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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  

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Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2457-0745
Published by SCIENCEDOMAIN international Homepage  [66 journals]
  • Study on of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Embelia ribes for Anthelmintic

    • Authors: Pinkey Rawal , C. Ramesh , B. A. Sowmya , C. J. Ranjitha , L. Anns Maria
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Objectives: The present research study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of ethanol and aqueous extract of Embelia ribes for its in vitro anthelmintic properties. Methods: The authenticated leaves of plant Embelia ribes were dried and powdered. The powdered drug was defatted with petroleum ether and a part of marc leftover was subjected to ethanol extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. Another part was subjected aqueous extraction using chloroform water. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Embelia ribes was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation. Both the extracts were evaluated for in vitro anthelmintic properties using earthworms. Results: The ethanol and aqueous extracts were revealed for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenols. The paralysis time and death time of worms were significantly reduced by the administration of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Embelia ribes. Conclusion: The result of the present investigation confirms the anthelmintic property of Embelia ribes.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4225
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Potentials of Musa acuminata Leaves Crude
           Extract in Alloxan-Induced Wistar Rats

    • Authors: A. A. Freitas, L. O. Onyemeh, P. O. Nneji, O. M. Ola, D. A. Faloye
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Context: Musa acuminata is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. Over the past few decades, the health benefits of Musa acuminata have received much attention. All parts of the plant, including fruits, peel, pseudo stem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap, and roots, have found their use in treating many diseases in traditional medicine. Aim: This study was conducted to appraise the protective effect of Musa acuminata extract on alloxan-induced Diabetics Mellitus in wistar rats. Settings and Design: This investigation was carried out using 24 Wistar rats, both males and females. The experimental models were divided into six groups; 4 rats per group. Materials and Methods: The experimental models were divided into six groups; 4 rats per group. Alloxan was intraperitonially injected at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for day 1 across all groups except the positive control which is Group A together with oral administration of the aqueous extract of Musa acuminata (100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight for the treatment group) and Group F was administered a standard drug. The animals were sacrificed on the 11th day under deep anesthesia with chloroform. The blood was collected by cardiac puncture and kidneys were collected for the histological profile. Statistical Analysis: Kidney oxidative stress marker Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities Creatinine and Urea, were determined. Results: The alloxan injection indicated an increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA), with a decrease in Urea and Creatinine when compared with the control. A remarkable decrease in antioxidant enzymes was also observed. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, alloxan-induced diabetic mellitus, and histological changes in the kidneys were reduced almost to normal by the administration of Musa acuminata. Conclusion: Based on the current findings, Musa acuminata leaves at low dose (100 mg/kg body weight) in the alloxan Induced Wistar rat has some anti diabetics potential than at 200 mg/kg body weight, 300 mg/kg body weight and standard drug (Metformin).
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4226
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Common Perioperative Concerns in Pediatric Anesthesia: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Wael Waheed Mohamed
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: There are several disorders that require children to be anesthetized. Sometimes, it is due to the non-cooperation of the children that requires them to be put under sedation for a procedure that is necessary for them, while at other times, it is because of any indicated surgical procedure that they have to go through, that they are put under anesthesia. However, unlike adults, children particularly the pediatric populations have particular demands and requirements that make them special candidates for receiving the required anesthesia. In children, nearly all parameters are different anatomically, physiologically, pharmacologically, and psychologically. According to some recent studies, it has also been noted that there are significant adverse events that are linked with the induction of anesthesia in the pediatric population, that are bound to arise if care is not taken during or after the anesthesia. These problems could arise in lieu of several factors such as the choice of anesthetic, the mode of anesthesia, airway management, and the reversal of anesthesia. In all cases, it is better to avoid the risk of complications and adverse events by making sure that only the most competent and expert of all staff are involved in the anesthesia team. With proper care and management of anesthesia, it is obvious that the risk of any critical events would be comparatively much less and that the children could be operated on easily. This review aims to deal with certain problems that arise in the background of anesthesia induction in the pediatric population. The age group that is referred to here belongs neonates to up to thirteen years of age. This review will explore the causes that result from the induction of anesthesia in such populations.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4227
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Study on Chemical Constituents of Styrax dasyanthus Perk

    • Authors: Zhi-Qiang Zhang , Hai-Rong Zhong , Hong-Bo Jiang , Hai-Yan Xiang
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the chemical components present in the ethyl acetate extract of Styrax dasyanthus leaves. Methods: Chemical components were isolated and purified using organic solvent decolorization, extraction, preparation of the liquid phase, silica gel column chromatography, and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The structure identification of the isolated compounds was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and carbon spectrum matching analysis. Results: A total of six compounds were isolated from Styrax dasyanthus, which were identified as (-)-secoisolarciresinol (1), dibutylphthalate (2), dihydromyricetin (3), kaempferol-3-O-\(\beta\)-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-rutinoside (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-rutinoside) (5), and (-)-secoisolariciresinol-4-O-\(\beta\)-D-glucopyranoside (6). Conclusion: This study represents the first isolation of these six compounds from Styrax dasyanthus.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4228
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Angiographic Evaluation of Extremity
           Vascular Trauma: Case Series

    • Authors: Krishna Kumar M. , Anil Kumar V. , Arun R. , Senthilnathan V.
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography within the evaluation of extremity trauma. Trauma could be a great public health dilemma in developing and developed countries and regularly involves teenagers. Among different kinds of trauma, vascular injuries of the extremities need special consideration because they’ll be threatening to limb and life. Vascular injury going to exsanguination and hemorrhagic shock is second to central nervous system injury; thus, imaging diagnosis is crucial for the trauma victim as early as possible from admission to the hospital. Although the speed of successful management of those injuries has been increased because of proper pre hospitalization, early referral of patients to specialized trauma centers, and proper surgical interventions, these injuries remain a challenging problem, especially in developing countries. Conclusion: With the rising trend of road traffic accidents and violence, vascular injuries have become a significant contributor of limb loss, with increased morbidity and mortality. MDCT Angiography has become the most non-invasive diagnostic imaging vascular triage tool applicable to all or any varieties of extremity trauma. Axial sections, multiplanar reconstructions and 3D volume-rendered images should aid within the detection and improve the interpretation of such vascular injuries, osseous and soft-tissue injuries which could be of immense help to the clinician planning surgical procedures.  
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4229
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Extracts
           from Dry Leaves and Ash-Dry Leaves of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem
           Cultivated in Vietnam

    • Authors: Panee Sirisa-Ard, Kiatisak Pholsonklam, Dinh Thi Xuyen, Dinh Thi Dieu Hang, Vu Dinh Chinh , Lê Thiên Kim, Zito Viegas; da Cruz , Pacharamon Sorncharoen, Choosak Nithikathkul
      Pages: 38 - 51
      Abstract: Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem was traditionally used to treat stomachaches, as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, particularly for atherosclerosis therapy, as a suppository to cure constipation and spleenopathy, as an anthelmintic, carminative, emmenagogue, galactagogue, and as an antiseptic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of an extract from dry leaves (LuL) compared to ash-dry leaves (LuA) of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. Our results showed the physical-chemical and phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and the metal ion content of both extracts. The comparison between the extract from dry leaves (LuL) and ash-dry leaves (LuA) of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem, showed difference in quantitative phytochemical determination of cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. This finding may be related to the LuA sample being burned out incompletely into ash. Furthermore, this study showed that the activity of extracts from dry leaves (LuL) and ash-dry leaves (LuA) contained both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. The antioxidant properties observed may be related to , the flavonoids content. The presence of metal ions in both extracts, which may contribute to the known wound healing effects, deserves further study.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4230
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Evaluation of In-vitro Antimicrobial, Anti-arthritis and In-vivo Analgesic
           and Neuropharmacological Investigation of the Bark Extract of Solanum
           americanum Milli

    • Authors: Mariya Alam Ayshi , Tajmim Jahan Ritu
      Pages: 52 - 63
      Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of methanol-prepared bark extract of Solanum americanum Milli. Bark on several in vitro activities, including antimicrobial and anti-arthritis effects. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the analgesic and neuropharmacological properties of the extracts in an animal model. Place and Duration of Study: The research study was carried out from March 2023 to July 2023 at the Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) and the Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, as well as the Laboratory of Microbiology at Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka. Methodology: The methodology involved various doses of methanolic bark extract of Solanum americanum Milli (MESAB), and employed techniques such as the Disk Diffusion Method for antimicrobial test and the Inhibition of Protein Denaturation Assay for anti-arthritic test. The analgesic efficacy was assessed by the hot plate test and administration of acetic acid induced writhing responses in Swiss albino mice. The mechanism test is conducted through the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) test. The neuropharmacological inquiry included the measurement of locomotor activity through the utilization of open field and hole cross tests. Results: The Disk Diffusion Test of MESAB yielded findings indicating its antimicrobial properties against all strains used in this research. The findings from the study examining the anti-arthritis properties indicate that MESAB exhibits a significant efficacy of 94.59% in inhibiting arthritis at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. This level of efficacy is comparable to that of diclofenac sodium, which also has a similar efficacy of 98.19% at the same concentration. The findings of the present study demonstrated that MESAB displayed analgesic properties in both analgesic models, suggesting the involvement of both central and peripheral pathways. Based on the results of the study, it was observed that the administration of MESAB at a dosage of 400 mg/kg had a significant analgesic effect. The application of MB before to treatment resulted in a further enhancement of this effect, leading to an increase in the percentage of inhibition from 66.75% to 79.70%, respectively. The consideration of the involvement of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor in neuropharmacological activity holds significant importance. In the Open Field and Hole Cross Tests, it was shown that the extract exhibited significant result compared to Diazepam in terms of increasing motor coordination. Conclusion: In the future, plant-derived pharmacological compounds may offer potential benefits for various clinical disorders, such as neurodegenerative illnesses. These substances possess neuropharmacological properties, antibacterial effects, and anti-arthritic activity, which could potentially serve as alternatives to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4231
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Review of the Epilepsy, Including Its Causes, Symptoms, Biomarkers, and

    • Authors: Yash Srivastav , Akhandnath Prajapati , Prachi Agrahari , Madhaw Kumar
      Pages: 64 - 84
      Abstract: Epilepsy is a long-term medical disorder that frequently causes unpredictable, unprovoked repeated seizures that have an impact on both physical and mental abilities. It is among the most prevalent neurological conditions. Greek term epilambanein, which is the root of the English word epilepsy, means "to be seized." Both the sickness and the one-time attack were meant by this. The word refers to the magical beliefs of the time, which led to the stigma associated with epilepsy because people with epilepsy were seen to be dirty or bad. A recent study found that nearly 90% of the 70 million epileptics worldwide live in developing countries. Genetic testing has expanded the possibility of figuring out the aetiology of different types of epilepsies. It needs some prior clinical application knowledge to complete this challenging endeavour. Genetic testing techniques include chromosome microarray analysis, karyotyping, single-gene testing, gene panel testing, whole exome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing. The allegedly first documented account of epilepsy, as it was then perceived and understood, may be found in one of the earliest Babylonian medical manuals, Sakikku (English translation: "All Diseases"), which dates from around 1050 BC. The pathogenesis, aetiology, treatment, biomarkers, and risk factors for epilepsy are reviewed in this review article.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4232
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Development of Phyto-cosmetic Herbal Sindoor from Rosa indica L. and Its

    • Authors: Akanksha Singh , Meenu Verma , Vaishali Mishra , K. J. Singh , S. K. Tewari, Mahesh Pal
      Pages: 85 - 93
      Abstract: Aim: The objective of this research study was to develop a liquid herbal sindoor containing flower petal extract of Rosa indica L., and to evaluate the stability, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the developed formulation. Place and Duration of Study: The formulation was prepared in the Phytochemistry Division of CSIR- National Botanical Research Institute. The duration of the study period was 90 days. Methodology: The crude ethanolic extract of R. indica flowers was incorporated into a base for the preparation of liquid herbal sindoor. The antioxidant activity of this herbal product was evaluated according to the DPPH radical scavenging method, and the stability study of the formulation was evaluated for 90 days. The antibacterial activity was performed on those strains of bacteria, which are responsible for several skin infections using Disc Diffusion Assay.The HPLC- DAD analysis identified the anthocyanins cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside in R. indica, flower extract. Results and Discussion: The formulation showed antioxidant activity and its stability was assessed in terms of pH values and color stability of the flower extract. It was observed that both these properties did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: The prepared herbal liquid sindoor was found safe to use having a potential to substitute the toxic lead tetraoxide (Pb3O4) containing sindoor available in the market.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4233
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Multi Detector Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Evaluation of Neck
           Masses with Pathological Correlation

    • Authors: Kumar Ashok Charan , Shyam S., Parthasarathy K. R., Vaishnavi R. S., Prerana A. T., Shahab Qadir B., Ajay Kumar, Sachin T. D., Preetham Gowda
      Pages: 94 - 103
      Abstract: Introduction: Neck imaging has always been a diagnostic challenge. High-resolution sonography being inexpensive and safe has become the initial investigation of choice for neck pathologies; it provides information regarding the origin and extent of the lesion. Computed tomography (CT) has a unique capacity for displaying soft tissue, bone and airway details and provides critical anatomical information about lesions involving the neck. This study aims to determine the role of USG and CT in neck masses for pre-operative characterization based on location, extent, morphological characteristics and enhancement pattern and to compare USG and CT findings with histopathological diagnosis. Material and Methods: A total number of 60 adult patients with suspected neck masses were studied in the department of Radiodiagnosis, SSIMS&RC, Davanagere and inputs from Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru over a period of 24 months. Ultrasound was done using GE Voluson E6 machine & Contrast enhanced CT was done using GE Revolution Multidetector CT scan machine. Post processing techniques (like volume rendered techniques) were applied wherever useful. Results: The findings on USG and CT were conclusive in nearly 90% of cases. Enhancement patterns and presence/absence of bony invasion were found to be more specific in differentiating benign/malignant nature. Conclusion: High-resolution sonography can be used as the first-line modality for evaluating cervical soft tissue masses, it helps the clinicians to characterize the lesion. Multi-detector computed tomography is a sensitive diagnostic tool for diagnosing neck masses and differentiating between benign and malignant lesions with high accuracy. The extent of pathology with local/ contiguous spread predicted by CT examination was conclusive. The overall findings suggest that MDCT and Ultrasound, when used in conjunction with pathological correlation, can be effective tools for accurately characterizing and diagnosing the neck masses.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4234
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • The Push and Pull Factors in the Retention of Health Workers in a District
           in Ghana

    • Authors: Augustine Adomah-Afari , Ebenezer Arkoh Ameyaw
      Pages: 104 - 121
      Abstract: Aim: To assess the push and pull factors associated with the retention of health workers in a district in Ghana. Study Design: This study was an analytical cross-sectional study using quantitative methods in the collection of data. Place and Duration of Study: Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem District of the Central Region of Ghana in October 2022. Methodology: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data from 282 health workers who were consecutively selected from various health facilities in the study.  The data collected was cleaned and analyzed using the statistical software STATA version 15. Descriptive statistics were presented in tables and graphs. A Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. The significance of association was set at P<0.05 at a 95% confidence interval.   Results: Overall, 22.0% of the health workers intended to stay at their current organization. Logistic regression analysis predicted that age more than 35 years (AOR: 3.4, CI: 1.025 -11.283, P = .046) and sex - females (AOR: 0.56, CI: 0.016 - 0.223, P = .001) were significantly associated with retention. Institutional factors like lack of supervision of work (AOR: 0.508, CI: 0.176 – 1.472, P = .021), lack of in-service training (AOR:0.045, CI: 0.010 - 0.193, P = .001), inadequate management support (AOR: 0.288, CI: 0.109 – 0.764, P = .012), and poor career progression (AOR: 0.472, CI: 0.019 - 1.873, P = .028) significantly reduced the likelihood of staying. Community factors like the absence of family (AOR: 0.138, CI: 0.051 – 0.376, P = .001) and the absence of alternative jobs (AOR: 0.051, CI: 0.006 – 0.459, P = .008) also negatively predicted retention.  Conclusion: Only a small proportion of health workers in the district intended to stay. Factors related to retention were predominantly organizational like career progression, management support, and incentives.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4235
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Reduction of Salmonella enterica & Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm
           Development on Glass Tube by Plant Extracts

    • Authors: Md. Sultan Mahmud , Md. Ashiqur Rahman , Md. Nazmul Islam , Sadia Islam , Sajib Kumar Saha , Md. Taijul Islam , Anny Khatun , Silva Adhikari
      Pages: 122 - 138
      Abstract: The objective of the present study is to evaluate anti-biofilm effect of the water soluble plant extracts such Coccinia grandis, Terminalia arjuna, Centella asiatica against Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Crude water soluble extracts of respective plants with different concentration was evaluated against biofilm adopting glass tube. Then washed with crystal violet dye and PBS buffer for observing the ring formation. Biofilm inhibition study revealed water soluble plant extracts inhibited biofilm formation. In our experiment we found that the plant extracts Coccinia grandis, Terminalia arjuna & Centella asiatica gave excellent result for the reduction of biofilm of Salmonella enteric & Staphylococcus aureus. Water soluble Coccinia grandis extract is very effective for biofilm reduction than alcoholic C. grandis extracts. We measured the antiplantonic effect of these extracts by including the extracts into the nutrient agar media that containing respective organism by creating the hole into the plate then observed the result after 24-hour incubation. We also measured minimum inhibition concentration of these extracts through spectrophotometer with the help of the nutrient broth media. Bacterial motality was tested in petri plates with semi-solid medium (LB+0.4% agar) containing plant extracts and culture were inoculated in the center of the plate. This research will be very beneficial for us to reduce the pathogenic S, aureus & S. enterica biofilm by natural source especially plant extracts.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4236
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Treatment Regimen for Acute Viral Rhinitis in Patients with a History of
           Rhinitis Medicamentosa

    • Authors: Denis Mak Chi
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Aims: The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of intranasal administration of 0.9% saline solution in patients with acute viral rhinitis and a history of Rhinitis medicamentosa. Materials and Methods: The study included 96 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute viral rhinitis and a history of Rhinitis medicamentosa. All patients were equally randomized to two groups. In both groups, patients were treated according to the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps with nasal decongestants (oxymetazoline), but in Group 2, the treatment regimen was supplemented with topical use of 0.9% saline solution. Local TNF-α and IL-1β levels were determined in all patients on Days 1, 5, and 10. In addition, on the next day after oxymetazoline withdrawal, a Nasal airway resistance was measured in all patients using active posterior rhinomanometry. Results: The duration of rhinorrhea and nasal congestion and, respectively, the duration of oxymetazoline administration significantly differed between the groups (p<0.001) and was 7.9±1.1 days for Group 1 and 4.7±0.9 days for Group 2. In general, the dynamics of changes in local TNF-α and IL-1β levels in both groups was similar. Throughout the study, there was a progressive decrease in both inflammatory mediators, with faster changes occurring in Group 2. A strong positive correlation (rs=0.89; p<0.001) between TNF-α and IL-1β levels was established. According to the results of active posterior rhinomanometry on the day following oxymetazoline withdrawal, Nasal airway resistance was significantly higher in Group 1 (p<0.001), which indicates the presence of difficulty breathing in patients of this group. In addition, patient examination showed that manifestations of Rhinitis medicamentosa occurred in 3 (6.25%) patients of Group 1 and in 17 (35.42%) patients of Group 2. Differences between the groups were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: The use of topical nasal decongestants, in particular oxymetazoline, in patients with acute viral rhinitis and a history of Rhinitis medicamentosa for more than 7 days has a potential risk of development of a recurrence of Rhinitis medicamentosa. Supplementing the treatment regimen for acute viral rhinitis with the topical use of 0.9% saline solution reduces the duration of treatment and the use of topical decongestants, and therefore prevents the recurrence of Rhinitis medicamentosa.
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4237
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Potential of Aqueous and
           Hydroethanolic Extracts of Cola lateritia Fruit Parts

    • Authors: Ferdinand Lanvin Edoun Ebouel , Kevin Fabrice Paul Mandeng , Evrard Medjo Kouopestchop , Joelle Ornella Tseno Tchuenkam , Foura Woumdi , Françoise Ntentie , Ann-Mary Mbong , Mélanie Ngondam , Jean Marie Gabriel Medoua
      Pages: 145 - 155
      Abstract: Generalities: Cola lateritia (C. lateritia) is an under-valorized (neglected and unutilized) plant traditionally used in certain Cameroonian villages as medicine to manage certain diseases. The present work aimed to assess the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant potential of different parts of C. lateritia fruits. Methods: The fresh fruits of C. lateritia were purchased in October 2022 at Mfoundi-Market (Yaoundé 5, Centre Region of Cameroon), washed, sliced, dried, and powdered before being extracted with distilled water for the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol/distilled water (70:30, v/v) for the hydro ethanolic extract (HEE). The bioactive compounds (polyphenols, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids) of the different extracts of fruit were quantified using standard methods. The Antioxidant potential of the different extracts was assessed using various methods [scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)]. Results: The results indicated that the different extracts of C. lateritia fruit contain phytochemicals [polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids]. The AE of the skin (AE-sCLf) presented the highest contents (590.33 µg CaE/g DM, 191.73 µg QE/g DM and 945.33 µg SaE/g DM) for polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins respectively while, the AE of pulp (AE-PCLf) showed the highest content in alkaloids (121.59 µg QiE/g DM). The lowest tannin content was also reported in the AE of pulp (2.02 µg CaE/g DM). The extracts of C. lateritia exhibited a good radical scavenging activity of DPPH (with an inhibition percentage of 74.084 and 69.40% respectively for HEE-SCLf and AE-sCLf at 4 mg/mL). It’s reducing power towards molybdate and iron was concentration-dependent with values ranging from 0.116 to 2.393 μg AAE/g DM for TAC and from 0.0015 to 0.0032 μg AAE/g DM for FRAP, respectively. The highest iron-reducing activity of 941.410 µg AAE/g DM was observed with AE-sCLf at 4 mg/mL. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a strong positive correlation between Bioactive and antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The C. lateritia fruit extracts (AE and HEE) contain various bioactive compounds, which exhibit good antioxidant activities through different mechanisms. It suggests C. lateritia as a potential nutritious food as well as functional food useful for the prevention of management of cardiometabolic diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4238
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Evaluation of the Ethanolic Extract of
           Coula edulis B., (Olacaceae) Stem Bark

    • Authors: Eric Beyegue, Janvier Fotso Youovop , Guy Roussel Takuissu , Nadine Essola Ndoue , Florine Essouman Mbappe , Ferdinand Edou, Boris Gabin Kingue Azantsa , Judith Laure Ngondi , Julius Enyong Oben
      Pages: 156 - 172
      Abstract: Aims: Coula edulis Baill., (Olacaceae) is a non-lignified forest product not well known and widely used in sub-Saharan Africa as a phytomedicine or food additive. However, the toxicity of this plant remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the safety of the ethanolic extract of C. edulis stem bark (CEE). Study Design:  Pharmacological study. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde 1 (Cameroon), between June 2018 and July 2022. Methodology: Studies on the assessment of acute and subchronic toxicity were carried out by guidelines 423 of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Subacute toxicity of the sample was assessed over 28 days using repeated doses by OECD Guideline 407. Results: No cases of death and clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the treated rats, suggesting that the LD50 of C. edulis ethanolic extract is greater than 2000 mg/kg bw. Regarding the subacute toxicity study, the administration of CEE also did not result in any changes in the course of body weight. Only a significant decrease in the relative weight of the ovaries in females at the highest dose of 600 mg/kg was observed. In males and females, CEE did not affect lipid profile markers or transaminase levels (AST, ALT). In addition, a small but non-significant (p> 0.05) increase in creatinine was observed without kidney dysfunction. In males, CEE induced an increase in mean corpuscular volume number at 600 mg/kg, while at the same time, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased at the 300 mg/kg dose. In females, a significant increase in the number of monocytes, red blood cells, and hemoglobin level were observed. No difference in the levels of urea, glucose, and lipid markers was observed nor histological changes in the organs studied. Conclusion: As would be expected, exposure to CEE did not cause significant toxic effects in treated rats. Therefore, this plant extract can be safely recommended for therapeutic use.
      PubDate: 2023-12-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2023/v12i4239
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
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