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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 316)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Toxicological Research
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1976-8257 - ISSN (Online) 2234-2753
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Establishment of a platform for measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption
           rate for cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

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      Abstract: Abstract The heart has an abundance of mitochondria since cardiac muscles require copious amounts of energy for providing continuous blood through the circulatory system, thereby implying that myocardial function is largely reliant on mitochondrial energy. Thus, cardiomyocytes are susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction and are likely targets of mitochondrial toxic drugs. Various methods have been developed to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity by evaluating toxicological mechanisms, but an optimized and standardized assay for cardiomyocytes remains unmet. We have therefore attempted to standardize the evaluation system for determining cardiac mitochondrial toxicity, using AC16 human and H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes. Three clinically administered drugs (acetaminophen, amiodarone, and valproic acid) and two anticancer drugs (doxorubicin and tamoxifen) which are reported to have mitochondrial effects, were applied in this study. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), which directly reflects mitochondrial function, and changes in mRNA levels of mitochondrial respiratory complex I to complex V, were analyzed. Our results reveal that exposure to all five drugs results in a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal and maximal levels of OCR in AC16 cells and H9C2 cells. In particular, marked reduction in the OCR was observed after treatment with doxorubicin. The reduction in OCR after exposure to mitochondrial toxic drugs was found to be associated with reduced mRNA expression in the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, suggesting that the cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of drugs is majorly due to dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration. Based on the results of this study, we established and standardized a protocol to measure OCR in cardiomyocytes. We expect that this standardized evaluation system for mitochondrial toxicity can be applied as basic data for establishing a screening platform to evaluate cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of drugs, during the developmental stage of new drug discovery.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Quantification and visualization of metastatic lung tumors in mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Histopathological examination is important for the diagnosis of various diseases. Conventional histopathology provides a two-dimensional view of the tissues, and requires the tissue to be extracted, fixed, and processed using histotechnology techniques. However, there is an increasing need for three-dimensional (3D) images of structures in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to develop reliable, objective tools for visualizing and quantifying metastatic tumors in mouse lung using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Melanoma cells were intravenously injected into the tail vein of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice. The mice were euthanized at 2 or 4 weeks after injection. Lungs were fixed and examined by micro-CT, OCT, FE-SEM, and histopathological observation. Micro-CT clearly distinguished between tumor and normal cells in surface and deep lesions, thereby allowing 3D quantification of the tumor volume. OCT showed a clear difference between the tumor and surrounding normal tissues. FE-SEM clearly showed round tumor cells, mainly located in the alveolar wall and growing inside the alveoli. Therefore, whole-tumor 3D imaging successfully visualized the metastatic tumor and quantified its volume. This promising approach will allow for fast and label-free 3D phenotyping of diverse tissue structures.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Sub-acute toxicity study on hydromethanolic leaves extract of Combretum
           hypopilinum (Combretaceae) Diels in Wistar rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The plant Combretum hypopilinum Diels (Combretaceae) has been utilized in Nigeria and other African nations to treat many diseases including liver, inflammatory, gastrointestinal, respiratory, infectious diseases, epilepsy and many more. Pharmacological investigations have shown that the plant possesses anti-infective, antidiarrhoeal, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, sedative, antioxidant, and antiepileptic potentials. However, information on its toxicity profile is unavailable despite the plant's therapeutic potential. As such, this work aimed to determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxic effects of the hydromethanolic leaves extract of C. hypopilinum. The preliminary phytochemical evaluation was carried out based on standard procedures. The acute toxicity evaluation was conducted by oral administration of the extract at the dose of 5000 mg/kg based on the guideline of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423. To investigate the sub-acute toxicity effects, the extract was administered orally to the animals daily for 28-consecutive days at the doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Mortality, body weight and relative organ weight were observed. The hepatic, renal, haematological, and lipid profile parameters were investigated. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, small intestine, and stomach were checked for any histopathological alterations. The results of the phytochemical investigation showed cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and triterpenes. Based on the acute toxicity investigation outcome, no death and signs of toxic effects were observed. The result showed that the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was more than the 5000 mg/kg. The extract remarkably reduced the weekly body weight of the animals at 500 mg/kg in the first and second weeks. It also significantly decreased the relative kidney weight, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, potassium, and low-density lipoprotein. There was a remarkable elevation in the percentage of eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and granulocyte. There were histopathological abnormalities on the kidney, lung, stomach, and small intestine. The extract is relatively safe on acute exposure but moderately toxic at higher doses on sub-acute administration, particularly to the kidney.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • Neuroprotective efficacy of N-t-butylhydroxylamine (NtBHA) in transient
           focal ischemia in rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The pharmacological or toxicological activities of the degradation products of drug candidates have been unaddressed during the drug development process. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes and is responsible for considerable mortality and disability worldwide. Despite decades of research on neuroprotective agents, tissue plasminogen activators (t-PA), a thrombolytic agent, remains the only approved acute stroke pharmacological therapy. NXY-059, a free radical scavenger, exhibited striking neuroprotective properties in preclinical models and met all the criteria established by the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) for a neuroprotective agent. In phase 3 clinical trials, NXY-059 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects in one trial (SAINT-I), but not in the second (SAINT-II). Some have hypothesized that N-t-butyl hydroxylamine (NtBHA), a breakdown product of NXY-059 was the actual neuroprotective agent in SAINT-I and that changes to the formulation of NXY-059 to prevent its breakdown to NtBHA in SAINT -II was the reason for the lack of efficacy. We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of NtBHA in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-treated primary neurons and in rat focal cerebral ischemia. NtBHA significantly attenuated infarct volume in rat transient focal ischemia, and attenuated NMDA-induced cytotoxicity in primary cortical neurons. NtBHA also reduced free radical generation and exhibited mitochondrial protection.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
       
  • Phosphodiesterase 11 A (PDE11A), a potential biomarker for
           glioblastoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), a 3′,5′-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, is a key regulator of intracellular signaling that functions by degrading cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, the function of PDE11A in brain tumors is currently unclear. In this study, we found that PDE11A may be involved in glioblastoma development. The protein and mRNA levels of PDE11A were significantly higher in U87-MG, U251-MG and U343-MG glioblastoma cell lines. Gene expression analyses by deep-sequencing revealed that PDE11A mRNA levels were higher in U87-MG and U251-MG cells compared to other cells in the cerebral cortex. A comprehensive analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data revealed that PDE11A expression was also elevated in glioblastoma patients. Taken together, these data indicate that PDE11A expression was increased in glioblastoma cell lines and glioma patients, suggesting that PDE11A could be a putative diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for glioma.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Cytotoxicity evaluation and mechanism of endocrine-disrupting chemicals by
           the embryoid body test

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      Abstract: Abstract Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a structurally diverse class of synthetic and natural compounds. EDCs can cause non-communicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, thyroid disorders, neurodevelopmental disease, hormone-dependent cancers, and reproductive disorders. The embryoid body test (EBT) is a developmental toxicity test method that determines the size of embryoid bodies (EBs) and the viability of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The present study used the EBT to perform cytotoxicity evaluations of 10 EDCs and assessed the mechanistic relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cytotoxicity. According to the statistical analysis and prediction model results, methylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, ethylparaben, triclosan, octylphenol, methoxychlor, bisphenol A, and diethylstilbestrol were classified as cytotoxic, but trichloroacetic acid was non-toxic. Classification accuracy was 90%. The mechanistic study showed that the cytotoxicities of butylparaben, propylparaben, octylphenol, and triclosan were induced by ER stress. The mRNA expressions of BiP, CHOP, and ATF4 were significantly higher following treatments with four EDCs compared to those after the control treatment. Compared to the control treatment, the mRNA levels of XBP1u and XBP1s increased significantly after butylparaben and propylparaben treatments, but did not increase with octylphenol and triclosan treatments. These results indicate that the EBT can be applied as an alternative toxicity test when evaluating the cytotoxicity of EDCs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
       
  • RETRACTED ARTICLE: Genotoxicity and alteration of the Gene Regulatory
           Network expression during Paracentrotus lividus development in the
           presence of carbon nanoparticles

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      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Hemorrhagic changes and microglia activation induced by Macrovipera
           lebetina obtusa venom with the inhibited enzymatic activity in rat brain

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      Abstract: Abstract The metalloproteinases and phospholipase A2 are the main enzymes in the venom of Macrovipera lebetina obtusa that play a decisive role in the destructive and toxic effects on the organism of the prey. Metalloproteinases cause hemorrhagic damage, destroy the basement membrane of the blood vessel and disrupt the connections between endothelial cells. Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis of erythrocytes, destroy the cell membranes, and inhibits the adhesion of platelets and so on. The state of the capillaries of the rat brain and microglia under the action of the venom with separately inhibited enzymes was investigated and compared to the action of the crude venom. Also, the toxicity LD50 of the venom of Macrovipera lebetina obtusa with the inhibited enzymatic activity was determined. The histochemical study showed that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity did not significantly change the vasodestructive effect of the venoms. In case of action of a venom with inhibited enzymatic activity of metalloproteinases, low activity of microglia and less damaged capillaries were observed. The toxicity of the venom with inhibited phospholipase A2 and with inhibited metalloproteinases was respectively 1.8 and 3.7 times weaker than that of the crude venom. We can claim that both the toxicity of the venom of Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, the damaged brain vessels and the increased activity of CNS microglia are determined mainly by the action of metalloproteinases.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Antiphotoaging properties of Zingiber montanum essential oil isolated by
           solvent-free microwave extraction against ultraviolet B-irradiated human
           dermal fibroblasts

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      Abstract: Abstract Maintaining youthful skin from photoaging with natural products, including essential oils, is a vital strategy that has piqued the interest of researchers in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This research aimed to investigate the protective properties of Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. essential oil against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin damage and photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblast (HDFn) cells. The essential oil was extracted from fresh plant rhizomes using solvent-free microwave extraction. Its antiphotoaging properties in HDFn cells were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging, wound healing, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9) expression, procollagen synthesis, and elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays. The results showed that the test oil exhibited no significant toxicity in HDFn at concentrations up to 10 mg/mL, with cell viability exceeding 90%. Following UVB irradiation at 30 mJ/cm2, Z. montanum oil demonstrated time and concentration-dependent ROS radical scavenging capabilities. In a cell migration assay, the essential oil demonstrated wound-healing properties. Z. montanum oil suppressed the expression of MMPs and enhanced the synthesis of type I procollagen at a concentration of 0.1–1 mg/mL. In addition, 0.1–1 mg/mL Z. montanum oil inhibited elastase activity in a concentration-dependent manner but did not affect tyrosinase activity. From these findings, the essential oil of Z. montanum could have potential applications in developing cosmeceutical products to prevent skin photoaging.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The toxic effects of spent crankcase oil exposures; systematic review and
           meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract The study sought to execute a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe the toxicological implications associated with exposures of humans and laboratory animals to Spent Crankcase Oil (SCO). Databases like PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PlosOne were searched systematically for all data that assessed the effects of SCO on humans and animals. For each parameter involved in the meta-analysis (those with extractable data), mean, standard deviation, the sample size was extracted for both exposure groups and control. This was then used to compute the standardized mean difference (SMD). Statistical analysis and forest plots were done with RevMan 5.3 software. Twenty-eight (28) studies fulfilled the pre-specified criteria for eligibility. Fourteen (14) of the studies were used for the meta-analysis, which included a total of 1243 subjects from different human epidemiological occupational exposure studies and animal experimental studies. The meta-analysis revealed that SCO exposure caused a significant reduction in the body weight of animals (n = 5, SMD; − 1.2; 95% CI; (− 1.78, − 0.67), p = 0.0001, I2 = 22%), and in the red blood cell count (n = 5, SMD; − 1.28; 95% CI; (− 2.18, − 0.38, p = 0.02); I2 = 78%) and haemoglobin (n = 4, SMD; − 1.12, 95% CI; (− 2.71, 0.46); p = 0.16; I2 = 89%) in animal models. While there was a significant elevation of the aspartate amino transferase (AST) (n = 6, SMD; 0.76; 95%CI; (0.41, 1.11), p = 0.0001, I2 = 89%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (n = 5, SMD; 1.92; 95% CI; (0.02, 3.83), p = 0.05, I2 = 92%), and creatinine (n = 4, SMD = 1.56; 95% CI; (0.05, 3.07), p = 0.04, I2 = 90%) concentrations in comparison to the control. On the other hand, there was a non-significant effect on the alanine amino transferase (ALT) (n = 5, SMD; 1.13; 95% CI; (− 0.37, 2.62); p = 0.14; I2 = 92%), urea (n = 4, SMD; 1.23; 95% CI; (− 1.18, 3.65), p = 0.32, I2 = 94%), packed cell volume (PCV) (n = 5, SMD; 0.10; 95% CI; (− 0.36, 0.56), p = 0.67; I2 = 47%); and the haemoglobin (n = 6; SMD; − 0.74; 95% CI; (− 1.73, 0.26), p = 0.15; I2 = 89%) concentrations. Oxidative stress, heavy metals bioaccumulation, immunotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects were also in the list of findings. The toxicological implications associated with SCO exposure points to the need for immediate establishment of policies that regulate the disposal of spent crankcase oil in the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Trade‐offs between male fertility reduction and selected growth factors
           or the klotho response in a lipopolysaccharide-dependent mouse model

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      Abstract: Abstract The increasing number of depression cases leads to a greater need for new antidepressant treatment development. It is postulated that antidepressants may harm male fertility, but the cellular mechanism is still poorly understood. The role of growth factors and klotho protein in maintaining normal male reproductive function is well documented. Hence, the study aimed to investigate the effect of the antidepressant drug – imipramine (tricyclic AD), and other substances with antidepressant potential (ALS), administered in combination or in combination with LPS (an animal model of depression) on gene expression and protein synthesis of IGF-2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor β1), NGF (nerve growth factor), KGF (keratinocyte growth factor) and protein synthesis of VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A), IGF-IR (insulin-like growth factor receptor 1), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and klotho in the testis of mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with selected ALS and LPS or 10% DMSO (controls) (n = 7/group) once a day for 14 days. Animals were decapitated and testes collected for RNA and protein purification. PCR and western blot methods were employed for the evaluation of growth factors and klotho expression. The results obtained indicated a decreased level of most of the analyzed genes and proteins, except KGF; its expression increased after treatment with MTEP and IMI administrated individually and after NS-398, and IMI in combination with LPS. Our results may suggest that the tested ALS and LPS can contribute to a reduction of male fertility, but NS-398, IMI, and IMI+NS-398 may also act as stimulants after LPS.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • In utero exposure to electronic-cigarette aerosols decreases lung
           fibrillar collagen content, increases Newtonian resistance and induces
           sex-specific molecular signatures in neonatal mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Approximately 7% of pregnant women in the United States use electronic-cigarette (e-cig) devices during pregnancy. There is, however, no scientific evidence to support e-cig use as being ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Little is known about the effects of fetal exposures to e-cig aerosols on lung alveologenesis. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to e-cig aerosol impairs lung alveologenesis and pulmonary function in neonates. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed 2 h a day for 20 consecutive days during gestation to either filtered air or cinnamon-flavored e-cig aerosol (36 mg/mL of nicotine). Lung tissue was collected in offspring during lung alveologenesis on postnatal day (PND) 5 and PND11. Lung function was measured at PND11. Exposure to e-cig aerosol in utero led to a significant decrease in body weights at birth which was sustained through PND5. At PND5, in utero e-cig exposures dysregulated genes related to Wnt signaling and epigenetic modifications in both females (~ 120 genes) and males (40 genes). These alterations were accompanied by reduced lung fibrillar collagen content at PND5—a time point when collagen content is close to its peak to support alveoli formation. In utero exposure to e-cig aerosol also increased the Newtonian resistance of offspring at PND11, suggesting a narrowing of the conducting airways. At PND11, in females, transcriptomic dysregulation associated with epigenetic alterations was sustained (17 genes), while WNT signaling dysregulation was largely resolved (10 genes). In males, at PND11, the expression of only 4 genes associated with epigenetics was dysregulated, while 16 Wnt related-genes were altered. These data demonstrate that in utero exposures to cinnamon-flavored e-cig aerosols alter lung structure and function and induce sex-specific molecular signatures during lung alveologenesis in neonatal mice. This may reflect epigenetic programming affecting lung disease development later in life.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Distribution of organochlorine pesticide pollution in water, sediment,
           mollusk, and fish at Saguling Dam, West Java, Indonesia

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to determine the distribution of organochlorine pesticide pollution in water, sediments, mollusks, and fish at Saguling Dam as baseline data of organochlorine pollution. Samples were obtained from 12 locations, with 9 and 3 sampling points inside and outside the dam, respectively. Measurement of organochlorine residues was carried out using methods of extraction, purification, evaporation, and gas chromatography. Results showed the presence of several types of organochlorine compounds, namely, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endosulfan. Aldrin was dominant in water (2–37 μg/L) and sediments (2–1438 μg/L), while DDT and heptachlor were dominant organochlorine compounds in mollusks (13–2758 µg/L) and fish (11–104 μg/L), respectively. Sediments demonstrated higher organochlorine concentrations than water, mollusk, and fish. The distribution of organochlorine was affected by land use around the Citarum watershed and pollutant input from tributaries.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Acute toxicity of aqueous extract of Ambrosia arborescens Mill. on
           biochemical and histopathological parameters in rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Medicinal plants play an important role in the management of various diseases, so their use has become widespread. However, in some cases the population uses plant species regardless of the toxicity they may possess. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Ambrosia arborescens Mill. on the biochemical and histopathological parameters of albino Holtzman rats. To do this, the leaves of A. arborescens were collected in the province of Julcan, La Libertad Region—Peru. OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) guideline 423 was conducted, forming experimental groups of 10 animals each one (5 males and 5 females): Group I (Control), which received 2 mL physiological saline solution (SSF 0.9%), Groups II and III (A. arborescens-300 and A. arborescens-2000), which were given the aqueous extract leaves of A. arborescens in a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg/day, respectively. On the 14th day of exposure, biochemical (creatinine, ALT and AST) and histopathological parameters were measured. The results show that the aqueous extract of A. arborescens at the dose of 2000 mg/kg produces an increase in biochemical parameters which is related to histopathological analysis of liver and renal tissue with mild congestion. The study concludes that the aqueous extract leaves of A. arborescens has a LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and produces mild congestion in kidneys and liver, but showed no significant toxicological changes in the other albino Holtzman rats organs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • A review on the pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity considerations for
           chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to potentially treat coronavirus
           patients

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      Abstract: Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 virus, caused a novel emerged coronavirus disease, is growing rapidly worldwide. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of Chloroquine (CQ), an old antimalarial drug, and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. HCQ is derived from CQ by adding a hydroxyl group into it and is a less toxic derivative of CQ for the treatment of COVID-19 infection because it is more soluble. This article summarizes pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity considerations for CQ and HCQ, drug interactions, and their potential efficacy against COVID-19. The authors also look at the biochemistry changes and clinical uses of CQ and HCQ, and supportive treatments following toxicity occurs. It was believed that CQ and HCQ may provide few benefits to COVID-19 patients. A number of factors should be considered to keep the drug safe, such as dose, in vivo animal toxicological findings, and gathering of metabolites in plasma and/or tissues. The main conclusion of this review is that CQ and HCQ with considered to their ADMET properties has major shortcomings and fully irresponsible.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Non-toxic nature of chebulinic acid on biochemical, hematological and
           histopathological analysis in normal Sprague Dawley rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Chebulinic acid (CA) is an ellagitannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula with diverse pharmacological activities. The present study focused on the acute toxicity of CA in normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. CA was administered via oral gavage to different groups in 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and vehicle respectively. All the animals were monitored carefully for any physiological or behavioral changes for 14 days. On day 15th animals were euthanized and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Different tissues were collected for histopathological study using four different staining techniques (hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff and picro sirius red) to observe any pathological alterations. The results highlighted no morbidity and mortality after oral ingestion of CA (300 and 2000 mg/kg). Food and water consumption, body weight, relative organ weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were normal without any gross pathological lesions in harvested tissues. The outcome of the current study supported safety of CA even at high dose. However, further detailed study is required on experimentally disease model to unfold its therapeutic potential in laboratory animals.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Sub-lethal effects of organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid
           insecticides on muscle tissue transaminases of Oreochromis niloticus in
           vivo

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      Abstract: Abstract Organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have been commonly used in public health and agriculture. The present study aimed to evaluate the sub-lethal effects of organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on transaminases: glutamate oxaloacetate/aspartate transaminase (AST) and glutamate pyruvate/alanine transaminase (ALT) in Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to malathion (OP), chlorpyrifos (OP) and λ-cyhalothrin (synthetic pyrethroid) at sub-lethal concentrations of 1.425, 0.125 and 0.0039 ppm, respectively for 24 and 48 h. AST and ALT activities were shown to be remarkably (p < 0.05) decreased and increased, respectively in O. niloticus treated with the insecticides. The highest and lowest inhibition in AST level were noted as -12.2% and -12.2% in chlorpyrifos and λ-cyhalothrin 24 h treated fish samples, respectively. The highest and lowest elevation in ALT level were recorded as + 313% and 237% in 48 h chlorpyrifos and 24 h malathion treated fish samples, respectively. This indicates that the insecticides used in this study did not result in death but in changes in AST and ALT enzyme activities. Therefore, organophosphates (malathion, chlorpyrifos) and synthetic pyrethroid (λ-cyhalothrin) insecticides are toxic to fishes and could affects their survival in their natural habitat.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Evaluation of genotoxicity of SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 in vitro and in vivo

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      Abstract: Abstract We evaluated the potential genotoxic effects of the nutrient supplement SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 in vitro and in vivo. Genotoxicity tests were performed at the Korea Testing and Research Institute, a GLP certification institution. A bacterial reverse mutation test was performed using the pre-incubation method, while the in vitro chromosome aberration test was performed using a cultured Chinese hamster lung cell line in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vivo micronucleus test was performed using ICR mice. The bacterial reverse mutation test revealed that SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 did not induce genetic mutations at the tested doses in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537) and Escherichia coli (WP2uvrA) tester strains. Meanwhile, the results of the in vitro chromosomal aberration and in vivo micronucleus tests revealed that SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 did not induce chromosomal aberrations. These results suggest that SUNACTIVE Zn-P240 did not exhibit mutagenic or clastogenic properties in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
  • Role of integrin α2 in methotrexate-induced epithelial-mesenchymal
           transition in alveolar epithelial A549 cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat various diseases. However, it induces adverse reactions like serious lung injury, including pulmonary fibrosis. Increasing evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in injured alveolar epithelium contributes to the development of the pathophysiological state of the lung. We demonstrated that MTX induced EMT in cultured alveolar epithelial cell lines. Integrin-mediated signaling is considered a significant factor in recognizing the EMT process. However, the relationship between MTX-induced EMT and integrin family members is poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the role of integrin in MTX-induced EMT in A549 and NCI-H1299 (H1299) cells by focusing on the integrin alpha 2 (ITGA2) subunit, selected based on our microarray analysis. MTX treatment for 72 h significantly increased the mRNA and cell surface expression of ITGA2 in both cell lines. However, this upregulation by MTX was suppressed by co-treatment with SB431542 and folic acid, which are inhibitors of MTX-induced EMT in A549 cells. The mRNA expression levels of EMT-related genes were more affected in the MTX-treated A549 cells with high ITGA2 expression than in those with low ITGA2 expression. Finally, E7820, an ITGA2 inhibitor, suppressed MTX-induced EMT-related phenotypic changes, such as morphology and mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, a representative EMT marker. These findings suggest that ITGA2 may play a key role in MTX-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
       
  • Scavenger receptor class F member 2 (SCARF2) as a novel therapeutic target
           in glioblastoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Scavenger receptor class F member 2 (SCARF2) is expressed by endothelial cells with very large cytoplasmic domains and is the second isotype, also known as scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells 2 (SREC-2). SREC-1 plays an important role in the binding and endocytosis of various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Many studies have been carried out on modified low-density lipoprotein internalization activity, but there have been few studies on SCARF2. Higher expression of SCARF2 has been found in glioblastoma (GBM) than normal brain tissue. Through analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database, it was confirmed that SCARF2 is widely expressed in GBM, and increased SCARF2 expression correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with glioma. The results of this study showed that the expression of SCARF2 is increased in GBM cell lines and patients, suggesting that SCARF2 may be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic molecule for cancers including glioma.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00125-5
       
 
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