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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
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Toxicological Research
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1976-8257 - ISSN (Online) 2234-2753
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Lipid hydroperoxide-derived insulin resistance and its inhibition by
           pyridoxamine in skeletal muscle cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Oxidative stress is strongly associated with the onset and/or progression of diabetes. Under conditions of oxidative stress, lipid hydroperoxides are decomposed to reactive aldehydes that have been reported to induce insulin resistance by modifying proteins involved in insulin signaling. Pyridoxamine (PM) can inhibit the formation of advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products by scavenging reactive carbonyl species. Thus, PM has emerged as a promising drug candidate for various chronic conditions, including diabetic complications. In this study, L6 skeletal muscle cells were treated with 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), one of the most abundant and reactive lipid-derived aldehydes. Cellular insulin resistance was assessed by measuring insulin-stimulated glucose uptake using 2-deoxyglucose. ONE induced a time- and dose-dependent decrease in glucose uptake. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction between ONE and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) lysate identified multiple modifications that could disturb the interaction between IRS1 and activated IR, leading to insulin resistance. Pretreatment of the cells with PM restored the ONE-induced decrease in glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the formation of PM-ONE adducts in cell culture medium was increased in a PM-dose dependent manner. PM can therefore prevent lipid hydroperoxide-derived insulin resistance by quenching ONE.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of Athyrium yokoscense extract via inhibition of
           the Erk1/2 and NF-κB pathways in bisphenol A-stimulated A549 cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Bisphenol A is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has similar functions to estrogen in humans. However, few studies have investigated pulmonary inflammation induced by BPA, and the effect of Athyrium yokoscense extract on this inflammatory response is unknown. In this study, we investigated this effect in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. BPA at concentrations higher than 100 µM were cytotoxic to A549 cells at 24 and 48 h after treatment; however, AYE (100 µg/mL) had a protective effect against BPA-induced cytotoxicity. AYE also inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, activities of phospholipase A2, COX-2, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and proinflammatory mediators including prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 induced by BPA in A549 cells. This study demonstrated that BPA, which induces chronic lung disease, causes oxidative stress and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cell line, and found that AYE reduces BPA-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response by down-regulating the Erk1/2 and NF-κB pathways.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Explanation of difenoconazole removal by chitosan with Langmuir adsorption
           isotherm and kinetic modeling

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the adsorption of toxic difenoconazole pesticide was investigated by using chitosan. In the first phase of the study, chitosan was extracted from deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) shells, by deacetylation of the chitin, which is separated and disposed of after meat extraction in processing facilities in Turkey. The deacetylation degree, molecular weight, viscosity, moisture, and crude-ash values of the extracted chitosan were determined. Chitosan, having a high deacetylation degree (90.21%), was used as the adsorbent. In the second phase of the study, the effects of pH, temperature, and pesticide concentration on the adsorption were investigated. The optimum pH level for pesticide adsorption was determined as 5. It was observed that the adsorption increases as the temperature increases. A rapid increase was observed within the first 5 min of the 60-minute adsorption process in difenoconazole concentrations of 5, 15, and 25 µg/L, and after 10 min, the adsorption rate was stable. The Langmuir isotherm parameters regarding the adsorption were determined as aL = 0.635, kL = 15.10, and the Qmax value was calculated as 23.77 mg/g. In the evaluation of overall study results, it was determined that the chitosan biopolymer is a suitable adsorbent for difenoconazole pesticide adsorption.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • Sub-acute toxicity study on hydromethanolic leaves extract of Combretum
           hypopilinum (Combretaceae) Diels in Wistar rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The plant Combretum hypopilinum Diels (Combretaceae) has been utilized in Nigeria and other African nations to treat many diseases including liver, inflammatory, gastrointestinal, respiratory, infectious diseases, epilepsy and many more. Pharmacological investigations have shown that the plant possesses anti-infective, antidiarrhoeal, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, sedative, antioxidant, and antiepileptic potentials. However, information on its toxicity profile is unavailable despite the plant's therapeutic potential. As such, this work aimed to determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxic effects of the hydromethanolic leaves extract of C. hypopilinum. The preliminary phytochemical evaluation was carried out based on standard procedures. The acute toxicity evaluation was conducted by oral administration of the extract at the dose of 5000 mg/kg based on the guideline of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423. To investigate the sub-acute toxicity effects, the extract was administered orally to the animals daily for 28-consecutive days at the doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Mortality, body weight and relative organ weight were observed. The hepatic, renal, haematological, and lipid profile parameters were investigated. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, small intestine, and stomach were checked for any histopathological alterations. The results of the phytochemical investigation showed cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and triterpenes. Based on the acute toxicity investigation outcome, no death and signs of toxic effects were observed. The result showed that the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was more than the 5000 mg/kg. The extract remarkably reduced the weekly body weight of the animals at 500 mg/kg in the first and second weeks. It also significantly decreased the relative kidney weight, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, potassium, and low-density lipoprotein. There was a remarkable elevation in the percentage of eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and granulocyte. There were histopathological abnormalities on the kidney, lung, stomach, and small intestine. The extract is relatively safe on acute exposure but moderately toxic at higher doses on sub-acute administration, particularly to the kidney.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Establishment of a platform for measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption
           rate for cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

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      Abstract: Abstract The heart has an abundance of mitochondria since cardiac muscles require copious amounts of energy for providing continuous blood through the circulatory system, thereby implying that myocardial function is largely reliant on mitochondrial energy. Thus, cardiomyocytes are susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction and are likely targets of mitochondrial toxic drugs. Various methods have been developed to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity by evaluating toxicological mechanisms, but an optimized and standardized assay for cardiomyocytes remains unmet. We have therefore attempted to standardize the evaluation system for determining cardiac mitochondrial toxicity, using AC16 human and H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes. Three clinically administered drugs (acetaminophen, amiodarone, and valproic acid) and two anticancer drugs (doxorubicin and tamoxifen) which are reported to have mitochondrial effects, were applied in this study. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), which directly reflects mitochondrial function, and changes in mRNA levels of mitochondrial respiratory complex I to complex V, were analyzed. Our results reveal that exposure to all five drugs results in a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal and maximal levels of OCR in AC16 cells and H9C2 cells. In particular, marked reduction in the OCR was observed after treatment with doxorubicin. The reduction in OCR after exposure to mitochondrial toxic drugs was found to be associated with reduced mRNA expression in the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, suggesting that the cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of drugs is majorly due to dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration. Based on the results of this study, we established and standardized a protocol to measure OCR in cardiomyocytes. We expect that this standardized evaluation system for mitochondrial toxicity can be applied as basic data for establishing a screening platform to evaluate cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of drugs, during the developmental stage of new drug discovery.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Neuroprotective efficacy of N-t-butylhydroxylamine (NtBHA) in transient
           focal ischemia in rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The pharmacological or toxicological activities of the degradation products of drug candidates have been unaddressed during the drug development process. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes and is responsible for considerable mortality and disability worldwide. Despite decades of research on neuroprotective agents, tissue plasminogen activators (t-PA), a thrombolytic agent, remains the only approved acute stroke pharmacological therapy. NXY-059, a free radical scavenger, exhibited striking neuroprotective properties in preclinical models and met all the criteria established by the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) for a neuroprotective agent. In phase 3 clinical trials, NXY-059 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects in one trial (SAINT-I), but not in the second (SAINT-II). Some have hypothesized that N-t-butyl hydroxylamine (NtBHA), a breakdown product of NXY-059 was the actual neuroprotective agent in SAINT-I and that changes to the formulation of NXY-059 to prevent its breakdown to NtBHA in SAINT -II was the reason for the lack of efficacy. We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of NtBHA in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-treated primary neurons and in rat focal cerebral ischemia. NtBHA significantly attenuated infarct volume in rat transient focal ischemia, and attenuated NMDA-induced cytotoxicity in primary cortical neurons. NtBHA also reduced free radical generation and exhibited mitochondrial protection.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Role of integrin α2 in methotrexate-induced epithelial-mesenchymal
           transition in alveolar epithelial A549 cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat various diseases. However, it induces adverse reactions like serious lung injury, including pulmonary fibrosis. Increasing evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in injured alveolar epithelium contributes to the development of the pathophysiological state of the lung. We demonstrated that MTX induced EMT in cultured alveolar epithelial cell lines. Integrin-mediated signaling is considered a significant factor in recognizing the EMT process. However, the relationship between MTX-induced EMT and integrin family members is poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the role of integrin in MTX-induced EMT in A549 and NCI-H1299 (H1299) cells by focusing on the integrin alpha 2 (ITGA2) subunit, selected based on our microarray analysis. MTX treatment for 72 h significantly increased the mRNA and cell surface expression of ITGA2 in both cell lines. However, this upregulation by MTX was suppressed by co-treatment with SB431542 and folic acid, which are inhibitors of MTX-induced EMT in A549 cells. The mRNA expression levels of EMT-related genes were more affected in the MTX-treated A549 cells with high ITGA2 expression than in those with low ITGA2 expression. Finally, E7820, an ITGA2 inhibitor, suppressed MTX-induced EMT-related phenotypic changes, such as morphology and mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, a representative EMT marker. These findings suggest that ITGA2 may play a key role in MTX-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Quantification and visualization of metastatic lung tumors in mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Histopathological examination is important for the diagnosis of various diseases. Conventional histopathology provides a two-dimensional view of the tissues, and requires the tissue to be extracted, fixed, and processed using histotechnology techniques. However, there is an increasing need for three-dimensional (3D) images of structures in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to develop reliable, objective tools for visualizing and quantifying metastatic tumors in mouse lung using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Melanoma cells were intravenously injected into the tail vein of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice. The mice were euthanized at 2 or 4 weeks after injection. Lungs were fixed and examined by micro-CT, OCT, FE-SEM, and histopathological observation. Micro-CT clearly distinguished between tumor and normal cells in surface and deep lesions, thereby allowing 3D quantification of the tumor volume. OCT showed a clear difference between the tumor and surrounding normal tissues. FE-SEM clearly showed round tumor cells, mainly located in the alveolar wall and growing inside the alveoli. Therefore, whole-tumor 3D imaging successfully visualized the metastatic tumor and quantified its volume. This promising approach will allow for fast and label-free 3D phenotyping of diverse tissue structures.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Protective role of selenium on structural change of human hemoglobin in
           the presence of vinyl chloride

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      Abstract: Abstract Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas with a pleasant odor capable of entering the body through oral or inhalation routes. Extensive studies on this compound indicated that it is a carcinogen, and Vinyl chloride exposure can result in a specific type of cancer in vinyl chloride workers. Whereas hemoglobin plays a vital role in oxygen transfer throughout the body, in a molecular aspect, the effect of vinyl chloride on human hemoglobin has not been studied. Furthermore, selenium as an antioxidant is a vital factor for the health of humans and animals. Then this research investigated the effect of the antioxidant capability of selenium at the same concentrations in blood on the interaction between vinyl chloride and hemoglobin. UV–visible, Fourier-transform infrared, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence spectroscopies were employed. The results indicated the destruction of hemoglobin structure in different concentrations of vinyl chloride. At the same time, the antioxidant effect of selenium inhibited the destructive impact of vinyl chloride on hemoglobin structure.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Cytotoxicity evaluation and mechanism of endocrine-disrupting chemicals by
           the embryoid body test

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      Abstract: Abstract Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a structurally diverse class of synthetic and natural compounds. EDCs can cause non-communicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, thyroid disorders, neurodevelopmental disease, hormone-dependent cancers, and reproductive disorders. The embryoid body test (EBT) is a developmental toxicity test method that determines the size of embryoid bodies (EBs) and the viability of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The present study used the EBT to perform cytotoxicity evaluations of 10 EDCs and assessed the mechanistic relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cytotoxicity. According to the statistical analysis and prediction model results, methylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, ethylparaben, triclosan, octylphenol, methoxychlor, bisphenol A, and diethylstilbestrol were classified as cytotoxic, but trichloroacetic acid was non-toxic. Classification accuracy was 90%. The mechanistic study showed that the cytotoxicities of butylparaben, propylparaben, octylphenol, and triclosan were induced by ER stress. The mRNA expressions of BiP, CHOP, and ATF4 were significantly higher following treatments with four EDCs compared to those after the control treatment. Compared to the control treatment, the mRNA levels of XBP1u and XBP1s increased significantly after butylparaben and propylparaben treatments, but did not increase with octylphenol and triclosan treatments. These results indicate that the EBT can be applied as an alternative toxicity test when evaluating the cytotoxicity of EDCs.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Evaluation of genotoxicity of SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 in vitro and in vivo

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      Abstract: Abstract We evaluated the potential genotoxic effects of the nutrient supplement SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 in vitro and in vivo. Genotoxicity tests were performed at the Korea Testing and Research Institute, a GLP certification institution. A bacterial reverse mutation test was performed using the pre-incubation method, while the in vitro chromosome aberration test was performed using a cultured Chinese hamster lung cell line in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vivo micronucleus test was performed using ICR mice. The bacterial reverse mutation test revealed that SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 did not induce genetic mutations at the tested doses in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537) and Escherichia coli (WP2uvrA) tester strains. Meanwhile, the results of the in vitro chromosomal aberration and in vivo micronucleus tests revealed that SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 did not induce chromosomal aberrations. These results suggest that SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 did not exhibit mutagenic or clastogenic properties in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Sublethal pulmonary toxicity screening of silica nanoparticles in rats
           after direct intratracheal instillation

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      Abstract: Abstract The present aimed to characterize the toxicity of silica nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats and determine the dose levels for a repeated-dose toxicity study. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2, 20 nm and 50 nm) were administered as a single intratracheal instillation of standardized SiO2 20 nm (low dose, 200 µg/mL; high dose, 400 µg/mL) and 50 nm (low dose, 200 µg/mL; high dose, 400 µg/mL). Each group consisted of five male rats. We documented the mortality rate, clinical signs, body weight, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, hematological values, serum chemistry values, organ weight, gross findings at necropsy, and histopathological assessments. Rats treated with 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL SiO2 50 nm exhibited a decreased mean corpuscular volume, while those treated with 400 µg/mL of SiO2 50 nm showed increases in absolute monocyte and absolute lymphocyte count as well as prothrombin time. In addition, rats treated with 400 µg/mL SiO2 20 nm and 50 nm presented reduced creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, and sodium levels. Therefore, a single intratracheal instillation of SiO2 20 nm and 50 nm elicited no toxicity up to a dose of 400 µg/mL, and the approximate lethal dose of this test substance exceeded 400 µg/mL in male Sprague Dawley rats under the present experimental conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Protective efficacy of Coriandrum sativum seeds against arsenic induced
           toxicity in Swiss albino mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Arsenic poisoning in ground water is one of the most sensitive environmental pollutant causing serious pollution all over the world. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water to humans leads to major public health related issues. There have been very meagre studies which reported that, the plant constituents proved to exhibit protective effect from arsenicosis. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the protective efficacy of Coriandrum sativum seeds extract against sodium arsenite induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. In the present study twenty-four male healthy Swiss albino mice (30 ± 5 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6), where the control group received normal diet and water; group II and group III treated with sodium arsenite (2 mg per kg body weight per day) for 2 and 4 weeks respectively. The group IV mice were administered with C.sativum seeds extract at the dose of 150 mg per kg body weight per day for 4 weeks upon sodium arsenite pretreated (2 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks per day) mice. After the complete dose duration, all the treatment group animals were sacrificed same day for haematological, biochemical and histopathological study. In the arsenic treated mice, there were significant (p < 0.0001) changes in the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine as well as in the haematological parameters. In contrast, after the administration with C.sativum seeds extract upon arsenic pretreated mice, there was significant (p < 0.0001) improvement observed in the hepatic and renal biomarker parameters as well as haematological variables. In the arsenic intoxicated mice,  after administration with C.sativum seeds extract there was significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in the arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney tissues as well as in the serum LPO levels. Furthermore, the histopathological study showed that, C.sativum seeds extract administrated group of mice significantly restored the liver and kidney at cellular level against arsenic induced toxicity. The entire study concludes that C.sativum seeds extract possesses the ameliorative effect against arsenic induced liver and kidney intoxication.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Pre-validation study of spectrophotometric direct peptide reactivity assay
           (Spectro-DPRA) as a modified in chemico skin sensitization test method

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      Abstract: Abstract Skin sensitization is induced when certain chemicals bind to skin proteins. Direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) has been adopted by the OECD as an alternative method to evaluate skin sensitization by assessing a substance's reaction to two model peptides. A modified spectrophotometric method, Spectro-DPRA, can evaluate skin sensitization, in a high throughput fashion, to obviate some limitations of DPRA. Pre-validation studies for Spectro-DPRA were conducted to determine transferability and proficiency, within- and between-laboratory reproducibility, and predictive ability based on GLP principles at three laboratories (AP, KTR, and KCL). All laboratories confirmed high (> 90%) concordance for evaluating the sensitivity induced by ten chemical substances. The concordance among the three tests performed by each laboratory was 90% for AP, 100% for KTR, and 100% for KCL. The mean accuracy of the laboratories was 93.3% [compared to the standard operating procedure (SOP)]. The reproducibility among the three laboratories was as high as 86.7%; the accuracy was 86.7% for AP, 100% for KTR, and 86.7% for KCL (compared to the SOP). An additional 54 substances were assessed in 3 separate labs to verify the prediction rate. Based on the result, 29 out of 33 substances were classified as sensitizers, and 19 out of 21 identified as non-sensitizers; the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were 87.9%, 90.5%, and 88.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that the Spectro-DPRA can address the molecular initiating event with improved predictability and reproducibility, while saving time and cost compared to DPRA or ADRA.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • A general toxicity and biodistribution study of human natural killer cells
           by single or repeated intravenous dose in severe combined immune deficient
           mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells are a part of the innate immune system and represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors. NK cells can eliminate tumor cells without major histocompatibility restriction and are independent of the expression of tumor-associated antigens. Therefore, they are considered an emerging tool for cancer immunotherapy. However, the general toxicity and biodistribution of NK cells after transplantation remain to be understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the general toxicity and biodistribution of human NK cells after single or repeated intravenous dosing in severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. There were no test item-related toxicological changes in single and repeated administration groups. The no observed adverse effect level of human NK cells was 2 × 107 cells/head for both male and female SCID mice. Results from the biodistribution study showed that human NK cells were mainly distributed in the lungs, and a small number of the cells were detected in the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney of SCID mice, in both the single and repeated dose groups. Additionally, human NK cells were completely eliminated from all organs of the mice in the single dose group on day 7, while the cells persisted in mice in the repeated dose group until day 64. In conclusion, transplantation of human NK cells in SCID mice had no toxic effects. The cells were mainly distributed in the lungs and completely disappeared from the body over time after single or repeated intravenous administration.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Exposure to China dust exacerbates testicular toxicity induced by
           cyclophosphamide in mice

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the potential effects of China dust (CD) exposure on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in mice, focusing on spermatogenesis and oxidative damage. CP treatment reduced testicular and epididymal weight and sperm motility and enhanced sperm abnormality. Histopathological examination presented various morphological alterations in the testis, including increased exfoliation of spermatogenic cells, degeneration of early spermatogenic cells, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, a decreased number of spermatogonia/spermatocytes/spermatids, along with a high number of apoptotic cells. In addition, the testis exhibited reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Meanwhile, CD exposure exacerbated testicular histopathological alterations induced by CP. CD exposure also aggravated oxidative damage by increasing the lipid peroxidative product MDA and decreasing GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the testis. These results suggest that CD exposure exacerbates CP-induced testicular toxicity in mice, which might be attributed to the induction of lipid peroxidation and reduced antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00149-x
       
  • Induction of synergistic apoptosis by tetramethoxystilbene and nutlin-3a
           in human cervical cancer cells

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      Abstract: Abstract 2,4,3’,5′-Tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) is a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1B1 to block the conversion from estradiol to 4-OH-estradiol. Several studies suggested that TMS may act as a potent anti-cancer agent for hormone-related cancer including cervical cancer. Nutlin-3a is a cis-imidazoline analog that interferes with the interaction between mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and the tumor suppressor p53. The purpose of the study was to compare the cytotoxic effect of TMS and nutlin-3a treatment individually and in combination in HeLa cells. To assess the potential synergistic effects between TMS and nutlin-3a, low concentrations of TMS and nutlin-3a were simultaneously treated in HeLa cells. Based on cell viability, apoptosis assays, and the increase in cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, it was demonstrated that the combination with TMS and nutlin-3a exerts a synergistic effect on cancer cell death. Isobologram analysis of HeLa cells noted synergism between TMS and nutlin-3a. The combined treatment increased the expression of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic factors such as Bax and Bak, and decreased the expression of the XIAP. In addition, combination treatment significantly enhanced the translocation of AIF to the nucleus in HeLa cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combination of TMS and nutlin-3a induces synergistic apoptosis in HeLa cells, suggesting the possibility that this combination can be applied as a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00150-4
       
  • Melanocytotoxic chemicals and their toxic mechanisms

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      Abstract: Abstract Melanocyte cell death can lead to various melanocyte-related skin diseases including vitiligo and leukoderma. Melanocytotoxic chemicals are one of the most well-known causes of nongenetic melanocyte-related diseases, which induce melanocyte cell death through apoptosis. Various chemicals used in cosmetics, medicine, industry and food additives are known to induce melanocyte cell death, which poses a significant risk to the health of consumers and industrial workers. This review summarizes recently reported melanocytotoxic chemicals and their mechanisms of toxicity in an effort to provide insight into the development of safer chemicals.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00144-2
       
  • Repeated oral dose toxicity and genotoxicity of a standardized Quisqualis
           indica extract

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      Abstract: Abstract Quisqualis indica L. of Combretaceae family is a traditional medicine that is widely used for various gastrointestinal discomfort including stomach pain, constipation, and digestive problem. In this study, the potential repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity of a standardized Quisqualis indica L. extract (HU033) were determined under good laboratory practice conditions. For the repeated dose toxicity test, HU033 was orally administered to Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks. The genotoxicity of HU033 was determined with a standard battery of genotoxicity test, including an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test, an in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and an in vivo micronucleus test. After 13 weeks of repeated dose of HU033 by oral administration, there was no treatment related adverse clinical sign including food consumption, organ weights, and histopathological findings or significant decrement in bodyweight. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of HU033 was higher than 2000 mg/kg in both male and female SD rats. No target organs were identified. In addition, no evidence of HU033 genotoxicity was detected based on results from the bacterial reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test, and micronucleus test. Based on results of this study, HU033 could be safely used in food and medical products within the tested dose range.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00140-6
       
  • Policosanol suppresses tumor progression in a gastric cancer xenograft
           model

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      Abstract: Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer death, with the fifth highest incidence. The development of effective chemotherapeutic agents is needed to decrease GC mortality. Policosanol (PC) extracted from Cuban sugar cane wax is a healthy functional food ingredient that helps improve blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Its various physiological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, have been reported recently. Nevertheless, the therapeutic efficacy of PC in gastric xenograft models is unclear. We aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of PC on human GC SNU-16 cells and a xenograft mouse model. PC significantly inhibited GC cell viability and delayed tumor growth without toxicity in the SNU-16–derived xenograft model. Therefore, we investigated protein expression levels in tumor tissues; the expression levels of Ki-67, a proliferation marker, and cdc2 were decreased. In addition, we performed proteomic analysis and found thirteen differentially expressed proteins. Our results suggested that PC inhibited GC progression via cdc2 suppression and extracellular matrix protein regulation. Notably, our findings might contribute to the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for GC.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00139-z
       
 
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