Subjects -> ENERGY (Total: 414 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENERGY (12 journals)
    - ENERGY (252 journals)
    - ENERGY: GENERAL (7 journals)
    - NUCLEAR ENERGY (40 journals)
    - PETROLEUM AND GAS (58 journals)
    - RENEWABLE ENERGY (45 journals)

ENERGY (252 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 406 Journals sorted by number of followers
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Energy Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 73)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Power and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Nature Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Energy Journal The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Energy and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Research & Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Oil and Gas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Solar Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ocean and Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Green Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Energy Strategy Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Energy and Environment Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Prices and Taxes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Joule     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atomic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geothermal Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Studies Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nano Energy and Power Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Energy Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Energy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Development of Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Applied Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Foundations and Trends® in Renewable Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Functional Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Power Technology and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Energy Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Energy and Emission Control Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Wind Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Distributed Generation & Alternative Energy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clean Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Technology & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials Today Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Smart Grid and Green Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nuclear Knowledge Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fusion Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gcb Bioenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology for Energy Transition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy in Southern Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Alternate Energy Sources & Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Energy & Fuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy and Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Conversion and Management : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radioprotection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Electricity Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clefs CEA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Technology Audit and Production Reserves     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bulletin of Energy Economics and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality     Hybrid Journal  
Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Energy     Open Access  
Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College     Open Access  
Global Energy Interconnection     Open Access  
Journal of Energy Systems     Open Access  
International Journal of Energy & Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Energy Policy     Open Access  
Energy Informatics     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
High Voltage     Open Access  
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
ENERGETIKA. Proceedings of CIS higher education institutions and power engineering associations     Open Access  
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ambient Energy     Hybrid Journal  
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access  
Multequina     Open Access  
Natural Resources     Open Access  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Wind Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nuclear Data Sheets     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Energy Law and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Wind Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.296
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-524X - ISSN (Online) 2048-402X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Spare parts control strategies for offshore wind farms: A critical review
           and comparative study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Md Imran Hasan Tusar, Bhaba R Sarker
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) downtime causes huge financial loss to the stakeholders. One of the major concerns for them is to reduce the downtime of the offshore wind turbine as much as possible. To do this, inventory managers must keep the required number of spare parts in the inventory. It is important to forecast the type and amount of spare parts ahead of time. The maintenance team tries to figure out failure symptoms to predict the approximate time for failure. This prediction helps to purchase and stock spare parts systematically. There is a trade-off between the ordering cost, holding cost, and shortage cost. Proper inventory planning saves a manager from placing expensive emergency orders and also an extended period of holding spare parts. The desired service level should be determined earlier, based on which spare parts planning is done. In this paper, some prominent spare parts models have been studied, findings have been systematically presented, compared against some key determinant factors, critical analysis has been performed and the applicability of the models has been discussed. More than a 100 research articles on spare parts have been reviewed and major contributions from the most relevant articles in OWF have been presented in this paper. One advanced spare parts modeling reported up to 51% cost reduction compared to traditional spare parts planning. Another integrated spare parts planning reported 27% savings. This critical review aims to suggest some guidelines for the managers and other associates of wind farms about the effective and efficient spare parts management technique from the beginning of the turbine installation to the end of its life cycle.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221095258
       
  • Estimation of wind energy potential using WAsP model in the sub watershed
           of Oued-Sakni region-Algeria

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laouisset Mhamed Bensalah, Farouk Chellali, Bouacha Mohamed Islem
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper is a case study aiming at the determination of wind power potential in the Oued-Sakni sub-watershed. The objective is to provide wind energy for agro-pastoral regions, specially designed for irrigation systems, considering the fact that this region is far from the electricity grid. Statistical methods and the WAsP model were used to determine the climatological and energy characteristics of wind in this region. The results of this study are presented in the form of four tables containing the values of the parameters of the Weibull statistical distribution ‘A’ and ‘k’ for levels 10, 25and 50 m for standard conditions. Each table corresponds to a type of roughness length. A fifth table contains the calculated values of the mean speed and the mean total wind power available at the same levels and same type of roughness length.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T09:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221096247
       
  • Nondestructive evaluation of carbon-fiber composites using digital image
           correlation, acoustic emission, and optical based modal analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yunlong Han, Ronald Kumon, Seyed Jamaleddin Mostafavi Yazdi, Na Zhu, Arash Afshar, Javad Baqersad
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Composite materials are increasingly used in the wind industries. Damage detection and health monitoring of composite materials are challenging due to the complex internal structure and unique material properties. Digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE) are both used for damage detection in structures. In this work, DIC performs a full-field strain measurement on the surface of the carbon-fiber specimen while AE continuously monitors and records the AE signals generated from specimen subsurface structure failures. These health monitoring techniques are integrated and evaluated in this study to correlate surface strain measurements and acoustic emission measurements on carbon-fiber specimens. The AE measurement results show that there is a correlation between the occurrence of AE events and the timing of complete specimen failure. DIC with a high-speed stereo camera system is also adopted to extract the change in the resonance frequencies and displacement and strain mode shapes of the specimen during experiments in cyclic loading.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221095206
       
  • Wind energy resources assessment of Cuba using the regional climate model
           PRECIS in high resolution scenarios of climate change RCPs

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yoandy Alonso, Arnoldo Bezanilla, Milena Alpizar, Yosvany Martinez
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An analysis of the behavior of the wind speed using the regional climate model PRECIS in high resolution scenarios of climate change RCPs is presented. The projections indicate that throughout the century, the speed of the surface wind will continue to increase to a greater or lesser extent (depending on the scenario) in most of the national territory, mainly towards the coast north, as an intensification and westward shift of the anticyclone North Atlantic could occur. The most important thing about this increase is that allows to consolidate the current projection of the Cuban wind program, in which the construction of 13 wind farms is proposed, precisely where the wind potential of Cuba will be increased. Finally this increase is added to the wind speed outputs of the Numerical Wind Atlas of Cuba to estimate the values of wind speed over the future periods.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080469
       
  • Adaptive wind data normalization to improve the performance of forecasting
           models

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      Authors: Deepali Patil, Rajesh Wadhvani, Sanyam Shukla, Muktesh Gupta
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind speed forecasting, a time series problem, plays a vital role in estimating annual wind energy production in wind farms. Calculation of wind energy helps to maintain stability between electricity production and consumption. Deep learning models are used for predicting time series data. However, as wind speed is non-stationary and irregular, pre-processing of these data is necessary to get accurate results. In this paper, static normalization techniques like min–max, z-score, and adaptive normalization are used for pre-processing wind datasets, and further, their forecasting results are compared. Adaptive normalization increases the learning rate and gives better forecasting results than static normalization. The RMSE value was reduced by 9.18% for the NREL dataset when adaptive normalization was used instead of z-score normalization and by 23.58% for the Weather dataset. The datasets used are taken from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Kaggle’s Dataset.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T10:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221093908
       
  • A direct analytical predetermination of PMSG based WPS steady-state values
           under different operating conditions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ramachandran Vijayapriya, Pitchaimuthu Raja, Manickavasagam Parvathy Selvan
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a direct analytical method to predetermine the steady-state values of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind power system (WPS) at each stage of power flow. A generalized structured is developed with two independent equivalent circuits, that is, PMSG and grid side. To effectively determine the converters performance numerals despite grid disturbances, steady-state model is structured with positive sequence components of grid voltage. The advantage of the proposed model is that the methods evade the requirements of d-q modeling and a dedicated controller to evaluate the system performance. Using the proposed steady-state model, the entire WPS components ratings is predicted evading time domain simulation with complicated controller design. Also, the simple controller design is proposed to aid in optimal power flow supplement with FRT requirements under all possible system operating conditions. Ultimately, validation of predetermined values with the simulated PSCAD/EMTDC response including the proposed controller is investigated.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T10:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221093531
       
  • Continuous regulation of wind energy power system permitting protection of
           the system components against wind over-speed

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Souhir Tounsi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper is presented a methodology of design and control of an electromagnet braking system dedicated to the protection of the wind energy production systems against the strong rise of the current in the power chain attached to the strong elevation of the wind speed. This methodology focuses on the dimensioning of the electromagnet acting as a mechanical brake and its integration into the wind energy generation system. The electromagnet is designed jointly by the analytical method offering the advantages of compatibility with large-scale optimization approaches and the finite element method for verifying and increasing the accuracy of the analytical model. This study essentially involves the design and modeling phase of the electromagnet dissociated from the wind turbine and then by the phase of its integration with the wind turbine. The global model associating the electromagnet and the wind turbine controlled with a view to ensuring a continuous recharging of energy accumulator at a constant current equal to the nominal current of which the wind turbine is sized, is implanted under the Matlab-Simulink simulation environment. The results of simulations are encouraging and open the research trail to optimization work of the entire chain.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T10:18:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221093392
       
  • Evaluation of dynamic testing of full-scale wind turbine drivetrains with
           hardware-in-the-loop

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amin Bibo, Meghashyam Panyam
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Dynamometer testing of full-scale wind turbine drivetrains involves subjecting integrated components to extreme static loads, fatigue loads, or dynamic loads to replicate field conditions. This paper provides a detailed evaluation of the uncertainty and errors in applied loads and measured responses, and their magnitude relative to established repeatability bounds for a drivetrain subjected to static and dynamic loads on the 7.5 MW test bench at the Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Testing Facility. An ideal drivetrain simulation model is utilized to isolate the influence of load tracking errors on test article responses. It is shown that the test article response variations are mainly driven by run out and clearances inherent to the drivetrain. For the dynamic profiles, the load tracking errors are within acceptable limits. A frequency analysis is used to show that the test bench controller tracking performance is acceptable for profiles with frequency content up to 1.5 Hz.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T10:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221092079
       
  • Technico-Economic Investigation of 100 MW Offshore Wind Farm in the Gulf
           of Gabes, Tunisia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Faten Attig Bahar, Uwe Rischel, Ahmed Soheyb Benabadji, Melik Sahraoui
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Tunisia has set the target to generate 30% of its electrical energy from renewable sources by 2030. Wind turbines are supposed to contribute a significant part to this ambitious objective. There are excellent wind conditions in the north of Tunisia (near the coast) and in some areas in the south (part of the Sahara). In this context, the aim of this study is to carry out an economic feasibility Analysis of large-scale offshore wind farms to be implemented in Tunisia’s coastline between the cities of Sfax and Gabes, by estimating the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). The energy yield of the wind farms was calculated using inhouse code using the available online data of ERA5 and the LCOE model was developed using local data relevant to the renewable energy framework and market expansion in Tunisia. Results showed that for a 108 MW wind farm, the annual energy production is 447 GWh/a, the capacity factor of 52% the LCOE is 81.5 USD/MWh.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221087311
       
  • Remaining useful life prognosis for wind turbine using a neural network
           with a long-term prediction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lotfi Saidi, Arij Nasfia Hayder, Majdi Saidi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to predict degradation phenomena occurring in high-speed shaft bearings wind turbine systems, and predict their remaining useful life (RUL). Two different prediction ways are possible. The first is known as short-term prediction, and it involves using measured three data from prior cycles to anticipate degradation in the present cycle. This is a future prediction. The difficulty with short-term prediction is that it is impossible to predict degradation in the future due to a lack of measurement data. Short-term prediction, on the other hand, is accurate because it is based on real measured data and the extrapolation distance is short. The second method is known as long-term prediction, where predicted degradations are used to predict the degradation at a further future time. This paper considers only the long-term prediction. The method was initially tested by using the experimental vibration data provided by the GPMS database, where the RUL was accurately predicted with a very small uncertainty.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221085133
       
  • Short-term wind speed forecast for Urla wind power plant: A hybrid
           approach that couples weather research and forecasting model, weather
           patterns and SCADA data with comprehensive data preprocessing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cem Özen, Ali Deniz
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Short-term wind speed forecast model that uses both supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) based data and weather research and forecasting (WRF) model outputs for Urla wind power plant (WPP) has been proposed in this study. Two different WRF models were run to gather atmospheric variables from four surrounding grids of Urla WPP and calculate weather patterns affecting Urla WPP. After detecting outliers in the SCADA data by coupling of k-mean and isolation forest (IF) methods, statistical methods were used for data treatment and the outputs of WRF models were used for missing data imputation. The effect of each data type and data preprocessing techniques on the model was evaluated separately. The best model performance was achieved with 0.9085 [math], and 0.81 MAE in the dataset which includes each data type and each data preprocessing was applied on. Otherwise, the dominant weather pattern affecting Urla WPP was found to be purely advective and the best result was achieved in this pattern.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T09:51:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221088612
       
  • Optimisation of straight plate upstream deflector for the performance
           enhancement of vertical axis wind turbine at low, medium and high regimes
           of tip speed ratios

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Taurista P. Syawitri, Yufeng Yao, Jun Yao, Budi Chandra
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Location and geometry optimisations of Straight Plate Upstream Deflector (SPUD) for performance enhancement of a three-straightbladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) are carried out at three regimes of tip speed ratios (TSRs). Results analysis reveals that SPUD location has significant effect on the power coefficient (Cp) increment of VAWT. Placing two SPUDs both upward and downward in upstream of VAWT can achieve the highest Cp improvement at all regimes of TSRs. Overall, placing SPUD in upstream of VAWT can improve the Cp value at all regimes of TSRs, but the percentage of improvement can vary. The largest Cp improvement of 126.7% is achieved at low regime of TSRs, while at the medium and high regimes of TSRs, Cp improvements decrease to 52.7% and 52.5%, respectively. Increasing the width of SPUD can increase the average VAWT Cp improvement by 2.83% at all regimes of TSRs.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T11:48:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221084980
       
  • Enhancement of the direct power control by using backstepping approach for
           a doubly fed induction generator

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mourad Yessef, Badre Bossoufi, Mohammed Taoussi, Ahmed Lagrioui
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, an improved direct power command strategy based on backstepping was designed to ensure the proper operation of DFIG during the electrical grid faults and to control the stator powers through the injection of the reactive power into the electrical grid to guarantee the voltage return. This strategy contributes to the elimination of high peak currents and stabilizes the active power at its desired optimal value. The backstepping controller used to develop this command is based on the lyapunov function in order to guarantee the stability and robustness of the aero-generator. A Matlab/Simulink simulation and a comparative study were carried out to prove the robustness and efficiency of our developed command. Moreover, despite the variable wind speed, the obtained results prove the validation of the developed command with a total harmonic distortion (THD) that does not exceed 0.33%.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T11:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221085670
       
  • Performance analysis of Savonius wind turbines in different models

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      Authors: Ayse Simsek, Suleyman Teksin, Selahaddin Orhan Akansu, Yahya Erkan Akansu
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents experimental results of power performance characterizations for of 12 different Savonius turbine blades. There are three different models and the numbers of each blade types have been selected as 2, 3, 4, and 5. Three different blade types are drawn in a CAD program and all blade models are produced from 3D printer. The experiments are carried out in the subsonic wind tunnel laboratory of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Erciyes University. The wind tunnel has 15 kW motor power to produce wind flow. Test zone inlet and outlet section is 0.57 m × 0.57 m and 0.59 m × 0.59 m respectively. Shaft to shaft type torque meter is mounted between turbine and electric motor. Measurements have been made at wind speeds between 1 and 30 m/s. The performance values of each turbine have been measured. While the 3-bladed turbine showed the highest power coefficient values in the whole study, the maximum value was obtained from the modified helical turbine type.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T01:02:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221082320
       
  • Undrained capacity of circular shallow foundations under combined VHMT
           loading

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      Authors: Pengpeng He, Tim Newson
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind turbine (WT) foundations are generally subjected to large combined vertical, horizontal, moment, and torsional (VHMT) loads. The available investigations of the ultimate limit states of WT foundations focus predominately on unlimited-tension soil-foundation interfaces that are more appropriate for offshore settings. However, the interfaces for onshore WT foundations are generally unable to resist tensile loads. To address this omission, a zero-tension interface is used to investigate the VHMT failure envelope of circular shallow foundations under undrained soil conditions using finite element analysis. The effects of soil strength heterogeneity and foundation embedment were investigated. The results show that torsional loads reduce the VHM bearing capacity of circular foundations. The foundation embedment is also found to significantly increase the foundation bearing capacity. A full 4-D analytical expression for the VHMT failure envelope has been proposed based on the calculated failure envelopes.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T12:19:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221083024
       
  • Superior performances strategies of different hybrid renewable energy
           systems configurations with energy storage units

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      Authors: Adel Yahiaoui, Abdelhalim Tlemçani
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The essential function of a hybrid renewable energy system is to produce an adequate electrical supply to the load demand with low cost. This paper proposes the optimization and operation of the renewable energy power sources for electrification of isolated rural city in Algeria desert. For this purpose, a system composed by PV panel (PV), Wind Turbine (WT), Battery Bank (BB) for storage of the electrical energy and Fuel Cell (FC) with hydrogen tank (H2 Tank) and electrolyzer (Elect) system for storage of the chemical energy is used to fulfill the need of the load. In the present paper we are interested in evolutionary algorithms for solving optimization problem of hybrid configuration of power system. However, a new heuristic algorithm namely whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is used to obtained the best solution of multi-objective optimization system of cost of energy (COE), total net present cost (TNPC) and loss power supply probability (LPSP). Two recent algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and grey wolf optimizer (GWO) are also implemented in this work. Seven cases studies have been tested for examining the efficient of proposed optimization technique. The suggested whale optimization algorithm, as demonstrated by simulations and comparisons with existing methods, solves the problem of multi-objective optimization of hybrid power system configurations with high accuracy and validity.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T12:58:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221084124
       
  • Wind turbine ice detection using AEP loss method: A case study

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      Authors: Jia Yi Jin, Timo Karlsson, Muhammad S Virk
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the comparison of a statistical and numerical case study of wind resource assessment and estimation of resultant Annual Energy Production due to ice of a wind park in ice prone cold region. Three years Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition data from a wind park located in arctic region is used for this study. Statistical analysis shows that the relative power loss due to icing related stops is the main issue for this wind park. While Larsen wake model is used for the CFD simulations, where results show that it is important to use the wake loss model for CFD simulations of wind resource assessment and AEP estimation of a wind park. A preliminary case study about wind park layout optimization has also been carried out which shows that AEP can be improved by optimizing the wind park layout and CFD simulations can be a good tool.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211072867
       
  • Beehive wind turbine: A new design for electric power generation in urban
           and semi-urban zones

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      Authors: Román-Sedano A Monzamodeth, Román-Roldán Nicolás Iván, Hernández-Morales Bernardo, Flores Osvaldo, Castillo Fermín, Campillo Bernardo
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new wind turbine design for domestic use in urban and semi-urban areas has been studied to examine their implementation and efficiency. In this work, the development of a wind turbine, based on the beehive shape is proposed for possible domestic implementation in urban and semi-urban zones. A first prototype is presented and results of testing it in a mobile assembly are reported. The wind turbine was designed using CAD and to compute the air flow pressure distribution on the blades and assess the mechanical response of the turbine, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and static structural simulations were performed. The CFD results showed pressure on all the wind turbine blades and a small pressure increase in the cavities generated by the beehive arrangement. On the other hand, the prototype was manufactured using a 3D printer and tested under working conditions on a mobile assembly in urban and semi-urban routes (freeway and highway, respectively). The revolutions per minute of the turbine and the relative wind velocity were measured and employed for structural simulations. The results demonstrated that the proposed beehive wind turbine is able to operate on urban and semi-urban areas.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T11:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080573
       
  • Blade icing detection of wind turbine based on multi-featureand
           multi-classifier fusion

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      Authors: Chao Lu, Guodong He, Chunhui Shou, Yiwen Wu, Yang Shen, Jinkui Zhu
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind farms are usually located in high altitude areas with a high probability of ice occurrence. Blade icing has the potential to result in unexpected mechanical failures and downtimes. In order to avoid these problems, the priority we need to do is to detect blade icing accurately. For this purpose, a novel icing detection method based on multi-feature and multi-classifier fusion is proposed in this paper. Firstly, multi-feature composed of basic features and statistical features are extracted from the operational data. Significant features are then extracted by utilizing Light Gradient Boosting Machine. Secondly, a multi-classifier fusion approach is employed to build an fusion model, which aims to obtain a much more accurate estimation for the icing state. Overall, the proposed method in this paper can achieve more accurate detection on blade icing, compared with other models. This will minimize false alarms, helping wind farms manage the operations more efficiently.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221075590
       
  • Performance assessment of straight and linearly tapered rotors through
           wind tunnel investigation for off-grid applications

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      Authors: Ojing Siram, Niranjan Sahoo
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The development of commercial wind turbine (WT) blade often accompanies many challenges due to its complex design process, geometric configuration and associated cost. In this backdrop, the article tries to put forward the applicability of a much simpler form of WT blades, which could be used in place of blade element momentum theory (BEMT) based turbine blades. In the present investigation, four small-scale horizontal-axis wind turbines model rotors having NACA0012 as its sectional profile has been designed and tested. The three model rotors opted to have straight and linearly tapered (SLT) blades, have been chosen in reliance on their simplicity and ease of fabrication. They are differentiated based on the root chord to tip chord ratio as M1 (1:1), M2 (5:3) and M3 (5:2), and subsequently compared with a BEMT rotor of a similar operational configuration. The wind tunnel investigation shows that the power coefficient for M1 is higher than M2 and M3. The favourable models M1 and M2 are capable of capturing power coefficient of, 37% and 24%. respectively, of the Betz-Joukowsky limit while operating at blade pitch angle less than 30°. Based on their operational characteristics, it is suggested to operate the modelled SLT rotors in the potential generation phase of the power characteristics curve to avoid a sudden drop in the rotor rotational speed.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:06:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080527
       
  • An unsupervised data-driven approach for wind turbine blade damage
           detection under passive acoustics-based excitation

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      Authors: Jaclyn Solimine, Murat Inalpolat
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Existing passive acoustics-based techniques for wind turbine blade damage detection lack the robustness and adaptability necessary for an operational implementation due to their physics- and model-based dependency. In contrast, this study develops an entirely unsupervised, data-driven damage detection technique. The novelty of the technique lies in (i) the development and comparison of spectral and cepstral-domain features for the robust characterization of the cavity-internal acoustics, (ii) the use of autoencoder networks to reduce the effects of non-stationary acoustic excitation, and (iii) the exclusion of labeled or damage-case data in the training set. The technique was successfully demonstrated on a wind turbine blade section inflicted with damage of various sizes, types, and locations, and subjected to airflow-induced passive acoustic excitation provided by a wind tunnel. Damage detection accuracy up to 99.82% was achieved for some damage types.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080470
       
  • Theoretical and numerical analysis of vortex bladeless wind turbines

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      Authors: Ahmed M Elsayed, Mohamed B Farghaly
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind energy is one of the most abundant renewable energy resources that have been used to generate electricity. A new used method called Vortex Bladeless Wind Turbines which is basically a rod oscillating and vibrating in response to the vortices originating from the wind passing by the rod. This paper presents a mathematical model used in analysis the work of the VBWT. A prototype design was be created using solidwork to calculate the physical properties. In addition, a numerical study was carried out using Ansys software to calculate the forces affecting the VBWT. Finally, the safety of VBWT structure is studied. The results indicated that, the obtained model can be applied practically in studying the performance of general VBWT with low wind speed, as VBWT use less space, low maintenance and hence economical. The mathematical formula of VBWT power is function of air velocity, aerodynamic coefficients, and prototype physical properties.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221080468
       
  • Hybrid backup energy based on PV/Wind system for marine tugboat: A case
           study of ASD tug of Arzew port in Algeria

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      Authors: Ahmed Bouhouta, Samir Moulahoum, Nadir Kabache
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a hybrid Solar PV/Wind backup solution for a marine tugboat. Tugs are an important kind of vessel that should be able to maneuver continuously without any interruption of their electrical energy system. New power management integrating a hybrid solar/wind energy aims to ensure a long period of continuous safe operation in case of a total blackout and also to replace the perturbed power grid of the port for a partial time. These standard tugs built in Holland by DAMEN shipyard and attached to Arzew port in Algeria, are suited to operate for a maximum of 1 hour with a storage battery unit in an emergency situation like a blackout. The two main diesel engines are able to operate normally with 24 V DC voltage control under such situations. During this problem of power failure, the tug can’t reach safely the harbor and hence immediate assistance is needed. To avoid this scenario, the idea is why not extend this period of emergency operation, and also try to supply the vessel inside the port only with clean energy. First, the electrical distribution system is presented and detailed including the power demand study of installed loads. The proposed hybrid energy source is also discussed for its many benefits especially in the case of favorable maritime climatic conditions of the Arzew port area. HOMER software is used to verify if the new power scheme can succeed. The results confirm that the new combined Diesel/PV/Wind solution appears to be very interesting, it reduces CO2 emissions from diesel generators and annual fuel costs can be saved.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T09:07:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221077455
       
  • A comprehensive country-based day-ahead wind power generation forecast
           model by coupling numerical weather prediction data and CatBoost with
           feature selection methods for Turkey

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      Authors: Cem Özen, Ali Deniz
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A country-based day-ahead wind power generation forecast (WPGF) model with a grid selection algorithm and feature selection models was proposed in this study. Atmospheric variables extracted from 300, 500, 700 hPa pressure levels, and surface level of ERA5 reanalysis data with 2.5° spatial resolution were used to train/validate the categorical boosting (CatBoost) model. A special grid selection algorithm was proposed by considering Turkey’s spatial distribution of wind power plants. The day-ahead forecasts of ECMWF’s HRES (High-resolution) were used as the test subset, therefore, paving the way for the operational use of the model. The proposed model could be considered much as a specialized machine learning based downscaling method for country-based WPGF due to using numerical weather prediction model outputs as its input. Results showed that the proposed model that uses fewer features has outperformed the other models with a normalized root mean square error of 7.6% and coefficient of determination of 0.8989.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T06:37:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221078536
       
  • A novel time series data clustering approach for wind speed forecasting

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      Authors: Mh Asif Kamal, Manasi Gyanchandaniyan, Anil Kumar Kushwah
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind energy plays an essential role in the generation process of sustainable energy, with a bright future. Therefore, predicting wind speed fluctuations and their output power plays a crucial role in electric power generation. The integration of wind power is based on the accuracy of wind speed and power prediction model. In this paper, a clustering algorithm is proposed based on the length of the trendlet components. After spotting the different clusters, one suitable cluster is selected for modeling using the panda’s correlation method. This paper uses specific ARIMA, Naive Forecast, and Holt Winter models to forecast the selected cluster. Here three hybrid models, namely, C-ARIMA, C-NAIVE Forecast, and C-Holt-Winter, are proposed for wind speed forecasting. The performances of the proposed models are evaluated using the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE). The experiment outcomes show that the cluster-based forecasting technique (Hybrid models) improved performance compared with un-clustered forecasting techniques.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221076976
       
  • Energy management and control system for microgrid based wind-PV-battery
           using multi-agent systems

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      Authors: Mohamed Azeroual, Younes Boujoudar, Lahcen EL Iysaouy, Ayman Aljarbouh, Muhammad Fayaz, Muhammad Shuaib Qureshi, Fazle Rabbi, Hassane EL Markhi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Energy generation is currently evolving into a smart distribution system that incorporates several green energy resources at a distributed level, ensuring that clean energy is generated without releasing harmful gases, that operational procedures are consistent, and that energy management and supervision arrangements are improved. This paper proposes a multi-agent system-based microgrid energy management and proper control in distributed systems. For the complexity of energy management in distributed systems, a multi-agent system-based decentralized control architecture was developed. The proposed technique is based on several smart agents, each agent is based on the microgrid data for energy management and frequency control. The proposed energy management system based on the multi-agent system was tested by simulation under renewable resource fluctuations and seasonal load demand. The simulation results show that the proposed energy management system proved to be more resilient and high-performance controls than conventional centralized energy control systems.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T06:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221075583
       
  • Corrigendum to Fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator bearings using
           fast spectral correlation

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      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T07:11:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211069253
       
  • An analysis of the 10 MW Butoni wind farm in the Tropical Southwest
           Pacific Island of Fiji

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      Authors: Kunal K Dayal, John E Cater, Michael J Kingan, Gilles Bellon, Rajnish N Sharma
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study carries out an analysis of the 10 MW Butoni wind farm in the tropical southwest Pacific island of Fiji using 6 years of uninterrupted near-surface wind observations (2013–2018). The standard wind-industry software, WAsP is used to analyse and evaluate the wind characteristics of the wind farm and the surrounding areas. The modelled and operational AEP are discussed with the related economic analysis together with the main causes for the under-performance of the wind farm. The results revealed that the mean wind speed, power density and the AEP at the Butoni wind farm are below the utility-scale standard of 6.4 m/s, 300 W/m2 and 500 MWh/year/turbine respectively, at 55 m above ground level (AGL). The main reason for the under-performance of the wind farm is that it was commissioned for a low mean wind speed regime of Wind Power Class 1. The wind farm has a lower-than-expected capacity factor of 5.4% and a higher wind shear coefficient of 0.35. An economic analysis revealed that the payback time is 24.5 years, and the cost of energy generation is FJD $ 0.55/kWh.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T10:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X221075808
       
  • Optimal design and sensitivity analysis of airfoil-shaped rotor blade for
           Savonius wind turbine by using response surface methodology

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      Authors: Seyedeh Zeinab Hosseini Imeni, Amirreza Kaabinejadian, Hesam Ami Ahmadi, Mahdi Moghimi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The Savonius wind turbine is cost-effective, simple in structure, and potentially usable in urban areas but suffers from poor efficiency. Further, vortices emerges downward results in a higher rate of exergy loss and lower wind energy to power conversion rate. Thus, the objective of the present study is to enhance the performance of the Savonius wind turbine and reduction of generated friction entropy considering the novel design of airfoil-shaped blade. For this purpose, nine important design parameters of airfoil-shaped blade were chosen and dozen design points were designed based on the Plackett-burman method. After carrying out the screening analysis, the response surface methodology has been used to conduct sensitivity analysis and investigate the higher-order correlations to discover the optimal design of studied airfoil-shaped blade. The obtained results indicate that the optimal design could augment the power coefficient up to 12.89% at TSR = 0.8, compared to conventional semicircular rotor blade.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T11:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211072868
       
  • Design and analysis of a segmented blade for a 50 MW wind turbine
           rotor

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      Authors: Alejandra S Escalera Mendoza, Shulong Yao, Mayank Chetan, Daniel Todd Griffith
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Extreme-size wind turbines face logistical challenges due to their sheer size. A solution, segmentation, is examined for an extreme-scale 50 MW wind turbine with 250 m blades using a systematic approach. Segmentation poses challenges regarding minimizing joint mass, transferring loads between segments and logistics. We investigate the feasibility of segmenting a 250 m blade by developing design methods and analyzing the impact of segmentation on the blade mass and blade frequencies. This investigation considers various variables such as joint types (bolted and bonded), adhesive materials, joint locations, number of joints and taper ratios (ply dropping). Segmentation increases blade mass by 4.1%–62% with bolted joints and by 0.4%–3.6% with bonded joints for taper ratios up to 1:10. Cases with large mass growth significantly reduce blade frequencies potentially challenging the control design. We show that segmentation of an extreme-scale blade is possible but mass reduction is necessary to improve its feasibility.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:23:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211069393
       
  • An improved LB method for predicting dynamic characteristics of Vertical
           Axis Wind Turbine airfoils

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      Authors: Shoutu Li, Qing Wang, Congxin Yang
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      One of the important challenges for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is to fully understand its dynamic characteristics in different operating conditions. Meanwhile, it is necessary to seek a fast and accurate method to evaluate the dynamic characteristic of VAWT. In this study, we improve the LB model by considering the operating principle of VAWT to study the dynamic characteristics of the dedicated and commonly used VAWT airfoils in different operating conditions. The results show that the improved LB model is suitable for simulating the dynamic characteristic of VAWT with a thick airfoil. Although the asymmetric airfoil shows the higher lift coefficient, their dynamic characteristic appears huge fluctuation as the increases of tip speed ratio. Moreover, at a low tip speed ratio, the advantages of the asymmetric airfoil are not obvious. While the dynamic characteristic of the symmetric airfoil is relatively stable with the variation of tip speed ratio.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:20:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211067132
       
  • Dynamic performance improvement of wind-diesel power system through robust
           sliding mode control of hybrid energy storage system

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      Authors: Zahid Afzal Thoker, Shameem Ahmad Lone
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Off-grid users can be provided with electricity via a hybrid integration of wind power generators and a diesel system functioning as a backup supply. However, due to wind power fluctuations and rapid load changes, system voltage and frequency variances may exceed permitted limits, resulting in aberrant system behavior. Therefore, to improve the dynamic performance of the wind-diesel power system, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) made of battery and superconducting magnetic energy storage is installed with the system via a converter interface. Based on the switching manifold design, a sliding mode controller with the super-twisting feature is developed over the hybrid energy storage system (HESS) to carry out the required amount of power exchanges with the system accomplished through the control of converter operation. Lyapunov stability analysis is conducted to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the system. MATLAB simulations are performed to validate the improved performance of the system with the proposed scheme.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211066787
       
  • Methodology to assess wind turbine blade throw risk to vehicles on nearby
           roads

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      Authors: Jonathan Rogers, Mark Costello
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The public road setback distance is often an important factor that drives wind farm design. This paper outlines a methodology for assessing the risk imposed by blade throw at various road setbacks using a physics-based simulation approach. Given a road setback distance, Monte Carlo simulation is performed wherein blade throw parameters and vehicle locations are randomized. Potential collisions are determined using an “impact circle” approach which assumes that impact occurs if the vehicle is inside the impact radius of the blade fragment when it lands. This approach is exercised on several example turbines and risk levels are calculated for various road setbacks. The method is also applied to a notional wind farm with turbines located at a typical road setback distance. Results show that the blade throw risk imposed to vehicles on public roads for the example wind farm is extremely small and commensurate with risks imposed by everyday activities.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T12:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211072869
       
  • Offshore wind resource assessment using reanalysis data

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      Authors: Sajeer Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah, Ammara Kanwal, Zia ul Rehman Tahir, Usama Bin Saeed, Fabia Manzoor, Muhammad Atif, Sabtain Abbas
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The growth rate of offshore wind is increasing due to technological advancement and reduction in cost. An approach using mast measured data at coastline and reanalysis data is proposed for offshore wind resource assessment, especially for developing countries. The evaluation of fifth generation European Reanalysis (ERA5) data was performed against measured data using statistical analysis. ERA5 data slightly underestimates wind speed and wind direction with percentage bias of less than 1%. Wind resource assessment of region in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Pakistan was performed in terms of wind speed and Wind Power Density (WPD). The range of monthly mean wind speed and WPD in the region was 4.03–8.67 m/second and 73–515 W/m2 respectively. Most-probable wind speed and dominating wind direction on corners and center of the region were found using probability distributions and wind rose diagrams respectively. Most-probable wind speed ranges 4.41–7.64 m/second and dominating wind direction is southwest.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T09:44:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211069384
       
  • Experimental verification of predicted capability of a wind turbine
           drivetrain test bench to replicate dynamic loads onto multi-megawatt
           nacelles

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      Authors: Philippe Giguère, John R Wagner
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A total of 27 test profiles from the IEC 61400-1 design load cases were tested using a 7.5-MW wind turbine drivetrain test bench and two multi-megawatt wind turbine drivetrains. Each test profile consisted of simultaneous vertical, lateral, and longitudinal forces, yawing and nodding bending moment, and rotational speed. These test-bench inputs were compared with the forces, bending moments, and speed that were applied to the wind turbine drivetrains to quantify the test-bench tracking error. This tracking error was quantified for a range of ramp-rate limits of the yawing and nodding bending moments. The experimental results were compared with predictions from an evaluation method for the capability of wind turbine drivetrain test benches to replicate dynamic loads. The method’s predictive capability was found to be sufficient for the goal of early screening and its formulation is applicable to any wind turbine drivetrain test bench and drivetrain design.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T09:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211065338
       
  • Roughness sub-layer wind speed model for tropical wooded areas

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      Authors: Gustavo Richmond-Navarro, Mariana Montenegro-Montero, Pedro Casanova-Treto, Franklin Hernández-Castro, Jorge Monge-Fallas
      First page: 759
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      There are few reports in the literature regarding wind speed near the ground. This work presents a model for wind speed from 4 m above the ground, based on year-round measurements in two meteorological towers. Each tower is equipped with anemometers at five heights, as well as thermometers and pressure and relative humidity sensors. The data is processed using Eureqa artificial intelligence software, which determines the functional relationship between variables using an evolutionary search technique called symbolic regression. Using this technique, models are found for each month under study, in which height and temperature are the variables that most affect wind speed. The model that best predicts the measured wind speeds is then selected. A polynomial function directly proportional to height and temperature is identified as the one that provides the best predictions of wind speed on average, within the rough sub-layer. Finally, future work is identified on testing the model at other locations.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T06:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211050081
       
  • Experimental study on an airfoil equipped with an active flow control
           element

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      Authors: Dominik Hochhäusler, Gareth Erfort
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper addresses the torque ripple problem of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) by applying an oscillating bump which was previously optimised with a numerical model. Since the element primarily affects the drag of an airfoil, a low-speed wind-tunnel experiment using the wake survey method was conducted in order to highlight the effect on the drag of a symmetrical airfoil. Measurements were taken along the centreline of the foil to compare with numerically simulated results on a 2D foil. This study provides an experimental data set for an active flow control device. When the stationary results were compared against numerical simulation they showed an overall good agreement. The moving bump increased the drag coefficient for higher frequencies of oscillation and induced less drag compared to the steady maximum distortion. Uncertainties in the experiments were primarily caused by fluctuations in the test section and the data reduction error. Future work should include the measurement of lift in order to determine the influence of the element on the torque.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211066782
       
  • Methodology for optimal design and control of wind energy system based on
           simplifying assumptions

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      Authors: Souhir Tounsi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The study presented in this paper concerns the development of a new methodology for design and controlling a wind energy generation chain. This methodology is based on combined Analytical-Finite Element-Experimental method. This type of converter chosen is an AC-DC inverter with IGBTs to improve the robustness of the power chain structure. It offers a reduction of the cost of the power chain and the improvement of the performances of the global studied system, as the control at power factor equal to unity and providing an electromagnetic torque which is added to the useful torque in order to extract the maximal energy. The control algorithms permit to regulate Le charging voltage and current in their rated values considered as optimal battery charging voltage and current. The global model of the power chain is implemented under the Matlab-Sumilink simulation environment for performance and efficiency analysis.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211066772
       
  • A comparative study of wind turbine-generator modeling techniques:
           Physical modeling, subspace identification, and dynamic neural networks

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      Authors: Mo’ath Qandil, Omar Mohamed, Wejdan Abu Elhaija
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The increase of the favorable impacts of wind energy on the environment and the global energy requires overall understanding of the modeling methods that are commonly used for time-based simulation of wind energy systems. This paper introduces a comprehensive comparison of three salient modeling techniques of wind energy conversion systems, which are: the physical modeling, subspace system identification, and Dynamic Neural Network (ANN). The models have been created with the different modeling philosophies with the aid of historical data-sets representing four apart days of operation. The real system incorporates (TWT-1.65) type Wind-Turbine intergated with Multi-Pole Synchronous Generators (MPSG). The compariosn provides some crucial answers to the concerns of which technique is suited for an application, consequently, the comparison includes quantitative and qualitative measures. This article can be considered as a brief guide for future researchers to have thorough understanding of the modeling concepts in the field of wind engineering.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211066623
       
  • Modeling the wind speed in North Morocco

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      Authors: Zuhair Bahraoui
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The change of the wind speed is strictly related to several natural factors such as local topographical and the ground cover variations, then any adjustment has to take into account the statistical variation for each specific region under study. Unlike the Weibull distribution, which is most used in wind speed modeling, we investigate two alternative distribution functions for wind speed by using the extreme value theory. The generalized Champernowne distribution function and the mixture Log-normal-Pareto distribution function are considered. We demonstrate that the proper generalized extreme value distribution gives a good fit for wind speed in the North Moroccan. In order to validate the models, a comparison of the produced aggregate wind energy in the aeolian wind turbine was being established. The empirical study shows that the generalized extreme value distribution reflects better the intensity of the wind power energy.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:27:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211063932
       
  • Model of wind energy system with reduced simulation time validated by
           classical equivalent model developed under Simulink

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      Authors: Souhir Tounsi
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Models of a wind energy conversion chain using classical Simulink models of a diode bridge exhibit significant simulation time making difficult its combination with large scales optimization approaches. For this purpose and to increase the degree of compatibility of wind turbine models with large scales optimization approaches such as those based on Genetic Algorithms, a wind energy conversion system having an horizontal axis propeller, an axial generator with permanent magnets, recharging a battery energy accumulator through a diode rectifier is modeled by simplified method reducing simulation time. Indeed, a model of the three phase’s diode rectifier making the simulation time considerably reduced compared to the existing model in the Simulink library is developed. This model is validated by comparison with the model using the classic Simulink library. Another objective of this study is the formulation of the useful torque optimization problem having an essential constraint the reduction of the generator phase’s inductance in the goal to reduce the overvoltage in generator phases.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211063572
       
  • Vertical axis wind turbine operation in icing conditions: A review study

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      Authors: Syed Abdur Rahman Tahir, Muhammad Shakeel Virk
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) can be a promising solution for electricity production in remote ice prone territories of high north, where good wind resources are available, but icing is a challenge that can affect its optimum operation. A lot of research has been made to study the icing effects on the conventional horizontal axis wind turbines, but the literature about vertical axis wind turbines operating in icing conditions is still scarce, despite the importance of this topic. This paper presents a review study about existing knowledge of VAWT operation in icing condition. Focus has been made in better understanding of ice accretion physics along VAWT blades and methods to detect and mitigate icing effects.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:13:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211061828
       
  • Electricity production and comparative analysis for wind availability
           power potential assessment at four sites in Egypt

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      Authors: Marwa M Ibrahim
      First page: 683
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This research represents the first wind energy potential assessment that covers major provinces in Egypt. The paper investigates a realistic study technically and economically of wind energy as a talented renewable source for electricity production of various regions in Egypt. More accurate prediction and measurement of wind speed and direction allow wind plants to supply clean, renewable power to businesses, and homeowners at lower costs. Wind resource assessments must be precise in order for wind farms to be built successfully. Wind resource assessments have been carried out in this study. Wind resources evaluation and precise assessment of wind capacity for the four selected sites in Egypt’s provinces from 2017 for 3 years at 10, 50 m above ground level (AGL): Hurgada, Aswan, Alexandria, and the capital of Egypt (Cairo). The wind speed data is taken from NASA for different sites in Egypt. The average annual wind speed was estimated to be 4.44, 4.31, 4.91, and 3.9 m/s at 10 m height, respectively. The economical factors such as NPC and COE in the selected regions are estimated. The optimum location for wind assessment in Egypt is Alexandria which gives maximum wind speed, maximum annual energy, minimum levelized cost of energy, and highest capacity factor. The proposed wind assessment will generated 20,1729 kWh of electricity per year and electricity generation cost per kWh/$ is 0.0818844. This planned cost of wind electric generation is compatible with the local electricity tariff. Also, Feasibility of Construction small wind turbine in this site is investigated. In addition, a criterion of wind farm site selection is presented here with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study through Birds Migration aspect that decreases with increase turbine tower length and short blade length. Through reducing Egypt’s domestic fossil fuel consumption, this work will potentially save tons of carbon emissions each year.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T10:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211044508
       
  • A multi-agent-based for fault location in distribution networks with wind
           power generator

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      Authors: Mohamed Azeroual, Younes Boujoudar, Ayman Aljarbouh, Hassan El Moussaoui, Hassane El Markhi
      First page: 700
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The integration of distributed generation (DG) units such as wind power into the distribution network are one of the most viable technique to meet the energy demand increases. But, the integration of these DG units into power systems can change the dynamic performances of the systems and create new challenges that are necessary to be taken care of in the operation of the network. The fault location and diagnosis are the most significant technical challenges that can improve power systems’ reliability and stability. In this paper, a Multi-Agent System (MAS) based on current amplitude and current direction measured proposed for fault location, isolation, and power restoration in a smart distribution system with the presence of a wind power generator. The agents can communicate and collaborate to locate the faulted line, then send trips signal to corresponding circuit breakers accordingly. The simulation results show the performance of the proposed techniques.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T05:46:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211044507
       
  • Optimizing the input vectors of applied artificial neural network models
           for wind power production forecasting

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      Authors: Konstantinos V Kolokythas, Athanassios A Argiriou
      First page: 712
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The significant increase of wind energy production worldwide revealed the necessity of its accurate forecasting. However, this is a very complex and, despite the progress made, more accurate forecasting methods are still needed. Accurate forecasts will contribute to a better power plant and grid management by solving problems related to the distribution and storage of the produced electricity, maximizing thus the profits of wind energy investments, contributing ultimately to their further enhancement. Here we present the development and validation of selected artificial neural network (ANN) wind energy forecasting models that produce hourly forecasts for 24 hours forecast horizon. The models are developed and validated using wind speed, direction, and energy produced by a wind power plant located at a semi-mountainous area in Western Greece. The ANN forecasts are compared against those of the persistence method using the Root Means Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) statistics.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T02:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211046382
       
  • Fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator bearings using fast spectral
           correlation

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      Authors: Jin Xu, Xian Ding, Jiuhua Wang, Junjie Zheng
      First page: 724
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Bearings are the critical parts that support the rotating of rotor of wind turbine generators. Due to high speed revolution and affected by potential misalignment between rotor and the high speed shaft in wind turbine gearbox, the fault ratio in wind turbine generator bearings is high. Once the bearings fail, it will cause gap eccentricity, even rub, or sweeping chamber between rotor and stator. Under fault conditions, the vibration signals from rotating machinery exhibits distinct second cyclostationarity. In the light of this, the fast spectral correlation based method is applied to the fault extraction of bearings in wind turbine generators. Through converting conventional correlation into summation algorithm, the computational cost is reduced largely, meanwhile, the diagnosis accuracy is guaranteed. The effectiveness of the method in this paper is verified by two fault cases from on-site wind turbines.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211046381
       
  • Design and optimization of permanent magnet synchronous generator
           dedicated to direct-drive, high power wind turbine

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      Authors: Dorra Abdeljalil, Mohamed Chaieb, Naourez Benhadj, Manel Krichen, Rafik Neji
      First page: 737
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents analysis, design, and optimization of a high-power permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). This generator is introduced in a large-scale wind turbine which can be used in a big wind farm. This generator is used in gearless configuration. The work focuses on the geometric sizing and the finite element analysis (FEA) of the PMSG. FEA is a good choice for analyzing problems over complicated domains. The flux, the electromotive force, the cogging torque, and the torque are calculated using analytical equations. Then, these parameters are obtained using finite element method (FEM) in the software FEMM and the compared with analytical results in order to validate our study. The second part presents the formulation of the optimization problem, including the optimization space, constraints, and objectives. The genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted in this design optimization in order to minimize the generator cost.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T08:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211046379
       
  • Microgrid modeling for contribution to the frequency control of power
           system

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      Authors: Alireza Ghafouri
      First page: 767
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) are becoming more attractive to supply local loads under the concept of microgrids. These new parts of the power system have basically different dynamics compared with conventional power plants. Most of them are connected to the grid by power electronic interfaces, and their dynamic is determined by their controller. In this paper, the effect of the increased penetration of DERs on the load frequency problem of power systems is studied. The DERs of microgrids in each area are controlled to change their active power at Point of Common Coupling (PCC) after a disturbance in the power system. It is shown that with appropriate control of DERs in microgrids, the frequency deviation of the power system will decrease and the stability margin can be increased.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T10:04:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211050075
       
  • Comparative models for multi-step ahead wind speed forecasting applied for
           expected wind turbine power output prediction

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      Authors: Germaine Djuidje Kenmoé, Hervice Roméo Fogno Fotso, Claude Vidal Aloyem Kazé
      First page: 780
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates six of the most widely used wind speed forecasting models for a combination of statistical and physical methods for the purpose of Wind Turbine Power Generation (WTPG) prediction in Cameroon. Statistical method based on both single static and dynamic neural networks architectures and two hybrid neural networks architectures in comparison to ARIMA model are employed for multi-step ahead wind speed forecasting in two Datasets in Bapouh, Cameroon. The physical method is used to estimate 1 day ahead expected WTPG for each Dataset using the previous predicted wind speed from better forecasting models. The obtained results of multi-step ahead forecasting showed that the ARIMA and nonlinear autoregression with exogenous input neural network (NARXNN) models perform well the wind speed forecasting than other forecasting models in both Datasets. The better performances of ARIMA are achieved with one-step ahead and two-step ahead forecasting, while NARXNN is better with one-step ahead forecasting. But NARXNN models have more computational time than other models such as ARIMA models. Furthermore, the effectiveness of employed hybrid method for WTPG prediction is proven.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-27T05:27:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211052015
       
  • The influence of the flow separation bubble and transition location on the
           profile drag of three 4-digit NACA aerofoil profiles

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      Authors: Moutaz Elgammi, Tonio Sant, Atiyah Abdulmajid Ateeah
      First page: 796
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Modeling of the flow over aerofoil profiles at low Reynolds numbers is difficult due to the complex physics associated with the laminar flow separation mechanism. Two major problems arise in the estimation of profile drag: (1) the drag force at low Reynolds numbers is extremely small to be measured in a wind tunnel by force balance techniques, (2) the profile drag is usually calculated by pressure integration, hence the skin friction component of drag is excluded. In the present work, three different 4-digit NACA aerofoils are investigated. Measurements are conducted in an open-ended subsonic wind tunnel, while numerical work is performed by time Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) coupled with the laminar-kinetic-energy (K-kl-w) turbulence model. The influence of the flow separation bubbles and transition locations on the profile drag is discussed and addressed. This paper gives important insights into importance of measurements at low Reynolds numbers for better aerodynamic loads predictions.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T10:29:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211055055
       
  • Wind speed modeling over complex terrain with the artificial neural
           network in the measure-correlate-predict technique: A case study of
           Malaysia

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      Authors: Yong Kim Hwang, Mohd Zamri Ibrahim, Marzuki Ismail, Ali Najah Ahmed, Aliashim Albani
      First page: 818
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to create a Malaysian wind map of greater accuracy. Compared to a previous wind map, spatial modeling input was increased. The Genetic Algorithm-optimized Artificial Neural Network Measure–Correlate–Predict method was used to impute missing data, and managed to control over- or under-prediction issues. The established wind map was made more reliable by including surface roughness to simulate wind flow over complex terrain. Validation revealed that the current wind map is 33.833% more accurate than the previous wind map. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between wind map-simulated data and observed data was high as 0.835. In conclusion, the new and improved wind map for Malaysia simulates data with acceptable accuracy.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T11:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211055836
       
  • Enhanced whale optimization algorithm for sizing of hybrid
           wind/photovoltaic/diesel with battery storage in Algeria desert

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      Authors: Adel Yahiaoui, Abdelhalim Tlemçani
      First page: 844
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on the optimization and operation of the renewable energy power sources for electrification of isolated rural city in Algeria desert. For this purpose, a system composed by photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), and battery bank (BB) as well as for storing the energy in the electrical form to meet the load. In the present paper we are interested in evolutionary algorithms for solving optimization problem of hybrid renewable energy system. A new meta-heuristic algorithm namely whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is used to solve optimization problem of cost of energy (COE) and total net present cost (TNPC) including reliability evaluation by using basic probabilistic concept in order to find Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP). The WOA mimics the social behavior of humpback whales. This algorithm is inspired by the bubble-net hunting strategy. Three recent algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO), grey wolf optimizer (GWO), and modified grey wolf optimizer (M-GWO) are also implemented in this work. For examining the accuracy, stability, and robustness of proposed optimization technique two case studies have been tested. The results of simulations and comparison with other methods exhibit high accuracy and validity of the proposed whale optimization algorithm to solve optimization problem of hybrid renewable energy system.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-11-18T11:54:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211056529
       
  • Wind power prediction based on wavelet denoising and improved slime mold
           algorithm optimized support vector machine

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      Authors: Lian Lian, Kan He
      First page: 866
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The accuracy of wind power prediction directly affects the operation cost of power grid and is the result of power grid supply and demand balance. Therefore, how to improve the prediction accuracy of wind power is very important. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of wind power, a prediction model based on wavelet denoising and improved slime mold algorithm optimized support vector machine is proposed. The wavelet denoising algorithm is used to denoise the wind power data, and then the support vector machine is used as the prediction model. Because the prediction results of support vector machine are greatly affected by model parameters, an improved slime mold optimization algorithm with random inertia weight mechanism is used to determine the best penalty factor and kernel function parameters in support vector machine model. The effectiveness of the proposed prediction model is verified by using two groups actually collected wind power data. Seven prediction models are selected as the comparison model. Through the comparison between the predicted value and the actual value, the prediction error and its histogram distribution, the performance indicators, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the DM test, box-plot distribution, the results show that the proposed prediction model has high prediction accuracy.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T11:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211056822
       
  • Q-stacking prediction model considering wind speed error correction

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      Authors: Sun Chengyu
      First page: 886
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting in wind farms, an ensemble-enhanced combined forecasting model is proposed considering error correction. First establish five independent base learners, build a two-layer Stacking ensemble model to fuse the prediction results of each base learner, and divide the input data by cross-validation to improve the generalization ability of the model. Then use the model-free learning framework Q learning selects the optimal model in the base learner to correct the preliminary prediction error and obtain the final prediction result. Select the actual wind farm measured data in different seasons to simulate the prediction effect of the model, and verify the prediction ability of the proposed model through comparative analysis. The results show that the model has high prediction accuracy with ε = 0.093.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060235
       
  • Scaling trends for balance-of-system costs at land-based wind power
           plants: Opportunities for innovations in foundation and erection

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      Authors: Alicia Key, Owen Roberts, Annika Eberle
      First page: 896
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wind power plant sizes, hub heights, and turbine ratings have increased since 2008 to optimize the cost and performance of wind power; however, the limits of these economies of scale remain unclear. Here, we explore how the costs incurred to install turbines at a wind power plant—the balance-of-system (BOS) costs—scale with turbine rating, hub height, and plant size. We also investigate how these changes in BOS costs influence the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). We show that increasing the plant size from 150 to 400 MW could reduce the BOS costs by 21%. We also show that if the foundation costs decreased by 50%, building a wind power plant with 5-MW turbines (having rotor diameters of 166 m and hub heights of 120 m) could decrease the LCOE by 5%. These results could help inform future BOS cost-reduction opportunities and thereby reduce future capital costs for land-based wind power.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T10:29:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060234
       
  • A generalized computational approach to predict high-frequency acoustic
           pressure response of cavity structures for structural health monitoring of
           wind turbine blades

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      Authors: Caleb Traylor, Murat Inalpolat
      First page: 914
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper details the development of a generalized computational approach that enables prediction of cavity-internal sound pressure distribution due to flow-generated noise at high frequencies. The outcomes of this research is of particular interest for development of an acoustics-based structural health monitoring system for wind turbine blades. The methodology builds from existing reduced-order aeroacoustic modeling techniques and ray tracing based geometrical acoustics and is demonstrated on the model NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade as a case study. The computational predictions demonstrated that damage could be successfully detected in the first half of the blade cavity near the root and that the change in frequency content may be indicative of the type of damage that has occurred. This study provides a foundation to analyze specific blades and likely damage cases for determining key factors of system design such as number and placement of sensors as well as for hardware selection.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:58:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060552
       
  • Sliding mode control of boost rectifiers operating in discontinuous
           conduction mode for small wind power generators

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      Authors: Mohamed Bendaoud
      First page: 938
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents an approach to design the sliding mode control for an AC-DC converter, consisting of a diode rectifier in series with a boost converter. The results obtained show that this converter with the proposed control law can be used to control the extraction of mechanical power when connecting the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to a wind turbine. The boost converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) in order to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the currents in the PMSG. To verify the performance of the proposed method, a simulation study is performed.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T10:36:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060551
       
  • A Digital Twin concept for the prescriptive maintenance of protective
           coating systems on wind turbine structures

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      Authors: Andreas W Momber, Torben Möller, Daniel Langenkämper, Tim W Nattkemper, Daniel Brün
      First page: 949
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The application of protective coating systems is the major measure against the corrosion of steel for tower sections of wind turbines. The inspection, condition monitoring and maintenance of protective coating system is a demanding and time-consuming procedure and requires high human effort. The paper introduces for the first time a Digital Twin concept for the condition monitoring and prescriptive maintenance planning for surface protection systems on wind turbine towers. The initial point of the concept is an in-situ Virtual Twin for the generation of reference areas for condition monitoring. The paper describes the integration of an online image annotation and processing tool, a maintenance model, corrosive resistance parameters, structural load parameters, and sensor data into the Digital Twin concept. The prospects of the concept and its practical relevance are shown for tower structures of large onshore wind turbines.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T10:32:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060550
       
  • Experimental investigation of NACA-0012 airfoil instability noise with
           sawtooth trailing edges

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      Authors: Basim Al Tlua, Joana Rocha
      First page: 972
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents an experimental study of the effect of sawtooth trailing-edge serrations on airfoil instability noise. The far-field noise measurements are obtained to investigate the noise radiation characteristics of a NACA-0012 airfoil operated at various angles of attack: 0°, 5°, and 10°, and covered Reynolds numbers of 2.87 × 105, 3.71 × 105, and 5 × 105. It is found that as the Reynolds number increases, the instability noise shifts from tonal to broadband, whereas as the angle of attack increases, it shifts from broadband to tonal. Furthermore, sawtooth trailing-edges are used to minimize instability tonal noise, leading to considerable self-noise reduction. Parametric studies of the serration amplitude 2 h and streamwise wavelength λ are performed to understand the effect of sawtooth trailing-edges on noise reduction. It is observed that the sound pressure reduction level is sensitive to both the amplitude and streamwise wavelength. Overall, the sawtooth trailing-edge with larger amplitude and smaller wavelength produce the greatest amount of noise reduction.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:55:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060548
       
  • An internal parallel capacitor control strategy for DC-link voltage
           stabilization of PMSG-based wind turbine under various fault conditions

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      Authors: Mohamed Metwally Mahmoud, Mohamed M Aly, Hossam S Salama, Abdel-Moamen M Abdel-Rahim
      First page: 983
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been growing rapidly. Due to various advantages, a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is an appealing solution among different types of wind generators. As wind power penetration level in the grid increases, wind power impacts the grid and vice versa. The most essential concerns in the system are voltage sag and swell, and grid code compliance, particularly for low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and high voltage ride-through (HVRT) capability, is a pressing necessity. This paper presents a parallel capacitor (PC) control strategy to enhance the LVRT and HVRT capability of PMSG. Furthermore, this study presents a method for the sizing of a PC system for the reduction of the overvoltage of the DC-link during voltage sags and swell. Fast Fourier transform analysis is used to determine the total harmonic distortion (THD) for the injected current into the grid. The obtained results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed system in keeping the DC-link voltage below the limit, power quality improvement, and increasing the LVRT and HVRT capability. Models of wind turbine, PMSG, and PC control system are built using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T10:38:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211060684
       
  • An efficient method for speed control of induction wind turbine generator
           with dual AC-DC-AC converter

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      Authors: Nikola D Pesut, Rade M Ciric
      First page: 993
      Abstract: Wind Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      One of the key issues in the efficient conversion of wind kinetic energy into electricity is the regulation of turbine speed to achieve maximum electrical power generation. The asynchronous generator with full load double AC-DC-AC power converter has not been widely used due to its poor performance in low wind speed. In this paper a method for turbine speed control of induction generator with full-scale double AC-DC-AC power converter to maximize absorbed wind power in the wide wind speed range, using the calculated maximum turbine power as a reference, is proposed. The configuration of an AC-DC-AC converter for connecting an asynchronous generator to the grid, as well as modeling of Pulse Width Modulation converter is presented in detail. Performance of the proposed control concept to maximize the absorbed wind power is verified through the simulation in MATLAB®. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed control concept are discussed.
      Citation: Wind Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14T11:18:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309524X211063566
       
 
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