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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Frontiers in Medical Technology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-3129
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Novel and efficient method for the reconstruction of adenoviruses through
           isothermal assembly and its potential applications

    • Authors: Ke Wen, Matthew D. Resch, Ryan Mazboudi, Hannah Mulhall Maasz, Jose M. Galarza
      Abstract: Adenovirus based vectors are useful tools for vaccine development, gene therapy, and oncolytic virotherapy. Here we describe a novel approach for the genetic engineering of any portion of the adenovirus genome and the reconstruction of either fully replication competent or defective virions. This innovative strategy is rapid, effective and suitable for the manipulation of the entire genome broadening the spectrum of potential applications for the adenovirus system. Our strategy involved insertion of restriction enzyme recognition sequences absent in the native virus into the termini of the adenovirus genome in order to facilitate recovery. These restriction enzyme sites, together with the two inverted terminal repeats and packaging sequences, were synthesized and then subcloned into the pBR322 vector. The remaining internal portion of the adenovirus genome was separated and amplified via PCR into six segments, of which groups of two were joined together by PCR and then subcloned into pBR322 plasmids. During the PCR reaction, an overlap of 30–40 bp was added to the termini of the adjacent fragments, allowing for the subsequent isothermal assembly and correct orientation of all fragments. This approach allows for the genetic modification of each genomic fragment according to the specific research goals, (e.g., deletion, substitution, addition, etc.) To recreate the entire viral genome, the four engineered fragments (each comprised of two adenovirus genomic sections) as well as the pBR322 backbone, were reassembled into a single construct utilizing an isothermal assembly reaction. Finally, the reassembled plasmid containing the entire genome was linearized and transfected into HEK293 cells to recover the complete reconstructed adenoviral vector. Using this approach, we have successfully generated two recombinant reporter adenoviruses, one of human adenovirus serotype 14 and another of serotype 55. The E3 region was replaced by the reporter genes (GFP and Luciferase) to visualize and track the recovery process. Subsequent infection of A549 cells with these reconstructed adenovirus vectors demonstrated that they were replication competent. This method shortens the viral reconstruction process because the one-step isothermal assembly requires less than 4 days, and recombinant adenovirus recovery occurs within 10 days. This new method allows for single or multiple genetic modifications within any portion of the viral genome and can be used to construct or manipulate any adenovirus whose complete genome sequence is known.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T00:00:00Z
  • Systems and processes for regulation of investigational medical devices in

    • Authors: Charles Norman Mpaata, Brian Matovu, Mercy Takuwa, Noah Kiwanuka, Steff Lewis, John Norrie, Sam Ononge, Sharon Tuck, Maria Wolters, Marc Demulliez, Robert T. Ssekitoleko
      Abstract: BackgroundIn many parts of the world, medical devices and the processes of their development are tightly regulated. However, the current regulatory landscape in Uganda like other developing countries is weak and poorly defined, which creates significant barriers to innovation, clinical evaluation, and translation of medical devices.AimTo evaluate current knowledge, systems and infrastructure for medical devices regulation and innovation in Uganda.MethodsA mixed methods study design using the methods triangulation strategy was employed in this study. Data of equal weight were collected sequentially. First, a digital structured questionnaire was sent out to innovators to establish individual knowledge and experience with medical device innovation and regulation. Then, a single focus group discussion involving both medical device innovators and regulators to collect data about the current regulatory practices for medical devices in Uganda. Univariate and bivariate analysis was done for the quantitative data to summarize results in graphs and tables. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Ethical review and approval were obtained from the Makerere University School of Biomedical Sciences, Research and Ethics Committee, and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology.ResultsA total of 47 innovators responded to the questionnaire. 14 respondents were excluded since they were not medical device innovators. Majority (76%) of individuals had been innovators for more than a year, held a bachelor's degree with a background in Engineering and applied sciences, and worked in an academic research institute. 22 of the 33 medical device innovators had stopped working on their innovations and had stalled at the proof-of-concept stage. Insufficient funding, inadequate technical expertise and confusing regulatory landscape were major challenges to innovation. The two themes that emerged from the discussion were “developing standards for medical devices regulation” and “implementation of regulations in practical processes”. Legal limitations, lengthy processes, and low demand were identified as challenges to developing medical device regulations.ConclusionsEfforts have been taken by government to create a pathway for medical device innovations to be translated to the market. More work needs to be done to coordinate efforts among stakeholders to build effective medical device regulations in Uganda.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T00:00:00Z
  • Case Report: Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation with radial-EBUS and
           ROSE|Background|Case description|Conclusion

    • Authors: Paul Zarogoulidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Vasileios Papadopoulos, Eleni-Isidora Perdikouri, Nikolaos Courcoutsakis, Konstantinos Porpodis, Dimitrios Matthaios, Kostas Trigonakis
      Abstract: BackgroundSingle pulmonary nodules are a common issue in everyday clinical practice. Currently, there are navigation systems with radial-endobronchial ultrasound and electromagnetic navigation for obtaining biopsies. Moreover, rapid on-site evaluation can be used for a quick assessment. These small lesions, even when they do not have any clinically significant information with positron emission tomography, are important to investigate.Case descriptionRadiofrequency and microwave ablation have been evaluated as local treatment techniques. These techniques can be used as therapy for a patient population that cannot be operated on. Currently, one verified operating system is used for endoscopic radiofrequency ablation through the working channel of a bronchoscope.ConclusionIn our case, a new system was used to perform radiofrequency ablation with long-term follow-up.
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T00:00:00Z
  • A Latin American perspective on neurodiplomacy

    • Authors: Mohammed A. Mostajo-Radji
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T00:00:00Z
  • Recent technologies in cardiac imaging

    • Authors: Quinn Counseller, Yasser Aboelkassem
      Abstract: Cardiac imaging allows physicians to view the structure and function of the heart to detect various heart abnormalities, ranging from inefficiencies in contraction, regulation of volumetric input and output of blood, deficits in valve function and structure, accumulation of plaque in arteries, and more. Commonly used cardiovascular imaging techniques include x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiogram, and positron emission tomography (PET)/single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). More recently, even more tools are at our disposal for investigating the heart’s physiology, performance, structure, and function due to technological advancements. This review study summarizes cardiac imaging techniques with a particular interest in MRI and CT, noting each tool’s origin, benefits, downfalls, clinical application, and advancement of cardiac imaging in the near future.
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T00:00:00Z
  • 3D printing of pharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    • Authors: L. R. Jaidev Chakka, Shanthi Chede
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing or Additive manufacturing has paved the way for developing and manufacturing pharmaceuticals in a personalized manner for patients with high volume and rare diseases. The traditional pharmaceutical manufacturing process involves the utilization of various excipients to facilitate the stages of blending, mixing, pressing, releasing, and packaging. In some cases, these excipients cause serious side effects to the patients. The 3D printing of pharmaceutical manufacturing avoids the need for excessive excipients. The two major components of a 3D printed tablet or dosage form are polymer matrix and drug component alone. Hence the usage of the 3D printed dosage forms for disease treatment will avoid unwanted side effects and provide higher therapeutic efficacy. With respect to the benefits of the 3D printed pharmaceuticals, the present review was constructed by discussing the role of 3D printing in producing formulations of various dosage forms such as fast and slow releasing, buccal delivery, and localized delivery. The dosage forms are polymeric tablets, nanoparticles, scaffolds, and films employed for treating different diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T00:00:00Z
  • Local and global distensibility assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms
           in vivo from probe tracked 2D ultrasound images

    • Authors: Larissa C. Jansen, Hans-Martin Schwab, Frans N. van de Vosse, Marc R. H. M. van Sambeek, Richard G. P. Lopata
      Abstract: Rupture risk estimation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients is currently based on the maximum diameter of the AAA. Mechanical properties that characterize the mechanical state of the vessel may serve as a better rupture risk predictor. Non-electrocardiogram-gated (non-ECG-gated) freehand 2D ultrasound imaging is a fast approach from which a reconstructed volumetric image of the aorta can be obtained. From this 3D image, the geometry, volume, and maximum diameter can be obtained. The distortion caused by the pulsatility of the vessel during the acquisition is usually neglected, while it could provide additional quantitative parameters of the vessel wall. In this study, a framework was established to semi-automatically segment probe tracked images of healthy aortas (N = 10) and AAAs (N = 16), after which patient-specific geometries of the vessel at end diastole (ED), end systole (ES), and at the mean arterial pressure (MAP) state were automatically assessed using heart frequency detection and envelope detection. After registration AAA geometries were compared to the gold standard computed tomography (CT). Local mechanical properties, i.e., compliance, distensibility and circumferential strain, were computed from the assessed ED and ES geometries for healthy aortas and AAAs, and by using measured brachial pulse pressure values. Globally, volume, compliance, and distensibility were computed. Geometries were in good agreement with CT geometries, with a median similarity index and interquartile range of 0.91 [0.90–0.92] and mean Hausdorff distance and interquartile range of 4.7 [3.9–5.6] mm. As expected, distensibility (Healthy aortas: 80 ± 15·10−3 kPa−1; AAAs: 29 ± 9.6·10−3 kPa−1) and circumferential strain (Healthy aortas: 0.25 ± 0.03; AAAs: 0.15 ± 0.03) were larger in healthy vessels compared to AAAs. Circumferential strain values were in accordance with literature. Global healthy aorta distensibility was significantly different from AAAs, as was demonstrated with a Wilcoxon test (p-value = 2·10−5). Improved image contrast and lateral resolution could help to further improve segmentation to improve mechanical characterization. The presented work has demonstrated how besides accurate geometrical assessment freehand 2D ultrasound imaging is a promising tool for additional mechanical property characterization of AAAs.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T00:00:00Z
  • Nanoparticles and convergence of artificial intelligence for targeted drug
           delivery for cancer therapy: Current progress and challenges

    • Authors: Kaushik Pratim Das, Chandra J
      Abstract: Cancer is a life-threatening disease, resulting in nearly 10 million deaths worldwide. There are various causes of cancer, and the prognostic information varies in each patient because of unique molecular signatures in the human body. However, genetic heterogeneity occurs due to different cancer types and changes in the neoplasms, which complicates the diagnosis and treatment. Targeted drug delivery is considered a pivotal contributor to precision medicine for cancer treatments as this method helps deliver medication to patients by systematically increasing the drug concentration on the targeted body parts. In such cases, nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) can help bridge the gap and enhance localized drug delivery systems capable of biomarker sensing. Diagnostic assays using nanoparticles (NPs) enable biomarker identification by accumulating in the specific cancer sites and ensuring accurate drug delivery planning. Integrating NPs for cancer targeting and AI can help devise sophisticated systems that further classify cancer types and understand complex disease patterns. Advanced AI algorithms can also help in biomarker detection, predicting different NP interactions of the targeted drug, and evaluating drug efficacy. Considering the advantages of the convergence of NPs and AI for targeted drug delivery, there has been significantly limited research focusing on the specific research theme, with most of the research being proposed on AI and drug discovery. Thus, the study's primary objective is to highlight the recent advances in drug delivery using NPs, and their impact on personalized treatment plans for cancer patients. In addition, a focal point of the study is also to highlight how integrating AI, and NPs can help address some of the existing challenges in drug delivery by conducting a collective survey.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T00:00:00Z
  • AI-RADS: Successes and challenges of a novel artificial intelligence
           curriculum for radiologists across different delivery

    • Authors: Alexander L. Lindqwister, Saeed Hassanpour, Joshua Levy, Jessica M. Sin
      Abstract: IntroductionArtificial intelligence and data-driven predictive modeling have become increasingly common tools integrated in clinical practice, heralding a new chapter of medicine in the digital era. While these techniques are poised to affect nearly all aspects of medicine, medical education as an institution has languished behind; this has raised concerns that the current training infrastructure is not adequately preparing future physicians for this changing clinical landscape. Our institution attempted to ameliorate this by implementing a novel artificial intelligence in radiology curriculum, “AI-RADS,” in two different educational formats: a 7-month lecture series and a one-day workshop intensive.MethodsThe curriculum was structured around foundational algorithms within artificial intelligence. As most residents have little computer science training, algorithms were initially presented as a series of simple observations around a relatable problem (e.g., fraud detection, movie recommendations, etc.). These observations were later re-framed to illustrate how a machine could apply the underlying concepts to perform clinically relevant tasks in the practice of radiology. Secondary lessons in basic computing, such as data representation/abstraction, were integrated as well. The lessons were ordered such that these algorithms were logical extensions of each other. The 7-month curriculum consisted of seven lectures paired with seven journal clubs, resulting in an AI-focused session every two weeks. The workshop consisted of six hours of content modified for the condensed format, with a final integrative activity.ResultsBoth formats of the AI-RADS curriculum were well received by learners, with the 7-month version and workshop garnering 9.8/10 and 4.3/5 ratings, respectively, for overall satisfaction. In both, there were increases in perceived understanding of artificial intelligence. In the 7-lecture course, 6/7 lectures achieved statistically significant (P 
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T00:00:00Z
  • Comparative survey study of the use of a low cost exoscope vs. microscope
           for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    • Authors: Manuel Encarnacion Ramirez, Ismael Peralta Baez, Renat Nurmukhametov, Efgeni Goncharov, Ibrahim E. Efe, Albert Sufianov, Issael Ramirez Pena
      Abstract: BackgroundAnterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is an often performed procedure in spine neurosurgery. These are often performed using an operating microscope (OM) for better illumination and visualization. But its use is limited to the surgeon and the assistant. There is difficulty in maneuvering long surgical instruments due to the limited space available. Exoscope (EX) has been used as an alternative to microscopes and endoscopes. We used an EX in patients undergoing ACDF for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.MethodsA prospective comparative trial was conducted to test the safety and usability of a low-cost EX compared to a conventional surgical binocular OM in ACDF. Twenty-six patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy symptoms were operated by ACDF assisted by the EX and OM between December 2021 and June 2022. The authors collected and compared data on operative time, intraoperative hemorrhage, hospital admission, and complications in the two groups.ResultsThere were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in mean operative time, hospital stay, or postoperative complications. The average intraoperative blood loss was significantly more in the OM group. There were no surgical complications related to the use of the EX or OM. The comfort level, preoperative setup and intraoperative adjustment of position and angle of the EX were rated higher than the OM group. The image quality, depth perception, and illumination were rated as inferior to that of the OM. The low-cost EX was rated to be superior to that of the OM with regard to education and training purposes.ConclusionOur study showed that the low-cost EX appears to be a safe and effective alternative for OM-assisted ACDF with great comfort and ergonomics and serves as an essential tool for education and training purposes. However, some limitations of our EX included slightly inferior image quality and illumination when compared with the OM.
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T00:00:00Z
  • Metabolomics in hepatocellular carcinoma: From biomarker discovery to
           precision medicine

    • Authors: Xingyun Wu, Zihao Wang, Li Luo, Dan Shu, Kui Wang
      Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a global health burden, and is mostly diagnosed at late and advanced stages. Currently, limited and insensitive diagnostic modalities continue to be the bottleneck of effective and tailored therapy for HCC patients. Moreover, the complex reprogramming of metabolic patterns during HCC initiation and progression has been obstructing the precision medicine in clinical practice. As a noninvasive and global screening approach, metabolomics serves as a powerful tool to dynamically monitor metabolic patterns and identify promising metabolite biomarkers, therefore holds a great potential for the development of tailored therapy for HCC patients. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in HCC metabolomics studies, including metabolic alterations associated with HCC progression, as well as novel metabolite biomarkers for HCC diagnosis, monitor, and prognostic evaluation. Moreover, we highlight the application of multi-omics strategies containing metabolomics in biomarker discovery for HCC. Notably, we also discuss the opportunities and challenges of metabolomics in nowadays HCC precision medicine. As technologies improving and metabolite biomarkers discovering, metabolomics has made a major step toward more timely and effective precision medicine for HCC patients.
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T00:00:00Z
  • Research of storable and ready-to-use artificial red blood cells
           (hemoglobin vesicles) for emergency medicine and other clinical

    • Authors: Hiromi Sakai, Tomoko Kure, Kazuaki Taguchi, Hiroshi Azuma
      Abstract: Hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant protein in blood, with concentration of about 12–15 g/dl. The highly concentrated Hb solution (35 g/dl) is compartmentalized in red blood cells (RBCs). Once Hb is released from RBCs by hemolysis during blood circulation, it induces renal and cardiovascular toxicities. To date, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers of various types have been developed as blood substitutes to mitigate the Hb toxicities. One method is Hb encapsulation in phospholipid vesicles (liposomes). Although the Hb toxicity can be shielded, it is equally important to ensure the biocompatibility of the liposomal membrane. We have developed Hb-vesicles (HbV). A new encapsulation method using a rotation-revolution mixer which enabled efficient production of HbV with a high yield has considerably facilitated R&D of HbV. Along with our academic consortium, we have studied the preclinical safety and efficacy of HbV extensively as a transfusion alternative, and finally conducted a phase I clinical trial. Moreover, carbonyl-HbV and met-HbV are developed respectively for an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent and an antidote for poisons. This review paper specifically presents past trials of liposome encapsulated Hb, biocompatible lipid bilayer membranes, and efficient HbV preparation methods, in addition to potential clinical applications of HbV based on results of our in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T00:00:00Z
  • Valuing infertility treatment: Why QALYs are inadequate, and an
           alternative approach to cost-effectiveness thresholds

    • Authors: Elena Keller, Georgina M. Chambers
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T00:00:00Z
  • A CFD study on the interplay of torsion and vortex guidance by the mitral
           valve on the left ventricular wash-out making use of overset meshes
           (Chimera technique)

    • Authors: Federico Canè, Lucas Delcour, Alberto Cesare Luigi Redaelli, Patrick Segers, Joris Degroote
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease often occurs with silent and gradual alterations of cardiac blood flow that can lead to the onset of chronic pathological conditions. Image-based patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models allow for an extensive quantification of the flow field beyond the direct capabilities of medical imaging techniques that could support the clinicians in the early diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment planning of patients. Nonetheless, the large and impulsive kinematics of the left ventricle (LV) and the mitral valve (MV) pose relevant modeling challenges. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods struggle with the complex 3D mesh handling of rapidly moving valve leaflets within the left ventricle (LV). We, therefore, developed a Chimera-based (overset meshing) method to build a patient-specific 3D CFD model of the beating LV which includes a patient-inspired kinematic model of the mitral valve (LVMV). Simulations were performed with and without torsion. In addition, to evaluate how the intracardiac LV flow is impacted by the MV leaflet kinematics, a third version of the model without the MV was generated (LV with torsion). For all model versions, six cardiac cycles were simulated. All simulations demonstrated cycle-to-cycle variations that persisted after six cycles but were albeit marginal in terms of the magnitude of standard deviation of velocity and vorticity which may be related to the dissipative nature of the numerical scheme used. The MV was found to have a crucial role in the development of the intraventricular flow by enhancing the direct flow, the apical washout, and the propagation of the inlet jet towards the apical region. Consequently, the MV is an essential feature in the patient-specific CFD modeling of the LV. The impact of torsion was marginal on velocity, vorticity, wall shear stress, and energy loss, whereas it resulted to be significant in the evaluation of particle residence times. Therefore, including torsion could be considered in patient-specific CFD models of the LV, particularly when aiming to study stasis and residence time. We conclude that, despite some technical limitations encountered, the Chimera technique is a promising alternative for ALE methods for 3D CFD models of the heart that include the motion of valve leaflets.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22T00:00:00Z
  • A proof-of-concept study poised to remodel the drug development process

    • Authors: Zaher Nahle
      PubDate: 2022-12-16T00:00:00Z
  • Present and future of gait assessment in clinical practice: Towards the
           application of novel trends and technologies|Background|Research
           objective|Methods|Results and significance

    • Authors: Abdul Aziz Hulleck, Dhanya Menoth Mohan, Nada Abdallah, Marwan El Rich, Kinda Khalaf
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite being available for more than three decades, quantitative gait analysis remains largely associated with research institutions and not well leveraged in clinical settings. This is mostly due to the high cost/cumbersome equipment and complex protocols and data management/analysis associated with traditional gait labs, as well as the diverse training/experience and preference of clinical teams. Observational gait and qualitative scales continue to be predominantly used in clinics despite evidence of less efficacy of quantifying gait.Research objectiveThis study provides a scoping review of the status of clinical gait assessment, including shedding light on common gait pathologies, clinical parameters, indices, and scales. We also highlight novel state-of-the-art gait characterization and analysis approaches and the integration of commercially available wearable tools and technology and AI-driven computational platforms.MethodsA comprehensive literature search was conducted within PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, and ScienceDirect for all articles published until December 2021 using a set of keywords, including normal and pathological gait, gait parameters, gait assessment, gait analysis, wearable systems, inertial measurement units, accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, insole sensors, electromyography sensors. Original articles that met the selection criteria were included.Results and significanceClinical gait analysis remains highly observational and is hence subjective and largely influenced by the observer's background and experience. Quantitative Instrumented gait analysis (IGA) has the capability of providing clinicians with accurate and reliable gait data for diagnosis and monitoring but is limited in clinical applicability mainly due to logistics. Rapidly emerging smart wearable technology, multi-modality, and sensor fusion approaches, as well as AI-driven computational platforms are increasingly commanding greater attention in gait assessment. These tools promise a paradigm shift in the quantification of gait in the clinic and beyond. On the other hand, standardization of clinical protocols and ensuring their feasibility to map the complex features of human gait and represent them meaningfully remain critical challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-12-16T00:00:00Z
  • Applications of artificial intelligence in orthopaedic surgery

    • Authors: Faraz Farhadi, Matthew R. Barnes, Harun R. Sugito, Jessica M. Sin, Eric R. Henderson, Joshua J. Levy
      Abstract: The practice of medicine is rapidly transforming as a result of technological breakthroughs. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are becoming more and more relevant in medicine and orthopaedic surgery as a result of the nearly exponential growth in computer processing power, cloud based computing, and development, and refining of medical-task specific software algorithms. Because of the extensive role of technologies such as medical imaging that bring high sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative prognostic value to management of orthopaedic disorders, the field is particularly ripe for the application of machine-based integration of imaging studies, among other applications. Through this review, we seek to promote awareness in the orthopaedics community of the current accomplishments and projected uses of AI and ML as described in the literature. We summarize the current state of the art in the use of ML and AI in five key orthopaedic disciplines: joint reconstruction, spine, orthopaedic oncology, trauma, and sports medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-12-15T00:00:00Z
  • The role of artificial intelligence in surgical simulation

    • Authors: Jay J. Park, Jakov Tiefenbach, Andreas K. Demetriades
      Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) plays an integral role in enhancing the quality of surgical simulation, which is increasingly becoming a popular tool for enriching the training experience of a surgeon. This spans the spectrum from facilitating preoperative planning, to intraoperative visualisation and guidance, ultimately with the aim of improving patient safety. Although arguably still in its early stages of widespread clinical application, AI technology enables personal evaluation and provides personalised feedback in surgical training simulations. Several forms of surgical visualisation technologies currently in use for anatomical education and presurgical assessment rely on different AI algorithms. However, while it is promising to see clinical examples and technological reports attesting to the efficacy of AI-supported surgical simulators, barriers to wide-spread commercialisation of such devices and software remain complex and multifactorial. High implementation and production costs, scarcity of reports evidencing the superiority of such technology, and intrinsic technological limitations remain at the forefront. As AI technology is key to driving the future of surgical simulation, this paper will review the literature delineating its current state, challenges, and prospects. In addition, a consolidated list of FDA/CE approved AI-powered medical devices for surgical simulation is presented, in order to shed light on the existing gap between academic achievements and the universal commercialisation of AI-enabled simulators. We call for further clinical assessment of AI-supported surgical simulators to support novel regulatory body approved devices and usher surgery into a new era of surgical education.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T00:00:00Z
  • Analysis identifying minimal governing parameters for clinically accurate
           in silico fractional flow reserve|Background|Aims|Materials and

    • Authors: Cyrus Tanade, S. James Chen, Jane A. Leopold, Amanda Randles
      Abstract: BackgroundPersonalized hemodynamic models can accurately compute fractional flow reserve (FFR) from coronary angiograms and clinical measurements (FFRbaseline), but obtaining patient-specific data could be challenging and sometimes not feasible. Understanding which measurements need to be patient-tuned vs. patient-generalized would inform models with minimal inputs that could expedite data collection and simulation pipelines.AimsTo determine the minimum set of patient-specific inputs to compute FFR using invasive measurement of FFR (FFRinvasive) as gold standard.Materials and MethodsPersonalized coronary geometries (N=50) were derived from patient coronary angiograms. A computational fluid dynamics framework, FFRbaseline, was parameterized with patient-specific inputs: coronary geometry, stenosis geometry, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, hematocrit, and distal pressure location. FFRbaseline was validated against FFRinvasive and used as the baseline to elucidate the impact of uncertainty on personalized inputs through global uncertainty analysis. FFRstreamlined was created by only incorporating the most sensitive inputs and FFRsemi-streamlined additionally included patient-specific distal location.ResultsFFRbaseline was validated against FFRinvasive via correlation (r=0.714, p
      PubDate: 2022-12-06T00:00:00Z
  • Magnetic activation of TREK1 triggers stress signalling and regulates
           neuronal branching in SH-SY5Y cells

    • Authors: Michael Rotherham, Yasamin Moradi, Tasmin Nahar, Dominic Mosses, Neil Telling, Alicia J. El Haj
      Abstract: TWIK-related K+ 1 (TREK1) is a potassium channel expressed in the nervous system with multiple functions including neurotransmission and is a prime pharmacological target for neurological disorders. TREK1 gating is controlled by a wide range of external stimuli including mechanical forces. Previous work has demonstrated that TREK1 can be mechano-activated using magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) functionalised with antibodies targeted to TREK1 channels. Once the MNP are bound, external dynamic magnetic fields are used to generate forces on the TREK channel. This approach has been shown to drive cell differentiation in cells from multiple tissues. In this work we investigated the effect of MNP-mediated TREK1 mechano-activation on early stress response pathways along with the differentiation and connectivity of neuronal cells using the model neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y. Results showed that TREK1 is well expressed in SH-SY5Y and that TREK1-MNP initiate c-Myc/NF-κB stress response pathways as well as Nitrite production after magnetic stimulation, indicative of the cellular response to mechanical cues. Results also showed that TREK1 mechano-activation had no overall effect on neuronal morphology or expression of the neuronal marker βIII-Tubulin in Retinoic Acid (RA)/Brain-derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) differentiated SH-SY5Y but did increase neurite number. These results suggest that TREK1 is involved in cellular stress response signalling in neuronal cells, which leads to increased neurite production, but is not involved in regulating RA/BDNF mediated neuronal differentiation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05T00:00:00Z
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