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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 333)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 84)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Psychopharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.939
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0269-8811 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7285
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Co-medication with disulfiram markedly increased serum clozapine levels:
           Two case reports

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      Authors: Lydia Hahl-Häkkinen, Susanna Maria Rask, Anssi Solismaa, Sanna Ruuhonen, Esa Leinonen
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a significant co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. Clozapine offers some benefits in treating patients with refractory schizophrenia and AUD, but co-medicating with disulfiram is also common.Procedures:We report two cases where co-medicating with disulfiram led to a significant increase in clozapine serum levels.Findings:Clozapine serum levels decreased to one-third in Patient 1 when disulfiram was discontinued and started to increase again when disulfiram was reintroduced. Patient 2 developed toxic serum levels of clozapine during disulfiram treatment combined with heavy coffee drinking and symptoms reminiscent of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.Conclusions:Clozapine and disulfiram are both metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 and clinically relevant interaction through this shared pathway is possible.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T06:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221148611
       
  • The D1/D2-like receptor antagonist flupentixol and the D2-like receptor
           antagonist L-741626 decrease operant responding for nicotine and food and
           locomotor activity in male and female rats

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      Authors: Ranjithkumar Chellian, Azin Behnood-Rod, Ryann Wilson, Karen Lin, Grace Wing-Yan King, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The reinforcing properties of nicotine play a critical role in smoking and vaping. There is a need for treatments that decrease the reinforcing properties of nicotine and thereby improve smoking and vaping rates. Dopamine plays a role in the reinforcing properties of nicotine, but little is known about the role of dopamine D2-like receptors in nicotine intake and whether there are sex differences in the effects of dopaminergic drugs on nicotine intake.Aim:The goal of the present studies was to investigate the effects of the D1/D2-like receptor antagonist flupentixol and the D2-like receptor antagonist L-741626 on nicotine self-administration in male and female rats.Methods:The effects of flupentixol and L-741626 on operant responding for nicotine and food and locomotor activity in a small open field were investigated.Results:There were no sex differences in baseline nicotine intake. The D1/D2-like receptor antagonist flupentixol and the D2-like receptor antagonist L-741626 decreased operant responding for nicotine. Blockade of D1/D2-like receptors and blockade of D2-like receptors also decreased operant responding for food and decreased locomotor activity. Flupentixol induced a greater decrease in operant responding for food in males than females. However, in the other tests, there were no sex differences in the effects of the dopamine receptor antagonists.Conclusions:Blockade of D1/D2-like receptors with flupentixol and D2-like receptors with L-741626 decreases nicotine and food intake in rats of both sexes. These compounds also decrease locomotor activity which might be indicative of a sedative effect.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-21T10:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221147141
       
  • Reduced attentional lapses in male rats following a combination treatment
           of low-dose D-serine and atomoxetine

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      Authors: Zach V Redding, Karen E Sabol
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Goal-directed attention involves the selective processing of behaviorally relevant sensory information. This selective processing is thought to be supported by glutamatergic and noradrenergic systems. Pharmacotherapies that simultaneously target these systems could therefore be effective treatments for impaired attention.Aims:We first tested an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor co-agonist (D-serine) for effects on attention (processing speed and attentional lapses). NMDA receptor activation is thought to support noradrenergic effects on sensory processing; therefore, we tested a combination treatment comprising D-serine and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (atomoxetine).Methods:D-serine was first tested in rats performing a two-choice visuospatial discrimination task. Combination treatments comprising relatively low doses of D-serine and atomoxetine were then tested in a separate group.Results:In experiment 1, D-serine reduced the skew of initiation time (IT) distributions (IT devmode) at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg). In experiment 2, low-dose D-serine (125 mg/kg) had no effect, while low-dose atomoxetine (0.3 mg/kg) reduced IT devmode and slowed movement speed. Importantly, the combination of these relatively low doses of D-serine and atomoxetine reduced IT devmode more than either drug alone without further slowing movement speed.Conclusions:IT devmode is thought to reflect attentional lapses; therefore, D-serine’s effects on IT devmode suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in the preparatory deployment of attention. Greater effects following a combination of D-serine and atomoxetine suggest that preparatory attention can be facilitated by targeting glutamatergic and noradrenergic systems simultaneously. These results could inform the development of improved treatments for individuals with ADHD who experience abnormally high attentional lapses.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T12:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221149652
       
  • A Bayesian meta-analysis of topiramate’s effectiveness for individuals
           with alcohol use disorder

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      Authors: Dimy Fluyau, Vasanth Kattalai Kailasam, Christopher G Pierre
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Topiramate (TPM) has the potential to become one of the most prominent treatment options for alcohol use disorder (AUD). We investigated the efficacy of TPM for AUD treatment, considering new randomized controlled trials carried out since the publication of four prior investigations.Methods:We searched six major databases, comparing TPM to placebo for AUD treatment. We performed a Bayesian meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-regression, analyzing the effect of age, TPM dosage, duration of treatment, gender, and attrition rate on the outcomes measured. The protocol is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42021286266.Results:TPM reduced heavy drinking days (d = 0.401, Bayes factor (BF) = 23.088) and weeks (d = 0.461, BF = 3.784), lowered alcohol craving (d = 0.477, BF = 107.749), prolonged abstinence throughout the duration of trials (d = 0.505, BF = 54.998), and decreased the amount of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the blood (d = 0.345, BF = 39.048). The analysis pointed out that TPM could reduce anxiety (d = 0.517, BF = 5.993). TPM’s efficacy in relieving alcohol withdrawal, minimizing relapse, and decreasing depressive symptoms was inconclusive. There was evidence of a meta-regression effect of attrition rate on heavy drinking days and craving and length of treatment on abstinence.Conclusion:TPM has the potential to become a key pharmacological agent in the treatment of AUD.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T12:18:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221149643
       
  • Cannabis use is associated with low plasma endocannabinoid Anandamide in
           individuals with psychosis

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      Authors: Anahita Bassir Nia, Claire L Gibson, Sharron A Spriggs, Samantha E Jankowski, Daniel DeFrancisco, Amy Swift, Charles Perkel, Igor Galynker, Chandrashekhar Honrao, Alexandros Makriyannis, Yasmin L Hurd
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Cannabis use suppresses the endocannabinoid system in healthy individuals. However, the association between cannabis use with the endocannabinoid system is understudied in individuals with psychosis despite the high rate of cannabis use in these individuals.Methods:We enrolled 83 individuals who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit with psychotic presentations, and measured their plasma levels of main endocannabinoids, Anandamide (AEA) and 2-Acylglycerol (2-AG), and endocannabinoid related compounds, Palmitoylethanolamine, and N-oleoylethanolamine. Cannabis use was assessed with urine toxicology and frequency of cannabis use was assessed using self-reported questionnaires. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms.Results:Overall, we had 38 individuals in cannabis positive group (CN+) and 45 individuals in cannabis negative group (CN−). Compared to CN−, CN+ group had lower plasma levels of AEA, which remained significant after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and use of other drugs.Conclusion:Cannabis use is associated with low plasma AEA levels in individuals with psychosis, which is in the same line with reported suppressive effects of cannabis on the endocannabinoid system in healthy individuals. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical significance of this finding.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T12:38:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221148604
       
  • Off the RADAR; questions regarding the trial protocol of a randomised
           controlled trial of antipsychotic reduction and discontinuation

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      Authors: Sameer Jauhar, Paolo Fusar-Poli, David Foreman
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      The randomised controlled trial of antipsychotic reduction and discontinuation addresses essential questions with regard to continued use of antipsychotics in schizophrenia, pertaining to social functioning and continued antipsychotic use. However, significant methodological issues stated in the trial protocol have the potential to confound interpretation of any findings. These include use of a non-blinded outcome measure, treatment as usual comparator and possible sample size issues.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T12:37:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221144633
       
  • Adenosine receptor stimulation inhibits methamphetamine-associated cue
           seeking

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      Authors: Ryan K Bachtell, Tracey A Larson, Madeline C Winkler
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug that remains a popular and threatening drug of abuse with high abuse liability. There is no established pharmacotherapy to treat METH dependence, but evidence suggests that stimulation of adenosine receptors reduces the reinforcing properties of METH and could be a potential pharmacological target. This study examines the effects of adenosine receptor subtype stimulation on METH seeking using both a cue-induced reinstatement and cue-craving model of relapse.Methods:Male and female rats were trained to self-administer METH during daily 2-h sessions. Cue-induced reinstatement of METH seeking was evaluated after extinction training. A systemic pretreatment of an adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) or A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was administered prior to an extinction or cue session to evaluate the effects of adenosine receptor subtype stimulation on METH seeking. The effects of a systemic pretreatment of A1R or A2AR agonists were also evaluated in a cue-craving model where the cued-seeking test was conducted after 21 days of forced home-cage abstinence without extinction training.Results:Cue-induced reinstatement was reduced in both male and female rats that received A1R or A2AR agonist pretreatments. Similarly, an A1R or A2AR agonist pretreatment also inhibited cue craving in both male and female rats.Conclusion:Stimulation of either adenosine A1R or A2AR subtypes inhibits METH-seeking behavior elicited by METH-associated cues. These effects may be attributed to the ability of A1R and A2AR stimulation to disrupt cue-induced dopamine and glutamate signaling throughout the brain.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T10:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221147157
       
  • Reduction in caffeine withdrawal after open-label decaffeinated coffee

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      Authors: Llewellyn Mills, Jessica C. Lee, Robert Boakes, Ben Colagiuri
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Withdrawal from addictive drugs can be reduced by administering placebo deceptively, but in the clinic it is unethical to deceive the patient. Open-label placebo effects have been observed across a range of psychophysiological phenomena, and may also apply to drug withdrawal.Method:24-hour abstinent heavy coffee drinkers (N = 61) rated their caffeine withdrawal symptoms before being allocated to one of three groups. The Deceptive group was given decaffeinated coffee (decaf) and told it was caffeinated, the Open-Label group given decaf and told it was decaf and the Control group given water and told it was water. After 45 min, caffeine withdrawal was measured again. All participants rated their expectancies of withdrawal reduction from caffeinated coffee, decaf and water prior to being randomised and the end of the study.Results:There was a significant 9.5-point reduction in caffeine withdrawal in the Open-Label group (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7, 14.3; p = 0.002), which was 8.6 points less than the Deceptive group (95%CI: 0.4, 16.8; p = 0.014) but 8.9 points greater than the Control group (95%CI: 0.6, 17.2; p = 0.012). Pre-randomisation, participants expected caffeinated coffee to reduce their withdrawal symptoms the most, followed by water and decaf, Pre-randomisation expectancy of withdrawal was only associated with amount of withdrawal reduction in the Deceptive group.Conclusion:It appears as if open-label placebo caffeine (i.e. decaf) can reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms, even when people do not hold a conscious expectancy it will do so. There may be ways to integrate open-label placebo procedures into clinical interventions for drug dependence without violating informed consent.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T10:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221147152
       
  • Role of serotonin in modulation of decision-making in Parkinson’s
           disease

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      Authors: Lisa Nobis, Maria Raquel Maio, Youssuf Saleh, Sanjay Manohar, Annika Kienast, Emily McGann, Masud Husain
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways has been considered to play a pivotal role in Parkinson’s disease (PD), affecting the processing of emotional and rewarding information, and potentially leading to symptoms of depression or apathy. However, some aspects of motivation in PD might be affected by non-dopaminergic mechanisms.Aim and method:The objective of this experimental medicine study was to investigate the contribution of serotonergic modulation via administration of citalopram (20 mg) for 7 days on motivated decision-making in twenty PD patients, measured using several different computerised tasks and clinical questionnaires that probe different aspects of decision-making. Twenty healthy controls were additionally tested without medication to assess any baseline differences between the two groups.Results:Results indicated that PD patients were overall less motivated than controls on an effort- and reward-based decision-making task. Citalopram increased or decreased willingness to exert effort for reward, depending on whether baseline motivation was high or low, respectively. A task assessing decision-making under risk revealed higher levels of risk aversion for potential losses in PD patients, which neither serotonin nor the patient’s regular dopaminergic medication seemed to restore. However, citalopram in PD was associated with more risk-seeking choices for gains, although patients and controls did not differ on this at baseline.Conclusion:The results provide evidence for a role of the serotonergic system in influencing some aspects of motivated decision-making in PD processes.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T10:17:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221144636
       
  • Psychedelic drug abuse potential assessment for new drug applications and
           controlled substance scheduling: A United States perspective

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      Authors: Jack E. Henningfield, Judy Ashworth, David J. Heal, Sharon L. Smith
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Psychedelics are an increasingly active area of research and pharmaceutical development. This includes abuse potential assessment to better understand their pharmacological mechanisms and effects and guide controlled substance regulation. Psychedelics pose challenges to abuse assessments to ensure valid, reliable, and generalizable outcomes and safe study conduct.Findings:Key nonclinical techniques, for example, receptor binding and functional assays in vitro, and nonclinical physical dependence determinations, are easily adaptable to psychedelics. However, the entactogens (weak reinforcers) and hallucinogens (non-reinforcers) require more flexible approaches than typically recommended by regulatory agencies. Phase 1 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic safety studies and Phases 2/3 efficacy/safety trials with systematic monitoring of abuse-related adverse events are readily applicable to psychedelics. Human abuse trials require modification because supratherapeutic doses may not be safe and procedures, for example, personal monitors to manage serious adverse events, might bias outcomes.Recommendations:Abuse-related studies for psychedelics requiring approval by Food and Drug Administration and other agencies should take into consideration existing knowledge that will vary from extensive, for example, psilocybin, to zero for novel hallucinogens and entactogens. Many abuse assessments can be reasonably applied to animals and humans without compromising scientific integrity. Modification of existing techniques and incorporating a broader range of nonclinical tests should ensure generalizable outcomes. Human abuse studies merit reconsideration and possible modification to ensure safety and validity for psychedelic drug evaluation. Other nonclinical and clinical methods can provide evaluations of the pharmacological equivalence of test drugs to known drugs of abuse to provide context to the abuse assessment and guide drug scheduling.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-02T07:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221140004
       
  • Among psychedelic-experienced users, only past use of psilocybin reliably
           predicts nature relatedness

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      Authors: Matthias Forstmann, Hannes S Kettner, Christina Sagioglou, Alexander Irvine, Sam Gandy, Robin L Carhart-Harris, David Luke
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Past research reports a positive relationship between experience with classic serotonergic psychedelics and nature relatedness (NR). However, these studies typically do not distinguish between different psychedelic compounds, which have a unique psychopharmacology and may be used in specific contexts and with different intentions. Likewise, it is not clear whether these findings can be attributed to substance use per se or unrelated variables that differentiate psychedelic users from nonusers.Aims:The present study was designed to determine the relative degree to which lifetime experience with different psychedelic substances is predictive of self-reported NR among psychedelic-experienced users.Methods:We conducted a combined reanalysis of five independent datasets (N = 3817). Using standard and regularized regression analyses, we tested the relationship between degree of experience with various psychedelic substances (binary and continuous) and NR, both within a subsample of psychedelic-experienced participants as well as the complete sample including psychedelic-naïve participants.Results/Outcomes:Among people experienced with psychedelics, only past use of psilocybin (versus LSD, mescaline, Salvia divinorum, ketamine, and ibogaine) was a reliable predictor of NR and its subdimensions. Weaker, less reliable results were obtained for the pharmacologically similar N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Results replicate when including psychedelic-naïve participants. In addition, among people exclusively experience with psilocybin, use frequency positively predicted NR.Conclusions/Interpretation:Results suggest that experience with psilocybin is the only reliable (and strongest) predictor of NR. Future research should focus on psilocybin when investigating effects of psychedelic on NR and determine whether pharmacological attributes or differences in user expectations/use settings are responsible for this observation.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T10:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221146356
       
  • Neurotransmitter transporter occupancy following administration of
           centanafadine sustained-release tablets: A phase 1 study in healthy male
           adults

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      Authors: David Matuskey, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Nabeel Nabulsi, Shannan Henry, Kristen Torres, Mark Dias, Gustavo A Angarita, Yiyun Huang, Susan E Shoaf, Richard E Carson, Shailly Mehrotra
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Centanafadine is an inhibitor of reuptake transporters for norepinephrine (NET), dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT).Aims:This phase 1, adaptive-design positron emission tomography study investigated the occupancy time course of NET, DAT, and SERT and the relationship to centanafadine plasma concentrations.Methods:Healthy adult males received centanafadine sustained-release 400 mg/day for 4 days (N = 6) or 800 mg in a single day (N = 4). Assessments included safety monitoring; time course of occupancy of NET, DAT, and SERT; and centanafadine plasma concentrations.Results:Transporter occupancy was numerically higher for NET versus DAT or SERT. For NET, estimated (mean ± standard error [SE]) maximal observable target occupancy (TOmax) and concentration at half maximal occupancy (IC50) were 64 ± 7% and 132 ± 65 ng/mL, respectively, for all regions and 82 ± 13% and 135 ± 97 ng/mL after excluding the thalamus, which showed high nonspecific binding. For DAT and SERT, TOmax could not be established and was assumed to be 100%; estimated IC50 (mean ± SE) values were 1580 ± 186 ng/mL and 1,760 ± 309 ng/mL, respectively. For centanafadine, the estimated in vivo affinity ratio was 11.9 ± 6.0 (mean ± SE) for NET/DAT, 13.3 ± 7.0 for NET/SERT, and 1.1 ± 0.2 for DAT/SERT. DAT and SERT occupancies at a plasma concentration of 1400 ng/mL were estimated to be 47 and 44%, respectively.Conclusions:High occupancy at NET and moderate occupancy at DAT and SERT was observed at peak concentrations achieved following 400 mg total daily doses of centanafadine.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T12:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221140008
       
  • Effects of modafinil and caffeine on night-time vigilance of air force
           crewmembers: A randomized controlled trial

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      Authors: Yara Q. Wingelaar-Jagt, Charelle Bottenheft, Wim J. Riedel, Johannes G. Ramaekers
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Fatigue remains an important factor in major aviation accidents. Stimulants may counteract fatigue’s adverse effects, with modafinil as a promising alternative to caffeine. However, the effect of a single dose of modafinil after a limited period of sleep deprivation remains unknown.Aims:This study aims to determine the effect of 200 mg modafinil on vigilance during a limited period of sleep deprivation compared to 300 mg caffeine and placebo.Methods:Thirty-two volunteers of the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) were double-blindly administered modafinil, caffeine, and placebo on three non-consecutive trial days after being awake for median 17 h. Afterwards, subjects completed six series of the Vigilance and Tracking test (VigTrack), psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), yielding six primary endpoints.Results:This study revealed statistically significant effects of caffeine and modafinil compared with placebo on all endpoints, except for VigTrack mean tracking error. PVT results were less impaired 2 h after administration, followed by VigTrack parameters and SSS scores 2 h thereafter. Compared with caffeine, modafinil significantly improved PVT and SSS scores at 8 h after administration.Conclusions:The present study demonstrates that 200 mg modafinil and 300 mg caffeine significantly decrease the effects of a limited period of sleep deprivation on vigilance compared with placebo. Although PVT parameters already improved 2 h after administration, the most notable effects occurred 2–4 h later. Modafinil seems to be effective longer than caffeine, which is consistent with its longer half-life.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T10:40:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221142568
       
  • Effects of clozapine treatment on the improvement of substance use
           disorders other than nicotine in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum
           disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Reza Rafizadeh, Marlon Danilewitz, Chad A Bousman, Nickie Mathew, Randall F White, Anees Bahji, William G Honer, Christian G Schütz
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and are associated with a reduction in psychiatric hospitalization and overall mortality. Some evidence suggest that antipsychotic medications might have a varying effect on the improvement of comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs), with clozapine showing more favorable outcomes.Aim:We systematically reviewed all available evidence on effects of clozapine on the improvement of SUDs other than nicotine.Methods:Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINHAL were conducted up to March 1, 2022. Studies of any methodological design involving two concepts: (1) clozapine and (2) SUD terms (excluding nicotine) were included. For SUD outcomes with three or more comparative studies with available raw data meta-analysis was performed. SUD outcomes not meeting criteria for meta-analysis were described qualitatively. Risk of bias was examined using “Downs and Black,” and “Q-Coh” instruments.Results:The majority of individuals in the included 31 studies were male and of European ancestry. Abstinence was the most common outcome. Most of the studies were of low-to-moderate quality, and none of the studies met all the quality criteria. Pooled findings from four observational studies in samples of patients with predominantly comorbid alcohol use disorder showed that clozapine treatment is associated with significantly higher odds of remaining abstinent. In addition clozapine was associated with decreased odds of psychiatric hospitalization in all but one observational study.Conclusions:Our systematic review and meta-analysis builds upon previous reviews, and it suggests the association of clozapine treatment with significantly higher odds of remaining abstinent from substance use and decreased likelihood of psychiatric hospitalization, compared with continuing treatment with other antipsychotic medications. Still, the validity of this association needs greater exploration and providing recommendations for the utility of clozapine in individuals without treatment-resistant psychosis and comorbid SUDs would be premature.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T01:49:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221142575
       
  • Common practical questions – and answers – at the British Association
           for Psychopharmacology child and adolescent psychopharmacology course

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      Authors: Samuele Cortese, Frank MC Besag, Bruce Clark, Chris Hollis, Joseph Kilgariff, Carmen Moreno, Dasha Nicholls, Paul Wilkinson, Marc Woodbury-Smith, Aditya Sharma
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      The British Association for Psychopharmacology course on child and adolescent psychopharmacology has been run for more than 20 years and is currently a very popular course, attracting around 140 delegates/year from across the United Kingdom and abroad. As Faculty of recent sessions of the course, we have selected the most common questions we have been asked in recent years and provided evidence-based and/or expert-informed answers. We have included 27 questions and answers related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, epilepsy (in differential diagnosis or comorbid with mental health conditions), obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders, psychotic spectrum disorders, and tics/Tourette syndrome in children and young people. We hope that this article will be helpful for prescribers in their daily clinical practice and we look forward to further, high-level evidence informing the answers to these and other questions in child and adolescent psychopharmacology.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-07T11:13:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221140005
       
  • Characteristics of poisonings involving ketamine in the United States,
           2019–2021

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      Authors: Joseph J. Palamar, Nicole D. Fitzgerald, David J. Grundy, Joshua C. Black, Jennifer S. Jewell, Linda B. Cottler
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The use of ketamine, a controlled dissociative anesthetic, has become more widespread in recent years with recreational/nonmedical use increasing and ketamine becoming more widely available in clinics to treat depression.Aims:We examined recent trends in adverse effects related to ketamine use.Methods:US National Poison Control data were examined, focusing on ketamine exposures among those aged ⩾13 between 2019 and 2021 (n = 758). We examined quarterly trends in exposure and delineated correlates of patients experiencing a major adverse effect or death.Results:The number of reported exposures increased 81.1% from 2019 Quarter 1 through 2021 Quarter 4, from 37 to 67 (p = 0.018). The majority of patients were male (57.1%), and the plurality of cases involved intentional misuse or “abuse” (39.5%), followed by suspected suicide attempt (19.7%) and unintentional exposure (18.9%). A fifth (19.6%) experienced a major adverse effect or death. A third (33.4%) co-used other drugs; the drugs most commonly co-used were benzodiazepines (14.6%), alcohol (10.3%), and opioids (8.7%). Co-use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57–7.46) and opioids (aPR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.46–4.08) was associated with increased risk for a major adverse effect or death, as was injection-only administration (aPR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.21–5.92).Conclusions:Although still rare, poisonings involving ketamine have increased in recent years. Polydrug use—particularly with opioids or GHB—appears to be a particular risk factor for more serious adverse effects. As prevalence of use increases, it is important to monitor adverse effects and co-occurring behaviors to inform timely prevention and harm reduction as needed.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-07T09:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221140006
       
  • Changes in insulin resistance following antidepressant treatment mediate
           response in major depressive disorder

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      Authors: Houman Rashidian, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Caroline Park, Orly Lipsitz, Hannah Zuckerman, Bing Cao, Yena Lee, Hartej Gill, Roger Nelson Rodrigues, Joshua D. Di Vincenzo, Michelle Iacobucci, Saja Jaberi, Joshua D. Rosenblat, Roger S. McIntyre, Rodrigo B. Mansur
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Insulin resistance (IR) is a potential predictor of antidepressant treatment response.Aims:We assess changes in IR after antidepressant treatment and whether these changes have any effect on treatment response. Also, to see whether changes in IR mediates relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and antidepressant efficacy.Methods:This is a secondary analysis of an 8-week, open-label clinical trial with 95 adults experiencing a major depressive episode. Response to vortioxetine was measured using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Generalized estimating equation models were utilized for this intent-to-treat analysis.Results:When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, there was a significant increase in IR following treatment in the overall sample (p = 0.035). This finding was detected in treatment non-responders (p = 0.019), whereas it was not observed in responders (p = 0.329). Mediation analysis revealed that change in IR during treatment was responsible for change in MADRS as well as the relationship between baseline CRP and treatment response.Conclusions:Exacerbation of IR during antidepressant treatment mediated non-response. Conversely in treatment responders IR reduced. Like previous studies, baseline CRP moderated treatment response. This relationship was also mediated by changes in IR. These findings further elucidate the role of IR in terms of antidepressant response as well as potentially explain inflammation’s relationship with the latter.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T09:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221132473
       
  • Effectiveness of vortioxetine in patients with major depressive disorder
           and co-morbid generalized anxiety disorder in routine clinical practice: A
           subgroup analysis of the RELIEVE study

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      Authors: Susana S Almeida, Michael Cronquist Christensen, Kenneth Simonsen, Michael Adair
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is commonly co-morbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with greater functional impairment and poorer treatment outcomes than MDD alone. However, studies on treatment with drugs for depression in patients with MDD and co-morbid GAD are limited.Aims:To examine the effectiveness of vortioxetine treatment in patients with MDD and co-morbid GAD in a subgroup analysis of the real-world RELIEVE study.Methods:The analysis included outpatients diagnosed with MDD and co-morbid GAD who initiated vortioxetine treatment at their physician’s discretion in the 24-week, observational RELIEVE study. Primary outcome was patient functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS)) after 12 and 24 weeks of vortioxetine treatment; secondary outcomes included depression severity (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)), cognitive symptoms (5-item Perceived Deficits Questionnaire – Depression (PDQ-D-5)) and cognitive performance (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)).Results:Overall, 180 patients with MDD and co-morbid GAD were included in the analysis. Following vortioxetine initiation, clinically significant improvements in patient functioning (SDS total score) were observed at week 12 (least-squares (LS) mean reduction from baseline, 7.5 points), sustained through week 24 (9.2 points) (both p 
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T09:18:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221132468
       
  • Efficacy of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy in major depressive
           disorder with somatic symptoms: A randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled trial with clinical and electroencephalography evidence
           

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      Authors: Hee Jin Kim, Doug Hyun Han, Kang Ta Choi, Hyun Chan Hwang, Kyoung Joon Min, Sun Mi Kim
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Somatic symptoms, which are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), are associated with a worse prognosis and increased health costs.Aims:This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation in MDD patients with somatic symptoms.Methods:In all, 41 MDD patients with somatic symptoms completed the study. Participants who had been on a stable dose of antidepressants for at least 1 month were randomly assigned to receive an 8-week adjunctive treatment with either aripiprazole or placebo. The initiation dose of aripiprazole was 2 mg/day, which was later adjusted to 1–10 mg/day. The primary endpoint was the change in the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised-Somatization (SCL-90-R-SOM) score. We collected quantitative electroencephalogram data and performed spectral analyses to obtain the absolute power of frequency bands.Results/outcomes:The aripiprazole group (n = 20; 2.98 ± 1.75 mg/day) showed a significant improvement in SCL-90-R-SOM scores compared to the placebo group (n = 21; F = 8.56, p = 0.006), without significant differences in changes in depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to the control, the aripiprazole group showed a greater decrease in total alpha power (F = 7.03, p = 0.01). Changes in frontal alpha power were positively correlated with changes in SCL-90-R-SOM scores in the aripiprazole group (r = 0.53, p = 0.014).Conclusions/interpretation:Aripiprazole adjunctive to antidepressants in patients with MDD and somatic symptoms improved somatic symptom severity without significant safety concerns, and this improvement correlated with a decrease in total and frontal alpha power.Trial Registration: https://cris.nih.go.kr; identifier: KCT0004607.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T07:25:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221127294
       
  • Commentary on Cochrane review: “Ketamine and other glutamate receptor
           modulators for depression in adults with unipolar major depressive
           disorder”

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      Authors: Stephane Borentain, Pooja Desai, Dong-Jing Fu, Li Nancy Chen, Rosanne Lane, Maju Mathews, Carla M Canuso
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Cochrane recently published a review of esketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators in depression.Aim:To address the limitations of the review, analyses of esketamine data were conducted to provide additional perspective to the reviewers’ interpretation of their findings.Methods:Response rate, remission rate, and change from baseline in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score were determined using data from all esketamine phase 2/3 registration studies of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and, separately, all esketamine phase 2/3 registration studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and active suicidal ideation with intent. Outcomes were assessed at all timepoints (i.e., 24 h, 72 h (MDD with active suicidal intent only), and 1, 2, and 4 weeks). Enrollment criteria of the TRD studies were different than those of the studies of MDD and active suicidal ideation with intent, resulting in differences in patients’ clinical characteristics and depression severity between the cohorts. Thus, we did not compare results between these cohorts (as was done in the Cochrane review).Results/outcomes:In the combined TRD studies, a statistically significant between-group difference favored esketamine plus antidepressant over antidepressant plus placebo at 24 h (based on response, remission, and change in MADRS score), 1 week (change in MADRS score), 2 weeks (response and change in MADRS score), and 4 weeks (response, remission, and change in MADRS score). In the combined studies of MDD and active suicidal ideation with intent, the between-group difference was statistically different, favoring esketamine plus standard-of-care over placebo plus standard-of-care, at 24 h (response, remission, and change in MADRS score), 72 h and 1 week (change in MADRS score), 2 weeks (response), and 4 weeks (response, remission, and change in MADRS score). For both study types, the between-group difference in outcomes was not statistically significant at the other timepoints.Conclusions/interpretation:Esketamine improves response, remission, and depressive symptoms as early as 24 h post-first dose among patients with TRD and among patients with MDD and active suicidal ideation with intent.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T12:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221123046
       
  • The low risk for early renal damage during lithium treatment has not
           changed over time

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      Authors: Mihaela Golic, Harald Aiff, Per-Ola Attman, Bernd Ramsauer, Staffan Schön, Steinn Steingrimsson, Jan Svedlund
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Modern lithium management guidelines were introduced to improve the renal prognosis of lithium patients.Aims:To examine whether prospects for severe renal impairment (defined as chronic kidney disease at least stage 4 (CKD4)), in long-term lithium patients, have changed over time after the introduction of lithium monitoring guidelines.Methods:The time to and hazard for CKD4 were compared between three patient cohorts who started long-term lithium in three consecutive decades: 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. The follow-up time was 10 years after completion of 1-year treatment. The data were collected from Sahlgrenska University Hospital’s laboratory database.Results:In all, 2169 patients were included: 623 in Cohort 1 (started lithium during 1980s), 874 in Cohort 2 (1990s) and 672 in Cohort 3 (2000s). Compliance with lithium monitoring guidelines improved, and mean serum lithium decreased, through the cohorts. In all, 22 patients developed CKD4 during follow-up. The time to CKD4 was the same in all three cohorts (overall: 10.96 years, 95% confidence interval: 10.94–11 years). Age and serum creatinine concentration at start were significant risk factors, while sex had no prognostic value. After adjusting for the significant covariates, there was no statistically significant difference in the hazard for CKD4 between the three cohorts.Conclusion:The risk for severe renal damage during the first decade of long-term lithium is low, but has not changed over time. Our data suggest that improved compliance with lithium guidelines is not reflected in less risk for severe renal damage.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T10:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221123054
       
  • Relationship between change in social evaluation learning and mood in
           early antidepressant treatment: A prospective cohort study in primary care
           

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      Authors: Catherine Hobbs, Milly Beck, Faye Denham, Laura Pettitt, Julian Faraway, Marcus R Munafò, Jie Sui, David Kessler, Katherine S Button
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Antidepressants are proposed to work by increasing sensitivity to positive versus negative information. Increasing positive affective learning within social contexts may help remediate negative self-schema. We investigated the association between change in biased learning of social evaluations about the self and others, and mood during early antidepressant treatment.Method:Prospective cohort assessing patients recruited from primary care in South West England at four timepoints over the first 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment (n = 29). At each timepoint, participants completed self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD-7)), and a computerised task measuring learning of social evaluations about the self, a friend and a stranger.Results:We did not find evidence that learning about the self was associated with a reduction in PHQ-9 (b = 0.08, 95% CI: −0.05, 0.20, p = 0.239) or BDI-II scores (b = 0.10, 95% CI: −0.18, 0.38, p = 0.469). We found some weak evidence that increased positive learning about the friend was associated with a reduction in BDI-II scores (b = 0.30, 95% CI: −0.02, 0.62, p = 0.069). However, exploratory analyses indicated stronger evidence that increased positive learning about the self (b = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28, p = 0.002) and a friend (b = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.35, p = 0.001) was associated with reductions in anxiety.Conclusions:Change in social evaluation learning was associated with a reduction in anxiety but not depression. Antidepressants may treat anxiety symptoms by remediating negative affective biases towards socially threatening information directed towards the self and close others. However, our findings are based on exploratory analyses within a small sample without a control group and are therefore at risk of type 1 errors and order effects. Further research with larger samples is required.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T07:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221116928
       
  • The effects of reserpine on depression: A systematic review

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      Authors: Rebecca Strawbridge, Rahila R Javed, Jeremy Cave, Sameer Jauhar, Allan H Young
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Reserpine is an effective antihypertensive drug, but its role in routine practice has declined such that it is rarely used. This is largely based on the assumption that reserpine causes depression. This assumption was a foundation for the original monoamine hypothesis of depression. However, there remains conflicting evidence as to whether reserpine causes depression, and no systematic review of available evidence.Aims:We systematically reviewed evidence on effects of reserpine on depressive and related symptoms (e.g. anxiety, suicidal ideation).Method:Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were conducted to identify studies up to 14 February 2021. Studies of any methodological design involving reserpine-treated and reserpine-untreated conditions, in any adult human population, were included and a narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. Risk of bias (RoB) was examined using ROBINS-I.Results:Of the 35 studies meeting inclusion criteria, 9 were randomised controlled trials. Eleven studies reported some depressogenic effects, 13 reported no effect and 11 reported putative antidepressant effects. Studies identifying depressive effects were more likely to examine people without psychiatric disorders at baseline, while studies identifying a potential antidepressant effect tended to treat fewer participants for shorter durations, at higher doses. Around one-third of studies conducted in people with psychiatric disorders showed beneficial effects on depression symptoms. 30/35 studies were at high RoB.Conclusions:Associations between reserpine and depression are inconsistent and limited by a lack of high-quality evidence. Due to reserpine’s apparently complex effects, we urge nuance rather than simplicity surrounding the monoamine hypothesis of depression.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T07:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221115762
       
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of augmentation and combination
           treatments for early-stage treatment-resistant depression

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      Authors: Fraser Scott, Elliot Hampsey, Sam Gnanapragasam, Ben Carter, Lindsey Marwood, Rachael W Taylor, Cansu Emre, Lora Korotkova, Jonatan Martín-Dombrowski, Anthony J Cleare, Allan H Young, Rebecca Strawbridge
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly burdensome health condition, for which there are numerous accepted pharmacological and psychological interventions. Adjunctive treatment (augmentation/combination) is recommended for the ~50% of MDD patients who do not adequately respond to first-line treatment. We aimed to evaluate the current evidence for concomitant approaches for people with early-stage treatment-resistant depression (TRD; defined below).Methods:We systematically searched Medline and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science to identify randomised controlled trials of adjunctive treatment of ⩾10 adults with MDD who had not responded to ⩾1 adequate antidepressant. The cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool was used to assess study quality. Pre-post treatment meta-analyses were performed, allowing for comparison across heterogeneous study designs independent of comparator interventions.Results:In total, 115 trials investigating 48 treatments were synthesised. The mean intervention duration was 9 weeks (range 5 days to 18 months) with most studies assessed to have low (n = 57) or moderate (n = 51) RoB. The highest effect sizes (ESs) were from cognitive behavioural therapy (ES = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–2.07), (es)ketamine (ES = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.23–1.73) and risperidone (ES = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.29–1.61). Only aripiprazole and lithium were examined in ⩾10 studies. Pill placebo (ES = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81–0.98) had a not inconsiderable ES, and only six treatments’ 95% CIs did not overlap with pill placebo’s (aripiprazole, (es)ketamine, mirtazapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone). We report marked heterogeneity between studies for almost all analyses.Conclusions:Our findings support cautious optimism for several augmentation strategies; although considering the high prevalence of TRD, evidence remains inadequate for each treatment option.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221104058
       
  • Intermittent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual
           syndromes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

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      Authors: Thomas J Reilly, Phoebe Wallman, Ivana Clark, Clare-Louise Knox, Michael C Craig, David Taylor
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Intermittent (luteal phase) dosing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is one treatment strategy for premenstrual syndromes such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder. This avoids the risk of the antidepressant withdrawal syndrome associated with long-term continuous dosing.Aims:To compare intermittent dosing to continuous dosing in terms of efficacy and acceptability.Methods:We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed and CINAHL for randomised trials of intermittent compared with continuous dosing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in premenstrual syndromes. We extracted response rates, dropout rates and changes in symptom scores. We used random effects meta-analyses to pool study-level data and calculated odds ratio for dichotomous data and standardised mean difference for continuous data. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020224176).Results:A total of 1841 references were identified, with eight studies being eligible for analysis, consisting of a total of 460 participants. All included studies provided response rates, six provided dropout rates and five provided symptom scores. There was no statistically significant differences between intermittent and continuous dosing in terms of response rate (odds ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–4.31, I2 = 71%), dropout rate (odds ratio 1.26, 95% CI: 0.39–4.09, I2 = 33%) or symptom change (standardised mean difference: 0.04, 95% CI: −0.27 to 0.35, I2 = 39%). All studies had a moderate or high risk of bias.Conclusion:Since intermittent dosing avoids the potential for withdrawal symptoms, it should be considered more commonly in this patient population.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T10:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221099645
       
  • Therapeutic uses of psychedelics for eating disorders and body dysmorphic
           disorder

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      Authors: Nicole Ledwos, Justyne D. Rodas, M. Ishrat Husain, Jamie D. Feusner, David J. Castle
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Clinical use of psychedelics has gained considerable attention, with promising benefits across a range of mental disorders. Current pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (EDs) have limited efficacy. As such, other treatment options such as psychedelic-assisted therapies are being explored in these clinical groups.Aims:This systematic review evaluates evidence related to the therapeutic potential of psychedelics in individuals diagnosed with BDD and EDs.Methods:Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of all study designs published to the end of February 2022 that identified changes in ED/BDD symptom severity from psychedelics using validated measures to assess symptom changes.Results:Our search detected a total of 372 studies, of which five met inclusion criteria (two exploratory studies, two case reports, and one prospective study). These were included in the data evaluation. Effects of psychedelics on BDD and various ED symptoms were identified mostly through thematic analyses and self-reports.Conclusions:Our findings highlight that more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of psychedelics in BDD and EDs and we suggest avenues for future exploration.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T12:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221140009
       
  • A unified model of ketamine’s dissociative and psychedelic
           properties

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      Authors: Miriam Marguilho, Inês Figueiredo, Pedro Castro-Rodrigues
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist which is increasingly being researched and used as a treatment for depression. In low doses, it can cause a transitory modification in consciousness which was classically labelled as ‘dissociation’. However, ketamine is also commonly classified as an atypical psychedelic and it has been recently reported that ego dissolution experiences during ketamine administration are associated with greater antidepressant response. Neuroimaging studies have highlighted several similarities between the effects of ketamine and those of serotonergic psychedelics in the brain; however, no unified account has been proposed for ketamine’s multi-level effects – from molecular to network and psychological levels. Here, we propose that the fast, albeit transient, antidepressant effects observed after ketamine infusions are mainly driven by its acute modulation of reward circuits and sub-acute increase in neuroplasticity, while its dissociative and psychedelic properties are driven by dose- and context-dependent disruption of large-scale functional networks. Computationally, as nodes of the salience network (SN) represent high-level priors about the body (‘minimal’ self) and nodes of the default-mode network (DMN) represent the highest-level priors about narrative self-experience (‘biographical’ self), we propose that transitory SN desegregation and disintegration accounts for ketamine’s ‘dissociative’ state, while transitory DMN desegregation and disintegration accounts for ketamine’s ‘psychedelic’ state. In psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy, a relaxation of the highest-level beliefs with psychotherapeutic support may allow a revision of pathological self-representation models, for which neuroplasticity plays a permissive role. Our account provides a multi-level rationale for using the psychedelic properties of ketamine to increase its long-term benefits.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-17T11:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221140011
       
  • Should we be leery of being Leary' Concerns about psychedelic use by
           psychedelic researchers

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      Authors: Brent Kious, Zach Schwartz, Benjamin Lewis
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Psychedelic research is proceeding rapidly, despite ongoing legal and regulatory barriers and lingering questions about study design, such as the difficulty of ensuring adequate blinding, the relative overrepresentation in studies of participants who have previously used psychedelics, and the importance of personal experience with psychedelics for those who provide psychedelic-assisted therapy. Here we wish to explore a distinct concern: whether personal use of psychedelics by researchers could threaten the objectivity and ethical conduct of psychedelic research itself. In 2020, Anderson et al. suggested that psychedelic use could lead even “conservative individuals to become wildly enthusiastic about the potentials of psychedelics to heal and transform”. Recent popular press criticisms of psychedelic science, in particular critiques of the MAPS Phase II and Phase III MDMA-Assisted Therapy trials for PTSD, have also raised questions about whether personal use of psychedelic drugs by psychedelic therapists could compromise scientific objectivity, lead to the exploitation of research subjects, or promote biased reporting of results. Here, we elaborate on and attempt to delimit these concerns, with the goal of informing policy related to psychedelic research and the eventual clinical use of psychedelics. In particular, we explore whether the possibility that psychedelic use can directly and positively affect investigators’ enthusiasm about psychedelics themselves raises concerns about bias and scientific integrity. We then discuss several practical strategies to reduce perceived conflict of interest.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T09:23:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221133461
       
  • Risks and benefits of psilocybin use in people with bipolar disorder: An
           international web-based survey on experiences of ‘magic mushroom’
           consumption

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      Authors: Emma Morton, Kimberly Sakai, Amir Ashtari, Mollie Pleet, Erin E Michalak, Josh Woolley
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Psilocybin, the primary psychoactive component of psychedelic ‘magic mushrooms’, may have potential for treating depressive symptoms, and consequent applications for bipolar disorder (BD). Knowledge of the risks and benefits of psilocybin in BD is limited to case studies.Aim:To support the design of clinical trials, we surveyed experiences of psilocybin use in people with BD.Methods:An international web-based survey was used to explore experiences of psilocybin use in people with a self-reported diagnosis of BD. Quantitative findings were summarised using descriptive statistics. Qualitative content analysis was used to investigate free-text responses, with a focus on positive experiences of psilocybin use.Results:A total of 541 people completed the survey (46.4% female, mean 34.1 years old). One-third (32.2%; n = 174) of respondents described new/increasing symptoms after psilocybin trips, prominently manic symptoms, difficulties sleeping and anxiety. No differences in rates of adverse events overall were observed between individuals with BD I compared to BD II. Use of emergency medical services was rare (n = 18; 3.3%), and respondents (even those who experienced adverse effects) indicated that psilocybin use was more helpful than harmful. Quantitative findings elaborated on perceived benefits, as well as the potential for psilocybin trips to contain both positively and negatively received elements.Conclusions:The subjective benefits of psilocybin use for mental health symptoms reported by survey participants encourage further investigation of psilocybin-based treatments for BD. Clinical trials should incorporate careful monitoring of symptoms, as data suggest that BD symptoms may emerge or intensify following psilocybin use.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T12:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221131997
       
  • Race and ethnicity moderate the associations between lifetime psychedelic
           use (MDMA/ecstasy and psilocybin) and major depressive episodes

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      Authors: Grant M Jones
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Psychedelics are receiving renewed attention within Western medicine as they represent potential treatments for many difficult-to-treat mental health disorders. However, psychedelic science is limited in its focus and inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities. Hence, this study examines whether race and ethnicity moderate the associations that naturalistic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)/ecstasy use and psilocybin use share with major depressive episodes (MDEs).Method:Data for this project are from The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005–2019). Participants were adults aged 18 years and older (unweighted N = 596,187). This study used multivariable logistic regression to test the interaction between race and ethnicity and MDMA/ecstasy use and psilocybin use for predicting lifetime, past year, and past year severe MDEs.Results:Race and ethnicity significantly moderated the associations between MDMA/ecstasy use and psilocybin use and MDEs. For White participants, MDMA/ecstasy use and psilocybin use each were associated with lowered odds of all three MDE outcomes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) range: 0.82–0.92). For Hispanic participants, MDMA/ecstasy use and psilocybin use each conferred lowered odds of only a past year MDE (MDMA/ecstasy aOR: 0.82; psilocybin aOR: 0.79). For Non-Hispanic Racial Minority participants, MDMA/ecstasy and psilocybin use did not confer lowered odds of any MDE outcomes.Conclusion:Race and ethnicity have an impact on the associations that psychedelics share with mental health outcomes. Future research should explore the impact of identity and discrimination on the effects of psychedelics and should explore whether these substances can serve as effective treatments for minorities when used in culturally informed contexts.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T01:13:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221127304
       
  • Changes in music-evoked emotion and ventral striatal functional
           connectivity after psilocybin therapy for depression

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      Authors: Melissa Shukuroglou, Leor Roseman, Matt Wall, David Nutt, Mendel Kaelen, Robin Carhart-Harris
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Music listening is a staple and valued component of psychedelic therapy, and previous work has shown that psychedelics can acutely enhance music-evoked emotion.Aims:The present study sought to examine subjective responses to music before and after psilocybin therapy for treatment-resistant depression, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was acquired.Methods:Nineteen patients with treatment-resistant depression received a low oral dose (10 mg) of psilocybin, and a high dose (25 mg) 1 week later. fMRI was performed 1 week prior to the first dosing session and 1 day after the second. Two scans were conducted on each day: one with music and one without. Visual analogue scale ratings of music-evoked ‘pleasure’ plus ratings of other evoked emotions (21-item Geneva Emotional Music Scale) were completed after each scan. Given its role in musical reward, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was chosen as region of interest for functional connectivity (FC) analyses. Effects of drug (vs placebo) and music (vs no music) on subjective and FC outcomes were assessed. Anhedonia symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment (Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale).Results:Results revealed a significant increase in music-evoked emotion following treatment with psilocybin that correlated with post-treatment reductions in anhedonia. A post-treatment reduction in NAc FC with areas resembling the default mode network was observed during music listening (vs no music).Conclusion:These results are consistent with current thinking on the role of psychedelics in enhancing music-evoked pleasure and provide some new insight into correlative brain mechanisms.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T10:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221125354
       
  • Belief changes associated with psychedelic use

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      Authors: Sandeep M. Nayak, Manvir Singh, David B. Yaden, Roland R. Griffiths
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Psychedelic use is anecdotally associated with belief changes, although few studies have tested these claims.Aim:Characterize a broad range of psychedelic occasioned belief changes.Survey:A survey was conducted in 2374 respondents who endorsed having had a belief changing psychedelic experience. Participants rated their agreement with belief statements Before and After the psychedelic experience as well as at the time of survey administration.Results:Factor analysis of 45 belief statements revealed five factors: “Dualism,” “Paranormal/Spirituality,” “Non-mammal consciousness,” “Mammal consciousness,” and “Superstition.” Medium to large effect sizes from Before to After the experience were observed for increases in beliefs in “Dualism” (β = 0.72), “Paranormal/Spirituality” (β = 0.90), “Non-mammal consciousness” (β = 0.72), and “Mammal consciousness” (β = 0.74). In contrast, negligible changes were observed for “Superstition” (β = −0.18).). At the individual item level, increases in non-physicalist beliefs included belief in reincarnation, communication with the dead, existence of consciousness after death, telepathy, and consciousness of inanimate natural objects (e.g., rocks). The percentage of participants who identified as a “Believer (e.g., in Ultimate Reality, Higher Power, and/or God, etc.)” increased from 29% Before to 59% After.” At both the factor and individual item level, higher ratings of mystical experience were associated with greater changes in beliefs. Belief changes assessed after the experience (an average 8.4 years) remained largely unchanged at the time of survey.Conclusions:A single psychedelic experience increased a range of non-physicalist beliefs as well as beliefs about consciousness, meaning, and purpose. Further, the magnitude of belief change is associated with qualitative features of the experience.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:06:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221131989
       
  • Body mass index (BMI) does not predict responses to psilocybin

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      Authors: Meg J Spriggs, Bruna Giribaldi, Taylor Lyons, Fernando E Rosas, Laura S Kärtner, Tobias Buchborn, Hannah M Douglass, Leor Roseman, Christopher Timmermann, David Erritzoe, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Journal of Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Psilocybin is a serotonin type 2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist and naturally occurring psychedelic. 5-HT2A receptor density is known to be associated with body mass index (BMI), however, the impact of this on psilocybin therapy has not been explored. While body weight-adjusted dosing is widely used, this imposes a practical and financial strain on the scalability of psychedelic therapy. This gap between evidence and practice is caused by the absence of studies clarifying the relationship between BMI, the acute psychedelic experience and long-term psychological outcomes.Method:Data were pooled across three studies using a fixed 25 mg dose of psilocybin delivered in a therapeutic context to assess whether BMI predicts characteristics of the acute experience and changes in well-being 2 weeks later. Supplementing frequentist analysis with Bayes Factors has enabled for conclusions to be drawn regarding the null hypothesis.Results:Results support the null hypothesis that BMI does not predict overall intensity of the altered state, mystical experiences, perceptual changes or emotional breakthroughs during the acute experience. There was weak evidence for greater ‘dread of ego dissolution’ in participants with lower BMI, however, further analysis suggested BMI did not meaningfully add to the combination of the other covariates (age, sex and study). While mystical-type experiences and emotional breakthroughs were strong predictors of improvements in well-being, BMI was not.Conclusions:These findings have important implications for our understanding of pharmacological and extra-pharmacological contributors to psychedelic-assisted therapy and for the standardization of a fixed therapeutic dose in psychedelic-assisted therapy.
      Citation: Journal of Psychopharmacology
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T12:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02698811221131994
       
 
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