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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.379
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1557-1904 - ISSN (Online) 1557-1890
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • The Role of CD4+ T Cells in the Immunotherapy of Brain Disease by
           Secreting Different Cytokines

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      Abstract: Upon different stimulation, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into various subsets of T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs. They play both protective and pathogenic roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by secreting different cytokines. Failure of the homeostasis of the subgroups in the CNS can result in different brain diseases. Recently, immunotherapy has drawn more and more attention in the therapy of various brain diseases. Here, we describe the role of different CD4+ T cell subsets and their secreted cytokines in various brain diseases, as well as the ways in which by affecting CD4+ T cells in therapy of the CNS diseases. Understanding the role of CD4+ T cells and their secreted cytokines in the immunotherapy of brain disease will provide new targets and therapeutics for the treatment of brain disease. Graphical The role of CD4 + T cell subtypes in different diseases and their associated regulatory genes, proteins, and enzymes. CD4 + T cell subtypes play both protective (green) and pathogenic (red) roles in different brain diseases. The immune regulatory effects of CD4 + T cells and their subtypes are promoted or inhibited by different genes, proteins, and enzymes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Oral GSH Exerts a Therapeutic Effect on Experimental Salmonella Meningitis
           by Protecting BBB Integrity and Inhibiting Salmonella-induced Apoptosis

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      Abstract: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is the main cause of the central nervous system (CNS) infection and continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Glutathione (GSH), an endogenous tripeptide antioxidant, has been proved to exert crucial role in reducing superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. The purpose of this study is to expand the application scope of GSH via exploring its therapeutic effect on BM caused by Salmonella typhimurium SL1344 and then provide a novel approach for the treatment of BM. The results suggested that intragastric administration of GSH could significantly increase median survival and improve experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis score of BM model mice. However, exogenous GSH did not affect the adhesion, invasion and cytotoxicity of SL1344 to C6, BV2 and primary microglia. Due to the contradiction between the therapeutic and bactericidal effects of GSH, the effect of GSH on blood-brain barrier (BBB) was investigated to explore its action target for the treatment of meningitis. GSH was found to repair the damage of BBB and then prevent the leakage of SL1344 from the brain to the blood circulation. The repaired BBB could also effectively reduce the entry of macrophages and neutrophils into the brain, and significantly reverse the microglia activation induced by SL1344. More importantly, exogenous GSH was proved to reduce mouse brain cell apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of caspase-8 followed by caspase-3, and reversing the up-regulation of ICAD and PARP-1 caused by SL1344. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
       
  • TAAR1 Regulates Purinergic-induced TNF Secretion from Peripheral, But Not
           CNS-resident, Macrophages

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      Abstract: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is an established neuroregulatory G protein-coupled receptor with recent studies suggesting additional functions related to immunomodulation. Our lab has previously investigated TAAR1 expression within cells of the innate immune system and herein we aim to further elucidate TAAR1 function in both peripherally-derived and CNS-resident macrophages. The selective TAAR1 agonist RO5256390 was used in combination with common damage associated molecular patterns (ATP and ADP) to observe the effect of TAAR1 agonism on modulating cytokine secretion and metabolic profiles. In mouse bone-marrow derived macrophages, TAAR1 agonism inhibited TNF secretion following ATP stimulation, which appeared to be downstream of an associated pro-inflammatory shift in metabolic profile and transcriptional regulation of TNF synthesis. In contrast, TAAR1 agonism had no effect on ADP-induced TNF and IL-6 secretion in mouse microglia in either the presence or absence of astrocytes. In summary, we report a novel interaction between TAAR1 and purinergic signaling in peripherally-derived, but not CNS-resident, macrophages. These findings provide the first evidence of trace aminergic and purinergic crosstalk, and support the potential for TAAR1 as a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory disorders. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
       
  • Commentary

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-022-10052-9
       
  • Molecular Hydrogen Mediates Neurorestorative Effects After Stroke in
           Diabetic Rats: the TLR4/NF-κB Inflammatory Pathway

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      Abstract: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for stroke and amplifies inflammation. Diabetic stroke is associated with a higher risk of death and worse neural function. The identification of effective anti-inflammatory molecules with translational advantages is particularly important to promote perioperative neurorestorative effects. Applying molecular hydrogen, we measured blood glucose levels before and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), 48-h cerebral oedema and infarct volumes, as well as 28-day weight, survival and neurological function. We also measured the levels of TLR4, NF-κB p65, phosphorylated NF-κB p65, catecholamines, acetylcholine and inflammatory factors. All measurements comprehensively showed the positive effect and translational advantage of molecular hydrogen on diabetic stroke. Molecular hydrogen improved the weight, survival and long-term neurological function of rats with diabetic stroke and alleviated changes in blood glucose levels before and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), but no difference in circadian rhythm was observed. Molecular hydrogen inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and significantly reduced inflammation. Molecular hydrogen mediates neurorestorative effects after stroke in diabetic rats. The effect is independent of circadian rhythms, indicating translational advantages. The molecular mechanism is related to the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and inflammation. Graphical abstract Molecular hydrogen (H2) affects outcomes of ischemic stroke with diabetes mellitus (DM).
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-022-10051-w
       
  • Integrase Inhibitors are Associated with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in
           Women with HIV

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      Abstract: Objective Women with HIV(WWH) are more likely to discontinue/change antiretroviral therapy(ART) due to side effects including neuropsychiatric symptoms. Efavirenz and integrase strand transfer inhibitors(INSTIs) are particularly concerning. We focused on these ART agents and neuropsychiatric symptoms in previously developed subgroups of WWH that differed on key sociodemographic factors as well as longitudinal behavioral and clinical profiles. WWH from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study were included if they had ART data available, completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10 and PTSD Checklist-Civilian. Questionnaires were completed biannually beginning in 2008 through 2016. To examine ART-symptom associations, constrained continuation ratio model via penalized maximum likelihood were fit within 5 subgroups of WWH. Data from 1882 WWH contributed a total of 4598 observations. 353 women were previously defined as primarily having well-controlled HIV with vascular comorbidities, 463 with legacy effects(CD4 nadir < 250cells/mL), 274 aged ≤ 45 with hepatitis, 453 between 35–55 years, and 339 with poorly-controlled HIV/substance users. INSTIs, but not efavirenz, were associated with symptoms among key subgroups of WWH. Among those with HIV legacy effects, dolutegravir and elvitegravir were associated with greater stress/anxiety and avoidance symptoms(P’s < 0.01); dolutegravir was also associated with greater re-experiencing symptoms(P = 0.005). Elvitegravir related to greater re-experiencing and hyperarousal among women with well-controlled HIV with vascular comorbidities(P’s < 0.022). Raltegravir was associated with less hyperarousal, but only among women aged ≤ 45 years(P = 0.001). The adverse neuropsychiatric effects of INSTIs do not appear to be consistent across all WWH. Key characteristics (e.g., age, hepatitis positivity) may need consideration to fully weight the risk–benefit ratio of dolutegravir and elvitegravir in WWH.  Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10042-3
       
  • Chronic Morphine Induces IL-18 in Ileum Myenteric Plexus Neurons Through
           Mu-opioid Receptor Activation in Cholinergic and VIPergic Neurons

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      Abstract: The gastrointestinal epithelium is critical for maintaining a symbiotic relationship with commensal microbiota. Chronic morphine exposure can compromise the gut epithelial barrier in mice and lead to dysbiosis. Recently, studies have implicated morphine-induced dysbiosis in the mechanism of antinociceptive tolerance and reward, suggesting the presence of a gut-brain axis in the pharmacological effects of morphine. However, the mechanism(s) underlying morphine-induced changes in the gut microbiome remains unclear. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-18 (IL-18), released by enteric neurons can modulate gut barrier function. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of morphine on IL-18 expression in the mouse ileum. We observed that chronic morphine exposure in vivo induces IL-18 expression in the ileum myenteric plexus that is attenuated by naloxone. Given that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are mainly expressed in enteric neurons, we also characterized morphine effects on the excitability of cholinergic (excitatory) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing (inhibitory) myenteric neurons. We found fundamental differences in the electrical properties of cholinergic and VIP neurons such that VIP neurons are more excitable than cholinergic neurons. Furthermore, MORs were primarily expressed in cholinergic neurons, although a subset of VIP neurons also expressed MORs and responded to morphine in electrophysiology experiments. In conclusion, these data show that morphine increases IL-18 in ileum myenteric plexus neurons via activation of MORs in a subset of cholinergic and VIP neurons. Thus, understanding the neurochemistry and electrophysiology of MOR-expressing enteric neurons can help to delineate mechanisms by which morphine perturbs the gut barrier. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10050-3
       
  • Vancomycin Pretreatment on MPTP-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Mice Exerts
           Neuroprotection by Suppressing Inflammation Both in Brain and Gut

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      Abstract: A growing body of evidence implies that gut microbiota was involved in pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antibiotics pretreatment on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice. In this study, vancomycin pretreatment was given by gavage once daily with either vancomycin or distilled water for 14 days to mice, then mice were administered with MPTP (20 mg/kg, i.p) for four times in one day to establish an acute PD model. Results show that vancomycin pretreatment significantly improved motor dysfunction of mice in pole and traction tests. Although vancomycin pretreatment had no effect on dopamine (DA) or the process of DA synthesis, it inhibited the metabolism of DA by suppressing the expression of striatal monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Furthermore, vancomycin pretreatment reduced the number of astrocytes and microglial cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to alleviate neuroinflammation, decreased the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB/TNF-α signaling pathway in both brain and gut. Meanwhile, vancomycin pretreatment changed gut microbiome composition and the levels of fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The abundance of Akkermansia and Blautia increased significantly after vancomycin pretreatment, which might be related to inflammation and inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathway. In summary, these results demonstrate that the variation of gut microbiota and its metabolites induced by vancomycin pretreatment might decrease dopamine metabolic rate and relieve inflammation in both gut and brain via the microbiota-gut-brain axis in MPTP-induced PD mice. Graphical The neuroprotection of vancomycin pretreatment on MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice The alterations of gut microbiota and SCFAs induced by vancomycin pretreatment might not only improve motor dysfunction, but also decrease dopamine metabolism and relieve inflammation in both brain and gut via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway in MPTP-induced PD mice.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10047-y
       
  • A direct interaction between RhoGDIα/Tau alleviates hyperphosphorylation
           of Tau in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

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      Abstract: RhoGDIα is an inhibitor of RhoGDP dissociation that involves in Aβ metabolism and NFTs production in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by regulating of RhoGTP enzyme activity. Our previous research revealed that RhoGDIα, as the target of Polygala saponin (Sen), might alleviate apoptosis of the nerve cells caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). To further clarify the role of RhoGDIα in the generation of NFTs, we explored the relationship between RhoGDIα and Tau. We found out that RhoGDIα and Tau can bind with each other and interact by using coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and GST pulldown methods in vitro. This RhoGDIα-Tau partnership was further verified by using immunofluorescence colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) approaches in PC12 cells. Using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique, we found that the RhoGDIα may be involved in an upstream signaling pathway for Tau. Subsequently, in Aβ25-35- and H/R-induced PC12 cells, forced expression of RhoGDIα via cDNA plasmid transfection was found to reduce the hyperphosphorylation of Tau, augment the expression of bcl-2 protein, and inhibit the expression of Bax protein (reducing the Bax/bcl-2 ratio) and the activity of caspase-3. In mouse AD and VaD models, forced expression of RhoGDIα via injection of a viral vector (pAAV-EGFP-RhoGDIα) into the lateral ventricle of the brain alleviated the pathological symptoms of AD and VaD. Finally, GST pulldown confirmed that the binding sites on RhoGDIα for Tau were located in the range of the ΔC33 fragment (aa 1–33). These results indicate that RhoGDIα is involved in the phosphorylation of Tau and apoptosis in AD and VaD. Overexpression of RhoGDIα can inhibit the generation of NFTs and delay the progress of these two types of dementia. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10049-w
       
  • From Initiation to Maintenance: HIV-1 Gp120-induced Neuropathic Pain
           Exhibits Different Molecular Mechanisms in the Mouse Spinal Cord Via
           Bioinformatics Analysis Based on RNA Sequencing

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      Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), remains one of the most diverse crucial health and development challenges around the world. People infected with HIV constitute a large patient population, and a significant number of them experience neuropathic pain. To study the key mechanisms that mediate HIV-induced neuropathic pain (HNP), we established an HNP mouse model via intrathecal injection of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. The L3~L5 spinal cord was isolated on postoperative days 1/12 (POD1/12), 1 (POD1), and 14 (POD14) for RNA sequencing to investigate the gene expression profiles of the initiation, transition, and maintenance stages of HNP. A total of 1682, 430, and 413 differentially expressed genes were obtained in POD1/12, POD1, and POD14, respectively, and their similarity was low. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that POD1/12, POD1, and POD14 exhibited different biological processes and signaling pathways. Inflammation, oxidative damage, apoptosis, and inflammation-related signaling pathways were enriched on POD1/12. Inflammation, chemokine activity, and downstream signaling regulated by proinflammatory cytokines, such as the MTOR signaling pathway, were enriched on POD1, while downregulation of ion channel activity, mitochondrial damage, endocytosis, MAPK and neurotrophic signaling pathways developed on POD14. Additionally, we screened key genes and candidate genes, which were verified at the transcriptional and translational levels. Our results suggest that the initiation and maintenance of HNP are regulated by different molecular mechanisms. Therefore, our research may yield a fresh and deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying HNP, providing accurate molecular targets for HNP therapy. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10044-1
       
  • Effects of Morphine on Gp120-induced Neuroinflammation Under
           Immunocompetent Vs. Immunodeficient Conditions

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      Abstract: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common complication of HIV infection, whose development is known to be facilitated by inflammation and exacerbated by morphine. Previously, using the gp120 transgenic (tg) mouse model in combination with LP-BM5 (a murine retrovirus that can cause systemic immunodeficiency in susceptible mouse strains) we demonstrated differential gp120-associated central nervous system (CNS) neuroinflammatory responses under immunocompetent (-LP-BM5) vs. immunocompromised (+LP-BM5) conditions. Here, we further investigated the effects of morphine on gp120-associated neuroinflammatory response within the hippocampus under differential immune status. First, we confirmed that morphine treatment (2 × 25 mg pellets) did not significantly affect the development of immunodeficiency induced by LP-BM5 and all brain regions examined (hippocampus, striatum, and frontal lobe) had detectable LP-BM5 viral gag genes. Morphine notably reduced the performance of gp120tg+ mice in the alteration T-maze assay when 2-minute retention was used, regardless of LP-BM5 treatment. Morphine further enhanced GFAP expression in gp120tg+ mice regardless of host immune status, while promoted CD11b expression only in immunocompetent mice, regardless of gp120tg expression. In immunocompetent gp120tg+ mice, morphine increased the RNA expression of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, IL-12p40, and IFNβ; while under the immunodeficient condition, morphine downregulated the expression of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, IL-12p40, and IL-1β. Further, expression of TNFα and IFNγ were enhanced by morphine regardless of host immune status. Altogether, our results suggest that the effects of morphine are complex and dependent on the immune status of the host, and host immune status-specific, targeted anti-neuroinflammatory strategies are required for effective treatment of HAND. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10040-5
       
  • Oligosaccharide and Flavanoid Mediated Prebiotic Interventions to Treat
           Gut Dysbiosis Associated Cognitive Decline

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      Abstract: Oligosaccharides are potential prebiotic which maintains gut microbiota and improves gut health. The association of gut and brain is named as gut-brain-axis. Gut dysbiosis disrupts gut-brain-axis and effectively contributes to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) and Quercetin were used as therapeutic interventions against gut dysbiosis mediated cognitive decline. Gut dysbiosis was established in mice through administration of Ampicillin Sodium, orally for 14 days. XOS and quercetin were administered separately or in combination along with antibiotic. Gene expression studies using mice faecal samples showed both XOS and quercetin could revive Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes and Clostridium which were reduced due to antibiotic treatment. FITC-dextran concentration in serum revealed XOS and quercetin protected intestinal barrier integrity against antibiotic associated damage. This was verified by histopathological studies showing restored intestinal architecture. Moreover, intestinal inflammation which increased after antibiotic treated animals was reduced upon XOS and quercetin treatment. Behavioural studies demonstrated that gut dysbiosis reduced fear conditioning, spatial and recognition memory which were reversed upon XOS and quercetin treatment. XOS and quercetin also reduced inflammation and acetylcholine esterase which were heightened in antibiotic treated animal brain. They also reduced oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and protected hippocampal neurons. In conclusion, XOS and quercetin effectively reduced antibiotic associated gut dysbiosis and prevented gut dysbiosis associated cognitive decline in mice. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10041-4
       
  • Aging Accelerates Postural Instability in HIV Infection: Contributing
           Sensory Biomarkers

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      Abstract: People living with HIV infection (PWH) who are adequately treated pharmacologically are now likely to have a near normal life span. Along with this benefit of the aging HIV population are potential physical problems attendant to aging, including postural stability. Whether aging with HIV accelerates age-related liability for postural instability and what sensory factors contribute to imbalance were examined in 227 PWH and 137 people living without HIV (PWoH), age 25 to 75 years. A mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal design revealed steeper aging trajectories of the PWH than PWoH in sway path length, measured as center-of-pressure micro-displacements with a force platform while a person attempted to stand still. Sway paths were disproportionately longer for PWH than PWoH when tested with eyes closed than open. Multiple regression identified objective measures of sensory perception as unique predictors of sway path length, whereas age, sway path length, and self-reports of falls were predictors of standing on one leg, a common measure of ataxia. Knowledge about sensory signs and symptoms of imbalance in postural stability with and without visual information may serve as modifiable risk factors for averting instability and liability for falls in the aging HIV population. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10039-y
       
  • Opioid Use, Gut Dysbiosis, Inflammation, and the Nervous System

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      Abstract: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is defined as the chronic use or misuse of prescribed or illicitly obtained opioids and is characterized by clinically significant impairment. The etiology of OUD is multifactorial as it is influenced by genetics, environmental factors, stress response and behavior. Given the profound role of the gut microbiome in health and disease states, in recent years there has been a growing interest to explore interactions between the gut microbiome and the central nervous system as a causal link and potential therapeutic source for OUD. This review describes the role of the gut microbiome and opioid-induced immunopathological disturbances at the gut epithelial surface, which collectively contribute to OUD and perpetuate the vicious cycle of addiction and relapse. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10046-z
       
  • Higher Levels of IgG3 Antibodies in Serum, But Not in CSF, Distinguish
           Multiple Sclerosis From Other Neurological Disorders

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      Abstract: Increased intrathecal IgG and oligoclonal bands (OCB) are seminal features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although no such differences in MS blood total IgG antibodies have been reported, serum OCB are a common and persistent finding in MS and have a systemic source. Recent studies showed that IgG3+ B cells and higher levels of serum IgG3 are linked to the development of MS. Additionally, intrathecal IgG synthesis in MS is associated with IgG3 heavy chain gene single nucleotide polymorphisms, and there is a strong relationship between susceptibility to MS and an IgG3 restriction fragment length polymorphism. These studies support the role of IgG3 in disease pathogenesis. Using multiple immunoassays, we investigated levels of total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 in sera and CSF of 102 MS patients (19 paired CSF and sera), 76 patients with other neurological disorders (9 paired CSF and sera), and 13 healthy controls. We show that higher levels of total IgG and IgG3 antibodies were detected in MS serum, but not in CSF, which distinguishes MS from other inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological disorders, with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves 0.79 for both IgG3 & total IgG. Our data support the notion that IgG3 antibodies may be a potential candidate for MS blood biomarker development. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10048-x
       
  • Cognitive Phenotypes of HIV Defined Using a Novel Data-driven Approach

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      Abstract: The current study applied data-driven methods to identify and explain novel cognitive phenotypes of HIV. Methods: 388 people with HIV (PWH) with an average age of 46 (15.8) and median plasma CD4+ T-cell count of 555 copies/mL (79% virally suppressed) underwent cognitive testing and 3T neuroimaging. Demographics, HIV disease variables, and health comorbidities were recorded within three months of cognitive testing/neuroimaging. Hierarchical clustering was employed to identify cognitive phenotypes followed by ensemble machine learning to delineate the features that determined membership in the cognitive phenotypes. Hierarchical clustering identified five cognitive phenotypes. Cluster 1 (n=97) was comprised of individuals with normative performance on all cognitive tests. The remaining clusters were defined by impairment on action fluency (Cluster 2; n=46); verbal learning/memory (Cluster 3; n=73); action fluency and verbal learning/memory (Cluster 4; n=56); and action fluency, verbal learning/memory, and tests of executive function (Cluster 5; n=114). HIV detectability was most common in Cluster 5. Machine learning revealed that polysubstance use, race, educational attainment, and volumes of the precuneus, cingulate, nucleus accumbens, and thalamus differentiated membership in the normal vs. impaired clusters. The determinants of persistent cognitive impairment among PWH receiving suppressive treatment are multifactorial nature. Viral replication after ART plays a role in the causal pathway, but psychosocial factors (race inequities, substance use) merit increased attention as critical determinants of cognitive impairment in the context of ART. Results underscore the need for comprehensive person-centered interventions that go beyond adherence to patient care to achieve optimal cognitive health among PWH. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10045-0
       
  • Inhibition of Microglial NLRP3 with MCC950 Attenuates Microglial
           Morphology and NLRP3/Caspase-1/IL-1β Signaling In Stress-induced Mice

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      Abstract: Major depressive disorder is characterized by the deficiencies of monoamine neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors and persistent neuroinflammation. Microglial activation has been associated with neuroinflammation-related mental diseases, accompanied by NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Here, we investigated the effect of NLRP3 inhibition by its small molecular inhibitor MCC950 on inflammatory activity and depressive-like mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), followed by the behavioral tests including sucrose preference test and forced swimming test. NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β signaling and microglial morphology in the prefrontal cortex were measured. The results showed that CUMS caused a decrease in sucrose preference and an increase in immobility time, which were reversed by NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950. In addition, NLRP3 inhibition decreased the number of microglia and changed the activated state of microglia to a resting state by morphology 3D reconstruction. Moreover, NLRP3 inhibition inactivated NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β signaling in the prefrontal cortex. The results from immunofluorescence demonstrated that NLRP3 and IL-1β expression was decreased in microglia in response to MCC950 treatment. Accordingly, proinflammatory cytokines were also decreased by NLRP3 inhibition. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that microglial NLRP3 inhibition prevents stress-induced neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex and suggests that microglial NLRP3 could be one of the potential therapeutic targets for depression treatment. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10037-0
       
  • Correction to: Mitochondrial Dynamics in SARS‑COV2 Spike Protein Treated
           Human Microglia: Implications for Neuro‑COVID

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      PubDate: 2021-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10043-2
       
  • Correction to: Extracellular Microvesicles Released From Brain Endothelial
           Cells are Detected in Animal Models Of HIV‑1 Signifying Unresolved
           Inflammation

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      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10024-5
       
  • Investigating Neurological Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2

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      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11481-021-10006-7
       
 
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