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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Number of Followers: 0  

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ISSN (Print) 0428-0296 - ISSN (Online) 2603-557X
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [58 journals]
  • Comparative study of the chemical composition of Trigonella
           foenum-graecum L. essential oil

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 85-89
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e98413
      Authors : Vanya Nalbantova, Niko Benbassat, Cédric Delattre, Velislava Todorova, Yoana Georgieva, Paolina Lukova, Stanislava Ivanova, Kalin Ivanov, Diana Karcheva-Bahchevanska : Fenugreek is a well-known aromatic plant. Its leaves and seeds are commonly used for their many health benefits and the species is cultivated worldwide. For the first time, essential oils (EOs) from seeds of the Bulgarian and Indian populations were obtained by secondary distillation of hydrolat to extract the residual essential oil therein. They were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the chemical composition of the two samples was compared. Thirty-six compounds were identified and although the results showed some differences in the component composition of the two essential oils, the major constituents identified in both oils were cubenol, γ-n-amylbutyrolactone and palmitic acid. Moreover, oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the predominant fraction in Bulgarian and Indian seeds oils. Information is limited regarding menthol and γ-n-amylbutyrolactone, which were found in the present study in both oils. The performed analysis confirmed the presence of phytol in fenugreek seeds regardless of the extraction method of the essential oil. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 18:50:17 +020
  • Changes in some indexes of protein homeostasis and pro-oxidant
           protection in the oral fluid of young people with periodontitis under the
           influence of the proposed complex therapy

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 79-84
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e90490
      Authors : Halina Kimak, Iryna Kostiuk, Nataliia Pavelko, Viktor Dombrovych, Yuriy Oktysyuk, Mykola Voliak : Periodontal diseases comprise an actual problem nowadays due to their high prevalence. Young people in particularly remain susceptible to aggressive periodontal disorders that affect the suspensory apparatus of the teeth. The aim of the study was to establish some indexes of protein peroxidation and total protein content in the oral liquid of young people affected by stage I periodontitis, degree A and B observed before and after the appointed complex therapy. Conducted investigations demonstrate that there are significant changes in protein homeostasis and pro-oxidant protection in the oral liquid of young people in case of stage I periodontitis, degree A and B. The latter indicates an increase of the total protein content as well as a rise of oxidative protein modifications of both aldehyde and ketone derivatives, which are neutral and basic in nature. The recorded dynamic of the gained results of protein metabolism and pro-oxidant protection in the oral liquid of young people in case stage I periodontitis, degree A and B obtained at different terms after administered treatment suggests that the introduced management provides a pronounced positive effect on the regulation of these indexes. Moreover, herbal remedies as a part of the proposed agents for local and general administration show a good antioxidant effect and contribute to long-term maintenance of gained results. They also prevent recurrence of periodontitis and contribute to prolonged remission. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 18:49:14 +020
  • Production of rare cycloartane saponins from Astragalus thracicus
           (Griseb) compared to Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge – native and
           biotechnological sources

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 73-77
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e97782
      Authors : Preslav Enchev, Yancho Zarev, Hans Michler, Iliana Ionkova : The aim of this study is a comparative metabolomic analysis between the endangered species Astragalus membranaceus and endemic species Astragalus thracicus concerning cycloartane saponins. In addition, in vitro shoots, callus, and suspension cultures of A. thracicus were successfully established to conserve the biodiversity of those endemic species and to increase the amount of produced saponins. The comparison was made according to the quantity of cycloartane saponins astragaloside I (1), astragaloside II (2), and astragaloside IV (4) to the reference standards for the same compounds by UHPLC-HRESI-MS analysis. The in vitro root cultures of A. thracicus reached two folds higher amounts of saponins (1.50 mg/g DW (1), 1.01 mg/g DW (2), and 0.91 mg/g DW (3)) than the native root of A. thracicus (1.14 mg/g DW (1) 0.47 mg/g DW (2), 0.40 mg/g DW (3)), and up to six times higher when compared with roots A. membranaceus (0.23 mg/g DW (1), 0.18 mg/g DW (2) and 0.05 mg/g DW (3)). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2023 18:15:33 +020
  • GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds and antibacterial activity of
           nangka leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam)

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 67-72
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e97990
      Authors : Indah Yani Br. Tambunan, Esther Siringo-Ringo, Mastiur Julianti Butar-Butar, Kasta Gurning : Nangka is a plant that has various kinds of potential both because of the nutritional content provided through the fruit and also part of the content of bioactive compounds contained in the leaves. This study aims to identify the content of bioactive compounds and determine their content using GC-MS and determine the potential antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. typhi, P. acnes from the ethanol extract of nangka leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam). Screening results showed positive containing phenolic groups, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. The results of determining the content of bioactive compounds for phenolics, tannins and flavonoids were 27.654±0.054 mg GAE/g d.w ethanolic extract, 0.46±0.017 mg TAE/g d.w ethanolic extract and 2.978±0.192 mg QE/g d.w ethanolic extract. GC-MS analysis showed the content of octadecanoic acid with a retention time of 36.489 minutes with a concentration of 29.91% and the ethanolic extract of nangka leaves had good potential activity as an antibacterial. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 17:04:46 +020
  • Essential oil in Phlomis tuberosa

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 61-65
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e97050
      Authors : Aleksandar Shkondrov, Aleksandra Ivanova, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Ilina Krasteva : Phlomis tuberosa L. (Lamiaceae) is a flowering perennial plant, native to Eurasia, and sparsely distributed in Bulgaria. The species has been proved to accumulate flavonoids, iridoids, phenolic glycosides, as well as essential oil. To now, there is no information on the chemical content of Bulgarian essential oil from the plant. The aim was to study the chemical composition of essential oils, obtained from the species. Four different samples were studied – essential oils produced from leaves and herbs, collected in the fields, and from leaves and flowering parts, harvested from the mountainous location. It was found that β-copaene was the major in the essential oil from both the leaves and of the flowering parts collected from Popitza. In addition, the other major constituent in leaf essential oil from Kladnitza was tau-muurolol. The essential oil, produced from the species, harvested from the higher altitude had phytol as the main component. The sesquiterpenoid content in leaf essential oil suggests that this plant substance is appropriate for medicinal use, due to the pharmacological properties of these compounds. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 17:04:24 +020
  • The effect of excessive coffee consumption, in relation to diterpenes
           levels of medium-roasted coffee, on non-high-density lipoprotein
           cholesterol level in healthy men

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 49-59
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e90495
      Authors : Shady Awwad, Ahmed Abu-Zaiton, Reem Issa, Rana Said, Ahmad Sundookah, Maha Habash, Beisan Mohammad, Mahmoud Abu-Samak : This study was designed to determine the levels of coffee oil and diterpenes and evaluate the correlation between the effect of excessive roasted coffee consumption on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL) and the roasting degree effect on the levels of coffee oil and diterpenes extracted from Coffea arabica. The coffee oil and diterpenes were extracted using soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction. Sixty-six healthy normolipidemic male participants were assigned for this study which consisted of two stages. The first stage is the coffee abstaining stage where subjects were requested to abstain from drinking coffee for 2 weeks. The second stage is the coffee drinking stage which consisted of groups (the control group and coffee-drinking group). The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL were determined in all participants before and after the experiment. The results indicated that the coffee roasting degree demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of coffee oil and diterpenes ranging from 9.31% (green coffee) to 15.64% (dark roast) and from 0.205% (green coffee) to 0.300% (dark roast) for diterpenes. In conclusion, the current study revealed that excessive consumption of medium roasted coffee was associated with elevated non-HDL levels in normotensive nonsmoker healthy men which might be attributed to the positive association between the degree of roasting and diterpenes levels. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 19:54:08 +020
  • Antidiabetic activity of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Stennis extracts
           with different ethanol percentages: an evaluation based on in vitro, in
           vivo, and molecular studies

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 39-47
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e94899
      Authors : Asri Sulfianti, Nisrina Firdausi, Nurhadi Nurhadi, Ngatinem Ngatinem, Kurnia Agustini, Sri Ningsih : Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Stennis, also known as Binahong (B), is an Indonesian plant used to treat diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the best extragent for preparing Binahong extract as an antidiabetic agent using different concentrations of ethanol (50%, 70%, and 96%), labelled as BE50%, BE70%, and BE96%. An alpha-glucosidase inhibiting assay was used to assess the activity. The most active extract was tested in vivo assay using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and alloxan-high feed diet (alloxan-HFD)-induced diabetes in rats, with glucose level and beta cell Langerhans repair as parameters. A molecular assay was also performed to look into the expression of homeostasis regulator genes on 3T3-L1 adipose cells. The results showed that 96% ethanol extract (BE96%) inhibited alpha-glucosidase the most effectively (IC50 119.78± 11.14 μg/mL). The in vivo assay revealed that the treatment BE96% at 250 mg/kg BW for 21 consecutive days significantly reduced plasma glucose levels in Type 2 DM rats compared to the control group (p ≤ .05) with improved of Langerhans beta cells. BE96% also significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels. At the cellular level, Oil-Red-O staining revealed that differentiated adipocytes treated with BE96% had the highest lipid absorbance (p ≤ .05), compared to the control. BE96% significantly increased the expression of Glucose Transporter Isoform 4 (GLUT4) at the molecular level. It could be concluded that BE96% exhibited the best antidiabetic properties. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 9 Jan 2023 09:58:40 +0200
  • Analytical quality by design-based RP-HPLC method for quantification of
           pioglitazone and candesartan cilexetil in bilayer tablet and its forced
           degradation studies

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 27-37
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e95099
      Authors : Hephzibah Kola, Sangeetha Shanmugasundaram : Aim: The current project involves developing an RP-HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone based on analytical quality by design (AQbD). Materials and methods: When analysed in the Design Expert application, the critical method parameters were systematically refined using Central Composite Design and contours were derived for significant variables. A contour plot has been used to discover the technique operable design region that governs response variation, which is then empirically tested. Results: Successful chromatographic separation of title analytes was achieved on kromasil C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column at 30 °C with mobile phase comprising 60% 20 Mm Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate and 40% acetonitrile (v/v), isocratic elution pattern, 0.9 mL/min flow rate, and UV detection at 220 nm. The linear model for Candesartan Cilexetil was from 4 to 24 µg/ mL and Pioglitazone at 7.5–45 µg/ mL, respectively. Conclusion: The method met all the ICH Q2 (R1) validation criteria. The current approach aided for analysing simultaneous drugs can be expanded into quantifying drugs in biological matrix predominance with maximum recovery. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 9 Jan 2023 09:55:41 +0200
  • The association between Vitamin D levels and postpartum
           depression: a review

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 21-26
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e97300
      Authors : Shannon Maidelaine Prijadi, Clara Fernanda Kusuma, Irma Melyani Puspitasari : According to WHO, Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs in 10–15% of women after giving birth. Several studies assumed that vitamin D deficiency might worsen PPD symptoms. However, the association between vitamin D levels and PPD is still conflicting. This article summarizes the association between vitamin D levels and PPD. A literature search about Vitamin D levels and PPD from Scopus and PubMed databases was performed in June 2022. Eleven studies were obtained out of 30 studies. Nine out of 11 studies showed that vitamin D levels were significantly associated with PPD. However, the two others showed no significant association. The difference in the blood sample taken and how to assess depression contributes to a different result. The association is related to the role of vitamin D in mood regulation, synthesis of neurotransmitters, stimulating brain receptors, and intercellular neuronal signaling systems. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 9 Jan 2023 09:53:54 +0200
  • In vitro effects of alcesefoliside and mauritianin, isolated from
           Astragalus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus, on the contractility of
           a. basilaris

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 15-19
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e98412
      Authors : Boris Kadinov, Aleksandar Shkondrov, Borislav Angelov, Ilina Krasteva, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina : Flavonoids are one of the most popular antioxidants in plants. Their varied pharmacological activities are important for these compounds in order to add and to complement conventional therapy. Alcesefoliside and mauritianin are rare flavonol triglycosides, isolated from the overground part of A. monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus. The aim of the study was to examine the in vitro effects of the isolated flavonoids on the contractility of a. basilaris. Administered alone, at concentration 10 µM, alcesefoliside and mauritianin did not influence the vascular tone of segment of a. basilaris. The combination of both compounds, at 10 µM, revealed an increased response of the vascular tone of a. basilaris. These effects of the flavonoids suggest their possible beneficial effect as further candidates in the complex therapy of neurodegenerative disease. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 9 Jan 2023 09:51:41 +0200
  • Impact of nitric oxide synthesis modulators on the state of humoral
           immune system in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 9-14
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e94246
      Authors : Nataliia Mekhno, Olha Yaremchuk : Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease of multiple venous and/or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy loss. Oxidative stress only enhances the body’s immune response. In pathological conditions, the formation of nitric oxide is disrupted, which can be manifested by vasoconstriction, increased coagulation, and endothelial dysfunction. Objective: The aim of the research was to study the level of immunoglobulins and circulating immune complexes (CICs) in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome and its correction with L-arginine and aminoguanidine. Materials and methods: Antiphospholipid syndrome was modeled on white female BALB/c mice. L-arginine (25 mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (10 mg/kg) were used for its correction. The content of immunoglobulins and CICs was studied. Results: It was established that the level of immunoglobulins (Ig) and circulating immune complexes increased in the group of animals with antiphospholipid syndrome compare to the control. The levels of IgA and CICs decreased significantly, and the levels of IgM and IgG did not change in the mice with antiphospholipid syndrome and L-arginine correction. In cases of aminoguanidine administration, decreased IgM and IgG levels and no significant decrease in IgA and CICs was evidenced compare to the animals with antiphospholipid syndrome. In cases of using a combination of L-arginine and aminoguanidine agents, only IgM did not change, all other parameters decreased compare to the animals with APS. Conclusion: The parameters of the humoral immunity in female mice with experimental antiphospholipid syndrome increase. The level of immunoglobulins and circulating immune complexes decrease depending on the chosen correction agents or their complex administration. Thus, L-arginine and aminoguanidine has a positive effect on various immunity responses by decreasing the negative impact of pathobiochemical alterations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 4 Jan 2023 18:53:56 +0200
  • Appetite–regulating hormones in rats with fructose-induced
           metabolic changes

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 70(1): 1-7
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.70.e87712
      Authors : Petya Hadzhibozheva, Liliya Pashova-Stoyanova, Zhivka Tsokeva, Maria Ganeva, Krasimira Nancheva, Galina Ilieva, Velcho Nanchev, Anna Tolekova, Tsvetelin Georgiev : Objectives: The aim of this research is to examine the effects of fructose-drinking on the plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones insulin, leptin and ghrelin in male and female rats. Methods: Mature Wistar rats were divided as follows: two control groups - male (CM) and female (CF); two fructose-drinking groups - male (FDM) and female (FDF), received 15% fructose solution. The experiment lasted 11 weeks. At the end, insulin, leptin and ghrelin levels as well as lipid and glucose profile were assessed. Results: Plasma concentrations of the examined hormones were elevated in fructose-drinking groups. However, in the FDM group only the leptin levels were significantly increased compared to the control. In the FDF group, all three appetite-regulating hormones showed the highest concentrations in comparison to the other groups. Conclusion: Sex hormones may affect the appetite-regulation signals and could be a factor contributing to degree of metabolic changes caused by long-term fructose overconsumption. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 4 Jan 2023 18:52:54 +0200
  • Investigation of the nephroprotective activity of Moringa peregrina
           leaves aqueous extract in mice

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1095-1102
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e90506
      Authors : Abdulhakeem Hasan, Reem Issa, Lidia Al-Halaseh, Manal A. Abbas, Nariman Al-Jawabri, Rawan Al-Suhaimat : Traditional remedies for Moringa peregrina leaves have a variety of uses with confirmed biological and therapeutic effects, as per published reports. The current study aims to evaluate the ability of the leaves aqueous extract to protect from nephrotoxicity in gentamicin-treated mice. Phytochemical analysis for the aqueous extract was performed using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay for antioxidants, Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and HPLC- MS/MS analysis, focusing on phenol and flavonoid content. The nephroprotective activity of the prepared extract was evaluated by means of variable biochemical parameters including Creatinine (Cr), Uric Acid (UA), and Urea (Ur). In addition, histological examination of renal tissues was performed in all mice groups (control, gentamicin-induced (150 mg/Kg i.p) and aqueous extract-orally treated groups (500 and 1000 mg/Kg)). Findings reveal that the prepared extract has total phenols (555.57±0.92mg/g, equivalent to gallic acid), flavonoids (40.08±1.56 mg/g, equivalent to quercetin), and DPPH IC50 (3.10 µg/ml). HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of 10 phenols and flavonoids compounds. In vivo studies showed a significant (P < 0.05) reducing effect for the high-dose treatment, on serum and urine concentrations for UA, Cr, and U, among the nephrotoxicity induced mice. Low-dose treated group showed significant reduction on serum concentration of UA, Cr and U, but only for Cr concentration in urine. The histological examination showed an improvement in the image of the renal tissue among the induced-nephrotoxicity mice, which was treated with high-dose extract. In conclusion, leaves aqueous extract of M. peregrina have shown potential protective effect to counteract some of the gentamicin consequences on kidney functions. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2022 11:15:53 +020
  • The comparison between different over-the-counter drugs Analgesics used
           to relive cramps pain associated with menstrual cycle for females in
           Jordan on kidney function

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1089-1094
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e96357
      Authors : Saif Aldeen Jaber, Moeen Dababneh, Mohamed Saadah : Primary dysmenorrhea is an abdomen cramps caused pain for females under menstrual cycle. The majority of females in Jordan are consuming paracetamol and different types of NSAIDs to relive the mentioned pain. In this study a different group of females between ages 18–24 years old either not consuming any analgesic or consuming paracetamol, ibuprofen, or diclofenac salts have been asked to test the blood creatinine concentration after 10 days of consumption and after 5 and 10 days of discontinuation. SPSS analysis technique was used to analyse the results. As a results, consuming of paracetamol for 10 days show similar creatinine clearance for females without consuming any type of analgesics. While ibuprofen and diclofenac salts show change in kidney function after the 10 days of consumption. Ibuprofen normal kidney function was for 94.1% of the females where only 0.9% of the females show a sign of acute renal failure. On the other hand, the females using diclofenac salts show a high percentage of 61.2% with a sign of acute renal failure. Most of females show restored renal function after discontinuation of analgesics for 5 or 10 days. In conclusion, the consumption of analgesics between females should be monitored while the using of diclofenac salts should be considered as a prescribed drug due to the major and serious adverse drug reactions caused by the daily consumption. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2022 11:12:45 +020
  • Smoking cessation economic benefits in a human capital approach:
           emerging evidence in Jordan

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1081-1087
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e96801
      Authors : Saba Madae’en, Rasha Istaiteyeh, Mohammad Adeinat, Nour Obeidat, Rasha A. Baninasur, Mansour Haddad : Background: Smoking is a major cause globally of morbidity and mortality hence life years lost, this issue manifested in 399 Million Jordanian dinars (JD)($562.3 million USD) lost yearly due to productivity lost as a consequence of smoking in Jordan1. It is no surprise that quitting smoking will reduce the loss in life years and hence productivity. In this study, using cohort simulation, we want to quantify the gains in productivity from smoking cessation aids usage for one course of smoking cessation aid varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy in comparison to physician counseling only without pharmacological therapy, in the population that intends to quit at a point of time, through campaigns nationwide, among the working-age population followed up until retirement. Methodology: We present a transparent, generic model based on accepted analytic methods that allow users to assess the present value of lifetime earnings gained (PVLE) in smokers who intend to quit. It is shown in previous studies that smoking cessation aids are cost-effective in Jordan (Madae’en et al. 2020), yet the benefit of using smoking cessation aids goes further to reduce productivity loss by reducing life years lost. Our model incorporates life-years gained from the Markov Model in Madae’en et al. (2020), simulation of Jordanian male smokers’ cohort in three scenarios of either using varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy or only physician consultation, to estimate life-years gained and hence reduction in lost productivity costs. Results: We found productivity loss was reduced in males who attempted to quit in their productive years. Using Varenicline, the researchers calculated the expected future payments (wages) count for years gained due to varenicline use for a wage average of 507 JDs ($714.5 USD) per month discounted by 8% for the rest of their productive life. As well as for the other two scenarios, the gained productivity from one course of varenicline to the male adults over 30 who intend to quit will reduce loss by more than 72 billion JDs ($101.42 billion USD) among the working-age population followed up until retirement. Conclusion: policy change must be approached to reimbursement of smoking cessation aid in the Jordanian formulary. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2022 10:27:49 +020
  • Development of RP-HPLC methods for the analysis of Dexamethasone and
           Levofloxacin alone and in combinations used in the therapy of Covid-19

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1075-1080
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e97779
      Authors : Lily Peikova, Diana Tzankova, Miglena Smerikarova, Stefan Balkanski, Alexander Zlatkov : In December 2019, the World Health Organization was informed of an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. On January 7, 2020, a new type of coronavirus was isolated, with the WHO later officially calling it “COVID-19” and the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses naming the virus “SARS-CoV-2”. On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern, making it an unprecedented global public health challenge. From a scientific and literary reference, it was established that the main drugs in the therapy with Covid-19 are Dexamethasone and Levofluoxetine. For this reason, we pay attention to the analysis of these two medicinal products. In the literature, we did not find an analysis of a combination of Dexamethasone and Levofloxacin. Development and validation of a highperformance liquid chromatographic analytical procedure for simultaneously determining Dexamethasone and Levofloxacin in a synthetic mixture is described in this paper. The separation was made with a LiChrosorb RP 18 (250 × 4.6 mm) column, at 25 °C temperature,with isocratic mode andmobile phase,containingt acetonitrile and woter (70-30v/v). Eluent was monitored at 254 nm and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Dexamethasone and Levofluoxetine were effectively separated with retention time (tr) of 4.69 min and 14.51 min,respectively,with in the selected chromatographic conditions.The method was validated for analytical parameters: specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy,andlimits of detection and quantitation. The calibration curves were linear inthe concentration range of 12.5 to 100.0 μg/ml for Dexamethasone and Levofloxacin, and the regression coefficientswere more than 0.999. For Dexamethasone and Levofloxacin the recovery was 100.01% and 100.04%, respectively. This analytical procedure is applicable for the quality control of drug formulations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 15:14:02 +020
  • Acute toxicity test nanoherbal mahkota dewa fruit (Phaleria

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1063-1074
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e94436
      Authors : Leo Jumadi Simanjuntak, Cheryl Grace Pratiwi Rumahorbo : A common plant from Papua, Indonesia, called Phaleria macrocarpa (mahkota dewa), has potent therapeutic components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity level of nanoherbal mahkota dewa and its effect on the changes in hematology, biochemistry, electrolytes, and histopathology of the organ. High Energy Milling (HEM) was used to produce nanoherbal mahkota dewa. LD50 was determined in three stages: dose orientation test (12 mice), preliminary test (20 mice), and LD50 determination (30 mice) for 14 days using the Thomson Weil formula. LC50 was determined using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test method with concentrations of 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 ppm. This study revealed that the LD50 value was 1g/kg BW 0,075 and the LC50 value was 2145,0407 ppm. The nanoherbal mahkota dewa affected the histological organs, hematological, biochemical, and electrolyte parameters but did not affect the weight of the organ significantly. From this study, it can be concluded that nanoherbal mahkota dewa belongs to the category of moderate toxicity. In a proper dose, it could be processed as an herbal medicine in the future. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 15:13:36 +020
  • Explore Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting by clinical and
           community pharmacists in Duhok, Kurdistan region- Iraq: hampered and

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1057-1062
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e95691
      Authors : Omer Allela : Background: Pharmacovigilance systems are crucial for monitoring, ensuring the safe use of medications, and reducing the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). They also raise awareness of the importance of reporting ADRs to healthcare systems. Aim: Explore the hampered and perspective held by Duhok pharmacists, particularly those employed in hospitals and private pharmacy sectors, about pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from 20 February to 20 March 2019 using a self-administered questionnaire that had been previously created and modified. The data were examined using SPSS version 20, a statistical application for social software. Results: The majority of respondents, pharmacists, stated that it is their responsibility to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and that drug safety monitoring is crucial (91%). More than 85% of pharmacists agreed that ADRs that result in life-threatening situations and those that result in congenital abnormalities should be reported immediately. The majority of them, however, were unaware of the Iraqi pharmacovigilance system, had never reported any adverse drug reactions, were unable to get reporting forms, and lacked the clinical knowledge required to recognize ADRs. Conclusion: Underreporting was the main issue identified by the study because the majority of respondents were unable to define the term “pharmacovigilance” correctly, but they were aware of ADRs and displayed a positive attitude toward ADR reporting despite the fact that the majority of them had never reported any ADRs. To raise pharmacists’ knowledge and awareness of the ADR reporting procedure, however, required steps should be made to establish interventional programs. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Dec 2022 09:44:22 +020
  • Molecular docking-based virtual screening: Challenges in hits
           identification for Anti-SARS-Cov-2 activity

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1047-1056
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89812
      Authors : Krisyanti Budipramana, Frangky Sangande : The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) requires finding new drugs or repurposing drugs for clinical use. Molecular docking belongs to structure-based drug design providing a fast method for identifying the hit compounds with antiviral activity against SARS-Cov-2. However, the weakness of the docking method is compounded by the limited crystallographic information and comparison drugs due to the novelty of this virus can present challenges in identifying hits of anti-SARS-Cov-2. In the current review, we highlighted several aspects, especially those related to the target structure, docking validation, and virtual hit selection, that need to be considered to obtain reliable docking results. Here, we discussed several cases pertaining to the issue highlighted and approaches that could be used to solve them. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 8 Dec 2022 17:51:01 +0200
  • Phytochemical screening, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer
           activity of Coffee parasite acetone extract (Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb)

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1041-1046
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e91427
      Authors : Tita Juwitaningsih, Destria Roza, Saronom Silaban, Elvira Hermawati, Neneng Windayani : This study aimed to perform a phytochemical screening and test the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of acetone extracts of the Coffee parasite (Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb). A phytochemical screen was performed using specific reagents. Antimicrobial testing was performed using the paper disc diffusion method. The antioxidant activity test used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Anticancer activity test against HeLa and A549 cells based on the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay method. Acetone extract L. ferrugineus Roxb contains alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and tannins compounds. The acetone extract of L. ferrugineus Roxb showed activity against all the bacteria tested, with the inhibition zone diameter ranging from 6.2 mm - 11.1 mm. Acetone extract of L. Ferrugineus Roxb had a very strong antioxidant activity with a value of IC50 = 48.7122 µg/mL. The anticancer activity test showed cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with a value of IC50 = 47.62 µg/mL and for A549 cells with a value of IC50 = 192.83 µg/mL. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 7 Dec 2022 09:53:33 +0200
  • Rapid LC-MS/MS method for determination of scopolamine in human

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1035-1040
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e94441
      Authors : Anas Alshishani, Inas Hasan, Fatima Ghanayem, Sewar Al-khasawneh, D. F. Chowdhury, Alaa Abu Dayah : Sensitive, simple, and fast LC-MS/MS method for the determination of Scopolamine in human plasma was developed and validated. Liquid-Liquid extraction technique was used for sample preparation. Cyano bonded phase column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) was used for the separation with an isocratic elution of ammonium format buffer:methanol (60:40) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml.min-1 over 3.8 min run time. Scopolamine and [13C,2H3]-Scopolamine, as internal standard, were detected and quantified in positive ion mode via MRM at m/z 304/138 and m/z 308/142, respectively. The developed method was validated according to FDA and EMA guidelines. The standard calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 3.03–315.76 pg.ml-1 (r2 = 0.999). The intra-day and inter-day precision was in the range 1.28–10.46% and accuracy 96.89–110.53%. The recovery of analyte and IS was 78.63% and 76.21%, respectively. Scopolamine in plasma was stable at benchtop (short term) for 18 h, in autosampler tray for 43 h, in instrumentation room for 43 h (post-preparative), after 4 freeze-thaw cycles (−70 °C), and 3 days in the freezer (−70 °C). The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of scopolamine transdermal patch of 1 mg for 3 days for 16 healthy Jordanian volunteers. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Dec 2022 09:53:48 +0200
  • The effect of complex treatment on some hematological and
           hemostasiological indicators during the treatment of generalized
           periodontitis in patients with different blood group affiliation

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1027-1033
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87118
      Authors : Yurii Bandrivsky, Orysia Bandrivska, Nadiia Bandrivska, Oleksandr Bedenyuk, Lyudmila Piasetska, Khrystyna Dutko : The article presents the results of treatment of 157 patients with generalized periodontitis depending on blood type. In the blood of patients with generalized periodontitis was determined: the number of erythrocytes, the number of leukocytes, platelets, neutrophils, leukocyte intoxication index, fibrinogen. After treatment, analysis of blood cell composition showed that 1 year after treatment of generalized periodontitis, carriers of 0 (I) and A (II) blood type increased the number of erythrocytes in the blood – 1.2 times. At the same time, a decrease in the number of leukocytes on average was determined by 1.4 times, and leukocyte intoxication index values – by 2.0 times in representatives of 0 (I) and B (III) blood type; neutrophils – 1.4 times in people with A (II) blood type; platelets – 1.3 times in carriers with 0 (I) and AB (IV) blood type, according to data before treatment. The improvement of hematological and hemostasiological indicators of blood in patients with generalized periodontitis indicates a positive effect on the organs and systems the medicines we have prescribed, the positive effect of which is reflected, in particular, on the complex of tooth-retaining tissues. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 5 Dec 2022 09:39:19 +0200
  • Study of phytochemical compounds of Plantago major leaves grown in

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1019-1026
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e96526
      Authors : Aknur Turgumbayeva, Kairat Zhakipbekov, Zhanar Shimirova, Sholpan Akhelova, Akerke Amirkhanova, Moldir Koilybayeva, Gulnaz Seitimova, Daniyar Abdambayev : Leaves of Plantago major have been used for centuries to treat diseases relating to skin, digestive organs and blood circulation like wounds, inflammation and hypertension. P. major leaves contain biologically active substance and naturally compounds such as essential oils, minerals and amino acids beside polysaccharides, lipids, caffeic acid and its derivatives, iridoid glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. This work carried out an examination of Plantago major leaves in terms of phytochemical composition of methanol extract. The leaves contents in chosen nutrients, specifically amino acids and minerals, are moreover depicted. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry analysis identified the presence of 31 phytochemical compounds and a total amount of 20 amino acids (essential and nonessential) justifying its use as drugs and biological active supplements and its mineral content showed the presence of 7 essential chemical elements in Plantago major leaves. Nonetheless, additional research into this plant is needed because it has the potential to be used to development of new drugs and biological active supplements. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 5 Dec 2022 09:38:18 +0200
  • In vitro effects and in silico analysis of newly synthetized pyrrole
           derivatives on the activity of different isoforms of Cytochrome P450:
           CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1013-1017
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e96626
      Authors : Borislav Angelov, Emilio Mateev, Maya Georgieva, Virginia Tzankova, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina : Four pyrrole based hydazide-hydrazones with established low hepatotoxicity and promising antiproliferative activity were evaluated (at 1µM concentration) for possible inhibitory activity on human isoforms of Cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The compounds didn’t exert any statistically significant inhibitory effects on CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. However on CYP3A4 only 12 resulted in low statistically significant inhibitory effect decreasing the enzyme activity by 20%, compared to the control (pure CYP3A4). In addition the potential interactions of 12 and the evaluated CYP isoforms were displayed after molecular docking with Glide (Schrödinger). Induced-fit simulations and binding free energy (MM/GBSA) calculations were applied to elucidate the accessibility in each CYP isoform. The most active CYP3A4 inhibitor 12 demonstrated good binding affinity and was in close vicinity to the het Fe ion (2.88 Å). Overall, good correlation between the in vitro results and the free binding MM/GBSA recalculations were observed. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 17:19:52 +020
  • Protective effect of lacosamide and topiramate treatment against
           Pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction
           in rats

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 1005-1012
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e96185
      Authors : Michaela Shishmanova-Doseva : Cognitive impairment is considered the most common comorbidity in epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term treatment with lacosamide and topiramate on epileptogenesis and related cognitive dysfunction in an experimental model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling. The latter was induced by the repeated administration of subconvulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg, s.c.) on every alternate day for 8–9 weeks. Both drugs were applied daily in a dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. 30 min before PTZ injection. To assess behavioral comorbidities all rats underwent one active and one passive avoidance tests. The results show that lacosamide significantly suppressed the progression of kindling, while the effect of topiramate was not so pronounced on seizure development. Long-term treatment with both antiepileptic drugs managed to ameliorate the kindling-associated impairment of learning and memory. Lacosamide and topiramate improved active and passive learning abilities and facilitated the formation of short- and long-term memory traces. Both drugs failed to prevent the hyperactivity associated with epilepsy. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 18:18:01 +020
  • Network pharmacology to uncover potential anti-inflammatory and
           immunomodulatory constituents in Curcuma longa rhizome as complementary
           treatment in COVID-19

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 995-1003
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89799
      Authors : Raden Bayu Indradi, Dian Ayu Eka Pitaloka, Suryani Suryani : The immune status of patients plays an essential role in COVID-19. Herbal medicine with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect could have potential as a complementary therapeutic along with modern medicine. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory constituents of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and its possible mechanisms in COVID-19. We systematically sorted the biochemical of C. longa rhizome from literature and repository. Next, we investigated targets related to COVID-19 in the selected active phytochemical constituents and analyzed the possible mechanisms against COVID-19 and performed molecular docking with four essential target proteins in COVID-19 for further verification. Ten active phytochemical constituents of C. longa were predicted to interact with four protein targets. The epidermal growth factor was the most interacted protein targeted by Calebin A, curcumin, cyclocurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, turmeronol a, turmeronol b, caffeic acid, and quercetin. Interferon-gamma was performed as the most critical protein targeted by 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Curcumin was also predicted to interact with toll-like receptor 4 and Ar-turmerone with angiotensin II receptor type 2. We also reported four signaling pathways associated with target proteins-active phytochemical constituents against COVID-19: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, multi compounds in C. longa might act synergistically against COVID-19 by affecting the inflammatory and immune responses, and other pathological processes through multiple targets and pathways. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 10:44:27 +020
  • Design, synthesis and anti-diabetic activity of piperazine sulphonamide
           derivatives as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 987-993
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e95096
      Authors : Swarna Bharathi Kalli, V. Velmurugan : Type II diabetes (T2DM) is considered one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders in the world. It is known as insulin resistance and persistent hyperglycemia. Over the past decade, inhibition of the enzymatic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has indeed been demonstrated to be an efficient and safe intervention for type 2 diabetes. In order to develop innovative DPP-4 inhibitors, several in silico techniques including 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, in-silico toxicity has been performed to confirm a total of 18 novel piperazine and pyridine derivatives to be synthesized from many designed molecules. These molecules have indeed been docked onto the protein surface of the DPP-4 enzyme, and ADMET characteristics have also been generated in silico. The compounds were then developed and analysed using FT-IR. Then, these compounds were investigated for DPP-4 inhibition in vitro. The most promising compound 8h showed 27.32% inhibition at 10μmol L-1 concentration over DPP-4 so selected for further in-vivo anti-diabetic evaluation. Compound 8h decreased blood glucose excursion in a dose-dependent manner during the OGTT and STZ-induced glucose models in normal Albino Wistar rats. Low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in Albino Wistar rats treated chronically for 21 days with compound 8h resulted in a reduction in serum glucose levels. This highlighted that 8h is a moderately strong and specific blockbuster molecule that can be structurally modified to boost its effectiveness and overall pharmacological profile as a DPP-4 inhibitor. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 12:12:06 +020
  • Conjugation of a WOW Peptide with silver nanoparticles to face the
           increase of antimicrobial resistance during COVID 19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 981-985
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86254
      Authors : Ali H. Salama : Bacterial resistance is a difficult limitation in the treatment of infections. The potential antibacterial activity of WOW peptide conjugation with silver nanoparticles against selected pathogens is investigated in this study. The peptide WOW was created by combining two tryptophan subunits and one ornithine amino acid, and its purity was determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were used to confirm the WOW peptide. Silver nanoparticles conjugated with WOW were created by adding WOW to a solution of silver nitrate in the presence of the reducing agent sodium borohydride. The yellow-brown color indicated the presence of WOW-AgNPs, which was confirmed by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of WOW nanoparticles were determined using the micro dilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and ESBL Escherichia coli. The Erythrocyte Hemolytic Assay was used to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles conjugated with WOW. WOW alone was effective (MICs between 120 and 215 µgml-1) against both standard and resistant strains of bacteria. WOW –AgNPs, on the other hand, were more effective, with MICs ranging from 30 to 100 µgml-1 depending on the bacteria used. WOW -–after 30 minutes of incubation, silver nanoparticles at a concentration of 100 µgml-1 caused only 3% hemolysis in human erythrocytes.in conclusion, WOW –silver nanoparticles were found to have good antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Furthermore, the conjugate demonstrated low hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity. As a result, WOW conjugation with AgNPs is a promising treatment candidate for bacterial infection with low toxicity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 8 Nov 2022 10:09:57 +0200
  • Synthesis and evaluation of inhibitory potentials of microbial biofilms
           and quorum-sensing by 3-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene) pentane-2,4-dione and
           ethyl-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene) acetate

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 973-980
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87834
      Authors : Alfred Ngenge Tamfu, Wafia Boukhedena, Sameh Boudiba, Samir Deghboudj, Ozgur Ceylan : The virulence and resistance of pathogenic microorganisms are promoted by quorum-sensing (QS) mediated traits and biofilms. The development of antimicrobial agents which can reduce the incidence of microbial resistance by disrupting the establishment of biofilms and QS, constitute a suitable strategy to reduce the emergence of pathogenic strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In this study, 3-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene) pentane-2,4-dione (1) and ethyl-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene) acetate (2) were successfully synthesized and characterized using EIMS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques. On S. aureus, both compounds had MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations) of 0.625 mg/mL while on E. coli and C. albicans, compound 2 showed higher activity than compound 1. All compounds inhibited formation of biofilms by C. albicans and S. aureus at sub-MIC with compound 1 being more active than compound 2. On E. coli, only compound 1 inhibited biofilm formation. Violacein production of violacein in C. violaceum CV12472 and quorum sensing in C. violaceum CV026 were inhibited indicating that the compounds could block signal production and reception. Anti-quorum sensing at sub-MIC concentrations revealed by inhibition zones were 13.0±0.5 mm and 8.0±0.5 mm at MIC and MIC/2 respectively for compound 1 and for compound 2, they were 11.5±0.4 mm and 7.5±0.0 mm at MIC and MIC/2 respectively. Concentration-dependent swarming motility was exhibited by both compounds with compound 1 slightly more active than compound 2. The results indicate that the organosulphur compounds could be suitable candidates for modern antibiotics. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 7 Nov 2022 18:01:15 +0200
  • Evaluation of xanthine oxidase inhibitory, antioxidative activity of
           five selected Papua medicinal plants and correlation with phytochemical

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 965-972
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e91083
      Authors : Septriyanto Dirgantara, Muhamad Insanu, Irda Fidrianny : Some medicinal plants from Papua have been used traditionally as hyperuricemia and antioxidant agents for many ethnic in Papua Islands. The present study aims to evaluate inhibitory xanthine oxidase, antioxidative activities, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of five Papua selected medicinal plants, Myrmecodia beccarii, Villebrunea rubescens, Breynia cernua, Bridelia spp. and Dodonaea viscosa. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds with TLC-densitometric analysis, which is responsible for the biological activities of different plant extracts. Antioxidant was tested by 2,2- diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric ion antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods and expressed as the Antioxidant Activity Index (AAI). Xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity was evaluated by a spectrophotometer. The ethyl acetate of Myrmecodia beccarii extract (MEA) showed the highest antioxidative and XOI activity. The MEA extract from Papua may be developed as a new potential source of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agent. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 3 Nov 2022 18:37:11 +0200
  • Chemical and biological properties of bio-active compounds from
           garlic (Allium sativum)

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 955-964
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.93.e93604
      Authors : Aigerim Bazaraliyeva, Dias Moldashov, Aknur Turgumbayeva, Elmira Kartbayeva, Assem Kalykova, Lazzat Sarsenova, Raushan Issayeva : Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the oldest cultivated plants. It has been used as a spice, food, and folk medicine for many years. Garlic contains about 2000 biologically active components. For centuries, scientists have obtained a variety of compositions and physiological activities of garlic, depending on the methods of processing and extraction. Many review articles were published, where the object of the study was garlic. But there are very few broad literature reviews where garlic has been fully disclosed as a medicinal raw material. The study found that some garlic products and processing procedures were not standardized or tested for safety. A broad overview of this object can direct the attention of the scientific community in the right direction. This review contains various processing methods and yields from these extracts. In addition, most of the key physiological properties of the active substances of the raw materials are prescribed. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 09:52:52 +020
  • Effect of binder type on physical and in vitro properties of high dose
           inosine acedoben dimepranol tablets

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 947-953
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89410
      Authors : Krum Kafedjiiski : The present work was conducted with the aim to formulate and evaluate the immediate release of 1000 mg tablets containing Inosine Acedoben Dimepranol (IAD). All the samples of the tablets containing 1000 mg IAD were prepared by conventional wet granulation method. Various type of binders like povidone, wheat starch, pregelatinized starch (starch 1500TM , Colorcon), microcrystalline cellulose and macrogol 6000 were used to prepare some series of tablets. Granules were evaluated for pre-compression parameters and tablets were evaluated for post- compression parameters. The composition batch № IAD1000 L04 was found to be the best for producing IAD 1000 mg tablets. The optimal lubricant system is glycerol dibehenate at a concentration of 2.94% plus magnesium stearate at a concentration of 0.46%. Optimized formulation was evaluated for in-vitro dissolution test. Stability studies were performed for the selected composition. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2022 18:40:48 +030
  • Challenges to Online Pharmacy Classes during COVID 19 Pandemic: cross
           sectional study in Jordan

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 943-946
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86842
      Authors : Ali Salama, Khalil Altaif : Background: Covid 19 pandemic has had a strong influence on all aspects of life . One of these influence is education. The academic authorities in Jordan as in elsewhere across the world have shifted their method of teaching to online class. After four semester of online teaching it’s important for both teaching staff and students of pharmacy faculties to assess the trends and the preference of students to different methods of online teaching. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the COVID19 pandemic on online education for pharmacy students in Jordan’s faculties of pharmacy. Methods: We emailed a survey to the majority of students in Jordan’s pharmacy faculties during january and february 2022. Results: We received 230 responses, with 87.2 percent of respondents being female and the majority of the students being pharmacy students. Among the 230 respondents, 75% said they liked combining online and face-to-face training, while 13% said they preferred face-to-face instruction and only 12% said they favored online learning. The major challenges in online teaching during the pandemic are issues with in-person communication (87 percent), student assessment (65 percent) and use of technology tools (35 percent). Conclusion: Due to the fact that the survey was conducted during the fourth semester with the COVID 19 pandemic, and most students have gained confidence in using online technology and the university IT support, one can conclude that pharmacy students have a high level of confidence in the effectiveness of online pharmacy education. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Oct 2022 15:33:31 +030
  • Involvement of the opioidergic and nociceptinergic systems in the
           analgesic effects of novel nociceptin analogues after acute and chronic
           immobilization stress

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 935-942
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89379
      Authors : Ivelina Himcheva, Galya Tz. Stavreva, Emilia Naydenova, Adriana Bocheva : Stress is known to exert an influence on neuroendocrine, autonomic, hormonal functioning. Various stress models have been reported to induce analgesia. This is a phenomenon, referred to as stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ(N/OFQ) is a heptadecapeptide that has been found to play a direct role on pain perception. This study aimed to investigate the effects of novel nociceptin analogues on nociception after acute and chronic immobilization stress (CIS) and the involvement of the opioid and nociceptinergic systems in analgesic effects. Analgesic effects were examined by paw-pressure (PP) and hot-plate (HP) tests. Our data showed that acute immobilization stress induced hypoalgesia. The analgesic effect was more pronounced in pain caused by a mechanical stimulus than by a thermal one. CIS attenuated the hyperalgesic effect of naloxone and JTC-801 for mechanical and thermal stimulation. The effects of the opioid system are more pronounced in acute immobilization stress, while the nociceptin mechanisms predominate after chronic stress. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 6 Oct 2022 20:36:05 +0300
  • The effect of 1.3 bis(p-Hydroxyphenyl)urea compound on IL-6, IL-1β,
           TNF-α and COX-2 protein expression on λ-Carrageenan-induced rats

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 927-934
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89217
      Authors : Denny Satria, Syukur Berkat Waruwu, Yuandani Yuandani, Hari Purnomo, Urip Harahap : Objectives: This study aims to determine the protein expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 using an immunohistochemistry method based on the anti-inflammatory activity of intraplantar carrageenan solution in male rat paws. Materials and methods: Animals were provided with 1.3 bis(p-Hydroxyphenyl)urea at 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. This was administered approximately one hour before the 1% carrageenan induction. As a control measure, diclofenac sodium and CMC sodium 0.5% was similarly administered. After 360 mins, all of the rats were sacrificed, and the inflammatory tissue in the rat’s paw was acquired. The immunohistochemistry preparations were carried out to observe the expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. Results: The result showed a decrease in the expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2, all groups given 1.3 bis(p-Hydroxyphenyl)urea and diclofenac sodium compared to the control group CMC sodium 0.5% CMC sodium 0.5%. From the results of the mean difference test, it can be seen that the IL-1β expression at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/Kg BW was not significantly different from that of diclofenac sodium (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg BW was not significantly different from that of diclofenac sodium (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The 1.3 bis(p-Hydroxyphenyl)urea has anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the percentage of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 protein expression in rat’s paw inflammation tissue. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 4 Oct 2022 11:25:33 +0300
  • Sodium selenite supplementation does not reduce the effectiveness of
           X-ray irradiation treatment on human cancerous esophageal TE-8 cells

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 921-926
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86473
      Authors : Irma Melyani Puspitasari, Rizky Abdulah : Sodium selenite supplementation at a concentration 50 nM before X-ray irradiation was suggested to protect non-cancerous human esophageal CHEK-1 cells from irradiation-induced damage. This present study investigated those effects on cancerous human esophageal cell line. The human cancer esophageal cell line, TE-8, was cultured and supplemented for the cytotoxicity assay, the GPx-1 activity, the cell viability assay, clonogenic assay and western blot analysis. An apoptosis biomarker, Cleaved PARP, was used. The results show that cell survival post-irradiation of supplemented-cells had the same effect as the cells treated by irradiation only, tended to decrease the cell viability (p=0.27), and decrease the survival rate of cancerous cells (p=1.00). The cleaved PARP level was higher in supplemented-and irradiated- cells than cells with irradiation alone. These results suggest that 50 nM sodium selenite supplementation prior to irradiation does not reduce the effectiveness of irradiation treatment on cancerous cells. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 4 Oct 2022 10:27:27 +0300
  • Effects of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium on MMP-9 and GLUT-1 expression and
           histology changes in rats with cervical carcinoma

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(4): 911-920
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89368
      Authors : Rostime Hermayerni Simanullang, Putri Cahaya Situmorang, Jekson Martiar Siahaan, Sry Suryani Widjaja, Mutiara Mutiara : Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in Indonesia. It can be treated with molecular therapies targeting Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and Glucose transporter (GLUT-1), which are enzymes that are involved in tumour cell invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium (andaliman) is an Indonesian herb with anti-cancer properties. This study aimed to investigate the histological changes andaliman treatment caused in MMP-9 and GLUT-1 expression. This study used five groups of rats: control (C-), cancer model (C+), cancer-bearing rats with a 100-mg dose of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium methanol extract (ZAM)/BW (ZAM100), cancer-bearing rats with a 200-mg dose of ZAM /BW (ZAM200) and cancer-bearing rats with a 400-mg dose of ZAM/BW (ZAM400). Immunohistochemical methods were used to stain cervical tissue with MMP-9 and GLUT-1 antibodies, and a TUNEL assay was performed to investigate cell apoptosis. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium methanol extract administration did not affect rat body weight but had a significant effect on cervical cancer growth. There was an increase in MDA levels associated with SOD deficiency in tumour tissue. SOD activity increased due to ZAM administration, allowing cells to be protected from oxidant disruption and oxidative stress. ZAM ameliorated cervical carcinoma tissue damage and reduced the expression of MMP-9, GLUT-1 and apoptosis in serum and tissue (p < 0.01) In short, the higher the ZAM dose, the lower the expression of MMP-9, GLUT-1 and apoptosis, indicating that ZAM is effective to treat cervical cancer. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 3 Oct 2022 17:57:53 +0300
  • The acute effects of coffee consumption on blood glucose and it’s
           relationship with serum cortisol and insulin in females

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 903-910
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85397
      Authors : Yusni Yusni, Hanifah Yusuf : This research was aimed at analyzing the acute effects of Arabica black coffee consumption on blood glucose, insulin, and serum cortisol levels, as well as determining the pharmacological effects of black coffee as an antihyperglycemic. A randomized control trial with healthy female subjects was used in this study. There were 20 volunteers in total: 9 as the control group and 11 as the trial group. The treatment included brewing 10 grams of Gayo Arabica black coffee powder with 150 ml of boiling water. Blood glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels were measured twice, before and after 60 minutes of coffee consumption. An independent sample t-test (p < 0.05), Pearson correlation test (p < 0.05), and simple linear correlation test (p < 0.05) were used to analyze the data. Blood glucose levels and serum cortisol levels decreased significantly after coffee consumption in the trial group (p = 0.002* and p = 0.001*). There was no significant negative correlation between glucose and insulin levels (r = -0.122; p = 0.721). On the other hand, there was a significant positive correlation between cortisol levels and blood glucose (r = 0.651; p = 0.002*). In conclusion, a single cup of Gayo Arabica black coffee reduces blood sugar and serum cortisol levels, but does not increase serum insulin levels. Blood glucose levels correlate positively with serum cortisol levels in healthy female. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 10:40:28 +030
  • Pharmaceutical care and telemedicine during COVID-19: A cross-sectional
           study based on pharmacy students, pharmacists, and physicians in Jordan

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 891-901
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e90748
      Authors : Heba Khader, Ahmad Alsayed, Luai Z. Hasoun, Dalal Alnatour, Dima Awajan, Tasneem N. Alhosanie, Anas Samara : Lack of access to the patient medical record (90.6%) was the major barrier for the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice. The majority of participants (93.0%) encouraged creating a website that provides pharmaceutical care. Furthermore, 45.1% would pay for such a service if present. Moreover, the majority (89.8%) agreed that creating a comprehensive database for patients’ data will help in decreasing medical errors. Among the four aspects of pharmaceutical care (technical, psychosocial, communication and administrative) that were assessed for students and pharmacist’s, general weakness in all aspects was noticed. This study highlights that absence of proper documentation of patient medical information raises the risk of medical problems and is considered the most documented barrier for the integration of pharmaceutical care. This emphasizes the future role of telemedicine and the availability of a specialized website and database repository that stores patient’s information to ensure the continuity of care even during pandemics. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 10:35:49 +030
  • New QuEChERS method for quantification of Physalin B and D in Physalis
           angulata L. in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 883-890
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89580
      Authors : Kim-Ngan Huynh Nguyen, Lam Hoang Tran, Ngoc-Van Thi Nguyen, Ngan Tuyet Duong, Xuan-Trang Thi Dai, Cam-Thuy Thi Le, Kien Trung Nguyen : In Vietnam, Physalis angulata L. has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat fever, anti-inflammatory, and expectorant. Currently, there have been studies on the content of chemical composition especially physalin with anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, prevent cancer. This study developed a reliable and sensitive method to determine and validate simultaneous Physalin B and Physalin D in Physalis angulata L.. The QuEChERS method was used for sample preparation from leaf matrices and quantified by using High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector. The method of research was validated under AOAC and ICH guidance. Chromatography conditions include Agilent C18 column (250mm × 4,6mm; 5µm) with a gradient mode using acetonitrile – methanol-water as mobile phase. The recovery of the method ranged from 94.21 – 105.93% and RSD was from 1.20 – 2.31%, the LOD, and LOQ were 0.4 mg/kg – 2.4 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the study showed that the proposed the new QuEChERS method for quantification of Physalin B and D in Physalis angulata L. in Vietnam. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 10:34:53 +030
  • HPLC-DAD assay of flavonoids and evaluation of antioxidant
           activity of some herbal mixtures

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 873-881
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86486
      Authors : Alona Savych, Svitlana Marchyshyn, Olha Polonets, Olga Mala, Iryna Shcherba, Liubov Morozova : Medicinal plants and their combinations can influence various links of the pathogenetic mechanism of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications, due to the wide range of biologically active substance that they accumulate. Flavonoids deserve particular attention through their antioxidant properties. Three samples of herbal mixtures (sample 1 – Inula helenium rhizome with roots, Helichrysum arenarium flowers, Zea mays columns with stigmas, Origanum vulgare herb, Rosa majalis fruits, Taraxacum officinale roots; sample 2 – Cichorium intybus roots, Elymus repens rhizome, Helichrysum arenarium flowers, Rosa smajalis fruits, Zea mays columns with stigmas; sample 3 – Urtica dioica leaf, Taraxacum officinale roots, Vaccinium myrtillus leaf, Rosa majalis fruits, Mentha x Menthapiperita herb) were tested for flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. Using HPLC-DAD analysis the content of flavonoids was evaluated and an antioxidant activity by DPPH-radicals scavenging, ferrous ion chelating capacity and ferric reducing power were established for the herbal mixtures. Rutin prevails in sample 3, its content was 2745.66±0.21 μg/g; luteolin – in samples 1 and 2, its content was 371.31±0.07 μg/g and 313.48±0.13 μg/g, respectively. Flavonoids attribute to the antioxidant activity of the herbal mixtures, which was confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing power assay and ferrous ion chelating assay. The highest antioxidant capacity was found for sample 3 – IC50 of inhibition of DPPH radicals was 301.65±2.67 µg/mL compared to control – ascorbic acid (119.24±2.35 µg/mL), the ferric reducing power was 0.382 at 100 µg/mL compared to ascorbic acid (0.412 at 100 µg/mL) and IC50 of chelating capacity was 206.59±2.48 µg/mL compared to EDTA-Na2 (110.55±1.93 µg/mL). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 10:07:02 +030
  • Assessment of morphological pharmacognostic characteristics of the
           content and label information of dried herbs marketed as food supplements
           in Bulgaria

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 865-872
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87549
      Authors : Anna Gavrilova, Genadi Gavrilov : According to the current food legislation in Bulgaria the dried herbs are classified under the large group of food supplements and their trade is allowed in pharmacies, drugstores and grocery stores. The aim of this study is to assess the morphological pharmacognostic characteristics of the content and the additional information on the labels of food supplements containing dried herbs in Bulgaria, in the light of key standard and regulatory documents related to the quality of herbal substances and food supplements. 91 herbal substances of 10 main groups were studied, which included 103 commercial products from 8 companies. The authenticity of the herbal substances was confirmed with macro-and microscopic tests. The macroscopic morphological indicators which were used as elements of trade-commodity analysis were changes in color, presence of other parts of the same or different plants, organic and mineral impurities, evidences of diseases and pest infestations. The phenological phase in which the herbal substances had been collected was determined also. We found that very small part of the studied products meet the standards for all of the selected criteria according to the considered documents which implies the need of strengthening control. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Sep 2022 16:36:44 +030
  • Green synthesis of metronidazole or clindamycin-loaded hexagonal zinc

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 855-864
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e91057
      Authors : Saba Abdulmunem Habeeb, Asmaa H. Hammadi, Dhulfiqar Abed, Lena Fadhil Al-Jibouri : Green chemistry has become a fruitful approach for the synthesis of semiconductors and nanoparticles with various applications. Herein, we synthesized ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles (HNPs) by green precipitation method using fresh local Ziziphus leaf extract (Rhamnaceae) with a heating range of 60–80 in an alkaline medium. It was calcinated on a furnace at 500 °C for 2 h. to get a very fine and homogeneous pale-yellow powder which is then loaded with either metronidazole or clindamycin. The physical characterizations of the particles’ morphology, size, and purity were measured using the Scanning electron microscope, UV-spectroscopy, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The size of ZnO nanoparticles (44.63 nm) was measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the mean crystal size of the precursor (17.37 nm) was measured using X-ray diffraction methods (XRD). The antibacterial activity of these particles was measured against Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and analyzed using a “well-diffusion technique” which revealed that metronidazole or clindamycin-containing ZnO nanoparticles showed good bactericidal activity. Keywords HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 10:40:29 +030
  • Beneficial effects of vitamin D in the management of untreated
           hyperlipidemia in diabetic patients in Erbil, Iraq

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 847-853
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e90908
      Authors : Mohammed Khoshnaw, Kawa Dizaye : Hyperlipidemia is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. As hyperlipidemia plays a major part in atherosclerosis development and progression, this occurrence is linked to a significantly raised risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aims to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on lipid parameters in T2DM patients with untreated hyperlipidemia. Thirty-five T2DM patients with hyperlipidemia and vitamin D deficiency were supplemented with vitamin D for three months. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), calcium, lipid parameters, atherogenic indices, glucose, and HbA1c were recorded before and after the intervention. After supplementation, there was a statistically significant reduction in VLDL-C and triglycerides. Triglycerides showed a significant negative correlation with 25(OH)D. Atherogenic indices and HDL-C also improved significantly. Vitamin D supplementation had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of T2DM patients with untreated hyperlipidemia and vitamin D deficiency. Thus, vitamin D could be a valuable adjuvant therapy for these patients. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 10:32:27 +030
  • Therapeutic approach of glutathione/glutathione peroxidase-4 axis
           modulation in the light of ferroptosis

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 839-846
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87716
      Authors : Tsvetelin Georgiev, Petya Hadzhibozheva, Yanka Karamalakova, Ekaterina Georgieva, Favas Perinkadakatt, Zlatomir Ilinov, Krasimir Petkov, Julian Ananiev : In the 21st century beginning, the evidence of a new type of programmed cell death, different from apoptosis, began to accumulate. In 2012, the ferroptosis concept was officially introduced. It refers to a kind of cell death that is associated with iron accumulation in the cell, impaired redox potential, and ROS increment with concomitant lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several organ damages such as tumors, neurodegenerative, ischemia-reperfusion, inflammatory diseases, and others. In ferroptosis, the leading mechanism is the glutathione (GSH) depletion and inactivation of Glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), which strongly shifts the oxidative balance in the cell, leading to the activation of certain signalling pathways to induce oxidative death. The article aims to focus attention on the modulation of the GSH/GPX axis as a key factor in the treatment of these diseases. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 10:28:11 +030
  • Preparation process by desolvation method for enhanced loading of
           acyclovir nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 833-837
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86907
      Authors : Panita Suwannoi, Narong Sarisuta : The aim of this investigation was to qualitatively study on preparation process of enhanced loading acyclovir (ACV) in ACV-loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA) prepared by desolvation method with submerged jet of desolvating agent. The prepared ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles in sterile water for injection (SWI) and isotonic trehalose solution were shown to be monodisperse with sizes of around 120 to 200 nm and zeta potentials of around -7 to -50 mV. However, those in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were found to exhibit much larger sizes with polydispersity, which might be attributed to the effect of ionic strength. The loading efficiency was found to be around 60%. An increase in the amount of ACV added to the system could significantly improve the loading capacity by almost the same ratio, which may be due to molecular mixing behavior of submerged jet of desolvating agent. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 10:24:27 +030
  • Determination of some edible oils adulteration with paraffin oil
           using infrared spectroscopy

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 827-832
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e76175
      Authors : Andrei A. Bunaciu, Serban Fleschin, Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein : The spectroscopy of molecular vibrations using mid-infrared or near-infrared techniques was used more and more to characterize different compounds, including edible oil, in order to monitor any changes and to detect fraudulent modifications. This article presents a new method for quantitative adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) or corn germ oil (CGO) with a mineral oil, such as paraffin oil (PO). A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometric method, using ATR spectra, was developed for the rapid, direct measurement of edible oils adulteration. The results indicate the efficiency of the proposed method for the detection of paraffin oil in adulteration of EVOO and CGO with RSD (< 3.0%). Graphical abstract: HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 10:22:13 +030
  • The inhibitory activity of Cassia alata leaves extract on denv-2
           replication infected mice

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 821-826
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86777
      Authors : Marissa Angelina, Muhammad Hanafi, Tri Yuliani, Franciscus Suyatna, Tjahjani Mirawati Soediro, Beti Ernawati Dewi : Dengue fever is widely prevalent in Indonesia and many other tropical countries. There has been no antiviral protection against DENV (dengue virus) due to the scarcity of animal models that replicate the symptoms of its infection in humans. Subsequently, Balb/c mice were used to optimize the animal models that were infected with DENV, and measurements of DENV titer, platelet count and leukocytes counts were taken after six days of CA (Cassia alata leaves extract) treatment to examine the inhibitory activity of viral replication on dengue-infected mice. The results showed that CA significantly reduced DENV titer and increased platelet count compared to the control group (P < 0.05) but had no significant effect on leukocyte counts (P > 0.05). Therefore, it could be implied that Cassia alata could be further investigated for medication against DENV, prospectively. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 10:13:31 +030
  • Pharmacy graduates differences between governmental and private
           universities in Jordan

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 815-819
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e90903
      Authors : Saif Aldeen Jaber : Jordan is an attractive country for Jordanian and non-Jordanian university students in which it has two types of universities (private and governmental). Pharmacy is one of the fields to be studied by students due to the wide range of jobs involved in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. Thus, a high need for good quality assurance and collaboration between universities is needed due to the high competition among pharmacy graduates to build on their strengths and overcome their weaknesses. Method: A cross-sectional standardized online survey was conducted for private and governmental universities in Jordan graduates using a 19-item questionnaire. Results: Of a total number of 3771 pharmacy graduates, 1755 students (46.5) % were from private universities and 2016 (53.5)% were from governmental universities working in different pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fields participated in this study. According to SPSS results, the type of university has a strong and significant correlation with job field, graduates’ nationality, satisfaction, and cost of study with a P-value of less than 0.001. Conclusion: pharmacy institutions at private universities have a different system when comparing it with governmental universities which have a major contribution to pharmacy graduates. Thus, a community of practice from different institutions should be made to improve graduate outcomes. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 14:13:27 +030
  • Phenytoin concentration in people with epilepsy: a comparative
           study in serum and saliva

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 809-814
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87168
      Authors : Angel Alvarado, Gregoriana García, Alexis Morales, Gustavo Paredes, Miriam Mora, Ana María Muñoz, Ricardo Pariona, María R. Bendezú, Haydee Chávez, Jorge A. García, Doris Laos-Anchante, Berta Loja-Herrera, Mario Bolarte-Arteaga, Mario Pineda : In clinical practice, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) makes it possible to measure the concentration of drugs in serum or saliva, the purpose of which is to reduce adverse effects and optimize pharmacological therapy. The objective was to determine the concentrations of Phenytoin in saliva and serum of people with epilepsy. Cross-sectional, descriptive study with dynamic recruitment of 30 people with epilepsy (n = 30; 17 men, 56.7% and 13 women, 43.3%; mean age 33.9 ± 11.83 years). Serum and saliva samples were collected at trough levels from patients, who were under phenytoin treatment for at least three months. Drug levels were assessed by the Cloned Donor Enzyme Immunoassay method. Phenytoin levels were found in saliva between 0.01 to 3.56 mg/L and in serum between 0.09 to 36.60 mg/L. Pearson’s analysis showed an association between the estimated serum and saliva phenytoin concentrations (R2 0.7026; 95% CI 0.685-0.921), with a significant statistical correlation (p < 0.05). The Bland-Altman test broke concordance, the difference between the two saliva/serum methods is within 95% confidence. It is concluded that there is an association and concordance between the concentrations of phenytoin in serum and saliva, therefore, this technique can be useful in the clinical monitoring of phenytoin. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 14:12:44 +030
  • Binary or ternary mixture of solid dispersion: Meloxicam case

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 801-808
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86744
      Authors : Ghaidaa Sulaiman Hameed, Masar Basim Mohsin Mohamed, Mohanad Naji Sahib : The present work was carried out to assess the value of adding water insoluble polymer to meloxicam amorphous solid formulation (ASD). Meloxicam was mixed with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (1:1 ratio) as a binary mixture and with PVP and ethyl cellulose (1:1:1 ratio) as a ternary mixture. Solvent evaporation method was used to prepare ASD formulations. The differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-Ray diffraction, Cambridge Structural Database and in-vitro dissolution were performed to assess the formulas. The results showed that the addition of insoluble polymer could prevent the recrystallization process during ASD formation. However, the binary mixture showed higher drug release percentage than the ternary mixture. Therefore, a rational amount of insoluble polymer could be considered to control recrystallization and manipulate drug release from ASD formulations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 14:11:59 +030
  • Tobacco smokers as target group for complicated coronavirus

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 791-800
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e91095
      Authors : Petar Atanasov, Maria Moneva-Sakelarieva, Yozlem Kobakova, Danka Obreshkova, Ivaylo Ivanov, Mariya Chaneva, Mihaela Popova, Valentina Petkova, Stefka Ivanova : The aim of current study was to determine, retrospectively, possible correlations between smoking and the incidence, course severity, intubation rate, and mortality (by gender and age) in patients treated for complicated coronavirus infection in the internal medicine clinic at UMHATEM ”N. I. Pirogov” Sofia for the period 01.03.2020–31.12.2020. In a prospective study, the recovery period and immunogenesis in smokers and non-smokers within a one-year period after hospital discharge was investigated. The applied methods were: 1) computed tomography and blood gas analysis 2) chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative determination of total IgM, IgA and IgG anti-SARS-CoV2 AB. Results showed that the part of non-smokers with a positive PCR test is significantly higher compared to the group of former and current smokers. The data obtained from the study confirmed that Covid infection is much more severe among smokers and former smokers with a higher levels of inflammatory markers noticed among the smoking group. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 09:39:42 +030
  • Development of amlodipine and enalapril combined tablets based on quality
           by design and artificial neural network for confirming of qualitative

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 779-789
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86876
      Authors : Nataliia Behei, Oksana Tryhubchak, Bogdan Pryymak : Using approaches of Quality by design, namely dispersion analysis, random balance method, regression analysis and neural networks, the composition and technology tablets based on amlodipine besylate and enalapril maleate have been developed. Using dispersion analysis was determined the effect of 30 excipients on 10 pharmaco-technological parameters of tablets. With the help of the desirability function, the leaders of the excipients were selected from 6 functional groups. It was confirmed that the composition with the best pharmaco-technological parameters, determined by using statistical methods, coincides with the results studies the synthesized Feed-forward neural network. The quantities of preferable excipients at 3 levels were identified by the random balance method. The relationship between the studied factors and the quality of the tablets was described by regression equations. Based on the placement of equal output lines, the optimal composition of amlodipine tablets with enalapril was established. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Aug 2022 10:31:22 +030
  • Factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients with
           coronary heart disease

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 771-777
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87279
      Authors : Febio Gutama, Melisa Intan Barliana, Irma Melyani Puspitasari : Coronary heart disease (CHD) contributes to decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This review article investigates the factors that can affect the HRQOL in CHD patients. A literature search from PubMed and EBSCO databases was performed until March 2021 with predetermined keywords. The review of 15 included articles showed that many factors that can affect the HRQOL by using EQ-5D instrument in CHD patients, such as education, gender, comorbidity, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)/coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) intervention, patient-physician interaction, obesity, physical activity, numbers of medication, smoking, self-efficacy, social/family life, alcohol drinking, income, employment, and behavioral risk factor profile. The top three factors associated with HRQOL in CHD patients were education, gender, and comorbidity. Therefore, we should pay more attention to CHD patients with lower education levels, females, and comorbidity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2022 17:58:59 +030
  • Vitamin D as a drug: new therapeutic approaches

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 765-770
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85057
      Authors : Mohd Alaraj, Fahaad S. Alenazi, Dania Hassan, Ashfaque Hossain : Vitamin D is one of the essential vitamins and has recently been demonstrated to be much more important for the appropriate functioning of the human body and well-being than initially believed. Although vitamin D is mainly known for its link with bone fractures and bone diseases, recent studies revealed that vitamin D and its analogues have revealed many pharmacological actions covering the regulation of cell growth, inhibition of inflammation, and improvement of neuromuscular function and immune function. Moreover, vitamin D and its analogues are reported to have role in different types of cancers, skin diseases, diabetes mellitus and infections caused by different bacterial and viral pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study is to evaluate the scientific literature on therapeutic uses of vitamin D and its analogues against different diseases and health condition. Special attention has been given to COVID-19 infection, cancer, skin diseases, and diabetes. The molecular mechanisms involved are also explored. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2022 17:58:03 +030
  • A comparative study of combination treatments in metastatic 4t1 cells:

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 755-764
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85358
      Authors : Dhiya Altememy, Pooria Mohammadi Arvejeh, Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Akram Alizadeh, Madineh Mazarei, Pegah Khosravian : Background: Combination therapy has been one of the most pioneering and strategic approaches implemented for malignancy treatment, which can intentionally influence multiple signaling pathways involved in cancer growth and progression. In the present study, the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in combination with everolimus (EVE) or lithium chloride (LiCl) were evaluated in 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cells and compared to control and each other. Methods and results: The resazurin assay, CompuSyn, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR were used to investigate cell proliferation, drug synergism, apoptosis, and gene expression. In comparison to the ternary combination of the drugs, the findings showed that cytotoxicity (p-value < 0.0001) and apoptosis (p-value < 0.0001) of two-by-two combinations increased dramatically as a consequence of the extreme synergy between 5FU and EVE or LiCl. Moreover, the hypoxia­inducible transcription factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) downregulated considerably compared to control (p-value < 0.0001) by combination therapies of EVE-5FU and 5FU-LiCl; however, only VEGF displayed significant downregulation in comparison to single therapies. Conclusion: The findings showed that the combination of 5FU-LiCl increased cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis significantly more than EVE-5FU but suggests a clinical potential for both to treat metastatic breast cancer encouraging validation of these results in pre-clinical models. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 9 Aug 2022 16:19:12 +0300
  • Combination of selected Thai traditional pain relief medicinal plants
           with anti-inflammatory abilities in a protein denaturation assay

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 745-753
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86904
      Authors : Orawan Theanphong, Pathom Somwong : Crateva adansonii DC, Maerua siamensis (Kurz) Pax, and Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Müll. Arg. have long been used as ingredients in compound herbal medicines to relieve pain in Thailand. In this study, an albumin denaturation inhibition experiment was used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extracts of these plants and their mixture. Lupeol, the active molecule responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity, was chosen as a chemical marker for the extracts. All plant extracts demonstrated anti-inflammatory potential. Their IC50 values ranged from 1.19 to 7.31 mg/mL. This blend showed the strongest anti-inflammatory effect, with a 0.5-fold increase in activity when compared to diclofenac. Lupeol, an anti-inflammatory agent, is one of the chemical constituents of the selected medicinal plants. Its content ranged from 0.04 to 8.60% w/w, as determined by HPLC in this study. It means that the plants, alone and in combination, are a good source of herbs for further pharmacological study and product development. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 8 Aug 2022 10:50:41 +0300
  • Molecular docking investigation of anti-inflammatory herbal compounds
           as potential LOX-5 and COX-2 inhibitors

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 733-744
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e89400
      Authors : Liliia Vyshnevska, Hanna I. Severina, Yuliya Prokopenko, Alexander Shmalko : According to the World Journal of Gastroenterology, more than 5 million people worldwide suffer from inflammatory bowel disease. The use of phytotherapeutic remedies in treatment of chronic inflammatory processes can be an effective alternative in patient’s therapy. The advantage of herbal medicines is the ability to influence various links of pathogenesis, lack of addiction, and the absence of withdrawal syndrome with long-term use in chronic pathology. In order to develop a new combined remedy with anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of colitis, thirteen herbs, which are used in official or traditional medicine in inflammatory processes, were selected among the Ukrainian flora members. To select the most promising drugs and optimize further pharmacological research, molecular docking of the main active substances of the selected herbs to the fundamental pro-inflammatory enzymes – lipoxygenase-5 (LOX-5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) – was carried out. Native inhibitors AKBA and celecoxib, respectively, were used as the reference ligands. The selection of candidate structures for in silico research was carried out according to the bibliosemantic research and logical-structural analysis concerning anti-inflammatory effect of the substances, which are part of chemical composition of the selected herbs. Molecular docking results have shown a high affinity level for the active site of the LOX-5 inhibitor gallotannin, quercetin, inulin, sitosterine, and moderate for ellagic acid. High affinity level for the active site of the COX-2 inhibitor was found for inulin, quercetin, gallotannin, ellagic acid and urticin A, moderate one – for gallic acid. For the further pharmacological in vitro and in vivo studies for anti-inflammatory activity, medicinal herbs with the highest content of the mentioned compounds were selected: Inula helenium, Cichorium intybus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Foeniculum vulgare, Equisetum arvense, Veronica officinalis. Besides, it is recommended to use aqueous extracts of the selected herbs for the further pharmacological studies. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Aug 2022 10:23:06 +0300
  • Synthesis and antioxidant activity of

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 719-731
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86036
      Authors : Yevhenii Novodvorskyi, Dmitry Lega, Igor Komarov, Iryna Zhuravel, Oleg Moskalenko, Anatolii Demchenko : Synthesis and structure elucidation of several series of new hydrazones containing 1,2,4-triazine-5-one core and their antioxidant activity are presented. The target compounds have been synthesized via interaction of either 4-amino-6-(tert-butyl)-3-hydrazinyl-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one or 6-(tert-butyl)-3-hydrazinyl-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one with a wide range of compounds with a carbonyl group in moderate to high yields. Molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analyses. The antioxidant activity of these compounds against ascorbic acid was screened to determine their potential as promising oxidative stress suppressors. Our data showed that hydrazones derived from 4-amino-6-(tert-butyl)-3-hydrazinyl-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one are the most active antioxidants among all tested compounds. Furthermore, 3 compounds of this series have been proved to be twice as active as ascorbic acid does. The conclusions are substantiated for in-depth investigations of these derivatives as promising agents for the treatment of disorders accompanied by oxidative stress. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Aug 2022 10:21:47 +0300
  • The long and stumble way to find potential active compounds from plants
           for defeating hepatitis B and C: review

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 699-708
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85160
      Authors : Anjar Hermadi Saputro, Aluicia Anita Artarini, Daryono Hadi Tjahjono, Sophi Damayanti : Hepatitis is a liver illness caused by virus such as hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B and C are considerably more usual and induce more cirrhosis and dead worldwide than hepatitis A. Although drugs that are currently often used in the medication of hepatitis B and C, the finding of recent drug from various resources including herbal has been intensively developed. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to consider the possibility of plant’s compounds as anti-HBV and anti-HCV. From the results of a review of several articles, several plant’s compound have shown effectiveness againts HBV and HCV by in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies. In conclusion, several plant’s active compounds are possibility to be developed as anti-hepatitis B and C. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 3 Aug 2022 15:47:26 +0300
  • Quality control standardization of Indonesian noni fruit (Morinda
           citrifolia) extract and evaluation of their angiotensin-converting enzyme
           inhibitory activity

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 709-717
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86854
      Authors : Rizna Triana Dewi, Gian Primahana, Abdi Wira Septama, Marrisa Angelina, Lia Meilawati, Sofa Fajriah, Greesty F. Swandiny : Morinda citrifolia fruit (Noni) has been used as a folk medicine in several countries. Noni possessed various pharmacological activities such as; anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antarthritic, and antioxidants. The present study evaluated pharmacognostic properties, profiling of active constituent through High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (LC-HRMS) run for quantitative and qualitative phytochemical analysis and determining angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity of Noni from three different locations. The physicochemical parameters of crude drugs and extracts met the requirement of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopeia. Total phenol content was 2.16-3.08 mg GAE/g extract and total flavonoid content was 0.11 - 1.58 mg QE/g extract. HPTLC analysis revealed that scopoletin content in Noni was in the range of 0.44 - 0.51%. The results were also corresponding well with LC-HRMS fingerprint analysis. In addition, Noni fruit extract from Bogor potential exhibited activity in inhibiting ACE with an IC50 value of 206.26 µg/mL. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 3 Aug 2022 09:31:21 +0300
  • A review of the Phyllanthus genus plants: Their phytochemistry,
           traditional uses, and potential inhibition of xanthine oxidase

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 681-687
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87013
      Authors : Husnunnisa Husnunnisa, Rika Hartati, Rachmat Mauludin, Muhamad Insanu : Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for gout and other cardiovascular diseases. One of the therapies used is Allopurinol. Unfortunately, it has unwanted side effects. These conditions made researchers continue to seek and develop alternative treatments from natural products. One of which is from plants of the Phyllanthus genus. One of their contents was polyphenols, especially flavonoids. It is an alternative treatment for hyperuricemia because of its minimal side effects. The flavonoids in this genus were reported to have xanthine oxidase inhibitory: quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin with IC50 values ​​from 0.44 M to> 100μM. The presence of π-π interactions between planar rings A and C on flavones with phe 1009 and phe 914 and the addition of hydroxyl groups on flavonoid compounds plays a crucial role in inhibiting xanthine oxidase. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jul 2022 12:13:18 +030
  • Construction of network pharmacology-based approach and potential
           mechanism from major components of Coriander sativum L. against COVID-19

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 689-697
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e84388
      Authors : Ridho Islamie, Iksen Iksen, Bayu Cakra Buana, Kasta Gurning, Hariyadi Dharmawan Syahputra, Hanafis Sastra Winata : Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Despite the fact that various therapeutic compounds have shown potential prevention or treatment, no specific medicine has been developed for the COVID-19 pandemic. Natural products have recently been suggested as a possible treatment option for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. This study focused on the potential of Coriander sativum L. (CSL) against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology approach. Interested candidates of CSL were identified by searching accessible databases for protein–protein interactions with the COVID-19. An additional GO and KEGG pathway analysis was carried out in order to identify the related mechanism of action. In the end, 51 targets were obtained through network pharmacology analysis with EGFR, AR, JAK2, PARP1, and CTSB become the core target. CSL may have favorable effects on COVID-19 through a number of important pathways, according to GO and KEGG pathway analyses. These findings suggest that CSL may prevent and inhibit the several processes related to COVID-19. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jul 2022 10:40:43 +030
  • Adherence to medication and glucose control in diabetic patients in Duhok,

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 673-679
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86649
      Authors : Omer Allela, Hishyar Mohammed Salih, Idris Haji Ahmed : Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive disorder that causes a variety of health problems. Adherence to medication is a major factor in the treatment outcome. The goal of this study is to translate and test the psychometric features of the Kurdish version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: The research used a cross-sectional approach. The researchers looked at a convenient sample of diabetic Kurdish individuals. MMAS-8 was translated into Kurdish using a normal “forward–backward” technique. It was then tested on 307 type 2 diabetic outpatients in a convenience sample. Internal consistency was checked for reliability. Convergent and known group validity were used to confirm validity. For the authentic statistical analysis, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used. Results: According to MMAS-8, 20 patients (6.5%) had a high adherence rate, 66 (21.5%) had a medium adherence rate, and 221 (72%) had a low adherence rate. There was no significant link between adherence score and gender (P = 0.055), illness duration (P = 0.251), or educational level (P = 0.12). There was a significant connection between adherence and HBA1C (P 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this validation study show that the Kurdish version of the MMAS-8 is a reliable and valid measure of medication adherence that may now be used. non-adherent. Developing patients’ treatment adherence will improve treatment managements and control. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 21:12:55 +030
  • Investigation of amino acids content in the herb and tubers of Stachys

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 665-672
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86227
      Authors : Svitlana Marchyshyn, Yuriy Mysula, Vitalii Kishchuk, Liudmyla Slobodianiuk, Elina Parashchuk, Liliia Budniak : The aim of this research was the comparative study of the content of the amino acids in the herb and tubers of Stachys sieboldii. The study of the amino acid composition of the raw materials was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained have shown that the aerial parts of plants investigated have higher amino acid content than the underground organs. Free and bound L-aspartic acid, L-proline, and L-phenylalanine were present in the analyzed samples in the greatest amount. Moreover, L-cysteine was found only in Stachys sieboldii tubers in amounts (8.11 mg/g). This research established that Stachys sieboldii herb and tubers have the most suitable amino acids composition and are prospective for further pharmacological studies. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 21:12:04 +030
  • Raw material “Trifolii pratense herba” originated from southern
           Ukraine: diagnostic microscopic features and its antioxidant activity

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 655-663
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86416
      Authors : Olena Grechana, Inna Shevchenko, Anna Rudnik, Olena Saliy, Larysa Fukleva, Anatoly Serbin : As a result of pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies, diagnostic signs of Trifolii pratense grass collected in the phenophase of active flowering in the area of southern Ukraine were revealed. We have proposed the adoption of an appendix to the existing monograph of the State Service of Ukraine on Medicines and Drugs Control “Trifolii inflorescences”, with raw material of grass Trifolii pratense, with appropriate microscopic identification of diagnostic signs of leaves and stems of the plant. According to our previously found optimal conditions for extraction of medicinal plant raw materials (ratio of solvent-plant material, time and temperature of extraction), selected aqueous extract (1: 5) of clover grass with yields of maximum active substances to the extract from 60 min to 24 hours, which showed lower values of TBARS (0.541 ± 0.0291 μM / g, mean ± SD), which gives grounds to recommend the use of raw materials as an antioxidant, compared with the action of ascorbic acid. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 13:33:43 +030
  • Influence of chemical structure and mechanism of hydrolysis on
           pharmacological activity and toxicological profile of approved platinum

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 645-653
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e87494
      Authors : Danka Obreshkova, Stefka Ivanova, Pavlina Yordanova-Laleva : The problems with platinum complexes are resistance and toxicity of anticancer therapy. The aim of current study is the comparison of the influence of chemical structure and mechanism of hydrolysis on pharmacological activity and toxicological profile of approved in platinum drugs: Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin, Nedaplatin, Lobaplatin, Heptaplatin, Satraplatin. Hydrolysis of Carboplatin and Nedaplatin occurs by double step hydration, to obtain the same active products as with Cisplatin: diaqudiamine-platinum. The similarity in mechanisms of hydrolysis of Oxaliplatin, Lobaplatin Heptaplatin, and Satraplatin is that the first part of the hydrolysis corresponds to the ring-opening and addition of the first water molecule, and in the second step of reaction occur the loss of the ligand and the formation of the di-aquated product by the addition of a second water molecule. Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin are nephrotoxic. Cisplatin and Heptaplatin are nephrotoxic. The similar dose-limiting effects of Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin, Nedaplatin, Lobaplatin, and Satraplatin is myelosuppression. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jul 2022 15:58:39 +030
  • Determination of the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria
           isolated from the Black sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 637-644
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia69..e84850
      Authors : Tsveteslava Ignatova-Ivanova, Sevginar Ibryamova, Darina Bachvarova, Seniha Salim, Simona Valkova, Yoanna Simeonova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Radoslav Ivanov, Nesho Chipev, Nikolay Natchev : The present study reports on the determination of the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the Black sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819. The samples were collected in the period of August 2018 until March 2021. The BIOLOG system was used for microbiological determination. From the mussel M. galloprovincialis Lam. four species of LAB were isolated - Sporolactobacillus kofuensis, Lactobacillus sakei, Streptococcus gallolyticus ss gallolyticus and Lactibacillus brevis. The activity of the strains was determined against test cultures (Escherichia coli 3398, Staphylococus aureus 745, Bacillus subtilis 6633, Salmonella typhimurium 3591, Listeria monocytogens 863 Enterobacter aerogenes 3691, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium claviforme, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans 8673 and Candida glabrata 72). Before the analysis for antimicrobial activity, the LAB were cultured in media with different concentrations of sugars - 2, 5 and 10%. The results showed that 4 strains S. kofuensis, L. sakei, S. gallolyticus ss gallolyticus and L. brevis cultured on glucose and oligosaccharides completely lost their activity in all studied variants. Therefore, some carbohydrates (glucose) and oligosaccharides induce the synthesis outside the cell of biologically active molecules, which can probably be attributed to peptides/proteins. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jul 2022 15:50:47 +030
  • In vivo antitumor activity study of targeted chlorambucil-loaded nanolipid
           carrier for breast cancer

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 631-636
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85390
      Authors : Ameer S. Sahib, Osamah N. Wennas, Bassam Wafaa Mahdi, Raid Mohamed Al abood : Chlorambucil (CBL) is an efficient anticancer drug. It is a lipophilic agent with serious adverse effects. The objective of this study was to formulate a CBL-loaded nanolipid carrier and target breast cancer using folic acid as a targeting probe. Characterizations of the optimum formulation were 79.9±3% EE after the addition of 4mg CBL, 119±6nm particle size which is considered appropriate for parenteral use, 0.3±0.02 PDI, -42±1mV ZP that stabilized the formulation. Tumor volume, body weight, and tumor mass weight were recorded to evaluate tumor volume doubling time, tumor growth inhibition rate, and systemic toxicity. It appeared there was a significant antitumor activity of targeted formulation compared with non-targeted one and free CBL. Moreover, the systemic toxicity was less after body weight evaluation concerning the targeted formulation when compared with other formulations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 8 Jul 2022 19:15:02 +0300
  • Optimization of alcohol extraction and spray-drying conditions for
           efficient processing and quality evaluation of instant tea powder from
           lotus and green tea leaves

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 621-630
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e84650
      Authors : Tuyen Thi Linh Nguyen, Thong Le Minh, Duong Quang Do, Ngoc-Van Thi Nguyen : Lotus and Green Tea leaves are two frequently used medicinal plants in Vietnam, utilized as food, drink, or in traditional treatments to help with weight loss and cholesterol reduction. The study’s major goal is to determine the parameters of the process preparation in order to generate instant tea powder that satisfies quality criteria for customer demand. Twenty experiments are conducted using the D-optimal model to evaluate the cause-effect relationship and optimize the production process of instant tea powder. Four independent variables are selected for the survey namely alcohol concentration (40%; 50%; 60%), carrier mass (10 g; 20 g; 30 g), inlet air temperature (160 °C; 170 °C) and flow rate (4 rpm/min; 5 rpm/min). The instant tea powder is effectively created and met quality parameters, with a drying performance, moisture content, total phenol and flavonoid content of 29.15%, 4.83%, 45.29 mg GA/g, and 70.68 mg QE/g, respectively. In conclusion, the optimal parameters of the preparation process were identified, which included an alcohol content of 60%, a carrier mass of 10 g, an inlet air temperature of 165 °C, and a flow rate of 4 rpm/min. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 6 Jul 2022 11:09:48 +0300
  • Simple and rapid LC-MS/MS method for determination of Piribedil in
           human plasma

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 615-620
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.63.e86447
      Authors : Anas Alshishani, Inas Hasan, Fatima Ghanayem, Sewar Al-khasawneh, Alaa Abu Dayah : A sensitive, simple, and fast LC-MS/MS method of analysis was developed and validated for the determination of piribedil in human plasma. Piribedil was extracted by protein precipitation using acetonitrile and separated on C18 Phenomenex Gemini column (150 × 4.6mm, 5 µm) using isocratic elution of 75% of ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM) and 25% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml.min-1 over 5 min run time. Piribedil and d8-Piribedil, as internal standard, were detected and quantified in positive ion mode via MRM at m/z 299/135 and 307/135 for piribedil and d8–piribedil, respectively. The suggested method for piribedil was validated according to FDA and EMA guidelines. The standard calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 3.4–5952 pg.ml-1. The intra-day precision was 2.45–9.94% and accuracy 92.78–99.97%. The inter-day precision was 2.14–5.47% and accuracy 95.73–101.99%. The recovery of analyte and IS was 96.94% and 111.18%, respectively. piribedil in plasma was stable at benchtop (short term) for 24 h, in autosampler tray for 48 h, in instrumentation room for 24 h (post-preparative), after 5 freeze-thaw cycles (–70 °C), and 11 days in the freezer (–70 °C). The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of piribedil formulations involving 15 healthy Jordanian volunteers. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 5 Jul 2022 18:18:42 +0300
  • Synthesis, docking study, and structure-activity relationship of novel
           niflumic acid derivatives acting as anticancer agents by inhibiting VEGFR
           or EGFR tyrosine kinase activities

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 595-614
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e86504
      Authors : Yahya Yaseen, Ammar Kubba, Wurood Shihab, Lubna Tahtamouni : A new series of niflumic acid (NF) derivatives were synthesized by esterification of (NF) to give ester compound 1, which was treated with hydrazine hydrate to produce (NF) hydrazide 2. Hydrazine-1-carboxamide compounds (3A–C), and hydrazine-1-carbothioamide derivatives (4A–D) were synthesized by treatment of (NF) hydrazide with phenyl isocyanate, and phenyl isothiocyanate derivatives, respectively. The cyclization of (4B–D) and (3B) was achieved using NaOH solution to produce 1,2,4-triazole derivatives (5A–C) and 6, respectively. The prepared compounds were characterized using IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and MS (ESI) spectroscopy. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the binding affinity of the synthesized compounds against EGFR and VEGFR kinase domains which revealed that compounds 3B, and 4A had the best binding energy (-7.87, and -7.33 kcal/mol, respectively) against VEGFR, while compound 5A had the best binding energy (-7.95 kcal/mol) against EGFR. The biological investigation results indicated that all the tested compounds caused cell killing in the two cancer cell lines (Hep G2 and A549) studied, with compound 4C being the most cytotoxic, as well as being cancer selective. Additionally, compound 4C-treated Hep G2 cells were arrested at the S and G2/M cell cycle phases. Cytotoxicity of compound 4C was attributed to apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR results of the apoptosis markers p53, BAX, and caspase-3. Finally, compound 4C inhibited VEGFR kinase activity, while compound 5B inhibited EGFR kinase activity. In conclusion, the novel (NF) derivatives are potent anticancer agents, inhibiting cell proliferation by inhibiting EGFR and VEGFR tyrosine kinase enzymes. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 5 Jul 2022 11:39:12 +0300
  • Pharmacists‘ attitudes to dispensing food supplements to chronically
           ill patients: a pilot survey among community pharmacies in Bulgaria

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(3): 589-593
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85471
      Authors : Antoaneta Balkanska-Mitkova, Antoniya Yaneva, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Maria Dimitrova : Background: Within the last years, excessive utilization of food supplements for prevention and prophylaxis in different chronic diseases is observed. In order to extend the control on the arrangement of the market, utilization, and safety of food supplements, the European Commission took genuine regulatory steps to harmonize the criteria for FS and to guarantee that they are not giving deceiving information. However, excessive use, uncontrolled patients consumption, exposure to higher than recommended intakes, and even interaction with specific medicines can cause toxicity risks and pose serious health concerns. The aim of this study is to examine the tendency of pharmacists to correctly recommend food supplements to chronically ill patients in order to extend the pharmaceutical care and prevent side effects. Materials and methods: The used method is an anonymous survey that was conducted by using the direct questionnaire method among master pharmacists and assistant pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Bulgaria. Results: The results show that the majority of the pharmacists are willing to recommend food supplements and that they could participate in the monitoring of chronically ill patients with food supplements intake. On the other side, the survey shows that most of the patients are seeking for food supplements and do ask for advice. Conclusion: In conclusion, pharmacists as the most accessible health care professionals can provide more detailed information concerning food supplements in order to avoid negative effects on the safety of chronically ill patients, especially with additional training in the field. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 5 Jul 2022 11:38:38 +0300
  • Synergistic effect of obeticholic acid and fasting-mimicking on
           proliferative, migration, and survival signaling in prostate cancer

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 579-587
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e81452
      Authors : Wrood S. Al-khfajy, Inam Sameh Arif, Basma T. Al-sudani : The systemic and resistant nature of the androgen-independent stage of prostate cancers makes it largely incurable even after intensive multimodal therapy. Apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are two fundamental events that are deeply linked to carcinogenesis. Hence, it is necessary to find a new combination of several therapies targeting apoptosis and EMT without causing side effects. Several recent studies have indicated that the Farnesoid X receptor is extensively associated with human tumorigenesis. The FXR agonist obeticholic acid (INT 747) has preliminarily exhibited a tumor suppressor potential. In this present study, we assess the potential synergism of FXR activation under nutrient deprivation in prostate cancer cell lines to investigate whether FXR activation enhances starvation-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells. In this study, PC-3 treatment with INT 747 significantly repressed cell proliferation and clonogenic potential. In addition, it significantly induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells and decreased their cancerogenic potential, as evaluated by annexin v apoptosis and transwell migration assay, respectively. The decreased expression of pro-caspase 3 by western blot analysis further confirmed INT 747-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) potentiated the antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, and antimetastatic effects of INT 747. Mechanistically, these effects were mediated through the downregulation of cyclin D1 and upregulation of PTEN. In conclusion, INT 747 alone markedly decreases, and when combined with FMD abrogates the growth and migration of PC-3 cells. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 17:04:49 +030
  • Adaptation of communication assessment tool for community pharmacists
           in medication adherence and minor diseases management

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 571-578
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e80742
      Authors : Corrado Giua, Sara Mucherino, Nicolina Floris, Enrico Keber, Gregory Makoul, Daniela Scala, Valentina Orlando, Enrica Menditto : Aim: To develop two versions of the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) skilled for the setting of community pharmacy and to pilot test it on a selected sample. Materials: Development of two versions of CAT-tool for community pharmacists. Validity and reliability assessments were required to determine the psychometric properties of developed tool versions. To investigate the construct validity of each adapted tool item, confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Reliability was assessed with the Cronbach’s Alpha evaluation, internal validity by submitting tool versions to patients of eleven pharmacies from North, Center, and South of Italy for pilot testing. Results: Two CAT versions were developed and tested: CAT-Pharm-community Adherence to therapy and Minor Disease Management versions. First to evaluate pharmacist-patient communication following the dispensing of a prescription drug, second a consultation for minor disease management. Conclusion: Communication tools are useful to implement optimal management of chronic diseases to minimize non-adherence and patients’ negative health outcomes. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 10:30:19 +030
  • Changes of ultrastructural organization in periodontal complex
           components in experimental periodontitis and its correction with quercetin

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 563-569
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82128
      Authors : Andrii Demkovych, Lesia Rubas, Vitalii Luchynskyi, Yuliia Luchynska, Halyna Stoikevych, Volodymyr Machogan : The article presents the results of study the changes of ultrastructural organization in the periodontal complex under conditions of experimental bacterial-immune periodontitis development and treatment effect of flavonol quercetin. Experimental bacterial-immune periodontitis in experimental animals was caused by injection of complex mixture of microorganisms diluted with egg protein into periodontal tissue. The evaluation of the ultrastructural character changes in the gingival area of the periodontal complex was carried out on the basis of electron microscopic examination. In a result study on the 7th day of the experiment were observed changes that manifested disorders of the connective tissue and vessels structure. It were also marked increased diffusive leukocytic infiltration of the connective tissue of the mucosal gingival lamina propria. There was some improvement in respect of the electron microscopic structure of the microcirculatory vessels on the 14th and 30th days of the experiment. The performed studies of hemocapillaries submicroscopic organization of the animal’s gums mucous membrane in conditions of application quercetin for experimental periodontitis has shown that flavonol improved structural organization considerably. The use of quercetin improves the organization of all ultrastructured components of the periodontal complex in experimental periodontitis. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 14:52:24 +030
  • Analysis of e-catalogue drug prices in the era of Universal Health
           Coverage in the Indonesian pharmaceutical industry

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 555-562
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e83068
      Authors : Satibi Satibi, Luthfi Kinanthi Kirana P, Mella Aziza P, Monica Hutasoit, Prasojo Pribadi : Context: Since the implementation of the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) policy in Indonesia, the drug procurement system has changed to using the e-catalogue system. The impact of this policy change on the pharmaceutical industry in Indonesia is unclear and has not been widely studied. Objectives: This study analyzes the impact of the UHC policy on drug pricing by the pharmaceutical industry in Indonesia. Methods: This study collects data from 3 pharmaceutical industries that won the e-catalogue drug tender. Data on drug prices produced by these 3 industries in 2013 were taken from the Drug Price Ceiling List, while drug prices in 2015 and 2018 were obtained from the e-catalogue drug list. The drug price data is compared from year to year to see the trend of change and the magnitude of the change. Data were analyzed using a price index calculation adapted from the concept of Median Price Ratio (MRP) calculation to compare drug prices in 2013 with drug prices per each region in 2015 and 2018 in the Microsoft Excel Office application as a measuring tool. Results: There was a change in drug prices from the era before UHC (in 2013) and after the UHC era (in 2015 and 2018). There are drugs that have increased in price and some have decreased in price. The price increase ranged from 0.01–6.15 in 2015 and 0.01–6.46 in 2018. The price decrease ranged between 0.04–0.75 in 2015 and 0.01–0.83 in 2018. Conclusion: Drug prices from before the UHC era (2013 and 2015) to after UHC (in 2018) experienced a change in the form of an increase or decrease in price. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jun 2022 17:33:42 +030
  • Strategies to improve the vaccine distribution and community awareness
           of taking COVID-19 vaccine in rural areas in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 543-553
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e81525
      Authors : Florence Sudari, Ilga Priskilla, Monica Febiola, Rano K. Sinuraya : COVID-19 has spread worldwide, and several governments, including Indonesia, are actively vaccinating. However, numerous factors may contribute to decreased vaccination administration, including hesitation, a lack of information, and demographic considerations. Therefore, this review provides insights on maximizing vaccine distribution and raising community awareness about COVID-19 vaccination in rural regions with difficulty in transportation access, a lack of health care workers, and limited vaccine storage facilities. It was discovered that numerous potential methods, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), bio-tracking and bio-detect, P-median, and Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), can monitor vaccination delivery in rural parts of Indonesia. The correct vaccine distribution system can monitor situations during distribution by combining IoT technology with bio-tracking and bio-detect in airborne transportation. Besides enhancing vaccine distribution technologies, healthcare professionals play a critical role in maintaining vaccine quality and improving community awareness of diseases. In particular, as a healthcare professional, a pharmacist has an essential role in ensuring the quality of the vaccine until it is administered to the patient and improving patients’ awareness of COVID-19 and the vaccinations. Pharmacists can collaborate with other healthcare professionals to educate the community to identify important information related to wrong perceptions about COVID-19 and vaccinations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 9 Jun 2022 17:51:07 +0300
  • Prevalence and eradication efficacy of Helicobacter pylori infection in
           children in the Mekong delta, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 535-541
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e85554
      Authors : Duc Long Tran, Trung Kien Nguyen, Thi Thu Cuc Nguyen, Thi Thuy Loan Le, Cong Ly Tran, Thi Gai Le, Duy Toan Pham, Minh Phuong Nguyen : Background: Worldwide, Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in children with peptic ulcer and/or gastritis (PUG) is increasingly common. In Vietnam, clinical symptoms of HP infection in PUG children are often non-specific, and treatment regimens currently have a low success rate. Objective: This study determined the HP infection prevalence, its clinical and endoscopic findings, and its associated factors. Additionally, the efficiencies of HP treatment regimens in PUG children were also evaluated. Design and setting: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 140 pediatric patients diagnosed with PUG at Can Tho Children’s Hospital from 2017–2019. Results: The prevalence of HP infection in PUG children was 46.4%. A significant association was found between HP infection and patient possessing a family history of HP infection (aOR: 2.35 (1.1–4.76). Symptoms of abdominal pain accounted for the highest rate of 88.6%, followed by vomiting, heartburn, epigastric burning, and gastric bleeding (57.9%, 36.4%, 22.9%, and 13.6%, respectively). Endoscopic findings denoted that inflammatory lesions accounted for 85% and ulcers accounted for 15%. The successful HP eradication rate using the PAM regimen (Proton pump inhibitor/amoxicillin/metronidazole) was 51.8%, with 13.6% of PUG children encountering side effects. Conclusion: PUG children have a high rate of HP infection. Clinical symptoms are often non-specific, in which abdominal pain is the most common symptom. The success of HP eradication by the standard guideline of the Vietnam Ministry of Health is quite low. Thus, critical adjustments in the regimens are necessary. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 8 Jun 2022 15:08:55 +0300
  • Nitric oxide-mediated effects of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in acute
           toxic liver injury

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 527-534
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e83067
      Authors : Vitalij Datsko, Halyna Loi, Tamara Datsko, Alla Mudra, Anna Mykolenko, Tetyana Golovata, Mykhailo Furdela, Yurii Orel, Iryna Smachylo, Andrii Burak, Mykola Klantsa, Oleksandra Oleshchuk : This study was aimed to investigate nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms of L-ornithine-L-aspartate (LOLA) action in acute toxic liver injury in rats. Acute hepatitis was induced in Wistar rats using 50% oil solution of tetrachloromethane (CCl4) intragastrically (2 g/kg) twice in a 24 hour interval. Intraperitoneal treatment with LOLA (200 mg/kg) was started 6 hours after the second CCl4 administration and maintained for 3 consecutive days. L-Nω-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) was used intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg). In CCl4-induced hepatitis, LOLA restores the structure of hepatocytes and prevents aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase elevation. It decreases total bilirubin concentration but does not affect increased cholesterol level. LOLA augments urea concentration, total protein level in blood and liver as well as serum and liver content of nitrite anions. LOLA enhances activity of catalase, glutathione S-transferase, manganese superoxide dismutase, increases reduced glutathione level and total antioxidant capacity and decreases thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level. The concomitant use of L-NAME inhibits the action of LOLA to enhance nitrite anions synthesis both in serum and liver, to delay the recovery of hepatocytes, to counteract LOLA effect against blood total protein reduction, to prevent the decline in aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase,, gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutathione S-transferase activity and to reduce catalase activity and reduced glutathione level. Therefore, in CCl4-induced hepatitis, LOLA effectively prevents cytolysis and cholestasis, improves liver metabolism and protects against oxidative stress. Partially, these changes occur in nitric oxide-mediated mechanism since the use of L-NAME declines most of LOLA effects. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 7 Jun 2022 13:35:55 +0300
  • 5-year inventory management of drug products using ABC-VEN analysis in
           the pharmacy store of a specialized public hospital in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 517-525
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e84348
      Authors : Phuc Hung Nguyen, Thi Van Kieu Dang, Phuong Thuy Nguyen, Thi My Huong Vo, Thi Tuyet Minh Nguyen : In developing economies, expenses of healthcare delivery have risen disproportionally to the monetary backing supplied by the federal government. However, issues relating to inventory control alongside regulating the pharmaceutical market have been recognized. We conducted a systematic categorization based on ABC and VEN analysis for available drugs at Can Tho Dermatological Hospital (CTDH) from 2016–2020, thereby making evidence-based recommendations for public authorities to attain rationality in monitoring the stock supply network. Results revealed that ratio of Category I with the highest cost and importance to the annual revenues was barely 88%. Meanwhile, fractions of Category II and III to the overall expenses were 5–10% and below 5%, respectively. Given scarce funds, it is crucial that Essential drugs be utilized effectively. Thanks to ABC-VEN integrated matrix, we uncovered medicines for which significant savings could be achieved. This method has proven to be a powerful tool in decision-making for importation and stockholding. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 7 Jun 2022 13:34:53 +0300
  • Therapy of post-COVID-19 syndrome: improving the efficiency and safety
           of basic metabolic drug treatment with tiazotic acid (thiotriazoline)

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 509-516
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82596
      Authors : Igor Belenichev, Lyudmyla Kucherenko, Sergii Pavlov, Nina Bukhtiyarova, Olena Popazova, Natalia Derevianko, Ganna Nimenko : COVID-19 leads to disruption of the blood coagulation system, to thrombosis, hypercoagulability, as a result, to an increased risk of strokes and heart attacks. During COVID-19, endothelial dysfunction develops associated with NO deficiency with decrease in the level of SH compounds. Tiazotic acid (Thiotriazoline) has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ischemic, cardio- and endothelioprotective, antiplatelet, hepatoprotective activity. Our studies conducted at the National Research Medical Center “University Clinic of ZSMU” with the participation of 57 patients (from 30 to 65 years old) with post-COVID syndrome, who received thiotriazol with basic therapy in either tablets (200 mg each) or suppositories Dalmaxin (0.2 g each) twice a day for 30 days. Inclusion criteria for the study were a positive PCR test for COVID-19; if the PCR test was negative, then the presence of IgM COVID-19 or IgG COVID-19 (with radiologically confirmed pneumonia). The following biochemical parameters were studied: C-reactive protein - by immunoturbodimetric method; D-dimer - by enzyme immunoassay; ferritin - by immunochemiluminescent method; endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) - by ELISA method; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin; international normalized ratio (INR) and determination of platelet aggregation. During treatment with thiotriazoline, significant increase in the eNOS content was recorded, which indicated the presence of endothelioprotective activity of the drug. Thiotriazoline significantly reduced the level of D-dimer in the blood of patients, and also led to the normalization of INR. The established effects testified to the presence of antiplatelet and fibrinolytic action of thiotriazoline and its ability to reduce the risks of heart attacks and strokes in post-COVID syndrome. Thiotriazoline led to an objective improvement in general clinical parameters in patients with post-COVID syndrome, complaints of palpitations disappeared, blood pressure stabilized. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2022 10:16:55 +0300
  • Activity of Lepidium meyenii Walp (purple maca) in immunosuppressed
           Oryctolagus cuniculus (albino rabbits)

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 501-507
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e80033
      Authors : Angel T. Alvarado, Carlos Navarro, Mario Pineda, Laura Villanueva, Ana María Muñoz, María R. Bendezú, Haydee Chávez, Jorge A. García : Various properties are attributed to “maca”, including immunomodulatory properties due to its secondary metabolites such as macamides, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates and flavonoids. Immunosuppression, hemolytic anemia, and thymic involution were induced with cyclophosphamide. Three concentrations of doses of dehydrated hydroalcoholic extract of purple maca (EHADM) were used for 30 days, the analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple comparisons test the results are statistically significant (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2022 10:16:08 +0300
  • Regulatory and risk oriented approach to the design and development of
           medical devices in accordance with Ukraine regulations

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 493-500
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82316
      Authors : Inna Bondarets, Lyudmila Sidorenko, Victoriya Georgiyants, Volodymyr Mishchenko : Based on the interpretation of regulatory requirements to describe the approach to risk-oriented medical devices design and development strategy and approaches to their certification in Ukraine market. The approach to the medical devices design and development strategy is described taking into account the classification by level of risk; a tree of decisions on determining the risk class and certification of medical devices according to the requirements of the Technical Regulation № 753 is presented. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Jun 2022 21:28:16 +0300
  • Anticholesterol activity of ethanol extract of Ranti Hitam (Solanum
           blumei Nees ex Blume) Leaves: In vivo and In silico study

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 485-492
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e84913
      Authors : Murniaty Simorangkir, Saronom Silaban, Destria Roza : Ranti Hitam known as local name of (Solanum blumei Nees ex Blume) found in the Dairi, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. It is used by the community as traditional medicine which contains of various phytochemical constituent of steroidal alkaloids of β2-solanin, diosgenin, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The purpose of the study was to investigate the anticholesterol activity of the ethanol extract of (Solanum blumei Nees ex Blume) by in vivo and insilico methods. A number of 15 rats were divided into 5 treatment groups as in vivo high fat diet model, otherwise insilico study was carried out to determine the activity of main compound of S. blumei in inhibiting HMG Co-A reductase. The bioactive compounds of S. blumei, diosgenin (C26H39O4) and β2-solanine (C39H63NO11) showed inhibition activity to HMG-CoA reductase by in silico and invivo test and it was indicated that 2 bioactive compounds of S. blumei had anticholesterol activity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 1 Jun 2022 19:01:08 +0300
  • Bibliometric analysis of articles on nanoemulsion and/or in-situ gel
           for ocular drug delivery system published during the 2011–2021 period

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 467-484
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82847
      Authors : Siti Fatmawati Fatimah, Endang Lukitaningsih, Ronny Martien, Akhmad Kharis Nugroho : The bibliometric data were extracted from the Scopus database to investigate the conceptual framework of ocular nanoemulsion and/or in-situ gel drug delivery system using “ocular” AND “nanoemulsion” OR “in-situ gel” keywords. The data were evaluated with RStudio and VOSviewer program. The results reveal that the publication trends tend to increase continually. India is the most impactful country, and the most constructive institution is Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. International Journal of Pharmaceutics is the top influential source. Ali A is the most prolific author. The title of the most impactful article was In-situ gelling systems based on Pluronic F127/Pluronic F68 formulations for ocular drug delivery”. “Controlled release” is the most popular keyword. These results provide insights for stimulating research collaborations and revealing open issues of controlled-release ocular preparation to overcome an ocular barrier and enhance patient compliance. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 10:04:25 +030
  • Investigating the effect of Fenofibrate on biomarkers of vascular
           inflammation in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 459-465
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e81078
      Authors : Begard Berzinji, Kawa Dizaye : This study aims to evaluate the impact of fenofibrate on the levels of (IL-6, hsCRP, Lp-PLA2, sCD40L, and cystatin C) in hypertensive rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups each of twelve. The first group served as the normotensive group, while the second group was regarded as the hypertensive group. Each group was further divided into two subgroups (control and treated). The control subgroups only received a placebo and the treated subgroups were given fenofibrate 30 mg/kg daily orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The level of hsCRP, IL6, and Lp-PLA2 significantly increased, but sCD40L and cystatin C levels were not changed in hypertensive rats. Fenofibrate has significantly reduced the levels of hsCRP and Lp-LPA2 in hypertensive rats while IL6 and sCD40s have not been changed in both groups. In conclusion, Fenofibrate has revealed a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the level of hsCRP and Lp-LPA2 in hypertensive rats. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 10:48:19 +030
  • Study of intestinal microbial flora of local chickens to investigate
           the effect of probiotics Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans on the
           expression of ctxM and luxS pathogenic genes in isolates of Escherichia

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 453-457
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e80807
      Authors : Zahra Elahianfiroz, Majid Baseri Salehi, Masood Ghane : Background and objective: Antibiotics are widely used worldwide. However, due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in a wide range of microorganisms, their use worldwide has failed. Probiotics are suggested as complementary and alternative medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics isolated from local chickens on the expression of luxS and ctxM genes in resistant Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: 300 fecal samples were taken from patients referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran during May–September 2016 and Escherichia coli samples were isolated using specific culture media and biochemical tests and then the presence of luxS and ctxM genes were identified using PCR with specific primers. In order to extract the probiotics forming spores, the intestinal contents of 10 poultry that had not used any antibiotics and probiotics were cultured, isolated, and identified using biochemical and PCR methods. Commercial strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans were purchased to compare their effects with native bacteria. These strains were then co-cultured with resistant Escherichia coli strains containing ctxM and luxS genes. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the effect of these probiotics on gene expression Results: The results indicated that 40 isolates (7.5%) of Escherichia coli were obtained from the 300 fecal samples. Thirteen samples (32.5%) were outpatients and 27 (67.5%) were inpatients. All isolates were isolated from men and women aged 21–62. Four Escherichia coli strains were isolated from patients carrying ctxM and luxS genes. Isolation of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis from samples was confirmed by biochemical and molecular experiments. The commercial and native strains of Bacillus coagulans reduced the expression of the luxS and ctxM genes by 3.60, 3.30, 1.58, and 2.70 times respectively. Also, the commercial and native strains of Bacillus subtilis decreased the expression of the luxS and ctxM genes by 1.37, 1.10, 2.20, and 2.80 times respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between the presence of native and commercial probiotics in culture and reduced expression of ctxM and luxS genes. Conclusion: According to the results, supplements of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis increase the effect of antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli by reducing the expression of resistance genes. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 10:47:43 +030
  • Phytochemical extraction and comparative analysis of antioxidant
           activities of Areca catechu L. nut extracts

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 447-451
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e77829
      Authors : Ajesh Kumar A, S.S. Syed Abuthahir, Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein : FRAP assay proved all the extracts of Areca catechu L. nut have antioxidant properties because IC50 values of all the extracts of the same were less than that of ascorbic acid. Remaining antioxidant assays like DPPH radical scavenging assay, H2O2 scavenging assay, and Fe2+ chelating assay showed more antioxidant properties in ethyl acetate extract and nonpolar solvent extracts like n- hexane, and chloroform respectively. Antioxidant properties of Areca catechu L. nut varied depending upon the different solvent extract. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 10:47:10 +030
  • Determination of amino acids of plants from Angelica L. genus by
           HPLC method

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 437-446
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e83705
      Authors : Liliia Budniak, Liudmyla Slobodianiuk, Svitlana Marchyshyn, Ihor Potishnyi : One of the tasks of pharmaceutical science is to find new sources of effective drugs. Such sources include plants such as Angelica archangelica L. and Angelica sylvestris L., which have been used for many years to treat various diseases in folk medicine. Because the chemical composition of these plants is poorly understood, the aim of our study was to investigate the amino acid composition of the leaves of A. archangelica L. and A. sylvestris L. The amino acids of the leaves of the study species of the genus Angelica L. were determined by the HPLC method. Eighteen free and nineteen bound amino acids were identified in the leaves of A. archangelica L. The A. sylvestris L. leaves contained nineteen free and the same amount of bound amino acids. High concentrations of free and bound amino acids such as L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid predominate in A. archangelica L. and A. sylvestris L. This allowed these amino acids to be considered distinguishing markers of the study plants. Character metabolic processes in which these amino acids take part may be associated with the medicinal properties of these plants pursuant to their use in medicine and, therefore, may contribute to the insight of their therapeutic properties. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 16 May 2022 17:31:20 +030
  • The effectiveness of the use of polypeptide drugs and their effect on
           the metabolic parameters of oral fluid in patients with generalized
           periodontitis in depending on blood type

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 429-435
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82421
      Authors : Yurii Bandrivsky, Orysia Bandrivska, Nataliia Malko, Larysa Posolenyk, Oksana Vydoinyk, Maryana Iskiv : The article presents the results of treatment of 157 patients with generalized periodontitis depending on blood type using polypeptide drugs. The concentration of total protein, C – reactive protein, IgG, TRACP, BSALP, albumin, amylase, lipase, Ca, Fe was determined in the oral fluid. The treatment allowed to reduce the content of total protein, C – reactive protein, TRACP in the oral fluid with increasing levels of calcium, Fe, BSALP, in relation to the relevant data before treatment. And also, polypeptide drugs helped to increase the level of albumin in representatives of 0 (I) and A (II) blood type in the oral fluid; contributed to a decrease: glucose, IgG with increasing activity, amylase and lipase in carriers of B (III) and AB (IV) blood type in the oral fluid, in relation to the values before treatment. The dynamics of indicators of oral fluid metabolism with the help of polypeptide drugs, convincingly proves the effectiveness of their use in the treatment of generalized periodontitis in patients with different blood type. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 16 May 2022 13:24:48 +030
  • Synthesis, docking study, and structure activity relationship of novel
           anti-tumor 1, 2, 4 triazole derivatives incorporating 2-(2, 3- dimethyl
           aminobenzoic acid) moiety

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 415-428
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e83158
      Authors : Hiba Alsaad, Ammar Kubba, Lubna H. Tahtamouni, Ali H. Hamzah : A series of 1,2,4 triazole derivatives (H7-12) have been synthesized by reacting an excess of hydrazine hydrate with carbothioamide derivatives (H1-6). The final compounds (HB1-HB6) were synthesized by reacting the triazole derivatives with mefenamic acid using DCC as a coupling agent. The chemical structures were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H, and 13C-NMR spectra, and some physicochemical properties were determined. The cytotoxicity of the different compounds (HB1-HB6) was evaluated by the MTT assay against two human epithelial cancer cell lines, A549 lung carcinoma and Hep G2 hepatocyte carcinoma, and one normal human cell line WI-38 lung fibroblasts. The mode of cell killing (apoptosis versus necrosis), as well as the effect on cell cycle phases were evaluated via flow cytometry. Additionally, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition assay was performed. The results presented in the current study indicate that the six tested compounds exhibited cytotoxicity against both cancer cell lines, and the lowest IC50 was achieved with compound HB5 against Hep G2 cancer cells which was found to be highly selective against cancer cells. HB5-treated Hep G2 cells were arrested at the S and G2/M cell cycle phases. Compound HB5 caused cell killing via apoptosis rather than necrosis, and this was achieved by inhibiting EGFR tyrosine kinase activity needed for cell proliferation, and cell cycle progression. In silico pre-ADMET studies confirmed all final compounds don’t cause CNS side effects, with little liver dysfunction effect. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 16:33:00 +030
  • Method development and validation of cabozantinib by LC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 407-413
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82684
      Authors : Punna Venkateshwarlu, Mehul M. Patel : The objective of this method is to be simple, precise, and economical performed by LC-MS/MS instrument. The mass spectrometric determination was performed using electrospray ionization in the positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and precursor to product ion transition to product ion of m/z 502.2 > 323 for cabozantinib. The effective separation of cabozantinib was achieved X-Bridge (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µ) column and the mobile phase composition is 0.2% formic acid: acetonitrile (40:60 v/v), pumped at 0.12 ml/min flow rate. The Rt of cabozantinib was found to be 1.34 minutes. The LOD and LOQ were found at 1.5 ng/ml and 5 ng/ml concentrations and linearity concentrations were in a range of 5 ng/ml to 75 ng/ml with a regression correlation coefficient of 0.999. The % RSD value of accuracy was observed at 1.2–2.0. The marketed formulation assay was found to be 99.82%. The developed method and validation parameters were accepted as per USFDA guidelines. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 18:22:48 +030
  • Serum monitoring of carbamazepine in patients with epilepsy and
           clinical implications

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 401-406
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82425
      Authors : Angel T. Alvarado, Gustavo Paredes, Gregoriana García, Alexis Morales, Ana María Muñoz, María Saravia, Ricardo Losno, María R. Bendezú, Haydee Chávez, Jorge A. García, Mario Pineda, Luis Sullón-Dextre : Carbamazepine is a drug with a narrow therapeutic range that requires clinical monitoring, since its toxic effects are not easily predictable, and the therapeutic level can vary. Our study aimed to monitor the serum level and determine the concentration/dose relationship of carbamazepine in people with epilepsy, analyzing its clinical implication. It is observed that 90.48% of the study volunteers present serum level values (4.3–10.4 mg/L) within the therapeutic range (4–12 mg/L); 7.14% present supratherapeutic levels (12.7–14.4 mg/L), 2.38% subtherapeutic (0.93 mg/L). The findings indicate a negative correlation (r = -0.616; r2 = 0.379; p = 0.001), between the dose (mg/day) and the dose ratio (mg/L/mg/day); and a positive correlation (r = 0.544; r2 = 0.296; p = 0.002), between the dose (mg/day)-serum concentration (mg/L). ANOVA and Tukey’s test mean difference is significant (p
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 18:21:02 +030
  • HPLC-DAD assay of phenols profile in Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 393-399
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e81654
      Authors : Roksolana Basaraba, Alona Savych, Svitlana Marchyshyn, Nataliіa Muzyka, Pavlina Ilashchuk : Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae family) – is a perennial herb, commonly found in dry grasslands and sandy or stony places from Eurasian areas. It is known in traditional medicine as antioxidant, diuretic, choleretic and anti-inflammatory remedy. This species should be reconsidered as possible sources of phenols, mainly flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate a chromatographic method for detection of phenols and their identification in A. dioica herb. HPLC-DAD method was evaluated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, accuracy, LOD and LOQ. The calibration curves of thirteen reference substances were linear (R2 > 0.99) over the range of 5–400 µg/mL, the LODs and the LOQs were in the range of 0.1–0.3 µg/mL and 0.2–1.0 µg/mL, respectively. During HPLC-DAD assay two flavones – luteolin, apigenin; flavonol – quercetin and three its glycosides – rutin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin; coumarins: coumarin and umbelliferone; five hydroxycinnamic acids – chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic and rosmarinic were identified in A. dioica herb. This phytochemical study of A. dioica confirms that this plant material is a rich source of phenolic compounds. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 18:19:19 +030
  • Dynamics insights into aggregation of phospholipid species with
           cholesterol and vitamin C

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 385-391
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e81435
      Authors : Dwi Hudiyanti, Sherllyn Meida Christa, Nur Hanna Mardhiyyah, Daru Seto Bagus Anugrah, Tatik Widiarih, Parsaoran Siahaan : This paper provides dynamic insight into the aggregation profile of systems containing six different phospholipid species, cholesterol, and vitamin C thru Coarse-Grain Molecular Dynamics (CGMD) simulations. The simulation used 42 systems, and each system was composed of 220 molecules of each phospholipid species, a varied number of cholesterol molecules (0, 11, 22, 33, 66, 88), and 10 vitamin C molecules. The phospholipid species were DLPE, DOPE, DLiPE, DOPS, DLiPS, and DLiPC. We found curved bilayer, toroidal bilayer, concave micelle, disc-like bilayer, planar bilayer, and liposome structures in the systems during the 40 ns simulation. The systems with a ratio cholesterol:phospholipid between 15% and 40% formed liposomes regardless of the phospholipid species. Cholesterol is positioned in the liposome bilayer while vitamin C is encapsulated in the aqueous core of liposomes for all cholesterol compositions. The cholesterol influences the liposome formation of various phospholipid species and the encapsulation of vitamin C in the liposome structure. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 18:17:41 +030
  • Inhibitory effects on HepG2 cell proliferation and induction of cell
           cycle arrest by Chromolaena odorata leaf extract and fractions

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 377-384
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e80498
      Authors : Hanifah Yusuf, Marhami Fahriani, Cut Murzalina, Rumaisa Dhifa Mawaddah : Concern about the side effects of liver cancer treatment has driven studies on anticancer to find compounds from plants that can act as chemotherapy. The anticancer activity of Chromolaena odorata against colorectal cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and liver cancer has been proven. However, this plant’s mechanism that can inhibit liver cancer cell growth is still undetermined. This study aims to investigate the anticancer activity of C. odorata against HepG2 cells. Extraction of C. odorata leaves was done by maceration method using 80% ethanol and further fractionated. Total flavonoid and major compound of the crude extract were determined by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method. The IC50 and proliferation analysis was performed by MTT assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by using flowcytometry. Total flavonoid of 1.95% and compounds such as 5,7,8,3ʹ,4ʹ-Pentamethoxyflavonone, 1-Carboethoxy-β-carboline, 3-Methylcanthin-2, 6- dion, Canthin-6-one were found in C. odorata. The proliferation of HepG2 was significantly lower after 72 hours of incubation with ½ IC50 of C. odorata fractions. HepG2 cells treated with C. odorata extract and fractions were accumulated in the G0-G1 phase. These results indicated that C. odorata leaves could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce cell cycle arrest. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 18:15:02 +030
  • Inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on xanthine
           oxidase activity from bovine milk

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 363-375
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e77740
      Authors : Hasnah Natsir, Abdur Rahman Arif, Abdul Wahid Wahab, Prastawa Budi, Rugaiyah Andi Arfah, Arwansyah Arwansyah, Ahmad Fudholi, Ni Luh Suriani, Achmad Himawan : Moringa oleifera is a tropical plant in the Moringaceae family that contains a lot of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to isolate and characterize the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO), and conducted inhibitory tests on XO using methanol extracts of M. oleifera leaves. The xanthine oxidase enzyme isolated from bovine milk was characterized to determine the optimum pH, temperature, and substrate concentration. XO inhibition was evaluated by in vitro and in silico methods. The results of XO isolation and characterization of bovine milk showed the optimum conditions at pH 6.5, substrate concentration of 0.1 mM, and temperature 35 °C with an activity rate of 32.47 mU/mL; 21.55 mU/mL, and 21.94 mU/mL. Inhibition analysis results on methanol extract of M. oleifera leaves showed the highest activity decrease at the extract concentration of 160 ppm, with a relative inhibition value of 21.35%, while allopurinol as a positive control has a relative value inhibition of 61.21%. Relative value inhibition indicated the potential of M. oleifera leaves as a source of medicinal plants for gout sufferers. Additionally, a computational analysis was performed to observe the molecular interaction between the primary compounds of M. oleifera leaves, i.e., 5-O-acetyl-thio-octyl-β-L-rhamnofuranoside, quinic acid, and 2-dimethyl(trimethylsilylmethyl)silyloxymethyltetrahydrofuran, and XO using the molecular docking method. The finding implied that these compounds are bound to the catalytic sites of XO by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, indicating the primary compounds of M. oleifera leaves could become XO inhibitors to treat gout disease. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 18:15:49 +030
  • Synthesis, in silico prediction of sites of metabolism and in-vitro
           hepatotoxicity evaluationofnew seriesN’-substituted

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 351-361
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e83535
      Authors : Javor Mitkov, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Maya Georgieva, Alexander Zlatkov : New series of 3-(1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthin-8-ylthio)propanehydrazide derivatives were designed and synthesized. The targed compounds were obtained in yields of 54 to 100% and their structures were elucidated by FTIR,1H NMR,13C NMR, MS and microanalyses. The tested compounds were subjected to in silico prediction of sites of metabolism (SOMs). The predictions show thatthe main metabolic changes will be primarily related to oxidation of the sulfur atom in the side chain, carried out under the action of CYP2C19, as well as O-demethylation of compounds containing methoxy groups.The N-demethylation of the xanthine fragment was determined to be regulated by CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Theperformed in vitro studies confirmed for two of the tested compounds to be low hepatotoxic, due to the presented prooxidant effects at subcellular level (isolated rat liver microsomes). These results highlight these molecules as promising hydrazide-hydrazone structures for the design of compounds with low hepatotoxicity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 18:54:07 +030
  • Measuring medication adherence of hypertensive patients with
           monotherapy treatment in a community health center by utilizing medication
           possession ratio

    • Abstract: Pharmacia 69(2): 345-350
      DOI : 10.3897/pharmacia.69.e82330
      Authors : Irma Melyani Puspitasari, Laila Nur Azizah, Rano Kurnia Sinuraya, Sofa Dewi Alfian, Rizky Abdulah : Adherence is a particular concern in treating hypertension, and non-adherence to antihypertensive drugs might cause uncontrolled hypertension. This study aimed to measure retrospectively the medication adherence of hypertensive patients with monotherapy treatment in a community health center (Puskesmas) in Bandung city, Indonesia. The retrospective patient data from 2011 to 2015 were obtained from an electronic prescription database. The patient data of those diagnosed with hypertension, >18 years old, and who received mono-antihypertensive therapy within a 12-month period were included in this study. To assess medication adherence, the medication possession ratio (MPR) was applied. Out of 780 patients, 93.6% of patients showed poor adherence, about 5.8% showed intermediate adherence, and 0.6% of patients had high adherence. Males and females showed different levels of adherence (p
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 14:52:03 +030
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