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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 319)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Advances in Traditional Medicine
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2662-4052 - ISSN (Online) 2662-4060
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Healing indigestion: a phytotherapeutic review

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      Abstract: Abstract Any abnormality in digesting food or lack of proper digestion is termed as indigestion. It refers to variety of gastrointestinal complaints, ranging from gas (belching or flatulence) to stomach upset. Common indigestion signs and symptoms are fullness, early satiety, nausea, vomiting, belching, bloating, ulcer, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and some other associated temporary discomforts or long lasting disorders. Treatment options are many which include change in food, drinks, lifestyle, synthetic medication, etc. But amongst all, the one by complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), especially the time-tested phytotherapeutic traditional herbal remedies is gaining significance and reliance. Herbal medicinal plants and drugs therefrom are arguably the oldest forms of healthcare recognized to humanity and have been used by all cultures throughout history. Plants contain phytochemicals having specific as well as holistic biological functions, which may have a significant role in the treatment and prevention of various digestive disorders. The present review will address the indigestion issue as a common and universal discomfort to human being around the globe and also the magical healing options by some medicinal plants and herbals. With the remarkable surge of and reliance to the so-called CAM, it is imperative that the present and future researchers be aware of both the potential risks as well as the benefits of using herbal medicine in their cutting-edge exercise in the days ahead.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Cutaneous and systemic anti-allergic potential of xylopic acid in rodents

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      Abstract: Abstract Xylopic acid is a kaurene diterpene isolated from the dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica. It has been identified to exhibit analgesic activity and also demonstrates acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at investigating its potential anti-allergic activity using rodent models. To investigate this, antihistaminic study using guinea pig ileum preparation and clonidine-induced catalepsy model were employed. Also, cutaneous anaphylaxis was investigated using pinnal inflammation and compound 48/80-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis models. Systemic anaphylaxis was studied using compound 48/80 systemic anaphylaxis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock models. XA exerted H1 antagonism in the ex vivo study using guinea pig ileum which supported its anti-histaminic activity in the clonidine-induced catalepsy. It also suppressed pinnal inflammation and inhibited mast cell degranulation and tissue damage significantly (P < 0.0001). In the systemic anaphylactic study, XA offered up to 90% survival rate in the compound 48/80-challenged mice and up to 70% protection against LPS-induced endotoxic shock at the studied doses. Xylopic acid showed histamine H1 receptor antagonism and subsequently inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy. It inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis and the LPS-induced septic shock. These corroborate the cutaneous and systemic anti-allergic potential of XA in rodent allergy models.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Poisonous plants of Belize: a mini toxicological review

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      Abstract: Abstract The global increase in the use of plants for food and medicinal purposes, especially in developing countries, proffers an urgent need for toxicological studies on such plants. Results of extensive toxicological studies tend to provide safety information on toxic plants and help avert public health issues while providing safety guides to the public. Belize is a developing nation, and the only English-speaking country in Central America. More than half of the country is covered by rainforest, and many plants are consumed for food and medicinal purposes mostly without regard to the scientific toxicological characteristics of such plants. To the best of our knowledge, presently no published scientific toxicological reports exist on poisonous plants uniquely native to Belize. A careful bibliographic search was therefore conducted on published scientific reports applicable to plants native to Central America, and unpublished reports on poisonous plants of Belize to describe the toxicological information of such plants. A total of 16 plants from 7 families were identified to be toxic. The identified plants were reviewed for their toxicology. 13 plants were reported to be toxic, 2 plants were shown to be non-toxic, and no scientific studies were found for 1 plant. There is an urgent need to conduct toxicological research on plants native to Belize, especially that many such plants are used for food and medicinal purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Medicinal use patterns of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. and Vitellaria
           paradoxa (Gaertn. F), two important traditional agroforestry species in
           Benin, West-Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract In West Africa, African locust bean (P. biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) and Shea (V. paradoxa (Gaertn. F) are among the most important multipurpose plant species commonly found in traditional agroforestry systems. Most of research on these species are dominated by patterns and properties of their food uses, and additionally cosmetics for the shea. Yet, the species also have interesting medicinal properties that have been little explicitly explored. Using an ethnobotanical survey, we explored the patterns of diseases and other human disorders healed by the species, the different plants parts involved in diseases treatment, the recipes adapted for the treatment of the diseases and disorders and the other species involved in recipes composition in Northern Benin where they are widely distributed and used. Plants parts used by respondents were subjected to a Principal Component Analysis together with the ethnic groups. Alpha diversity indices were used to compute disease diversity while the Intraspecific Use Values index was applied to assess the frequency of utilization of each plant part. Results showed that 11 categories comprising 51 diseases and disorders were listed by respondents for the two species, with the predominance of Gastro-intestinal diseases (RFC = 31.10% for P. biglobosa and RFC = 31.81% for V. paradoxa) and Infectious diseases (RFC = 26.82% for P. biglobosa and RFC = 27.27% for V. paradoxa). Most used plants parts were nuts (IVU = 90.90%) and roots (IVU = 90.90%) for V. paradoxa and roots (IVU = 90.24%) and bark (IVU = 70.73%) for P. biglobosa. The PCA analysis showed a strong variation in the used plants parts across the sociocultural groups.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Chrysanthemum
           indicum, and Calendula officinalis flower extracts against Gram negative
           and Gram positive food poisoning bacteria

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      Abstract: Abstract Safely management of food spoilage and foodborne illness is primarily achieved by applying chemical additives that have adverse effects along with health risk, increment chemical in food, and reduced bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobials. In the present study, antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from 3 different flowers (Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Chrysanthemum indicum, and Calendula officinalis) was examined towards seven food poisoning bacterial strains, four gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87, Bacillus cereus MTCC 430, Clostridium perfringens MTCC 450, Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 657), and three gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli MTCC 43, Salmonella typhi MTCC 1264 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC424) using well diffusion assay. Aqueous extracts from all three of the flowers were similarly efficient with variable antimicrobial efficiency against the examined bacterial strains, while ethanol and methanol extracts from C. officinalis were highly efficient against all tested pathogenic bacteria. Ethanolic extract of C. indicum was the most efficient flower extract after C. officinalis against C. perfringens, L. monocytogenes, and S. typhi. H. rosa sinensis ethanol extract exhibited bactericidal action against S. aureus, B. cereus, and P. aeruginosa. For most extracts, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 3.75 to 7.5% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.87–3.75% except for C. perfringens, and L. monocytogenes those were less sensitive with MIC 20%, and MBC 20%. Such flower extracts, which are potentially efficient, would be utilized to manage foodborne illness and protect food items from spoilage and minimize safety hazards generated due to chemically preservatives.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The Siddhars: the great artisans of gold medicines in medieval South India

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      Abstract: Abstract Gold, the king of metals, valued for its timeless beauty and properties, was known to the ancients as the metal of gods, a symbol of nobility of spirit, knowledge and meditation. To the alchemists, gold that never tarnishes was the metal of sun, giver of light and warmth. In Indian tradition, gold, a sacred metal, is seen as a “mineral light” capturing threads of brilliance in physical form. The metal is even consumed as an elixir to treat diseases and prepare the body and mind for spiritual journeys. The Siddhars (‘the perfected ones’), considered as saints and mystics in South India, played a vital role in alchemy, processing gold into a bioavailable form and formulating an important number of gold-based medicines such as thanga parpam, thanga chendooram, thanga kattu, thanga chunnam and other preparations. Due to the myths and legends surrounding the Siddhars and to the scarcity of the primary sources, many modern scientists looked at this medical system with some disdain and omitted to discuss its important achievements. In this work, it is our intention to fill in this gap and focus specifically on the gold-based Siddha medicines.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • What is known about the medicinal potential of bamboo'

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      Abstract: Abstract Bamboos are considered one of China’s four noble plants and have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Despite that, what is really known about the chemical composition and biological activities of bamboos' Which species have been studied' What trials have been done to test their medicinal properties' This paper compiled studies of the last 11 years about phytochemical and biological activities of bamboos aiming a critical analysis of the results to provide perspectives and directions for future research using bamboo species as a potential source of drug leads. This review gathers available information on major scientific databases from the period of 2007–2018. A total of 136 papers regarding 87 bamboo species and 24 genera were compiled. Studies regarding phytochemical and or bioactivity of species from the Olyreae tribe (herbaceous bamboo) were not found. Phenolic compounds were the major class of secondary metabolites reported for bamboos species, followed by coumarins and alkaloids. Antioxidant capacity was the most performed bioassay. Phyllostachys has been the most studied genus. This review highlights a big lack of knowledge regarding American bamboos, mainly for the herbaceous species. Although bamboos are known to have a diversity of flavonoids, there are other classes of constituents that should be better studied. There are few bamboo species with their in vivo biological potential tested. Therefore, bamboos have economically important secondary metabolite classes with a possible medicinal application, but further studies on phytochemistry and in vivo assays are still needed to better evaluate their benefits to human health.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by
           increasing regulatory T cell population

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      Abstract: Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement in the brain and spinal cord, causing loss of muscle control. Moreover, other researchers have reported that BV phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) has neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether bvPLA2 alleviates the pathological features of ALS by affecting Tregs in SOD1 mice. SOD1-G93A mice were used as the ALS model. The mice (75-days old) were administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or bvPLA2 (0.5 mg/kg) twice a week. The results demonstrated that the body and hindlimb weights of PBS-treated SOD1 mice were lower than those of wild-type mice, whereas that of bvPLA2-treated SOD1 mice increased compared to that of PBS-treated SOD1 mice. Motor function also decreased to a lesser extent in bvPLA2-treated SOD1 mice, whereas that of PBS-treated SOD1 mice was significantly impaired compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, bvPLA2-treated SOD1 mice had greater number of intact motor neurons in their lumbar spinal cord compared to PBS-treated SOD1 mice. The level of Tregs in the TA muscle was also higher in bvPLA2-treated SOD1 mice than in PBS-treated SOD1 mice. Lastly, bvPLA2-treated SOD1 mice showed less increase in levels of NOS2 and TNF-α and lower levels of IL-4 and IL-10 compared to PBS-treated SOD1 mice. Thus, our data suggest that bvPLA2 alleviates the progress of ALS by inducing a Treg-mediated anti-inflammatory response.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • 8C-glycosylflavone from the Piper auritum suppressed glycoxidation process
           in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Investigated the effects with C-glycosylflavone against the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) in vitro and in vivo. Chromatographic fractionation of the MeOH extract of P. auritum led to the isolation of the known 5,3′,4′-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-6-C-[β-D- xsylopyranosyl -(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl flavonoside (1). The structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Was investigate the effects of 1 against the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) in vitro and in vivo in a mice model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Flavonoid significantly reduced the formation of fluorescent (AGEs, AOPPs), no fluorescent (Nε-CML), and fructosamine level in AGEs-BSA system. Its also avoided oxidation protein products, which was shown by reduction of protein carbonyl, and increase of thiol group, decreased the level of amyloid cross β-structure and suppressed the protein carbonylation in MGO-BSA model. Oral administration of 1 produced a significant decrease of serum glucose, inhibit the formation of GlyHb, prevented circulatory AGEs level, attenuated accumulation of AGEs in liver and kidney and reduced lipids accumulation possibly due to a better functioning of β-cell in diabetic mice. Finding, indicated that 1 can alleviating these parameters through diverse mechanisms with a marked antiglycation activity. Flavonoid participate in the initial and intermediate stages of glycation, leading to reduction of the production of AGEs in the late stage. Results indicated that 1 improving AGEs formation in type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Effects of aqueous extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) guill. Et Perr.
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Colitis are one of the worldwide increasing inflammatory bowel diseases. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 1 mL of acetic acid (4%) in rats. The normal and the colitis controls treated with distilled water, the positive control treated with dexamethasone (5 mg/kg), and two test groups treated with extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw for seven days. During treatment, the number and quality of stools as well as changes in body weight and body temperature were assessed. At the end, animals were sacrificed; blood and colon were taken for the assay of oxidative stress, hematological and histological parameters. The diarrheal stools and the body temperature significantly (P < 0.01) decreased from the first to the sixth day of treatment compared to colitis control. The extract decreased significantly (P < 0.01) the number of gross colon lesions, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in colon and in blood. The extract increased (P < 0.01) the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, catalase, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total white blood cells as well as platelets. These could justify the use of Anogeissus leiocarpus in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Properties of Solanum melongena green calyx against toxic effects of
           diabetes‐induced testopathy: a stereological and biochemical study

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      Abstract: Abstract Solanum melongena green calyx (SMGC) with antioxidant features seems to have many therapeutic features. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a blood sugar disorder that increases oxidative stress levels in various types of cells leading to testopathy. In this study we aimed to investigate the protective functions of hydro-alcoholic extract of SMGC on DM‐induced testicular damages. Mature male rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8); 1: control, 2: diabetic, 3: diabetic + 100 mg/kg of SMGC, 4: diabetic + 300 mg/kg of SMGC, and 5: diabetic + 500 mg/kg of SMGC. Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, a single dose of 60 mg/kg) was used for DM induction. Testicular alterations were evaluated quantitatively based on stereological techniques and followed by antioxidant enzymes determination (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase), and serum testosterone level. Malondialdehyde and Bcl‐2 protein expression were also assessed biochemically. DM caused significant harmful changes in testicular structure, inhibition of antioxidant enzymes activity, decreased testosterone levels, and increased lipid peroxidation (LP). The expression of Bcl‐2 protein was down-regulated in DM testis along with boosted apoptosis rate. Eight weeks of SMGC treatment (particularly in high doses) recovered structural variations significantly, restored the power of the antioxidant defense system, and modified the testosterone levels. These findings revealed that the SMGC is considered as an effective antioxidant agent to decrease the adverse effects of DM on male reproductive system.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Bioactive compounds from Croton macrostachyus and Commiphora habessinica
           occurring in Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Croton macrostachyus is traditionally used in Ethiopia for treating diabetes, cancers, digestive problems, dysentery, wounds, fevers, constipation, diarrhea, intestinal worms, malaria, pain ulcers, and inflammation. The aim of the present work is investigating the chemical constituents of C. macrostachyus and Commiphora habessinica. The powdered stem bark of C. macrostachyus was successively extracted with n-hexane, chloroform and methanol yielding 1.2, 0.72 and 6.04% respectively. Phytochemical screenings of the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, steroids and absence of anthraquinones. The methanol extract of C. macrostachyus subjected to chromatographic separation resulted in the antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and chemopreventive component lupeol (SED-1). The isolated compound was characterized using melting point, NMR and IR spectroscopy and by comparing experimentally obtained spectral data with previously reported literature. The essential oil of the resin from C. habessinica was isolated by hydro-distillation and a total of 21 components were identified by means of GC and GC/MS analysis. The main components of the essential oil were the medicinally important components α-copaene (27%), α-cadinol (25%), and trans-caryophyllene (15.3%). Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Induction of apoptosis in activated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibition of
           pro-inflammatory mediators in rat air pouch by ethylacetate fraction of
           Ocimum gratissimum leaves

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      Abstract: Ocimum gratissimum L. has attracted substantial consideration from researchers because of its anti-inflammatory uses in ethnomedicine in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This study investigated the effect of flavonoid-rich ethylacetate fraction of O. gratissimum (EAFOg) in apoptosis induction of activated macrophages and inflammatory response in LPS-induced air pouch in rats. Apoptotic effect of EAFOg in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was evaluated using flow cytometry after staining with annexin-V and 7-aminoactinomycin D. Its effects on inflammatory cells and mediators were investigated utilizing 6 day old subcutaneous air pouch-rats. Sterile saline (0.9%) or LPS (100 ng/mL) was injected into the air pouch on 6th day after EAFOg (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) pretreatment. Rectal body temperature was recorded hourly for 5 h after LPS injection. Thereafter, the neutrophil count, nitrite, TNF-α, PGE2, nitrite, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined in the pouch lavage. The activities of myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as immunohistochemical staining for cyclooxygenase-2 were also performed. EAFOg (10, 30 and 100 µg/mL) induced apoptosis in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The EAFOg reduced hyperthermia and decreased neutrophil counts, TNF-α, PGE2, nitrite, myeloperoxidase as well as cyclooxygenase-2 expression evoked by LPS in rats. It also reduced malondialdehyde, and increased GSH and SOD levels in LPS-induced air pouch in vivo. The results of this study suggest that the EAFOg induces apoptosis in activated macrophages and reduces inflammatory responses provoked by LPS via down regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rats. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Synergistic antioxidant activity of plant compositions contained in
           Chatuphalathika herbal recipe: Terminalia chebula Retz. var. chebula,
           Terminalia arjuna Wight and Arn., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.,
           and Phyllanthus emblica L.

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      Abstract: The work sought to investigate, using response surface analysis, the synergistic antioxidant activity among four plants—Terminalia chebula Retz. var. chebula, Terminalia arjuna Wight and Arn., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., and Phyllanthus emblica L.—which are comprised in the Chatuphalathika recipe. The response surface analysis of the four-component simplex lattice design was performed using the combination index method. The mass ratio of the four plants was varied. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) from 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were monitored and used to calculate the combination index value. Results showed that the total phenolic content was high and the IC50 values from DPPH and FRAP assays were low when T. chebula, T. arjuna, and T. bellirica were used without P. emblica. Synergistic antioxidant activity was also observed among them. The mixture of T. chebula, T. arjuna, and T. bellirica without P. emblica gave better synergistic antioxidant activity than when P. emblica was incorporated. The data from this work could be used to select the suitable mass ratio of the plants for the preparation of the supplementary health products in further work. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Toxicity profile of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits extract in
           adult male Sprague-Dawley rats

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      Abstract: The fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM) have long been used as a traditional Malay medicinal herb for hundreds of years. To determine the toxicity of the mesocarp and pericarp of ethanol extract of PM (EEPM). In this study, 6–8 weeks of adult healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats between 180 and 220 g, were used. The Group I was received 10 % normal saline and Group II, III, IV and V were treated with EEPM orally to each rat (n = 6) on daily basis at 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg 28 consecutive days. Animals body weight showed normal growth from 189.76 ± 2.33 and 189.86 ± 1.01 g to 227 ± 3.06 and 225 ± 2.07 g. Biochemical aspects of treated animals’ indicated serum values of (creatinine 0.46 ± 0.033, phosphorous 5 ± 0.46, HDL 31.31 ± 1.48, LDL 30.66 ± 0.37, Cholesterol 68.23 ± 1.28 and AST 63.08 ± 2.65, ALT 22.05 ± 0.68 and ALP 79.16 ± 0.82) which is similar with the control group. Histological observation showed no necrosis, abnormalities and inflammation in both control and EEPM treated groups. Findings suggests; the fruits are non-toxic when applied to SD rats. In this way, it may also serve as a good alternative in the present armamentarium of traditional medicine without showing its any side effects. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: phytoconstituents, nutritive, and pharmacological
           applications

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      Abstract: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) calyx extracts have been well-documented for the treatment of hypertension, liver dysfunctions, and diabetes among others. An updated concise review of HS regarding phytoconstituents, and involved putative mechanisms of potential biological activities is presented. HS showed other food and other industrial applications, including the preparation of metallic nanoparticles. These activities were explained by the presence of a broad spectrum of valuable phytochemicals, including the red pigments anthocyanins, phenolic, and organic acids and polyphenolics (e.g., flavonoids and tannins). Most of the bioactivities were found to be associated with anthocyanins-rich extracts. Anthocyanins were found to have various mechanisms for the treatment of hypertension, including direct vasodilation and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). However, leaves and seeds showed also other potential applications in food industry, owing to the significant amounts of phenolic antioxidant compounds. Therefore, valorization and optimization of bioactive constituents’ extraction from plant biowastes should be considered for maximizing the benefits of HS extracts. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Antimalarial activity and biochemical effects of saponin-rich extract of
           Dianthus basuticus Burtt Davy in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Saponin extract from Dianthus basuticus (SEDB), was investigated for its anti-malarial activity and biochemical effects in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Thirty mice were divided into six groups of five mice each. The mice in group I (control) were uninfected, while those of groups II–VI were infected intraperitoneally with standard (2 × 107) inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK65) parasite. Mice in groups I (control) and II (P. berghei-infected) received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally, while those of groups III–VI were treated orally with 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w) chloroquine and 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w of SEDB respectively for four days following the establishment of parasitaemia. Rectal temperature, body weight, percentage parasitaemia, chemosuppression of parasite multiplication, haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. SEBD at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w significantly (p  < 0.05) decreased percentage parasitaemia, rectal temperature and increased (p < 0.05) significantly body weight of the animals, and as well suppressed parasite growth and multiplication particularly at 150 mg/kg. SEDB at all doses restored altered haematological parameters, distortions of the liver and kidney functional indices to normal and increased (p < 0.05) significantly the enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanism. FT-IR analysis of the saponin revealed the existence of aromatic compounds, alcohols, phenols alkyl groups, alkanes, carbonyl compounds and nitro groups. Saponin extract from Dianthus basuticus suppressed malarial parasite by modulation of oxidative stress via fortification of antioxidant defence mechanism and thus suggested it as source of promising alternative antimalarial.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Assessment of wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of Pistacia
           lentiscus L. leaves and Quercus ilex L. bark in full thickness skin
           excision in rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing effect of ethanolic extracts of pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) leaves and holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) bark on full-thickness excisions (4 cm2) in Wistar rats. Forty-two rats were divided into seven equal groups that received different treatments; two groups were treated with Quercus ilex bark extract (10% and 30%), two other groups with Pistacia lentiscus leaves extract (10% and 30%), one group received Cicatryl-bio® and considered as a positive control, a group treated with pure Petroleum jelly, and the last was left as an untreated negative control. The evaluation of the excision zones was estimated by a planimetric study using an image processing software (ImageJ®) and histological examination of healed skin tissue. The results revealed that Pistacia lentiscus leaves and Quercus ilex bark promote wound healing effect because they accelerated wound contraction and reduced epithelialization period. Ointments prepared from Quercus ilex bark and Pistacia lentiscus leaves ethanolic extracts exhibited effective wound healing action in Wistar rat’s skin excisions. Both preparations showed an accelerated healing process compared to the other formulations. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study of wound healing effect of pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus) leaves and holm oak (Quercus ilex) bark.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Pharmacognostic and pharmacological perspectives of Leea macrophyla roxb.

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      Abstract: Abstract The proposed work on Leea macrophyla Roxb (family: Leeaceae) is mainly focused on two different streams, first towards the pharmacognostic profile and second on pharmacological evaluation. The pharmacognostic profile involves the study of both macroscopy and microscopy of leaf, stem, and tuberous roots. Secondly, extract of adventitious tuberous roots of the plant was used for pharmacological screening of anti-inflammatory (in-vivo), antimicrobial (in-vitro), and antioxidant (in-vitro) potential. Morphologically, it is observed that L. macrophyla is an herb with erect stem, broadly ovate leaf with greenish-white inflorescence. Microscopically, the leaf can be characterized by anisocytic stomata, calcium oxalate crystals, and the absence of trichomes. The typical characteristics of the stem include outer thick ridges, secondary phloem, medullary rays, and pith. The rhizomes contain the outer epidermis is replaced with dark crushed cells, central pith, and disintegrated parenchymatous cells.The extract exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory potency in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Antimicrobial activity was involved cup plate technique against gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungal organisms. The study observed good inhibitory activity against S. aureus (15 ± 0.15 mm), B. subtilis (14 ± 0.13 mm), and E.coli (15 ± 0.16 mm). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging method was used to explore antioxidant potential against ascorbic acid as standard. The IC50 values obtained from the antioxidant potency were observed to be 18 ± 0.33, 12 ± 0.66% for DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay respectively. As L. macrophyla with assumption on the traditional curative assurance, it shows significant anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant potency.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
       
  • Sweat therapy, a novel treatment of psoriasis: prospective pre-post
           intervention design

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      Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to confirm the potential of normal sweating as an important prognostic factor for the onset and treatment of psoriasis. A total of 97 patients who visited the Haeng-Pa Korean Medicine Clinic, a traditional Korean medical clinic for psoriasis, from January 2018 to October 2018 were enrolled in this prospective pre-post intervention study. Participants’ baseline characteristics, psoriasis state, seasonal and sweating factors, and treatment effects were analyzed with frequency analysis (%). All of 97 (100%) patients had problems with sweating in the psoriasis site and 50 (51.55%) patients had problems with sweating even in normal skin. 71 patients (73.20%) saw improvements from medicinal plants such as Ephedra sinica and Cinnamomi cassia Presl that promote perspiration. Psoriasis patients have problems with their sweating, and Korean medical sweat therapy was highly effective for treating psoriasis. Therefore, a sweating problem may be an important component in the onset and treatment of psoriasis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
 
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