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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Current Medical Science
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2096-5230 - ISSN (Online) 2523-899X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Calcitriol Suppressed Isoproterenol-induced Proliferation of Cardiac
           Fibroblasts via Integrin β3/FAK/Akt Pathway

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      Abstract: Objective Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition are important features of cardiac fibrosis. Various studies have indicated that vitamin D displays an anti-fibrotic property in chronic heart diseases. This study explored the role of vitamin D in the growth of CFs via an integrin signaling pathway. Methods MTT and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine assays were performed to determine cell viability. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and integrin signaling pathway. The fibronectin was observed by ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to evaluate the expression of integrin β3. Results The PCNA expression in the CFs was enhanced after isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation accompanied by an elevated expression of integrin beta-3 (β3). The blockade of the integrin β3 with a specific integrin β3 antibody reduced the PCNA expression induced by the ISO. Decreasing the integrin β3 by siRNA reduced the ISO-triggered phosphorylation of FAK and Akt. Both the FAK inhibitor and Akt inhibitor suppressed the PCNA expression induced by the ISO in the CFs. Calcitriol (CAL), an active form of vitamin D, attenuated the ISO-induced CFs proliferation by downregulating the integrin β3 expression, and phosphorylation of FAK and Akt. Moreover, CAL reduced the increased levels of fibronectin and hydroxyproline in the CFs culture medium triggered by the ISO. The administration of calcitriol decreased the integrin β3 expression in the ISO-induced myocardial injury model. Conclusion These findings revealed a novel role for CAL in suppressing the CFs growth by the downregulation of the integrin β3/FAK/Akt pathway.
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
       
  • Optimization of the Process for Preparing Bivalent Polysaccharide
           Conjugates to Develop Multivalent Conjugate Vaccines against Streptococcus
           pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis and Comparison with the Corresponding
           Licensed Vaccines in Animal Models

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      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to describe, optimize and evaluate a method for preparing multivalent conjugate vaccines by simultaneous conjugation of two different bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPs) with tetanus toxoid (TT) as bivalent conjugates. Methods Different molecular weights (MWs) of polysaccharides, activating agents and capsular polysaccharide/protein (CP/Pro) ratio that may influence conjugation and immunogenicity were investigated and optimized to prepare the bivalent conjugate bulk. Using the described method and optimized parameters, a 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a bivalent meningococcal vaccine were developed and their effectiveness was compared to that of corresponding licensed vaccines in rabbit or mouse models. Results The immunogenicity test revealed that polysaccharides with lower MWs were better for Pn1-TT-Pn3 and MenA-TT-MenC, while higher MWs were superior for Pn4-TT-Pn14, Pn6A-TT-Pn6B, Pn7F-TT-Pn23F and Pn8-TT-Pn11A. For activating polysaccharides, 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) was superior to cyanogen bromide (CNBr), but for Pn1, Pn3 and MenC, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) was the most suitable option. For Pn6A-TT-Pn6B and Pn8-TT-Pn11A, rabbits immunized with bivalent conjugates with lower CP/Pro ratios showed significantly stronger CP-specific antibody responses, while for Pn4-TT-Pn14, higher CP/Pro ratio was better. Instead of interfering with the respective immunological activity, our bivalent conjugates usually induced higher IgG titers than their monovalent counterparts. Conclusion The result indicated that the described conjugation technique was feasible and efficacious to prepare glycoconjugate vaccines, laying a solid foundation for developing extended-valent multivalent or combined conjugate vaccines without potentially decreased immune function.
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
       
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Endothelial Dysfunction Promotes
           Neointima Formation after Arteriovenous Grafts in Mice on High-fat Diet

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      Abstract: Objective Endothelial dysfunction is one candidate for triggering neointima formation after arteriovenous grafts (AVGs), but the factors mediating this process are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced endothelial dysfunction in neointima formation following AVGs in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. Methods CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) knockout (KO) mice were created. Mice were fed with HFD to produce HFD model. AVGs model were applied in the groups of WT ND, WT HFD, and CHOP KO HFD. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) (40 mg/L) for the indicated time lengths (0, 6, 12, 24 h). ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was used to block ERS. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the changes of ICAM1. Changes of ERS were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Protein expression levels and ERS activation were detected by Western blotting. Endothellial cell function was determined by endothelial permeability assay and transendothelial migration assay. Results HFD increased neointima formation in AVGs associated with endothelial dysfunction. At the same time, ERS was increased in endothelial cells (ECs) after AVGs in mice consuming the HFD. In vitro, ox-LDL was found to stimulate ERS, increase the permeability of the EC monolayer, and cause endothelial dysfunction. Blocking ERS with TUDCA or CHOP siRNA reversed the EC dysfunction caused by ox-LDL. In vivo, knockout of CHOP (CHOP KO) protected the function of ECs and decreased neointima formation after AVGs in HFD mice. Conclusion Inhibiting ERS in ECs could improve the function of AVGs.
      PubDate: 2023-01-14
       
  • Gefapixant, a Novel P2X3 Antagonist, Protects against Post Myocardial
           Infarction Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling Via Suppressing NLRP3
           Inflammasome

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      Abstract: Objective The ATP responsive P2 purinergic receptors can be subdivided into metabotropic P2X family and ionotropic P2Y family. Among these, P2X3 is a type of P2X receptor which is specifically expressed on nerves, especially on pre-ganglionic sensory fibers. This study investigates whether gefapixant possesses the potential of inhibiting cardiac sympathetic hypersensitivity to protect against cardiac remodeling in the context of myocardial infarction. Methods The Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups: sham group-myocardial infarction group, and myocardial infarction with gefapixant treatment group. Myocardial infarction was induced by left anterior descending branch ligation. The gefapixant solution was intraperitoneally injected each time per day for 7 days and the appropriate dosage of gefapixant was determined according to the results of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and myocardial injury biomarkers. Conditions of cardiac function were assessed by echocardiograph and cardiac fibrosis was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining of collagen I and collagen III. The sympathetic innervation was detected by norepinephrine concentration (pg/mL), in-vivo electrophysiology, and typical sympathetic biomarkers. Inflammatory cell infiltration was shown from immunofluorescence staining and pro-inflammatory signaling pathway activation was checked by immunohistology, quantitative realtime PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. Results It was found that gefapixant injection of 10 mg/kg per day had the highest dosage-efficacy ratio. Furthermore, gefapixant treatment improved cardiac pump function as shown by increased LVEF and LVFS, and decreased LVIDd and LVIDs. The expression levels of collagen I and collagen III, and TNF-α were all decreased by P2X3 inhibition. Mechanistically, the decreased activation of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors family pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and subsequent cleavage of caspase-1 which modulated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 level in heart after gefapixant treatment were associated with the suppressed cardiac inflammation. Conclusion It is suggested that P2X3 inhibition by gefapixant ameliorates post-infarct autonomic nervous imbalance, cardiac dysfunction, and remodeling possibly via inactivating NLRP3 inflammasome.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
       
  • Inhibition of Cyclin F Promotes Cellular Senescence through
           Cyclin-dependent Kinase 1-mediated Cell Cycle Regulation

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      Abstract: Objective Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is a common renal malignancy that has a poor prognosis. As a member of the F box family, cyclin F (CCNF) plays an important regulatory role in normal tissues and tumors. However, the underlying mechanism by which CCNF promotes KIRC proliferation still remains unclear. Methods Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to obtain gene expression and clinical prognosis data. The CCK8 assay, EdU assay, and xenograft assay were used to detect cell proliferation. The cell senescence and potential mechanism were assessed by SA-β-gal staining, Western blotting, as well as ELISA. Results Our data showed that CCNF was highly expressed in KIRC patients. Meanwhile, downregulation of CCNF inhibited cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Further studies showed that the reduction of CCNF promoted cell senescence by decreasing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), increasing the proinflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and then enhancing the expression of p21 and p53. Conclusion We propose that the high expression of CCNF in KIRC may play a key role in tumorigenesis by regulating cell senescence. Therefore, CCNF shows promise as a new biomarker to predict the clinical prognosis of KIRC patients and as an effective therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
       
  • Newly Detected Transmission of blaKPC-2 by Outer Membrane Vesicles in
           Klebsiella Pneumoniae

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      Abstract: Objective The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a global public health problem. It is mainly caused by the plasmid-carried carbapenemase gene. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) contain toxins and other factors involved in various biological processes, including β-lactamase and antibiotic-resistance genes. This study aimed to reveal the transmission mechanism of OMV-mediated drug resistance of Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Methods We selected CR-KP producing K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2) to study whether they can transfer resistance genes through OMVs. The OMVs of CR-KP were obtained by ultracentrifugation, and incubated with carbapenem-sensitive K. pneumoniae for 4 h. Finally, the carbapenem-sensitive K. pneumoniae was tested for the presence of blaKPC-2 resistance gene and its sensitivity to carbapenem antibiotics. Results The existence of OMVs was observed by the electron microscopy. The extracted OMVs had blaKPC-2 resistance gene. After incubation with OMVs, blaKPC-2 resistance gene was detected in sensitive K. pneumoniae, and it became resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Conclusion This study demonstrated that OMVs isolated from KPC-2-producing CR-KP could deliver blaKPC-2 to sensitive K. pneumoniae, allowing the bacteria to produce carbapenemase, which may provide a novel target for innovative therapies in combination with conventional antibiotics for treating carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
       
  • Dysregulated RUNX1 Predicts Poor Prognosis by Mediating
           Epithelialmesenchymal Transition in Cervical Cancer

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      Abstract: Objective Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) has been proven to be over-expressed and vital in many malignancies. However, its role in cervical cancer is still unclear. Methods Some online databases (Oncomine, GEPIA, UALCAN, LinkedOmics, and others) were used to explore the expression level, prognostic significance, and gene mutation characteristics of RUNX1 in cervical cancer. The protein levels of RUNX1 in cervical cancer were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The functional changes of cervical cancer cells were measured in vitro after decreasing RUNX1. Results Bioinformatic results revealed that RUNX1 was upregulated in cervical cancer compared to normal tissues. Moreover, over-expression of RUNX1 was significantly correlated with cervical cancer patients’ clinical parameters (e.g., individual cancer stages, patients’ age, nodal metastasis status, and others). Meanwhile, functional enrichment analysis of RUNX1-related genes indicated that RUNX1 was mainly involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in cervical cancer. Furthermore, RUNX1 may be upregulated by hsamiR-616-5p and hsa-miR-766 identified by miRDB, TargetScan, and miRWalk. Finally, RUNX1 was upregulated in cervical cancer compared to normal tissues by IHC in collected cervical cancer samples. The invasion and migration abilities of cervical cancer cells were significantly reduced by repressing EMT after knocking down RUNX1 in vitro. Conclusion RUNX1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer, and upregulated RUNX1 could significantly promote the invasive abilities of cervical cancer cells by inducing EMT. Therefore, RUNX1 may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and targeted therapy of cervical cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Availability and Affordability of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies After
           the New Medical Reform in Hubei Province, China

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      Abstract: Objective In 2017, China launched a new round of medical reform (NMR) to address the inaccessibility of high-priced drugs for patients with serious diseases. This study explored the impact of the NMR on the accessibility and affordability of high-priced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and the effective promotion policies after the NMR. Methods We used a standard method developed by the World Health Organization to conduct two surveys on the availability of mAbs and their prices before and after the NMR in the public hospitals in Hubei province, China. By interviewing hospital pharmacy experts, we identified the potential value of the current NMR in improving the access to therapeutic mAbs. Results The average availability of 13 mAbs increased by 8.1% in the surveyed hospitals of Hubei province after the NMR. The median unit price of 10 mAbs dropped by 34.3%. The average affordability of a treatment cycle of 10 mAbs dropped from 680 days to 298 days of the disposable daily income for a middle-income resident (56.2% reduction). The drug price negotiation of medical insurance inclusion and the promotion of consistent evaluation of generic and original drugs could effectively promote the accessibility of mAbs. However, the zero markup of drug pricing and the limit on the proportion of drug revenues in public hospitals showed certain negative effects on the availability of mAbs. Conclusion Not all current NMR policies play a positive role in promoting the accessibility of mAbs. To further improve the accessibility of mAbs in the future in China, it is therefore critical to increase the investment in independent research and development of high-quality mAbs, establish localized guidelines for the rational use of mAbs in clinical practice, and have a cost-sharing mechanism for high-priced drugs with multiple stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Evaluation of the Anterior Chamber Angle Structures in Perinatal Infants
           Using a Wide-Field Digital Fundus Camera

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      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a digital fundus camera to observe the development of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) in premature infants. Methods Forty-eight eyes of preterm infants (n=48) were examined by a digital fundus camera to observe the development of the ACA. ACA grading was performed based on the visualization of the anterior chamber structures according to the Scheie Angle Depth Evaluating System. Results ACA images from all 48 infants were successfully acquired using RetCam3. The corrected gestational age ranged from 30 weeks to 49 weeks, which covered the period from 2 months preterm to >2 months post-term. As the corrected gestational age increased, the corrected gestational age grading was significantly decreased. The mean corrected gestational ages of the infants corresponding to the ACA classification from grade IV to grade 0 were 32.75±1.89, 37.20±1.30, 39.75±2.38, 40.56±2.24, and 44.23±2.14 weeks, respectively, which were all significantly different (P<0.05). The regression analysis showed a linear correlation between the grading of the ACA and the corrected gestational age (R2=0.724, P=0.0001). Conclusion The ACA of a full-term newborn can be fully detected and evaluated by a digital fundus camera. For premature infants, part of the ACA is not visible physiologically; however, it should not be misdiagnosed as angle closure or a narrow angle.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Increased Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules Across Nearly 10 Years in
           Shanghai, China

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      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) increased due to modern lifestyles or other factors, despite the advances in screening and diagnostic tools. Methods This study included 3474 pairs of participants, who were matched by gender and age (±3 years) from two cross-sectional sampling surveys: (1) the program on the iodine nutritional status and related health status of residents in Shanghai in 2009; (2) the thyroid disease screening program for adults in Shanghai between 2017 and 2018. The prevalence of TNs and thyroid diseases in 2009 and 2017–2018 were compared, and the potential risk factors of TNs were detected. Results The prevalence of TNs in 2009 was 28.9%: 22.5% in males and 34.5% in females. In 2017, this increased to 43.8%: 37.9% in males and 49.1% in females. The prevalence of TNs significantly increased from 2009 to 2017 (odds ratio, 1.486; 95% confidence interval, 1.238–1.786). In addition, female gender, thyroid disease history, and age were the main risk factors for TNs after adjusting for confounders in the logistic regression across the time period. Conclusion The prevalence of TNs significantly increased across nearly 10 years in Shanghai.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Haplotype and Genetic Analysis of 41 Y-STR Loci in the Wuwei Han
           Population from Gansu Province, China

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      Abstract: Objective Y-Chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphism (Y-STR) analysis plays an indispensable role in the identification of male individuals, population genetics, and biogeographic research. While profiles of many populations based on Y-STR markers in human genomes are ample, haplotype data for the Wuwei Han are still scarce. Methods In this study, 2180 unrelated Wuwei Han male individuals residing in Gansu Province, China were collected and genotyped using the novel Microreader™ 40Y Plus ID system. Phylogenetic relationship reconstructions, multidimensional scaling (MDS), and heatmap analysis were performed based on the genetic distance (Rst) values between our studied population and other populations of the Ymax module in the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD). Results A total of 2129 unique haplotypes were obtained, and the haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) for the Wuwei Han were 0.9999 and 0.9931, respectively. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the Wuwei Han population had intimate genetic relationships with East Asians, especially the geographically close Han populations. Overall, this Y-Chromosomal assay gives valuable information about paternal lineages in male individual tracking and genealogical database construction.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Extra-pseudocapsular Transnasal Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary
           Macroadenoma: Technique Note and Evaluation of Endocrine Function

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      Abstract: Objective In this study, we investigated the surgical technique and endocrine assessment of pituitary function of patients with macroadenoma treated by extra-pseudocapsular transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETTS). Methods Clinical data of 144 patients with pituitary macroadenomas in the same surgical group at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology were retrospectively analyzed from January 2019 to June 2021. Based on the results of the endocrinological evaluation and MRI examinations before and after surgery, the fluctuation of pituitary function and the extent of resection were analyzed. Multiple Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors affecting postoperative tumor residual. Results Among the 144 patients with pituitary macroadenomas, 72 (50.0%) were female and 72 (50.0%) were male, the median age was 50 years, 26 (18.1%) had invasiveness grade 0, 46 (31.9%) had grade I, 57 (39.6%) had grade II, and 15 (10.4%) had grade III according to Lu’s classification method. Based on observation during surgery, 37 cases (25.7%) had no pseudocapsule, 54 cases (37.5%) had incomplete pseudocapsule, and 53 cases (36.8%) had intact pseudocapsule. In addition, 91 (63.2%) patients had total resection, 39 (27.1%) had subtotal resection, and 14 (9.7%) had partial resection. As for anterior pituitary function, 13 of 19 hypothyroid patients had recovery after surgery, with a remission rate of 68.4%. Eighteen of the 26 decreased cortisol patients got back to normal, with a remission rate of 69.2%. A total of 27 of 51 patients with hypogonadism improved, with a remission rate of 52.9%. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that gender, tumor size, and invasiveness were predictors of postoperative residual in patients (P<0.05). Conclusion The results showed that ETTS is an effective treatment modality for restoring the function of pituitary gland of the patients with macroadenomas. Tumor size and invasiveness are predictors of the extent of surgical resection and postoperative residual of macroadenomas.
      PubDate: 2022-12-21
       
  • Menstrual and Reproductive Characteristics of Patients with Primary
           Sjogren’s Syndrome: A 7-year Single-center Retrospective Study

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      Abstract: Objective Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine gland, especially in women. Currently, the results of studies on the menstruation or fertility of pSS patients remain controversial. This study aimed to examine the menstrual and reproductive characteristics of pSS patients. Methods Clinical data of 449 pSS patients who were admitted to Tongji Hospital in Hubei, China, from January 2015 to November 2021 were obtained and their menstrual and reproductive information analyzed. In addition, the clinical features of pSS patients with premenopausal or postmenopausal onset were compared. Results The spontaneous abortion rate of pSS patients was not higher than the reported rate of the general population and that the age of menarche, menstrual cycle, and menstrual period of pSS patients did not significantly differ from those reported in the general population; however, early menopause seemed to be more common in pSS patients. Skin involvement (27.96% vs. 15.00%, P=0.005) and hyperglobulinemia (10.64% vs. 4.16%, P=0.033) were more common in patients with premenopausal pSS onset, but patients with postmenopausal onset had a significantly greater incidence of interstitial lung disease (32.50% vs. 17.02%, P=0.0004). Also, erythropenia (47.00% vs. 31.25%, P=0.002), hypoalbuminemia (19.49% vs. 8.22%, P=0.0009), and prevalence of high hypersensitive C-reactive protein levels (21.67% vs. 10.94%, P=0.005) were more common in pSS patients with postmenopausal onset. Notably, the rate of abnormal pregnancy was significantly greater in patients with premenopausal onset (9.72% vs. 2.50%, P=0.011). Conclusion Patients with pSS onset before or after menopause may have different risks in pulmonary involvement and laboratory manifestations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-21
       
  • Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Nav1.7 Expression in Spinal Dorsal Root
           Ganglion Neurons

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      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the expression of Nav1.7 in spinal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Methods The primary DRG neurons from newborn SD rats were cultured. The cells were identified by neuron-specific enolase immunofluorescence staining. DRG neurons were divided into four groups: control group, photosensitizer group, laser group, and PDT group. The cell viability was detected by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons. Results The purity of the cultured primary DRG neurons was greater than 90%. Compared with the control group, no significant change was found in the cell viability of the photosensitizer group, while the viability in the laser group and the PDT group was significantly reduced. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Nav1.7 were significantly greater in the laser group and the PDT group than in the control group. At the same time, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nav1.7 were greater in the laser group than in the PDT group. Conclusion Both laser and PDT could upregulate the expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons, and the promoting effect might be related to the pain induced by clinical treatment. This study provides a research basis for the use of laser and PDT to treat pain. A better understanding of the relationship between Nav1.7 and PDT can help clinicians better manage PDT-related pain.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
       
  • Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Combined with Anti-vascular Agent
           Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Inhibits Growth and Vascularization of Liver
           Tumor in an Animal Model

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      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) on proliferation, migration, and capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization combined with CA4P in the treatment of rabbit VX2 liver tumor. Methods The effects of different concentrations of CA4P on proliferation, migration and capillary tube formation of HUVECs were investigated by cell proliferation assay, wound healing assay and capillary tube formation assay, respectively. Thirty-two rabbits implanted with liver VX2 tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. After catheterization of the left hepatic artery, the infusion was performed using normal saline (group A), CA4P aqueous solution (group B), lipiodol and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group C), and CA4P lipiodol emulsion and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group D), respectively. Half of the animals in each group were euthanized for immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate microvessel density (MVD) at 3 days post-treatment. The other half were examined by MRI and histology to evaluate tumor growth and necrosis at 7 days post-treatment. Results CA4P could inhibit the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HUVECs in cell experiments. After interventional treatment, the level of MVD in group D was lower than that in group C (P<0.01). The tumor volume in group C or D was lower than that in group A or B (P<0.01). The tumor necrosis rate was higher in group D than in the other groups. Conclusion The study suggests that CA4P could inhibit the proliferation, migration, and capillary tube formation of HUVECs, and transcatheter arterial embolization combined with CA4P could inhibit the growth of VX2 tumor and obviously induce tumor necrosis.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
       
  • GSPT1 Functions as a Tumor Promoter in Human Liver Cancer

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      Abstract: Objective This study analyzed the role of G1 to S phase transition 1 protein (GSPT1) in promoting progression of liver cancer cells. Methods A bioinformatics database was used to analyze the expression levels of GSPT1 in liver cancer tissues and the prognosis of patients. Subsequently, Western blotting and quantitative PCR were used to verify the expression levels of GSPT1 between normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. We used a CRISPR/Cas9 system to construct knockouts of GSPT1 in HepG2 and HCCLM9 liver cancer cells. The effect of GSPT1 on liver cancer cell migration and invasion was analyzed using flow cytometry, migration, and tumor formation assays. Results The Cancer Genome Atlas Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma dataset indicated that GSPT1 expression was upregulated in liver cancer cell lines, and patients with liver cancer had poor prognosis. Knockout of GSPT1 in cells significantly inhibited tumor proliferation, cell migration, and growth in vivo. Conclusion In this study, we found that GSPT1 promotes the migration and invasion of liver cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Role of Peripheral Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Patients with Thyroid
           Associated Ophthalmopathy During Systemic Glucocorticoid Treatment: A
           Prospective Observational Study

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      Abstract: Objective Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disorder involving the orbital tissue. This study aimed to understand the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in TAO during 12-week systemic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Methods Thirty-two moderate-severe TAO patients with a clinical activity score (CAS) ≥3/7 or with prolonged T2 relaxation time (T2RT) on at least one side of extraocular muscle (EOM) were enrolled. The percentage of the peripheral CD4+CD25(high)CD127(−/low) Tregs was analyzed using flow cytometry before and after the GC treatment. The activity and severity of TAO, T2RT, and the clinical outcomes after the GC treatment were assessed. Their correlation with the peripheral Tregs was investigated. Results There was no significant association between the baseline Treg fraction and the activity and severity of TAO or the treatment response. A significant reduction of Tregs was observed after the GC therapy merely in patients without any clinical improvement. Conclusion Treg reduction after systemic GC therapy is indicative of a poor therapeutic response. Accordingly, dynamic alterations of Tregs could help to evaluate the effectiveness of the GC treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Erratum to: TOPK Activation Exerts Protective Effects on Cisplatin-induced
           Acute Kidney Injury

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Effects of Norepinephrine on Renal Cortical and Medullary Blood Flow in
           Atherosclerotic Rabbits

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      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to explore the effect of norepinephrine (NE) on renal cortical and medullary blood flow in atherosclerotic rabbits without renal artery stenosis. Methods Atherosclerosis was induced in 21 New Zealand white rabbits by feeding them a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks. Thirteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly selected as controls. After atherosclerosis induction, standard ultrasonography was performed to confirm that there was no plaque or accelerated flow at the origin of the renal artery. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed at baseline and during intravenous injection of NE. The degree of contrast enhancement of renal cortex and medulla after the injection of contrast agents was quantified by calculating the enhanced intensity. Results The serum nitric oxide (NO) level in atherosclerotic rabbits was higher than that in healthy rabbits (299.6±152 vs. 136.5±49.5, P<0.001). The infusion of NE induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure (112±14 mmHg vs. 84±9 mmHg, P=0.016) and a significant decrease in the enhanced intensity in renal cortex (17.78±2.07 dB vs. 21.19±2.03 dB, P<0.001) and renal medulla (14.87±1.82 dB vs. 17.14±1.89 dB, P<0.001) during CEUS. However, the enhanced intensity in the cortex and medulla of healthy rabbits after NE infusion showed no significant difference from that at baseline. Conclusion NE may reduce renal cortical and medullary blood flow in atherosclerotic rabbits without renal artery stenosis, partly by reducing the serum NO level.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Gadolinium Enhances Dual-energy Computed Tomography Scan of Pulmonary
           Artery

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      Abstract: Objective To evaluate the feasibility of using gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) for dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Methods Sixty-six patients were randomly divided into three groups and underwent CTPA. Group A had a turbo flash scan using an iohexol injection, Group B had a turbo flash scan using Gd-DTPA, and Group C had a dual-energy scan using Gd-DTPA. The original images of Group C were linearly blended with a blending factor of 0.5 or reconstructed at 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 keV, respectively. The groups were compared in terms of pulmonary artery CT value, image quality, and radiation dose. Results The pulmonary artery CT values were significantly higher in Group C40keV than in Groups B and C, but lower than in Group A. There was no significant difference in the image noise of Groups C40keV, B, and C. Moreover, Group A had the largest beam hardening artifacts of the superior vena cava (SVC), followed by Groups B and C. Group C40keV showed better vascular branching than the other three groups, among which Group B was superior to Group A. The subjective score of the image quality of Groups A, B, and C showed no significant difference, but the score was significantly higher in Group C40keV than in Groups A and B. The radiation dose was significantly lower in Group B than in Groups A and C. Conclusion Gd-CTPA is recommended to patients who are unsuitable for receiving an iodine-based CTPA. Furthermore, a turbo flash scan could surpass a dual-energy scan without consideration for virtual monoenergetic imaging.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
 
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