberances, dual-rotors, and cross-axis wind turbines etc. Additionally, this paper also reviews various wake measurement methods and recommends the best suited technique.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T10:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221108456
       
  • Optimized fuzzy fractional PI-based MPPT controllers for a variable-speed
           wind turbine

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      Authors: Sarir Noureddine, Sebaa Morsli, Allaoui Tayeb
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, wind power has become one of the most popular sources of renewable electricity generation. However, the wind is, by its nature, a highly intermittent source of energy. To capture the maximum power, wind turbines are generally equipped with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Controller. This paper proposes effective and robust MPPT control strategies based on Fuzzy Logic controller PI (FPI) and Fuzzy logic Fractional Order controller PI (FFOPI). Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the membership functions of FPI and FFOPI. The proposed MPPT strategies are validated on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG)-variable-speed wind energy conversion system. The overall model of the wind turbine-PMSG and control scheme is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and SimPower Systems toolbox. The results show that the MPPT based on FFOPI control optimized by PSO leads to the best transient response performance and robustness.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T11:09:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221102794
       
  • Overview of control strategies for wind turbines: ANNC, FLC, SMC, BSC, and
           PI controllers

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      Authors: Mourad Yessef, Badre Bossoufi, Mohammed Taoussi, Ahmed Lagrioui, Hamid Chojaa
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The design of robust and precise control of obtaining maximum power yield is an important area of research in wind engineering. In the context of maximizing the amount of power extraction in wind energy conversion systems (WECS), this research work proposes and evaluates five MPPT algorithms. These types are respectively a proportional integral controller (PI), a non-linear control based on sliding modes (SMC), a backstepping approach (BSC), a control using artificial intelligence based on neural network (ANNC), and a fuzzy logic control (FLC). Two different wind profiles, a step wind profile and a real wind profile, were considered for the comparative study. The response time, dynamic error percentage, and static error percentage were the quantitative parameters compared, and the qualitative parameters included set-point tracking and precision. This test demonstrated the superiority of the ANNC controller with an error static that not exceed 0.39% and a response time ~0.0024 seconds.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T06:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221109512
       
  • A STL decomposition-based deep neural networks for offshore wind speed
           forecasting

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      Authors: Yanxia Ou, Li Xu, Jin Wang, Yang Fu, Yuan Chai
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Accurate prediction of offshore wind speed is of great significance for optimizing operation strategies of offshore wind power. Here, a novel hybrid algorithm based on seasonal-trend decomposition with loess (STL) and auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)- long short-term memory neural network (LSTM) is proposed to eliminate seasonal factors in wind speed and fully exert the advantages of ARIMA processing linear series and LSTM processing nonlinear series. Moreover, wind speed are comprehensively preprocessed and statistically analyzed. Then, we handle information leakage problem. Finally, STL-ARIMA-LSTM model is applied to wind speed forecasting on 3 time-scales. The proposed model has the highest accuracy and resolution for the trend and periodicity of wind speed, and the lag problem of very shortterm wind speed prediction can be solved. This study also shows that when predicting offshore wind speed, we can handle the strong intermittence, volatility and outliers in wind speed by gradually adjusting time scale.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T06:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221106184
       
  • Impact of a PMSG inter-turn short-circuits fault on a grid-connected
           variable-speed wind energy conversion system

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      Authors: Youssef Krim, Dhaker Abbes
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper assesses the effect of an inter-turn short circuit fault in stator windings of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous generator (PMSG)-based variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) connected to the grid by a power converters interface. The objective is to assess the impact of the fault on the WECS performances. This study has two tasks. The first one details a dynamic modeling of different subsystems of the WECS. The mathematical model of the defective PMSG is also set up. The second one presents an appropriate control strategy for the power converters interface. The control of the PMSG-side converter aims to ensure the operation in maximum power point tracking. The grid-side control was also established by controlling the active and reactive powers to ensure the operation in unity power factor and keeping the DC bus voltage stable. The performance of the control design was tested under healthy and faulty conditions.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T01:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221106179
       
  • New approach of maximum power point tracking for wind energy conversion
           system

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      Authors: Souhir Tounsi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the modeling of wind energy systems using MATLAB Simulink. The model considers the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) technique to track the maximum power that could be extracted from the wind energy. The main contribution of our work lines in the choice of the Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) components and the suitable MPPT technique. An innovating maximum MPPT technique is proposed. This technique combines the advantages of an ameliorated Perturb & Observe (P&O) control algorithm and the speed of Optimal Relationship Based (ORB) control algorithm to allow the MPPT controller output (duty cycle) adjusts the voltage input of a Buck-Boost converter to track the maximum power point. It searches for the system optimum relationship for maximum power point tracking and then controls the system based on this relationship. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it does not require an anemometer or preknowledge of a system, but has an accurate and fast response to wind speed fluctuations. The MATLAB/Simulink simulation results show that the developed model components choice complies with cost and reliability constraints and confirm the validity and performance of the proposed control algorithm.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T05:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221103278
       
  • Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0018
           airfoil at medium range Reynolds number

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      Authors: António Manuel Gameiro Lopes, Jorge António Villar Alé
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, simulations of the flow around the NACA 0018 airfoil operating at Reynolds number 7 × 105 are performed using the EasyCFD software package. The influence of the advection scheme and turbulence model on the computed lift, drag and momentum coefficients is presented and an evaluation of the obtained results is made by comparison with published experimental data. It is concluded that predictions agree very well with experimental data up to 18° angle of attack, when using the SST turbulence model with the second order advection scheme. Limitations of simulations are shown when the airfoil operates at larger angles of attack, where unsteady periodic flow is verified. The turbulence model and the advection scheme affects both lift and drag values, but to a larger extent for drag. Predictions at high angles of attack overestimate both lift and drag coefficients, but underestimate the momentum coefficient.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T06:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221102968
       
  • An improved mixed distribution for estimating the wind potential in China

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      Authors: Hassan Tahir, Arsalan Ahmed, Weidong Zhao
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This work uses the previously developed mixed distribution, however, with added a parameter and function. We introduce the improved mixed distribution model as an alternative wind speed distribution, which combines three distributions. Four extreme value distributions are considered to model mixed distribution, improved mixed distribution, and estimate wind speed. The efficiency of univariate, mixed, and improved mixed distributions on actual wind speed data from China’s diverse regions is estimated. Using the minimal standard error of fit (SEF) test, 65.5% of samples are better suitable for the improved mixed distribution. The best model’s return period is also calculated. Moreover, the addition of another parameter and function in mixed distributions has improved the results. This statistical analysis concluded that improved mixed distributions are more suitable and accurate for assessing wind speed data.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T09:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221102967
       
  • A novel method for condition monitoring of wind turbine gearbox in wind
           farm

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      Authors: Hongwei Xin, Xiaoqiang Wen, Ziang Xu, Jianguo Wang
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the gearbox of wind turbine in a wind farm is taken as research object, and its operation condition monitoring model is established by using multivariable long-short term memory networks (LSTM). Firstly, parameters with high correlation are obtained by using maximum information coefficient (MIC) as the input vectors of monitoring model. Then, the oil temperature prediction model of gearbox is constructed based on LSTM network. The residual between actual value and predicted value of gearbox oil temperature is obtained. After that, a gearbox condition monitoring model is established by using residual sequence, exponential weighted moving average (EWMA), and kernel density estimation algorithm. The case analysis shows that the proposed method can carry out fault early warning about 15.7 hours in advance. Compared with univariate LSTM condition monitoring model and SVR condition monitoring model, it can find faults more timely and can be applied to fault early warning of wind turbines in wind farm.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T09:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221102966
       
  • Spare parts control strategies for offshore wind farms: A critical review
           and comparative study

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      Authors: Md Imran Hasan Tusar, Bhaba R Sarker
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) downtime causes huge financial loss to the stakeholders. One of the major concerns for them is to reduce the downtime of the offshore wind turbine as much as possible. To do this, inventory managers must keep the required number of spare parts in the inventory. It is important to forecast the type and amount of spare parts ahead of time. The maintenance team tries to figure out failure symptoms to predict the approximate time for failure. This prediction helps to purchase and stock spare parts systematically. There is a trade-off between the ordering cost, holding cost, and shortage cost. Proper inventory planning saves a manager from placing expensive emergency orders and also an extended period of holding spare parts. The desired service level should be determined earlier, based on which spare parts planning is done. In this paper, some prominent spare parts models have been studied, findings have been systematically presented, compared against some key determinant factors, critical analysis has been performed and the applicability of the models has been discussed. More than a 100 research articles on spare parts have been reviewed and major contributions from the most relevant articles in OWF have been presented in this paper. One advanced spare parts modeling reported up to 51% cost reduction compared to traditional spare parts planning. Another integrated spare parts planning reported 27% savings. This critical review aims to suggest some guidelines for the managers and other associates of wind farms about the effective and efficient spare parts management technique from the beginning of the turbine installation to the end of its life cycle.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221095258
       
  • Estimation of wind energy potential using WAsP model in the sub watershed
           of Oued-Sakni region-Algeria

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      Authors: Laouisset Mhamed Bensalah, Farouk Chellali, Bouacha Mohamed Islem
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper is a case study aiming at the determination of wind power potential in the Oued-Sakni sub-watershed. The objective is to provide wind energy for agro-pastoral regions, specially designed for irrigation systems, considering the fact that this region is far from the electricity grid. Statistical methods and the WAsP model were used to determine the climatological and energy characteristics of wind in this region. The results of this study are presented in the form of four tables containing the values of the parameters of the Weibull statistical distribution ‘A’ and ‘k’ for levels 10, 25and 50 m for standard conditions. Each table corresponds to a type of roughness length. A fifth table contains the calculated values of the mean speed and the mean total wind power available at the same levels and same type of roughness length.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T09:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221096247
       
  • Nondestructive evaluation of carbon-fiber composites using digital image
           correlation, acoustic emission, and optical based modal analysis

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      Authors: Yunlong Han, Ronald Kumon, Seyed Jamaleddin Mostafavi Yazdi, Na Zhu, Arash Afshar, Javad Baqersad
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Composite materials are increasingly used in the wind industries. Damage detection and health monitoring of composite materials are challenging due to the complex internal structure and unique material properties. Digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE) are both used for damage detection in structures. In this work, DIC performs a full-field strain measurement on the surface of the carbon-fiber specimen while AE continuously monitors and records the AE signals generated from specimen subsurface structure failures. These health monitoring techniques are integrated and evaluated in this study to correlate surface strain measurements and acoustic emission measurements on carbon-fiber specimens. The AE measurement results show that there is a correlation between the occurrence of AE events and the timing of complete specimen failure. DIC with a high-speed stereo camera system is also adopted to extract the change in the resonance frequencies and displacement and strain mode shapes of the specimen during experiments in cyclic loading.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221095206
       
  • Wind energy resources assessment of Cuba using the regional climate model
           PRECIS in high resolution scenarios of climate change RCPs

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      Authors: Yoandy Alonso, Arnoldo Bezanilla, Milena Alpizar, Yosvany Martinez
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An analysis of the behavior of the wind speed using the regional climate model PRECIS in high resolution scenarios of climate change RCPs is presented. The projections indicate that throughout the century, the speed of the surface wind will continue to increase to a greater or lesser extent (depending on the scenario) in most of the national territory, mainly towards the coast north, as an intensification and westward shift of the anticyclone North Atlantic could occur. The most important thing about this increase is that allows to consolidate the current projection of the Cuban wind program, in which the construction of 13 wind farms is proposed, precisely where the wind potential of Cuba will be increased. Finally this increase is added to the wind speed outputs of the Numerical Wind Atlas of Cuba to estimate the values of wind speed over the future periods.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080469
       
  • Adaptive wind data normalization to improve the performance of forecasting
           models

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      Authors: Deepali Patil, Rajesh Wadhvani, Sanyam Shukla, Muktesh Gupta
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind speed forecasting, a time series problem, plays a vital role in estimating annual wind energy production in wind farms. Calculation of wind energy helps to maintain stability between electricity production and consumption. Deep learning models are used for predicting time series data. However, as wind speed is non-stationary and irregular, pre-processing of these data is necessary to get accurate results. In this paper, static normalization techniques like min–max, z-score, and adaptive normalization are used for pre-processing wind datasets, and further, their forecasting results are compared. Adaptive normalization increases the learning rate and gives better forecasting results than static normalization. The RMSE value was reduced by 9.18% for the NREL dataset when adaptive normalization was used instead of z-score normalization and by 23.58% for the Weather dataset. The datasets used are taken from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Kaggle’s Dataset.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T10:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221093908
       
  • A direct analytical predetermination of PMSG based WPS steady-state values
           under different operating conditions

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      Authors: Ramachandran Vijayapriya, Pitchaimuthu Raja, Manickavasagam Parvathy Selvan
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a direct analytical method to predetermine the steady-state values of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind power system (WPS) at each stage of power flow. A generalized structured is developed with two independent equivalent circuits, that is, PMSG and grid side. To effectively determine the converters performance numerals despite grid disturbances, steady-state model is structured with positive sequence components of grid voltage. The advantage of the proposed model is that the methods evade the requirements of d-q modeling and a dedicated controller to evaluate the system performance. Using the proposed steady-state model, the entire WPS components ratings is predicted evading time domain simulation with complicated controller design. Also, the simple controller design is proposed to aid in optimal power flow supplement with FRT requirements under all possible system operating conditions. Ultimately, validation of predetermined values with the simulated PSCAD/EMTDC response including the proposed controller is investigated.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T10:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221093531
       
  • Continuous regulation of wind energy power system permitting protection of
           the system components against wind over-speed

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      Authors: Souhir Tounsi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper is presented a methodology of design and control of an electromagnet braking system dedicated to the protection of the wind energy production systems against the strong rise of the current in the power chain attached to the strong elevation of the wind speed. This methodology focuses on the dimensioning of the electromagnet acting as a mechanical brake and its integration into the wind energy generation system. The electromagnet is designed jointly by the analytical method offering the advantages of compatibility with large-scale optimization approaches and the finite element method for verifying and increasing the accuracy of the analytical model. This study essentially involves the design and modeling phase of the electromagnet dissociated from the wind turbine and then by the phase of its integration with the wind turbine. The global model associating the electromagnet and the wind turbine controlled with a view to ensuring a continuous recharging of energy accumulator at a constant current equal to the nominal current of which the wind turbine is sized, is implanted under the Matlab-Simulink simulation environment. The results of simulations are encouraging and open the research trail to optimization work of the entire chain.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T10:18:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221093392
       
  • Evaluation of dynamic testing of full-scale wind turbine drivetrains with
           hardware-in-the-loop

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      Authors: Amin Bibo, Meghashyam Panyam
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Dynamometer testing of full-scale wind turbine drivetrains involves subjecting integrated components to extreme static loads, fatigue loads, or dynamic loads to replicate field conditions. This paper provides a detailed evaluation of the uncertainty and errors in applied loads and measured responses, and their magnitude relative to established repeatability bounds for a drivetrain subjected to static and dynamic loads on the 7.5 MW test bench at the Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Testing Facility. An ideal drivetrain simulation model is utilized to isolate the influence of load tracking errors on test article responses. It is shown that the test article response variations are mainly driven by run out and clearances inherent to the drivetrain. For the dynamic profiles, the load tracking errors are within acceptable limits. A frequency analysis is used to show that the test bench controller tracking performance is acceptable for profiles with frequency content up to 1.5 Hz.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T10:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221092079
       
  • Technico-Economic Investigation of 100 MW Offshore Wind Farm in the Gulf
           of Gabes, Tunisia

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      Authors: Faten Attig Bahar, Uwe Rischel, Ahmed Soheyb Benabadji, Melik Sahraoui
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Tunisia has set the target to generate 30% of its electrical energy from renewable sources by 2030. Wind turbines are supposed to contribute a significant part to this ambitious objective. There are excellent wind conditions in the north of Tunisia (near the coast) and in some areas in the south (part of the Sahara). In this context, the aim of this study is to carry out an economic feasibility Analysis of large-scale offshore wind farms to be implemented in Tunisia’s coastline between the cities of Sfax and Gabes, by estimating the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). The energy yield of the wind farms was calculated using inhouse code using the available online data of ERA5 and the LCOE model was developed using local data relevant to the renewable energy framework and market expansion in Tunisia. Results showed that for a 108 MW wind farm, the annual energy production is 447 GWh/a, the capacity factor of 52% the LCOE is 81.5 USD/MWh.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221087311
       
  • Remaining useful life prognosis for wind turbine using a neural network
           with a long-term prediction

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      Authors: Lotfi Saidi, Arij Nasfia Hayder, Majdi Saidi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to predict degradation phenomena occurring in high-speed shaft bearings wind turbine systems, and predict their remaining useful life (RUL). Two different prediction ways are possible. The first is known as short-term prediction, and it involves using measured three data from prior cycles to anticipate degradation in the present cycle. This is a future prediction. The difficulty with short-term prediction is that it is impossible to predict degradation in the future due to a lack of measurement data. Short-term prediction, on the other hand, is accurate because it is based on real measured data and the extrapolation distance is short. The second method is known as long-term prediction, where predicted degradations are used to predict the degradation at a further future time. This paper considers only the long-term prediction. The method was initially tested by using the experimental vibration data provided by the GPMS database, where the RUL was accurately predicted with a very small uncertainty.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221085133
       
  • Short-term wind speed forecast for Urla wind power plant: A hybrid
           approach that couples weather research and forecasting model, weather
           patterns and SCADA data with comprehensive data preprocessing

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      Authors: Cem Özen, Ali Deniz
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Short-term wind speed forecast model that uses both supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) based data and weather research and forecasting (WRF) model outputs for Urla wind power plant (WPP) has been proposed in this study. Two different WRF models were run to gather atmospheric variables from four surrounding grids of Urla WPP and calculate weather patterns affecting Urla WPP. After detecting outliers in the SCADA data by coupling of k-mean and isolation forest (IF) methods, statistical methods were used for data treatment and the outputs of WRF models were used for missing data imputation. The effect of each data type and data preprocessing techniques on the model was evaluated separately. The best model performance was achieved with 0.9085 [math], and 0.81 MAE in the dataset which includes each data type and each data preprocessing was applied on. Otherwise, the dominant weather pattern affecting Urla WPP was found to be purely advective and the best result was achieved in this pattern.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T09:51:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221088612
       
  • Optimisation of straight plate upstream deflector for the performance
           enhancement of vertical axis wind turbine at low, medium and high regimes
           of tip speed ratios

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      Authors: Taurista P. Syawitri, Yufeng Yao, Jun Yao, Budi Chandra
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Location and geometry optimisations of Straight Plate Upstream Deflector (SPUD) for performance enhancement of a three-straightbladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) are carried out at three regimes of tip speed ratios (TSRs). Results analysis reveals that SPUD location has significant effect on the power coefficient (Cp) increment of VAWT. Placing two SPUDs both upward and downward in upstream of VAWT can achieve the highest Cp improvement at all regimes of TSRs. Overall, placing SPUD in upstream of VAWT can improve the Cp value at all regimes of TSRs, but the percentage of improvement can vary. The largest Cp improvement of 126.7% is achieved at low regime of TSRs, while at the medium and high regimes of TSRs, Cp improvements decrease to 52.7% and 52.5%, respectively. Increasing the width of SPUD can increase the average VAWT Cp improvement by 2.83% at all regimes of TSRs.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T11:48:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221084980
       
  • Enhancement of the direct power control by using backstepping approach for
           a doubly fed induction generator

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      Authors: Mourad Yessef, Badre Bossoufi, Mohammed Taoussi, Ahmed Lagrioui
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, an improved direct power command strategy based on backstepping was designed to ensure the proper operation of DFIG during the electrical grid faults and to control the stator powers through the injection of the reactive power into the electrical grid to guarantee the voltage return. This strategy contributes to the elimination of high peak currents and stabilizes the active power at its desired optimal value. The backstepping controller used to develop this command is based on the lyapunov function in order to guarantee the stability and robustness of the aero-generator. A Matlab/Simulink simulation and a comparative study were carried out to prove the robustness and efficiency of our developed command. Moreover, despite the variable wind speed, the obtained results prove the validation of the developed command with a total harmonic distortion (THD) that does not exceed 0.33%.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T11:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221085670
       
  • Performance analysis of Savonius wind turbines in different models

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      Authors: Ayse Simsek, Suleyman Teksin, Selahaddin Orhan Akansu, Yahya Erkan Akansu
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents experimental results of power performance characterizations for of 12 different Savonius turbine blades. There are three different models and the numbers of each blade types have been selected as 2, 3, 4, and 5. Three different blade types are drawn in a CAD program and all blade models are produced from 3D printer. The experiments are carried out in the subsonic wind tunnel laboratory of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Erciyes University. The wind tunnel has 15 kW motor power to produce wind flow. Test zone inlet and outlet section is 0.57 m × 0.57 m and 0.59 m × 0.59 m respectively. Shaft to shaft type torque meter is mounted between turbine and electric motor. Measurements have been made at wind speeds between 1 and 30 m/s. The performance values of each turbine have been measured. While the 3-bladed turbine showed the highest power coefficient values in the whole study, the maximum value was obtained from the modified helical turbine type.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T01:02:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221082320
       
  • Undrained capacity of circular shallow foundations under combined VHMT
           loading

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      Authors: Pengpeng He, Tim Newson
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind turbine (WT) foundations are generally subjected to large combined vertical, horizontal, moment, and torsional (VHMT) loads. The available investigations of the ultimate limit states of WT foundations focus predominately on unlimited-tension soil-foundation interfaces that are more appropriate for offshore settings. However, the interfaces for onshore WT foundations are generally unable to resist tensile loads. To address this omission, a zero-tension interface is used to investigate the VHMT failure envelope of circular shallow foundations under undrained soil conditions using finite element analysis. The effects of soil strength heterogeneity and foundation embedment were investigated. The results show that torsional loads reduce the VHM bearing capacity of circular foundations. The foundation embedment is also found to significantly increase the foundation bearing capacity. A full 4-D analytical expression for the VHMT failure envelope has been proposed based on the calculated failure envelopes.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T12:19:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221083024
       
  • Superior performances strategies of different hybrid renewable energy
           systems configurations with energy storage units

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      Authors: Adel Yahiaoui, Abdelhalim Tlemçani
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The essential function of a hybrid renewable energy system is to produce an adequate electrical supply to the load demand with low cost. This paper proposes the optimization and operation of the renewable energy power sources for electrification of isolated rural city in Algeria desert. For this purpose, a system composed by PV panel (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), Battery Bank (BB) for storage of the electrical energy and Fuel Cell (FC) with hydrogen tank (H2 Tank) and electrolyzer (Elect) system for storage of the chemical energy is used to fulfill the need of the load. In the present paper we are interested in evolutionary algorithms for solving optimization problem of hybrid configuration of power system. However, a new heuristic algorithm namely whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is used to obtained the best solution of multi-objective optimization system of cost of energy (COE), total net present cost (TNPC) and loss power supply probability (LPSP). Two recent algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and grey wolf optimizer (GWO) are also implemented in this work. Seven cases studies have been tested for examining the efficient of proposed optimization technique. The suggested whale optimization algorithm, as demonstrated by simulations and comparisons with existing methods, solves the problem of multi-objective optimization of hybrid power system configurations with high accuracy and validity.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T12:58:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221084124
       
  • Beehive wind turbine: A new design for electric power generation in urban
           and semi-urban zones

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      Authors: Román-Sedano A Monzamodeth, Román-Roldán Nicolás Iván, Hernández-Morales Bernardo, Flores Osvaldo, Castillo Fermín, Campillo Bernardo
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new wind turbine design for domestic use in urban and semi-urban areas has been studied to examine their implementation and efficiency. In this work, the development of a wind turbine, based on the beehive shape is proposed for possible domestic implementation in urban and semi-urban zones. A first prototype is presented and results of testing it in a mobile assembly are reported. The wind turbine was designed using CAD and to compute the air flow pressure distribution on the blades and assess the mechanical response of the turbine, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and static structural simulations were performed. The CFD results showed pressure on all the wind turbine blades and a small pressure increase in the cavities generated by the beehive arrangement. On the other hand, the prototype was manufactured using a 3D printer and tested under working conditions on a mobile assembly in urban and semi-urban routes (freeway and highway, respectively). The revolutions per minute of the turbine and the relative wind velocity were measured and employed for structural simulations. The results demonstrated that the proposed beehive wind turbine is able to operate on urban and semi-urban areas.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T11:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080573
       
  • Theoretical and numerical analysis of vortex bladeless wind turbines

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      Authors: Ahmed M Elsayed, Mohamed B Farghaly
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind energy is one of the most abundant renewable energy resources that have been used to generate electricity. A new used method called Vortex Bladeless Wind Turbines which is basically a rod oscillating and vibrating in response to the vortices originating from the wind passing by the rod. This paper presents a mathematical model used in analysis the work of the VBWT. A prototype design was be created using solidwork to calculate the physical properties. In addition, a numerical study was carried out using Ansys software to calculate the forces affecting the VBWT. Finally, the safety of VBWT structure is studied. The results indicated that, the obtained model can be applied practically in studying the performance of general VBWT with low wind speed, as VBWT use less space, low maintenance and hence economical. The mathematical formula of VBWT power is function of air velocity, aerodynamic coefficients, and prototype physical properties.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080468
       
  • Hybrid backup energy based on PV/Wind system for marine tugboat: A case
           study of ASD tug of Arzew port in Algeria

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      Authors: Ahmed Bouhouta, Samir Moulahoum, Nadir Kabache
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a hybrid Solar PV/Wind backup solution for a marine tugboat. Tugs are an important kind of vessel that should be able to maneuver continuously without any interruption of their electrical energy system. New power management integrating a hybrid solar/wind energy aims to ensure a long period of continuous safe operation in case of a total blackout and also to replace the perturbed power grid of the port for a partial time. These standard tugs built in Holland by DAMEN shipyard and attached to Arzew port in Algeria, are suited to operate for a maximum of 1 hour with a storage battery unit in an emergency situation like a blackout. The two main diesel engines are able to operate normally with 24 V DC voltage control under such situations. During this problem of power failure, the tug can’t reach safely the harbor and hence immediate assistance is needed. To avoid this scenario, the idea is why not extend this period of emergency operation, and also try to supply the vessel inside the port only with clean energy. First, the electrical distribution system is presented and detailed including the power demand study of installed loads. The proposed hybrid energy source is also discussed for its many benefits especially in the case of favorable maritime climatic conditions of the Arzew port area. HOMER software is used to verify if the new power scheme can succeed. The results confirm that the new combined Diesel/PV/Wind solution appears to be very interesting, it reduces CO2 emissions from diesel generators and annual fuel costs can be saved.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T09:07:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221077455
       
  • A comprehensive country-based day-ahead wind power generation forecast
           model by coupling numerical weather prediction data and CatBoost with
           feature selection methods for Turkey

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      Authors: Cem Özen, Ali Deniz
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A country-based day-ahead wind power generation forecast (WPGF) model with a grid selection algorithm and feature selection models was proposed in this study. Atmospheric variables extracted from 300, 500, 700 hPa pressure levels, and surface level of ERA5 reanalysis data with 2.5° spatial resolution were used to train/validate the categorical boosting (CatBoost) model. A special grid selection algorithm was proposed by considering Turkey’s spatial distribution of wind power plants. The day-ahead forecasts of ECMWF’s HRES (High-resolution) were used as the test subset, therefore, paving the way for the operational use of the model. The proposed model could be considered much as a specialized machine learning based downscaling method for country-based WPGF due to using numerical weather prediction model outputs as its input. Results showed that the proposed model that uses fewer features has outperformed the other models with a normalized root mean square error of 7.6% and coefficient of determination of 0.8989.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T06:37:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221078536
       
  • Corrigendum to Fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator bearings using
           fast spectral correlation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T07:11:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211069253
       
  • Experimental verification of predicted capability of a wind turbine
           drivetrain test bench to replicate dynamic loads onto multi-megawatt
           nacelles

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      Authors: Philippe Giguère, John R Wagner
      First page: 1047
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A total of 27 test profiles from the IEC 61400-1 design load cases were tested using a 7.5-MW wind turbine drivetrain test bench and two multi-megawatt wind turbine drivetrains. Each test profile consisted of simultaneous vertical, lateral, and longitudinal forces, yawing and nodding bending moment, and rotational speed. These test-bench inputs were compared with the forces, bending moments, and speed that were applied to the wind turbine drivetrains to quantify the test-bench tracking error. This tracking error was quantified for a range of ramp-rate limits of the yawing and nodding bending moments. The experimental results were compared with predictions from an evaluation method for the capability of wind turbine drivetrain test benches to replicate dynamic loads. The method’s predictive capability was found to be sufficient for the goal of early screening and its formulation is applicable to any wind turbine drivetrain test bench and drivetrain design.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T09:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211065338
       
  • Dynamic performance improvement of wind-diesel power system through robust
           sliding mode control of hybrid energy storage system

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      Authors: Zahid Afzal Thoker, Shameem Ahmad Lone
      First page: 1065
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Off-grid users can be provided with electricity via a hybrid integration of wind power generators and a diesel system functioning as a backup supply. However, due to wind power fluctuations and rapid load changes, system voltage and frequency variances may exceed permitted limits, resulting in aberrant system behavior. Therefore, to improve the dynamic performance of the wind-diesel power system, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) made of battery and superconducting magnetic energy storage is installed with the system via a converter interface. Based on the switching manifold design, a sliding mode controller with the super-twisting feature is developed over the hybrid energy storage system (HESS) to carry out the required amount of power exchanges with the system accomplished through the control of converter operation. Lyapunov stability analysis is conducted to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the system. MATLAB simulations are performed to validate the improved performance of the system with the proposed scheme.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211066787
       
  • An improved LB method for predicting dynamic characteristics of Vertical
           Axis Wind Turbine airfoils

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      Authors: Shoutu Li, Qing Wang, Congxin Yang
      First page: 1133
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      One of the important challenges for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is to fully understand its dynamic characteristics in different operating conditions. Meanwhile, it is necessary to seek a fast and accurate method to evaluate the dynamic characteristic of VAWT. In this study, we improve the LB model by considering the operating principle of VAWT to study the dynamic characteristics of the dedicated and commonly used VAWT airfoils in different operating conditions. The results show that the improved LB model is suitable for simulating the dynamic characteristic of VAWT with a thick airfoil. Although the asymmetric airfoil shows the higher lift coefficient, their dynamic characteristic appears huge fluctuation as the increases of tip speed ratio. Moreover, at a low tip speed ratio, the advantages of the asymmetric airfoil are not obvious. While the dynamic characteristic of the symmetric airfoil is relatively stable with the variation of tip speed ratio.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:20:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211067132
       
  • Design and analysis of a segmented blade for a 50 MW wind turbine
           rotor

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      Authors: Alejandra S Escalera Mendoza, Shulong Yao, Mayank Chetan, Daniel Todd Griffith
      First page: 1146
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Extreme-size wind turbines face logistical challenges due to their sheer size. A solution, segmentation, is examined for an extreme-scale 50 MW wind turbine with 250 m blades using a systematic approach. Segmentation poses challenges regarding minimizing joint mass, transferring loads between segments and logistics. We investigate the feasibility of segmenting a 250 m blade by developing design methods and analyzing the impact of segmentation on the blade mass and blade frequencies. This investigation considers various variables such as joint types (bolted and bonded), adhesive materials, joint locations, number of joints and taper ratios (ply dropping). Segmentation increases blade mass by 4.1%–62% with bolted joints and by 0.4%–3.6% with bonded joints for taper ratios up to 1:10. Cases with large mass growth significantly reduce blade frequencies potentially challenging the control design. We show that segmentation of an extreme-scale blade is possible but mass reduction is necessary to improve its feasibility.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:23:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211069393
       
  • Offshore wind resource assessment using reanalysis data

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      Authors: Sajeer Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah, Ammara Kanwal, Zia ul Rehman Tahir, Usama Bin Saeed, Fabia Manzoor, Muhammad Atif, Sabtain Abbas
      First page: 1173
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The growth rate of offshore wind is increasing due to technological advancement and reduction in cost. An approach using mast measured data at coastline and reanalysis data is proposed for offshore wind resource assessment, especially for developing countries. The evaluation of fifth generation European Reanalysis (ERA5) data was performed against measured data using statistical analysis. ERA5 data slightly underestimates wind speed and wind direction with percentage bias of less than 1%. Wind resource assessment of region in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Pakistan was performed in terms of wind speed and Wind Power Density (WPD). The range of monthly mean wind speed and WPD in the region was 4.03–8.67 m/second and 73–515 W/m2 respectively. Most-probable wind speed and dominating wind direction on corners and center of the region were found using probability distributions and wind rose diagrams respectively. Most-probable wind speed ranges 4.41–7.64 m/second and dominating wind direction is southwest.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T09:44:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211069384
       
  • Methodology to assess wind turbine blade throw risk to vehicles on nearby
           roads

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      Authors: Jonathan Rogers, Mark Costello
      First page: 1187
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The public road setback distance is often an important factor that drives wind farm design. This paper outlines a methodology for assessing the risk imposed by blade throw at various road setbacks using a physics-based simulation approach. Given a road setback distance, Monte Carlo simulation is performed wherein blade throw parameters and vehicle locations are randomized. Potential collisions are determined using an “impact circle” approach which assumes that impact occurs if the vehicle is inside the impact radius of the blade fragment when it lands. This approach is exercised on several example turbines and risk levels are calculated for various road setbacks. The method is also applied to a notional wind farm with turbines located at a typical road setback distance. Results show that the blade throw risk imposed to vehicles on public roads for the example wind farm is extremely small and commensurate with risks imposed by everyday activities.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T12:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211072869
       
  • Optimal design and sensitivity analysis of airfoil-shaped rotor blade for
           Savonius wind turbine by using response surface methodology

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      Authors: Seyedeh Zeinab Hosseini Imeni, Amirreza Kaabinejadian, Hesam Ami Ahmadi, Mahdi Moghimi
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The Savonius wind turbine is cost-effective, simple in structure, and potentially usable in urban areas but suffers from poor efficiency. Further, vortices emerges downward results in a higher rate of exergy loss and lower wind energy to power conversion rate. Thus, the objective of the present study is to enhance the performance of the Savonius wind turbine and reduction of generated friction entropy considering the novel design of airfoil-shaped blade. For this purpose, nine important design parameters of airfoil-shaped blade were chosen and dozen design points were designed based on the Plackett-burman method. After carrying out the screening analysis, the response surface methodology has been used to conduct sensitivity analysis and investigate the higher-order correlations to discover the optimal design of studied airfoil-shaped blade. The obtained results indicate that the optimal design could augment the power coefficient up to 12.89% at TSR = 0.8, compared to conventional semicircular rotor blade.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T11:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211072868
       
  • Wind turbine ice detection using AEP loss method: A case study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jia Yi Jin, Timo Karlsson, Muhammad S Virk
      First page: 1224
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the comparison of a statistical and numerical case study of wind resource assessment and estimation of resultant Annual Energy Production due to ice of a wind park in ice prone cold region. Three years Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition data from a wind park located in arctic region is used for this study. Statistical analysis shows that the relative power loss due to icing related stops is the main issue for this wind park. While Larsen wake model is used for the CFD simulations, where results show that it is important to use the wake loss model for CFD simulations of wind resource assessment and AEP estimation of a wind park. A preliminary case study about wind park layout optimization has also been carried out which shows that AEP can be improved by optimizing the wind park layout and CFD simulations can be a good tool.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211072867
       
  • Blade icing detection of wind turbine based on multi-featureand
           multi-classifier fusion

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      Authors: Chao Lu, Guodong He, Chunhui Shou, Yiwen Wu, Yang Shen, Jinkui Zhu
      First page: 1236
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind farms are usually located in high altitude areas with a high probability of ice occurrence. Blade icing has the potential to result in unexpected mechanical failures and downtimes. In order to avoid these problems, the priority we need to do is to detect blade icing accurately. For this purpose, a novel icing detection method based on multi-feature and multi-classifier fusion is proposed in this paper. Firstly, multi-feature composed of basic features and statistical features are extracted from the operational data. Significant features are then extracted by utilizing Light Gradient Boosting Machine. Secondly, a multi-classifier fusion approach is employed to build an fusion model, which aims to obtain a much more accurate estimation for the icing state. Overall, the proposed method in this paper can achieve more accurate detection on blade icing, compared with other models. This will minimize false alarms, helping wind farms manage the operations more efficiently.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221075590
       
  • Energy management and control system for microgrid based wind-PV-battery
           using multi-agent systems

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      Authors: Mohamed Azeroual, Younes Boujoudar, Lahcen EL Iysaouy, Ayman Aljarbouh, Muhammad Fayaz, Muhammad Shuaib Qureshi, Fazle Rabbi, Hassane EL Markhi
      First page: 1247
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Energy generation is currently evolving into a smart distribution system that incorporates several green energy resources at a distributed level, ensuring that clean energy is generated without releasing harmful gases, that operational procedures are consistent, and that energy management and supervision arrangements are improved. This paper proposes a multi-agent system-based microgrid energy management and proper control in distributed systems. For the complexity of energy management in distributed systems, a multi-agent system-based decentralized control architecture was developed. The proposed technique is based on several smart agents, each agent is based on the microgrid data for energy management and frequency control. The proposed energy management system based on the multi-agent system was tested by simulation under renewable resource fluctuations and seasonal load demand. The simulation results show that the proposed energy management system proved to be more resilient and high-performance controls than conventional centralized energy control systems.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221075583
       
  • An analysis of the 10 MW Butoni wind farm in the Tropical Southwest
           Pacific Island of Fiji

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      Authors: Kunal K Dayal, John E Cater, Michael J Kingan, Gilles Bellon, Rajnish N Sharma
      First page: 1264
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study carries out an analysis of the 10 MW Butoni wind farm in the tropical southwest Pacific island of Fiji using 6 years of uninterrupted near-surface wind observations (2013–2018). The standard wind-industry software, WAsP is used to analyse and evaluate the wind characteristics of the wind farm and the surrounding areas. The modelled and operational AEP are discussed with the related economic analysis together with the main causes for the under-performance of the wind farm. The results revealed that the mean wind speed, power density and the AEP at the Butoni wind farm are below the utility-scale standard of 6.4 m/s, 300 W/m2 and 500 MWh/year/turbine respectively, at 55 m above ground level (AGL). The main reason for the under-performance of the wind farm is that it was commissioned for a low mean wind speed regime of Wind Power Class 1. The wind farm has a lower-than-expected capacity factor of 5.4% and a higher wind shear coefficient of 0.35. An economic analysis revealed that the payback time is 24.5 years, and the cost of energy generation is FJD $ 0.55/kWh.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T10:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221075808
       
  • A novel time series data clustering approach for wind speed forecasting

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      Authors: Mh Asif Kamal, Manasi Gyanchandaniyan, Anil Kumar Kushwah
      First page: 1281
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind energy plays an essential role in the generation process of sustainable energy, with a bright future. Therefore, predicting wind speed fluctuations and their output power plays a crucial role in electric power generation. The integration of wind power is based on the accuracy of wind speed and power prediction model. In this paper, a clustering algorithm is proposed based on the length of the trendlet components. After spotting the different clusters, one suitable cluster is selected for modeling using the panda’s correlation method. This paper uses specific ARIMA, Naive Forecast, and Holt Winter models to forecast the selected cluster. Here three hybrid models, namely, C-ARIMA, C-NAIVE Forecast, and C-Holt-Winter, are proposed for wind speed forecasting. The performances of the proposed models are evaluated using the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE). The experiment outcomes show that the cluster-based forecasting technique (Hybrid models) improved performance compared with un-clustered forecasting techniques.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221076976
       
  • Performance assessment of straight and linearly tapered rotors through
           wind tunnel investigation for off-grid applications

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      Authors: Ojing Siram, Niranjan Sahoo
      First page: 1291
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The development of commercial wind turbine (WT) blade often accompanies many challenges due to its complex design process, geometric configuration and associated cost. In this backdrop, the article tries to put forward the applicability of a much simpler form of WT blades, which could be used in place of blade element momentum theory (BEMT) based turbine blades. In the present investigation, four small-scale horizontal-axis wind turbines model rotors having NACA0012 as its sectional profile has been designed and tested. The three model rotors opted to have straight and linearly tapered (SLT) blades, have been chosen in reliance on their simplicity and ease of fabrication. They are differentiated based on the root chord to tip chord ratio as M1 (1:1), M2 (5:3) and M3 (5:2), and subsequently compared with a BEMT rotor of a similar operational configuration. The wind tunnel investigation shows that the power coefficient for M1 is higher than M2 and M3. The favourable models M1 and M2 are capable of capturing power coefficient of, 37% and 24%. respectively, of the Betz-Joukowsky limit while operating at blade pitch angle less than 30°. Based on their operational characteristics, it is suggested to operate the modelled SLT rotors in the potential generation phase of the power characteristics curve to avoid a sudden drop in the rotor rotational speed.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:06:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080527
       
  • An unsupervised data-driven approach for wind turbine blade damage
           detection under passive acoustics-based excitation

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      Authors: Jaclyn Solimine, Murat Inalpolat
      First page: 1311
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Existing passive acoustics-based techniques for wind turbine blade damage detection lack the robustness and adaptability necessary for an operational implementation due to their physics- and model-based dependency. In contrast, this study develops an entirely unsupervised, data-driven damage detection technique. The novelty of the technique lies in (i) the development and comparison of spectral and cepstral-domain features for the robust characterization of the cavity-internal acoustics, (ii) the use of autoencoder networks to reduce the effects of non-stationary acoustic excitation, and (iii) the exclusion of labeled or damage-case data in the training set. The technique was successfully demonstrated on a wind turbine blade section inflicted with damage of various sizes, types, and locations, and subjected to airflow-induced passive acoustic excitation provided by a wind tunnel. Damage detection accuracy up to 99.82% was achieved for some damage types.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080470
       
 
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