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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 324)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Toxicological Research
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1976-8257 - ISSN (Online) 2234-2753
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Exposure to China dust exacerbates testicular toxicity induced by
           cyclophosphamide in mice

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the potential effects of China dust (CD) exposure on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in mice, focusing on spermatogenesis and oxidative damage. CP treatment reduced testicular and epididymal weight and sperm motility and enhanced sperm abnormality. Histopathological examination presented various morphological alterations in the testis, including increased exfoliation of spermatogenic cells, degeneration of early spermatogenic cells, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, a decreased number of spermatogonia/spermatocytes/spermatids, along with a high number of apoptotic cells. In addition, the testis exhibited reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Meanwhile, CD exposure exacerbated testicular histopathological alterations induced by CP. CD exposure also aggravated oxidative damage by increasing the lipid peroxidative product MDA and decreasing GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the testis. These results suggest that CD exposure exacerbates CP-induced testicular toxicity in mice, which might be attributed to the induction of lipid peroxidation and reduced antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • In vitro toxicological assessment of PhSeZnCl in human liver cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Phenylselenenylzinc chloride (PhSeZnCl) is an air-stable selenolate, easily synthesizable through oxidative insertion of elemental zinc into the Se-halogen bond of the commercially available phenylselenyl chloride. PhSeZnCl was shown to possess a marked GPx-like activity both in NMR and in vitro tests, and to effectively react with cellular thiols, and was supposed for a potential use in the chemotherapy of drug-resistant cancers. However, activity of PhSeZnCl in hepatic cells has never been tested before now. In this in vitro approach, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities, as well as the effects on cell cycle of PhSeZnCl in two preclinical hepatic models, namely HepG2 and HepaRG cells. Results showed that cell viability of HepG2 and HepaRG cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner, with a more marked effect in HepG2 tumour cells. Moreover, treatment with 50 µg/mL PhSeZnCl caused an increase of primary DNA damage (4 h) and a statistically significant increase of HepG2 cells arrested in G2/M phase. In addition, it altered mitochondrial membrane potential and induced chromosomal DNA fragmentation (24 h). In HepaRG cells, PhSeZnCl was able to determine a cell cycle-independent induction of apoptosis. Particularly, 50 µg/mL induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization after 24 h and apoptosis after 4 h treatment. Futhermore, all PhSeZnCl concentrations tested determined a significant increase of apoptotic cells after 24 h. Apoptosis was also highlighted by the detection of active Caspase-3 by Western Blot analysis after 24 h exposure. In conclusion, this first toxicological assessment provides new insights into the biological activity of PhSeZnCl in preclinical hepatic models that will be useful in future safety assessment investigation of this compound as a potential pharmaceutical.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
       
  • Induction of synergistic apoptosis by tetramethoxystilbene and nutlin-3a
           in human cervical cancer cells

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      Abstract: Abstract 2,4,3’,5′-Tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) is a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1B1 to block the conversion from estradiol to 4-OH-estradiol. Several studies suggested that TMS may act as a potent anti-cancer agent for hormone-related cancer including cervical cancer. Nutlin-3a is a cis-imidazoline analog that interferes with the interaction between mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and the tumor suppressor p53. The purpose of the study was to compare the cytotoxic effect of TMS and nutlin-3a treatment individually and in combination in HeLa cells. To assess the potential synergistic effects between TMS and nutlin-3a, low concentrations of TMS and nutlin-3a were simultaneously treated in HeLa cells. Based on cell viability, apoptosis assays, and the increase in cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, it was demonstrated that the combination with TMS and nutlin-3a exerts a synergistic effect on cancer cell death. Isobologram analysis of HeLa cells noted synergism between TMS and nutlin-3a. The combined treatment increased the expression of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic factors such as Bax and Bak, and decreased the expression of the XIAP. In addition, combination treatment significantly enhanced the translocation of AIF to the nucleus in HeLa cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combination of TMS and nutlin-3a induces synergistic apoptosis in HeLa cells, suggesting the possibility that this combination can be applied as a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Effects of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on the progression of
           nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in offspring mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Cigarette smoke (CS) is a dominant carcinogenic agent in a variety of human cancers. CS exposure during pregnancy can adversely affect the fetus. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as a hepatic manifestation of a metabolic disorder, and ranges from simple steatosis to cirrhosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more severe phase of NAFLD. Recently, there is increasing apprehension about the CS-related chronic liver diseases. Therefore, we examined whether maternal CS exposure could affect the pathogenesis of NASH in offspring. Mainstream CS (MSCS) was exposed to pregnant C57BL/6 mice via nose-only inhalation for 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks from day 6 to 17 of gestation at 0, 300, or 600 μg/L. Three-week-old male offspring mice were fed methionine and choline-supplemented (MCS) diet or methionine and choline-deficient including high-fat (MCDHF) diet for 6 weeks to induce NASH. Maternal MSCS exposure increased the severity of NASH by increasing serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels, pro-inflammation, fibrosis, and steatosis in offspring mice. Especially, maternal MSCS exposure significantly downregulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in MCDHF diet-fed offspring mice. Subsequently, the protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) were upregulated by maternal MSCS exposure. In conclusion, maternal MSCS exposure exacerbates the progression of NASH by modulating lipogenesis on offspring mice.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • The effects of co-exposure to methyl paraben and dibutyl phthalate on cell
           line derived from human skin

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      Abstract: Abstract Data on the cumulative effects of chemical substances are necessary for the proper risk assessment, but their availability is still insufficient. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of methyl paraben (MePB) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the cells of the skin line (A431) and to compare the cytotoxic effects of the tested substances after single application to A431 cells with the effects of an equimolar/equitoxic (1:1) binary mixture of these compounds as well as their mixtures in ratio 1:3: and 3:1. On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that there were interactions between the tested compounds in terms of cytotoxic effect on A431, assessed on the basis of metabolic activity of cells (MTT test) and integrity of their cell membranes (NRU test). The obtained values of synergy coefficients (SI) and isobolographic analysis indicate that between the tested chemicals in a two-component equimolar mixture (1:1) there is a synergism of action, which, at a high DBP content in the mixture (> 50%) turned into antagonism. Observations using a holotomographic microscope show morphological changes in A431 cells after exposure to both DBP and MePB separately and binary mixtures of these compounds, compared to untreated cells. The observed changes in cell morphology seem to be more pronounced when the cells are exposed to the binary mixtures of DBP and MePB than when exposed to these substances individually, which may confirm the synergy of cytotoxic activity between them (this phenomenon was observed for the higher of the tested concentrations in all tested proportions). It is important to consider such effects when considering the effects of cumulative exposure in the risk assessment in order not to underestimate the risk of adverse effects associated with exposure to chemical mixtures.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
       
  • CKD-516 potentiates the anti-cancer activity of docetaxel against
           epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant lung
           cancer

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      Abstract: Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Although docetaxel has been used as a second- or third-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the objective response rate is less than 10%. Hence, there is a need to improve the clinical efficacy of docetaxel monotherapy; combination therapy should be considered. Here, we show that CKD-516, a vascular disruption agent, can be combined with docetaxel to treat epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-resistant NSCLC. CKD-516 was orally bioavailable; neither CKD-516 nor docetaxel affected the mean plasma concentration–time profile or pharmacokinetic parameters of the other drug. CKD-516 and docetaxel synergistically inhibited the growth of H1975 (with an L858R/T790M double mutation of EGFR) and A549 (with a KRAS mutation) lung cancer cell lines. In addition, docetaxel plus CKD-516 delayed tumor growth in—and extended the lifespan of—tumor-bearing mice. Thus, combination CKD-516 and docetaxel therapy could be used to treat EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
       
  • Melanocytotoxic chemicals and their toxic mechanisms

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      Abstract: Abstract Melanocyte cell death can lead to various melanocyte-related skin diseases including vitiligo and leukoderma. Melanocytotoxic chemicals are one of the most well-known causes of nongenetic melanocyte-related diseases, which induce melanocyte cell death through apoptosis. Various chemicals used in cosmetics, medicine, industry and food additives are known to induce melanocyte cell death, which poses a significant risk to the health of consumers and industrial workers. This review summarizes recently reported melanocytotoxic chemicals and their mechanisms of toxicity in an effort to provide insight into the development of safer chemicals.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
       
  • Radioactive Iodine-induced hypothyroidism interferes with the maturation
           of reproductive organs during puberty in immature female rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Animal and human studies suggest that thyroid hormone may have critical roles in the development of the ovary. For example, thyroid deficiency disrupts the ovarian microarchitecture and menstrual cycle in neonate and adult women, respectively. Therefore, it is conceivable that thyroid deficiency might disrupt sexual maturation during the peri-pubertal period. To investigate the impact of radioactive iodine-induced thyroid deficiency on reproductive organs throughout puberty, immature female rats were given water containing radioactive iodine (0.37 MBq/g body weight) twice, on postnatal days 22 and 29. Radioactive iodine-induced hypothyroidism was revealed by low free thyroxin levels. Thyroid deficiency delayed the onset of vaginal opening, reduced ovarian weight and the number of medium-sized follicles and led to elongated uteri. However, there was no effect on the estrous cycle or absolute uterus weight. We conclude that radioactive iodine-induced thyroid deficiency delays sexual maturation and alters normal ovarian growth in peri-pubertal rats.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
       
  • Augmented impulsive behavior in febrile seizure-induced mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Febrile seizure (FS) is one of the most prevalent etiological events in childhood affecting 2–5% of children from 3 months to 5 years old. Debates on whether neurodevelopmental consequences rise in later life following a febrile seizure or not are still ongoing however there is limited evidence of its effect, especially in a laboratory setting. Moreover, the comparative study using both male and female animal models is sparse. To examine the effect of FS on the behavioral features of mice, both sexes of ICR mice were induced with hyperthermic seizures through exposure to an infrared heat lamp. The mice were divided into two groups, one receiving a single febrile seizure at postnatal day 11 (P11) and one receiving three FS at P11, P13, and P15. Starting at P30 the FS-induced mice were subjected to a series of behavioral tests. Mice with seizures showed no locomotor and motor coordination deficits, repetitive, and depressive-like behavior. However, the FS-induced mice showed impulsive-like behavior in both elevated plus maze and cliff avoidance tests, which is more prominent in male mice. A greater number of mice displayed impaired CAT in both males and females in the three-time FS-induced group compared to the single induction group. These results demonstrate that after induction of FS, male mice have a higher susceptibility to consequences of febrile seizure than female mice and recurrent febrile seizure has a higher chance of subsequent disorders associated with decreased anxiety and increased impulsivity. We confirmed the dysregulated expression of impulsivity-related genes such as 5-HT1A and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 from the prefrontal cortices of FS-induced mice implying that the 5-HT system would be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased impulsivity after FS. Taken together, these findings are useful in unveiling future discoveries about the effect of childhood febrile seizure and the mechanism behind it.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
       
  • The preventive effect of Mori Ramulus on oxidative stress-induced cellular
           damage in skeletal L6 myoblasts through Nrf2-mediated activation of HO-1

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the present study is to investigate the preventive effect of water extract of Mori Ramulus (MRWE) on oxidative stress-mediated cellular damages in rat skeletal L6 myoblasts. Our results demonstrated that MRWE pretreatment markedly improved cell survival and suppressed cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated L6 cells. H2O2-triggered DNA damage was also notably reduced by MRWE, which since it was correlated with protection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Additionally, H2O2 stimulated cytosolic release of cytochrome c and up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, whereas MRWE suppressed these changes following by H2O2. Moreover, MRWE inhibited the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase as well as the activity of caspase-3 by H2O2. Furthermore, MRWE enhanced H2O2-mediated expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-associated factor 2 (Nrf2) and its representative downstream enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, the protective effects of MRWE on H2O2-induced ROS production, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were significantly attenuated by HO-1 inhibitor. In conclusion, our present results suggests that MRWE could protect L6 myoblasts from H2O2-induced cellular injury by inhibiting ROS generation along with Nrf2-mediated activation of HO-1, indicating this finding may expand the scope of application of Mori Ramulus in medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00141-5
       
  • Algorithm for environmental risk assessment of cosmetics to reduce their
           environmental impact

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      Abstract: Abstract Cosmetics, especially rinse-off personal care products (PCPs), such as shampoo, facial cleanser, and body wash, are composed of various chemicals and are one of the sources of chemicals released into aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the cosmetic industry strives to reduce the impact of their products on the aquatic environment. In this study, we proposed an algorithm based on persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) for the environmental risk assessment of cosmetics. PBT features are generally used in the evaluation of the environmental impact of chemicals. Based on the PBT assessment, it is possible to predict the short- and long-term effects of chemicals on the environment. Our algorithm derives substance and product scores from PBT features, allowing for the risk assessment of each ingredient in the product. Furthermore, we proposed a criterion for the environmental impact grade through which each component can be classified. We intend to use this grade and factors determined through the algorithm to manufacture products with low environmental impact.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00143-3
       
  • Chemokine expression in human 3-dimensional cultured epidermis exposed to
           PM2.5 collected by cyclonic separation

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      Abstract: Abstract Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has a risk of inducing several health problems, especially in the respiratory tract. The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is therefore the primary target of PM2.5. In this study, we examined the effects of PM2.5 on the skin using a human 3-dimensional cultured epidermis model. PM2.5 was collected by cyclonic separation in Yokohama, Japan. Global analysis of 34 proteins released from the epidermis revealed that the chemokines, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), were significantly increased in response to PM2.5 exposure. These chemokines stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis in a C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2-dependent manner. The oxidative stress and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathways may be involved in the increased expression of CXCL1 and IL-8 in the human epidermis model. Interestingly, in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line, PM2.5 did not affect chemokine expression but did induce IL-6 expression, suggesting a different effect of PM2.5 between the epidermis model and HaCaT cells. Overall, PM2.5 could induce the epidermis to release chemokines, followed by neutrophil activation, which might cause an unregulated inflammatory reaction in the skin.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00142-4
       
  • Repeated oral dose toxicity and genotoxicity of a standardized Quisqualis
           indica extract

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      Abstract: Abstract Quisqualis indica L. of Combretaceae family is a traditional medicine that is widely used for various gastrointestinal discomfort including stomach pain, constipation, and digestive problem. In this study, the potential repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity of a standardized Quisqualis indica L. extract (HU033) were determined under good laboratory practice conditions. For the repeated dose toxicity test, HU033 was orally administered to Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks. The genotoxicity of HU033 was determined with a standard battery of genotoxicity test, including an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test, an in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and an in vivo micronucleus test. After 13 weeks of repeated dose of HU033 by oral administration, there was no treatment related adverse clinical sign including food consumption, organ weights, and histopathological findings or significant decrement in bodyweight. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of HU033 was higher than 2000 mg/kg in both male and female SD rats. No target organs were identified. In addition, no evidence of HU033 genotoxicity was detected based on results from the bacterial reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test, and micronucleus test. Based on results of this study, HU033 could be safely used in food and medical products within the tested dose range.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00140-6
       
  • Policosanol suppresses tumor progression in a gastric cancer xenograft
           model

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      Abstract: Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer death, with the fifth highest incidence. The development of effective chemotherapeutic agents is needed to decrease GC mortality. Policosanol (PC) extracted from Cuban sugar cane wax is a healthy functional food ingredient that helps improve blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Its various physiological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, have been reported recently. Nevertheless, the therapeutic efficacy of PC in gastric xenograft models is unclear. We aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of PC on human GC SNU-16 cells and a xenograft mouse model. PC significantly inhibited GC cell viability and delayed tumor growth without toxicity in the SNU-16–derived xenograft model. Therefore, we investigated protein expression levels in tumor tissues; the expression levels of Ki-67, a proliferation marker, and cdc2 were decreased. In addition, we performed proteomic analysis and found thirteen differentially expressed proteins. Our results suggested that PC inhibited GC progression via cdc2 suppression and extracellular matrix protein regulation. Notably, our findings might contribute to the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for GC.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00139-z
       
  • Adrenergic blocker terazosin potentially suppresses acetaminophen
           induced-acute liver injury in animal models via CYP2E1 gene

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      Abstract: Abstract Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a global issue and acetaminophen (APAP) is considered as the main cause of this. Due to increasing incidents of DILI, current study attempted to investigate an alternative but better role of terazosin (alpha-adrenergic blocker) in APAP-induced acute liver injury in an animal model using New Zealand rabbits. APAP (1 g/kg of body weight) was given to New Zealand rabbits either with or without terazosin (0.5 mg/kg) and serum was collected after 4 h. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ferritin level were determined to analyze the liver functioning of treated rabbits. Furthermore, total cholesterol (TC), total lipids (TL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) levels were estimated to find any change in lipid profile of the treated animals. Moreover, the urea and creatinine levels assayed the actual renal functionality. To identify any modification in gene expression, qPCR of cytochrome P2E1 (CYP2E1) was performed. Terazosin in combination with APAP enhanced liver functioning by reducing the levels of liver injury markers viz. ALP and ALT, while lipid profile was also lowered by down regulation of TC, TL, LDL and TG with enhanced HDL levels. It caused significant down regulation of expression level of CYP2E1. It is concluded that terazosin has better effects induced on the recovery of normal liver functioning, by improving the liver profile, lipid profile and renal functioning both at tissue and molecular levels.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-021-00116-y
       
  • Fimbristylis ovata and Artemisia vulgaris extracts inhibited AGE-mediated
           RAGE expression, ROS generation, and inflammation in THP-1 cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can induce inflammatory signaling pathways through the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Targeting RAGE could be a therapeutic strategy for treating chronic inflammation mediated by the AGE-RAGE axis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Fimbristylis ovata and Artemisia vulgaris extracts on AGE-RAGE signaling and AGE-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation in THP-1 cells. F. ovata and A. vulgaris were extracted by a Soxhlet extraction, and antioxidant capacity was evaluated using DPPH and ABTS assays. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with AGE (600 µg/ml) with and without F. ovata and A. vulgaris extracts (100 µg/ml). The mitochondria-targeting antioxidant MitoQ (2 μg/ml) was used as a positive control. Cell viability, ROS generation, RAGE, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway components, and inflammatory cytokine levels were analyzed. F. ovata and A. vulgaris extracts showed antioxidative effects in non-cell-based assays. Treatment of THP-1 cells with AGE significantly increased the protein levels of RAGE and significantly increased the mRNA expression of cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. AGEs induced the generation of ROS and levels of signaling molecules downstream of RAGE, including phosphorylated and total Erk1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, although not significantly. F. ovata and A. vulgaris extracts significantly decreased the protein levels of RAGE and significantly decreased the mRNA levels of cytokines. In conclusion, this study revealed that F. ovata and A. vulgaris extracts exert anti-inflammatory effects through the AGE-RAGE axis. However, details on this anti-inflammatory effect through AGE-RAGE signaling should be further investigated.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-021-00114-0
       
  • Effect of 3-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia
           herbacea on endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation via calcium
           signaling pathway

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      Abstract: Abstract 3-Caffeoyl-4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ) is a natural chlorogenic acid isolated from Salicornia herbacea that protects against oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a physiologically beneficial role in the cardiovascular system, including vasodilation, protection of endothelial cell function, and anti-inflammation. However, the effect of CDCQ on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation in endothelial cells is unclear. We investigated the effect of CDCQ on eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human endothelial cells, and the underlying signaling pathway. CDCQ significantly increased NO production and the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Additionally, CDCQ induced phosphorylation of PKA, CaMKII, CaMKKβ, and AMPK. Interestingly, CDCQ increased the intracellular Ca2+ level, and L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) blockade significantly attenuated CDCQ-induced eNOS activity and NO production by inhibiting PKA, CaMKII, CaMKKβ, and AMPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that CDCQ increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production by Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of PKA, CaMKII, CaMKKβ, and AMPK. Our findings provide evidence that CDCQ plays a pivotal role in the activity of eNOS and NO production, which is involved in the protection of endothelial dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00121-9
       
  • Semi-automated approach for generation of biological networks on
           drug-induced cholestasis, steatosis, hepatitis, and cirrhosis

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      Abstract: Abstract Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the leading reasons for discontinuation of a new drug development project. Diverse machine learning or deep learning models have been developed to predict DILI. However, these models have not provided an adequate understanding of the mechanisms leading to DILI. The development of safer drugs requires novel computational approaches that enable the prompt understanding of the mechanism of DILI. In this study, the mechanisms leading to the development of cholestasis, steatosis, hepatitis, and cirrhosis were explored using a semi-automated approach for data gathering and associations. Diverse data from ToxCast, Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD), Reactome, and Open TG-GATEs on reference molecules leading to the development of the respective diseases were extracted. The data were used to create biological networks of the four diseases. As expected, the four networks had several common pathways, and a joint DILI network was assembled. Such biological networks could be used in drug discovery to identify possible molecules of concern as they provide a better understanding of the disease-specific key events. The events can be target-tested to provide indications for potential DILI effects.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00124-6
       
  • Mitoquinol mesylate (MITOQ) attenuates diethyl nitrosamine-induced
           hepatocellular carcinoma through modulation of mitochondrial antioxidant
           defense systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced cirrhosis-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model associates cancer progression with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of mitoquinol mesylate (MitoQ), a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant on DEN-induced oxidative damage in HCC Wistar rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Healthy control, DEN, and MitoQ groups were orally administered exactly 10 mg/kg of distilled water, DEN, and MitoQ, respectively for 16 weeks. Animals in the MitoQ + DEN group were pre-treated with MitoQ for a week followed by co-administration of 10 mg/kg each of MitoQ and DEN. DEN + MitoQ group received DEN for 8 weeks, then co-administration of 10 mg/kg each of DEN and MitoQ till the end of 16th week. Survival index, tumour incidence, hematological profile, liver function indices, lipid profile, mitochondrial membrane composition, mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, and antioxidant defense status in both mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions plus expression of antioxidant genes were assessed. In MitoQ + DEN and DEN + MitoQ groups, 80% survival occurred while tumour incidence decreased by 60% and 40% respectively, compared to the DEN-only treated group. Similarly, MitoQ-administered groups showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the activities of liver function enzymes while hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, and packed cell volume were significantly elevated compared to the DEN-only treated group. Administration of MitoQ to the DEN-intoxicated groups successfully enhanced the activities of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase; and up-regulated the expression and activities of SOD2, CAT, and GPx1. Macroscopic and microscopic features indicated a reversal of DEN-induced hepatocellular degeneration in the MitoQ + DEN and DEN + MitoQ groups. These data revealed that MitoQ intervention attenuated DEN-induced oxidative stress through modulation of mitochondrial antioxidant defense systems and alleviated the burden of HCC as a chemotherapeutic agent.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-021-00105-1
       
  • Phosphodiesterase 11 A (PDE11A), a potential biomarker for
           glioblastoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), a 3′,5′-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, is a key regulator of intracellular signaling that functions by degrading cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, the function of PDE11A in brain tumors is currently unclear. In this study, we found that PDE11A may be involved in glioblastoma development. The protein and mRNA levels of PDE11A were significantly higher in U87-MG, U251-MG and U343-MG glioblastoma cell lines. Gene expression analyses by deep-sequencing revealed that PDE11A mRNA levels were higher in U87-MG and U251-MG cells compared to other cells in the cerebral cortex. A comprehensive analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data revealed that PDE11A expression was also elevated in glioblastoma patients. Taken together, these data indicate that PDE11A expression was increased in glioblastoma cell lines and glioma patients, suggesting that PDE11A could be a putative diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for glioma.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-022-00129-1
       
 
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