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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.176
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1064-1297 - ISSN (Online) 1936-2293
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Successful substance use disorder recovery in transitional housing:
           Perspectives from African American women.

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      Abstract: Through the lens of Black Feminist Thought, the intersectionality of poverty, racism, and sexism in the lives of urban dwelling African American women was explored. Reflections on recovery among women previously enrolled in a transitional housing treatment program were gathered via semistructured interviews, using an instrumental case study design. Four major themes surrounding the context of recovery were identified and analyzed: Knowledge and awareness of addiction, importance of social support and support groups, peace of mind that resulted from a new lifestyle, and women’s desire to maintain their recovery status. Many women did not realize that their drug use constituted an addiction prior to their enrollment in the program. Social support and support groups such as AA, NA, and AODA helped the women to maintain their recovery, and this newfound recovery resulted in additional stress relief. Finally, many women felt empowered to maintain their recovery, not only for themselves but also their children. Paradigm shifts in treatment and recovery processes are needed to better serve minority populations, specifically focusing on women and African Americans. Recovery services must shift from previously male centered, hegemonic, pathology-oriented treatment modalities to serve populations more efficiently and equitably. Furthermore, to create effective social change in recovery, programs must address the social determinants of substance misuse, addictive behaviors, and underlying structural inequalities resulting from the intersection of racism, sexism, and classism. Deeper understandings of complex social issues must be disseminated, particularly for women battling substance misuse who are homeless, racially discriminated against and marginalized. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000527
       
  • Examining associations between impulsivity, opioid use disorder, and
           posttraumatic stress disorder: The additive relation between disorders.

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      Abstract: Impulsivity is a key feature of opioid use disorder (OUD) and other psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between disorders and impulsivity may be additive, such that individuals with multiple disorders exhibit greater impulsivity than those with a single disorder. However, the association between impulsivity, OUD, and PTSD is unclear. Accordingly, this study compared individuals with concurrent OUD and PTSD (OUD + PTSD; n = 55), OUD without PTSD (OUD-PTSD; n = 34), PTSD without OUD (n = 32), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 55) on the Short Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, Positive Urgency Impulsive Behavior Scale (SUPPS-P), and the 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ). With respect to the SUPPS-P, the OUD + PTSD, OUD-PTSD, and PTSD without OUD groups reported more impulsivity on the negative urgency, positive urgency, and lack of premeditation subscales compared to HCs (ps < .001). The OUD + PTSD group also reported greater negative urgency compared to the OUD-PTSD group (p = .001) and HCs (p < .001), but not the PTSD without OUD group (p = .07). Furthermore, participants with OUD + PTSD exhibited greater discounting of delayed rewards on the MCQ than those in the PTSD without OUD group and HCs (p’s < .001). However, no significant differences were observed between the two OUD groups (p = .86). These results support impulsivity as a mechanism underlying both OUD and PTSD. Future research should examine whether interventions targeting impulsivity, emotion regulation, and delay discounting are associated with meaningful improvements in functioning among individuals with OUD and PTSD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000507
       
  • Influence of personality on acute smoked cannabis effects on simulated
           driving.

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      Abstract: A recent study of the impact of smoked cannabis on simulated driver behavior demonstrated a reduction in mean speed after smoked cannabis. Previous research identified an association between personality and individual differences and acute drug effects. The present study examined the impact of personality on the reduction in mean speed after smoking cannabis under single- and dual-task driving conditions originally reported by Brands et al. (2019). Sixty-one participants randomly assigned to the active drug condition completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring various personality constructs and subsequently operated a driving simulator before and 30 min after smoking a 12.5% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cigarette. Linear regression modeling tested the influence of self-reported driving errors, lapses, and violations, driver vengeance, psychological distress, impulsivity, and sensation seeking on the reduction in speed after smoking cannabis. After adjusting for the influence of sex, blood THC concentration, and predrug mean speed, impulsivity was a significant predictor of change in speed under both single- (β = −.45, t = −3.94, p < .001) and dual- (β = −.35, t = −2.74, p = .008) task driving conditions after cannabis. Higher trait impulsivity was significantly associated with greater reductions in driving speed after cannabis use, which may reflect greater sensitivity to drug effects and a stronger compensatory response. Further multidisciplinary study, including neurochemical, genetic, and psychological components, would be beneficial in helping to better understand how impulsivity and other personality or individual differences may impact the effects of cannabis on driver behavior and performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000505
       
  • A pilot randomized controlled trial of smartphone-assisted
           mindfulness-based intervention with contingency management for smokers
           with mood disorders.

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      Abstract: Cigarette smoking disproportionately affects individuals with mood disorders, but smoking cessation interventions have modest effects in this population. Home mindfulness practice during abstinence incentivized via contingency management (CM) may help those in affective distress quit smoking. Method: Adult smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment for mood disorders were randomized to receive a smartphone-assisted mindfulness-based smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM, n = 25) or enhanced standard treatment (EST, n = 24) with noncontingent rewards. Participants in SMI-CM were prompted to practice audio-guided mindfulness five times per day for 38 days (vs. no comparison intervention in EST), and received monetary incentives for carbon monoxide (CO) ≤ 6 ppm. The primary outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates 2, 4, and 13 weeks after a target quit day. Results: Of the 49 participants, 63.3% were Latinx and 30.6% Black; 75.5% reported household incomes < $25,000. Abstinence rates for SMI-CM were 40.0%, 36.0%, and 16.0% versus 4.2%, 8.3%, and 4.2% in EST at weeks 2, 4, and 13. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) model showed significant overall differences in abstinence rates in SMI-CM versus EST (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.12, 95% CI = 1.42–46.6, p = .019). Those who received SMI-CM reported significantly greater reduction in smoking-specific experiential avoidance from baseline to 3 days prior to quit date (β = −7.21, 95% CI = −12.1–2.33, p = .006). Conclusions: SMI-CM may increase cessation rates among smokers with mood disorders, potentially through reduced smoking-specific experiential avoidance. SMI-CM is a promising intervention, and warrants investigation in a fully powered randomized controlled trial (RCT). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000506
       
  • A genetic association study of tobacco withdrawal endophenotypes in
           African Americans.

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      Abstract: Genome-wide association (GWA) genetic epidemiology research has identified several variants modestly associated with brief self-report smoking measures, predominately in European Americans. GWA research has not applied intensive laboratory-based measures of smoking endophenotypes in African Americans—a population with disproportionately low quit smoking rates and high tobacco-related disease risk. This genetic epidemiology study of non-Hispanic African Americans tested associations of 89 genetic variants identified in previous GWA research and exploratory GWAs with 24 laboratory-derived tobacco withdrawal endophenotypes. African American cigarette smokers (N = 528; ≥10 cig/day; 36.2% female) completed two counterbalanced visits following either 16-hr of tobacco deprivation or ad libitum smoking. At both visits, self-report and behavioral measures across six unique “sub-phenotype” domains within the tobacco withdrawal syndrome were assessed (Urge/Craving, Negative Affect, Low Positive Affect, Cognition, Hunger, and Motivation to Resume Smoking). Results of the candidate variant analysis found two significant small-magnitude associations. The rs11915747 alternate allele in the CAD2M gene region was associated with .09 larger deprivation-induced changes in reported impulsivity (0–4 scale). The rs2471711alternate allele in the AC097480.1/AC097480.2 gene region was associated with 0.26 lower deprivation-induced changes in confusion (0–4 scale). For both variants, associations were opposite in direction to previous research. Individual genetic variants may exert only weak influences on tobacco withdrawal in African Americans. Larger sample sizes of non-European ancestry individuals might be needed to investigate both known and novel loci that may be ancestry-specific. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000492
       
  • Pathways linking ethnic discrimination and drug-using peer affiliation to
           underage drinking status among Mexican-origin adolescents.

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      Abstract: Using a three-wave longitudinal data set of Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 602, Mage = 12.92, SD = 0.91 at Wave 1), this study examines parallel pathways from early exposure to ethnic discrimination and drug-using peers, separately, to underage drinking status by late adolescence. Negative affect was expected to mediate the link from ethnic discrimination to underage drinking status (the stress-induced pathway), whereas social alcohol expectancy was expected to mediate the link from drug-using peers to underage drinking status (the socialization pathway). Our findings lend support to the stress-induced pathway while controlling for the socialization pathway. For the stress-induced pathway, we found that early ethnic discrimination experiences were related to higher likelihood of having engaged in underage drinking by late adolescence through elevated negative affect sustained across adolescence. For the socialization pathway, we found no association between affiliation with drug-using peers in early adolescence and underage drinking status, either directly or indirectly. Present findings highlight the unique role of early ethnic discrimination experiences in underage drinking among Mexican-origin adolescents, over and above the effect of drug-using peers. Alcohol use interventions targeting ethnic minority adolescents should account for adolescents’ ethnic discrimination experiences by helping adolescents develop adaptive coping strategies to handle negative affect induced by discrimination (e.g., reappraisal) rather than using alcohol to self-medicate. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000504
       
  • Narrative theory IV: Within-subject effects of active and control scarcity
           narratives on delay discounting in alcohol use disorder.

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      Abstract: Imagining narratives involving sudden economic scarcity has been shown to increase delay discounting rates. However, previous studies have only compared active and control narratives between groups. Moreover, an investigation of the quantitative effects of different narrative scenario types has not been conducted. In this study, active and control scarcity narratives were administered within-subject in a sample of individuals meeting criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Individuals with AUD (N = 81; 26.9% female) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. After assignment to the job (N = 42) or storm (N = 39) narrative groups, participants completed delay discounting tasks while imagining an active (job loss/hurricane) and control (job neutral/mild storm) condition. Both active narratives increased delay discounting relative to the corresponding control condition (p < .001), with no effect of order of presentation (p = .202). Additionally, both narrative types exerted similar effect sizes on discounting rates (job: d = 0.54; storm: d = 0.45). This study replicates and extends previous research on the manipulability of delay discounting rates with scarcity narratives. We demonstrated that the active narrative significantly increased delay discounting relative to a control narrative within-subject, regardless of presentation order. Moreover, both the job loss and hurricane narratives exerted a similar effect on the delay discounting rate. These results highlight the robust ability of the Narrative Theory framework to shift delay discounting rates and suggest that in AUD, imagining economic scarcity due to job loss or hurricane exerts comparable effects on behavioral economic decision-making. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000478
       
  • Chronic pain and COVID-19: The association of delay discounting with
           perceived stress and pain severity.

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      Abstract: The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide threat to public health that has significantly affected the United States. The pandemic poses a variety of health risks including stressful disruptions in social and economic activity. Understanding the pandemic’s effects on already vulnerable populations, such as individuals with chronic pain, may inform healthcare preparation for future catastrophic events. Given the association between excessive discounting of delayed rewards and chronic pain, this study examined relationships between delay discounting, pain severity, and COVID-19 perceived stress in individuals with chronic pain. Individuals reporting chronic pain (N = 180; 41% female; 86% white; 59% with a college degree) were recruited via the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform in this cross-sectional study. Measures of pain severity, delay discounting, probability discounting, and COVID-19 perceived stress were collected. Delay discounting was a significant predictor of overall pain severity (p< .02) and COVID-19 perceived stress (p < .001). Also, the magnitude of COVID-19 perceived stress fully mediated the relationship between delay discounting and overall pain severity (p = .004). Probability discounting was not a significant predictor of pain severity or COVID-19 perceived stress (p>.05). These findings highlight the importance of excessive discounting of delayed rewards as a potential determinant of pain severity as well as predictor of perceived stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the discounting of delayed rewards is of particular therapeutic importance for individuals with chronic pain in the context of stressful events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000479
       
  • What influences demand for cigars among African American adult cigar
           smokers' Results from a hypothetical purchase task.

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      Abstract: African Americans (AA) have historically been targeted by the tobacco industry and have the highest rates of current cigar use among racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Yet, there is limited evidence on other factors influencing cigar use. Amongst a sample of 78 AA current cigar (any type) smokers, log-linear regression models examined correlates of cigar demand obtained from a validated behavioral economic purchase task. Mean intensity, or cigar demand when free, was 6.68 cigars (standard deviation [SD]: 8.17), while mean breakpoint, or the highest price a participant was willing to pay, was $4.62 (SD: 3.88). Mean maximum daily expenditure, Omax was $15.20 (SD: 25.73) and Pmax, the price at Omax was $5.25 (SD: 3.95). Participants aged 21 to 30 years compared to those aged 18 to 20 years, those with higher levels of dependence, and females compared to males, had a significantly higher intensity. Participants with cannabis use above the sample median in the last 30 days (4 + days) had significantly higher intensity and Omax than those below the median. Further, participants with a high school education or more had a significantly lower intensity, breakpoint, and Omax than those with less than high school education. Individuals with income below the federal poverty line (FPL) also had a significantly lower breakpoint and Omax than those above. Finally, tobacco harm perceptions were inversely associated with Pmax. Stricter policies on cigar products, such as higher taxes and product-specific harm messaging, may have an immediate and sustained impact on health disparities related to cigar use. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000491
       
  • Behavioral activation, affect, and self-efficacy in the context of alcohol
           treatment for women with elevated depressive symptoms.

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      Abstract: Women with Alcohol use disorder (AUD) are more likely than men to have co-occurring depression, drink to cope with negative affect (NA), and cite negative affect as a contributor to relapse. Among AUD treatment seekers, low behavioral activation, NA, and reduced self-efficacy in abstaining from alcohol (e.g., in tempting situations) are relapse risk factors. This study investigated the association between behavioral activation, affective states, and self-efficacy among treatment-seeking women. Participants were 70 women (M = 40.50, SD = 11.59 years of age) with elevated depressive symptoms seeking AUD treatment. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was used to assess environmental engagement. The Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy (AASE) scale was used to assess temptation to drink in contexts of positive and negative affect, and general positive and negative affect were assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results indicated that behavioral activation was directly correlated with positive affect (PA; r = .62, p < .001) and inversely correlated with depression (r = −.35, p = .004), negative affect (r = −.39, p = .001), and temptation to drink in the context of negative affect (r = −.33, p = .006). After controlling for depressive symptoms, behavioral activation continued to be associated with greater general positive affect (β = .595, p < .001) and lower temptation to drink in the context of negative affect (β = −.348 p = .008). Our results suggest a nuanced association between behavioral activation, negative affect, and temptations to drink that is not accounted by depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy to abstain from drinking in a negative affect context should be considered when designing AUD interventions for women. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000495
       
  • Pilot trial of QuitBet: A digital social game that pays you to stop
           smoking.

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      Abstract: Contingency management is an effective treatment for cigarette smoking cessation but feasibility and acceptability concerns have been barriers to implementation. We conducted a pilot test of QuitBet, a commercial, digital (smartphone) social game for smoking cessation during which participants earned financial incentives for abstinence. QuitBet included a social feed for posting messages and entirely participant-funded incentives in the form of a deposit contract (the “bet”). QuitBet had a bet of $30 and lasted for 28 days. After a week to prepare for quitting, the quit day was Day 8. Between Day 9–28 (a 20-day period), participants earned back $1 of their $30 bet for each day of carbon monoxide (CO)-verified abstinence (≤ 6 ppm). Remaining bet money was pooled into a “grand prize” pot. Participants who were abstinent on at least 19 of the 20 days (1 “lapse” day allowed) were declared “winners” and split the grand prize pot equally. A game host posted a daily message containing evidence-based education about smoking cessation or a discussion topic. Recruitment goals were met. Among the players (N = 50 U.S. adults, 78% female), 17 (34%) were winners. Thirty-seven participants (74%) responded to a post-QuitBet survey, of whom 95% said they would be interested in playing another QuitBet and would recommend QuitBet to others. Overall, feedback was positive with some suggestions for improvement. In conclusion, a digital social game for smoking cessation with a deposit contract was feasible and acceptable. Next steps include conducting a randomized trial to establish efficacy and a sustainable business model. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000487
       
  • Risk factors associated with alcohol and drug use among bisexual women: A
           literature review.

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      Abstract: Bisexual women report elevated alcohol and drug use compared to other sexual minority women. This review summarized extant research on mechanisms (i.e., coping processes with minority stress and victimization, disclosure of sexual identity, connectedness to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ +) community, religiosity, and normative perceptions) that may influence alcohol and other drug use among bisexual women. Specifically, bisexual women experience unique sexual discrimination (i.e., binegativity) and are at heightened risk for other forms of victimization and other stressful life events. Given this heightened experience with stress, bisexual women may use alcohol as a maladaptive coping mechanism. Further, disclosure of one’s sexual identity may produce opportunities for connecting with the LGBTQ + community, but such openness may increase exposure to discrimination and stigmatization among bisexual women. Findings on religiosity have been mixed, but there is some support that bisexual women may use substances in response to internal conflict between their religious beliefs and sexual identity. Lastly, we found that normative perceptions of other bisexual women’s drinking behaviors are strongly tied to their own levels of alcohol use. From a therapeutic perspective, we suggest that practitioners recognize the unique experience of minority stress and teach strategies that lessen internalized stigma and promote healthy psychosocial adjustment among their bisexual clients. Clinicians may also help their clients find sources of support, which may protect them against the use of alcohol and drugs to manage minority-induced stress. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000480
       
  • A reinforcer pathology approach to cannabis misuse: Evaluation of
           independent and interactive roles of cannabis demand and delay discounting
           in a sample of community adults.

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      Abstract: Cannabis use is prevalent and concerns about cannabis misuse are increasing. A reinforcer pathology approach emphasizes the roles of drug reinforcing value (demand) and overvaluation of immediate rewards (delay discounting [DD]) in drug use but has been applied to a lesser extent to cannabis. The present study investigated the independent and interactive roles of these processes in relation to cannabis misuse in a community sample of adult cannabis users (N = 324; 44.8% female; Mage = 33.25). Participants completed a Marijuana Purchase Task (MPT), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test-Revised (CUDIT-R) to assess demand, DD, and cannabis misuse, respectively. Zero-order correlations revealed significant associations between CUDIT-R scores and both the demand indices ( rs = .21–.56, p < .01–.001) and DD (r = .21, p < .01). In multivariate analyses, lower elasticity (i.e., price insensitivity) was robustly associated with higher CUDIT-R scores, while other demand indicators did not explain additional unique variance. However, as elasticity, intensity, and Omax exhibited robust zero-order intercorrelations, shared variance appeared to drive the association. An interactive relationship between elasticity and DD was not significant. These findings indicate that cannabis misuse is associated with both cannabis demand, particularly as measured by insensitivity to escalating costs, and immediate reward orientation, but the relationship was not synergistic. These results support a reinforcer pathology approach to cannabis misuse and, although causality cannot be inferred cross-sectionally, suggest that evaluating the longitudinal significance of these indicators is warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000485
       
  • Delay discounting and neurocognitive performance in young adults with
           differential patterns of substance use: Findings from the Human Connectome
           Project.

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      Abstract: A large proportion of individuals who use psychoactive substances regularly use more than one substance. This pattern of behavior, termed polysubstance use, is associated with greater risks than when consuming only a single substance. The present study examined delay discounting, neurocognitive functioning, and demographic indicators among a large, racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults drawn from the Human Connectome Project who reported either non, mono, or dual use of alcohol, tobacco, and/or cannabis. Univariate and multivariate tests suggested individuals who reported using multiple substances were more likely to be male, experienced higher rates of alcohol use disorder, and, when reporting both alcohol use and cannabis involvement, scored lower on a measure of inhibitory control relative to those who reported mono or dual use of alcohol and/or cigarettes. Individuals who reported currently smoking cigarettes exhibited the steepest discounting irrespective of other substances used; however, we observed additive effects for alcohol use and, to a lesser extent, cannabis involvement. Specifically, steeper discounting occurred when individuals who reported either regular alcohol use or> 100 lifetime instances of cannabis use also reported smoking cigarettes. We discuss several hypotheses for this finding related to the diversity of the sample and substances assessed as well as directions for future programmatic lines of research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000469
       
  • Influence of pregabalin maintenance on cannabis effects and related
           behaviors in daily cannabis users.

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      Abstract: No medications are approved for cannabis use disorder (CUD), though a small clinical trial demonstrated that the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) ligand gabapentin reduced cannabis use in treatment seekers. VDCCs are modulated by cannabinoid (CB) ligands, and there are shared effects between CB agonists and VDCC ligands. This overlapping neuropharmacology and the initial clinical results supported the evaluation of pregabalin, a “next-generation” VDCC ligand, as a CUD medication. Two separate placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects human laboratory studies tested placebo and 300 (N = 2 females, 11 males; Experiment [EXP] 1) or 450 (N = 3 females, 11 males; EXP 2) mg/day pregabalin in cannabis users who were not seeking treatment or trying to reduce/quit their cannabis use. The protocol consisted of two outpatient maintenance phases (11 days in EXP 1 and 15 days in EXP 2) that concluded with four experimental sessions within each phase. During experimental sessions, maintenance continued, and participants completed two 2-day blocks of sampling and self-administration sessions to determine the reinforcing effects of smoked cannabis (0% and 5.9% delta⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), as well as subjective, attentional bias, performance, and physiological responses. In addition, naturalistic cannabis use, side effects, sleep quality, craving, and other self-reported substance use were measured during pregabalin maintenance. Cannabis was self-administered and produced prototypical effects, but pregabalin generally did not impact the effects of cannabis or alter naturalistic use. These human laboratory results in cannabis users not trying to reduce/quit their use do not support the efficacy of pregabalin as a stand-alone pharmacotherapy for CUD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 13 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000464
       
  • Examining the heterogeneity of polysubstance use patterns in young
           adulthood by age and college attendance.

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      Abstract: Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Using National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Wave 1 and NESARC-III data sets, multigroup latent class analysis (MG-LCA) was employed to examine PSU patterns based on age (18–24 vs. 25–34) and determine whether solutions were similar (i.e., statistically invariant) by college attendance/graduation. Classes were estimated by binary past-year use of sedatives, tranquilizers, opioids/painkillers, heroin, amphetamines/stimulants, cocaine, hallucinogens, club drugs, and inhalants, and past-year frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use. PSU patterns are largely replicated across waves. Model fit supported 3-class solutions in each MG-LCA: Low frequency-limited-range PSU (alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis only), medium-to-high frequency limited-range PSU (alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis only), and extended-range PSU (ER PSU; all substances). Apart from one model, MG-LCA solutions were not invariant by college attendance/graduation, suggesting important differences between these groups. Except for alcohol, cannabis, and cigarette use frequency, results showed that probabilities of illicit and prescription drug use declined in the older age group. Findings also supported examining college and noncollege youth separately when studying PSU. ER PSU may be uniquely vulnerable to coingesting substances, particularly for nongraduates, warranting future research to classify patterns of simultaneous PSU and identify predictors and consequences of high-risk combinations (e.g., alcohol and opioids). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000472
       
  • Reinforcer pathology of internet-related behaviors among college students:
           Data from six countries.

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      Abstract: Research has demonstrated that repeated engagement in low-effort behaviors that are associated with immediate reward, such as Internet use, can result in a pathological reinforcement process in which the behavior is increasingly selected over other activities due, in part, to a low availability of alternative activities and to a strong preference for immediate rather than delayed rewards (delay discounting). However, this reinforcer pathology model has not been generalized to other Internet-related behaviors, such as online gaming or smartphone use. Given the widespread availability of these technologies, it is also important to examine whether reinforcer pathology of Internet-related behaviors is culturally universal or culture-specific. The current study examines relations between behavioral economic constructs (Internet demand, delay discounting, and alternative reinforcement) and Internet-related addictive behaviors (harmful Internet use, smartphone use, online gaming, and Internet sexual behavior) in a cross-sectional sample of college students (N = 1,406) from six different countries (Argentina, Australia, India, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Using structural equation modeling, Internet demand was associated with harmful Internet use, smartphone use, and online gaming; delay discounting was associated with harmful smartphone use; and alternative reinforcement was associated with harmful Internet and smartphone use. The models were partially invariant across countries. However, mean levels of behavioral economic variables differed across countries, country-level gross domestic product, person-level income, and sex at birth. Results support behavioral economic theory and highlight the importance of considering both individual and country-level sociocultural contextual factors in models for understanding harmful engagement with Internet-related behaviors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000459
       
  • The effects of cannabidiol and analgesic expectancies on experimental pain
           reactivity in healthy adults: A balanced placebo design trial.

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      Abstract: Despite its frequent use for pain relief, no experimental pain research has tested the analgesic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans. The goal of this study was to experimentally test the effects of CBD and expectancies for receiving CBD on human pain reactivity. Using a crossover, 2 × 2 factorial balanced placebo design, drug administration (given inactive substance or given active CBD) and verbal instruction sets (told inactive substance or told active CBD) were experimentally manipulated. Fifteen healthy adults each completed four separate experimental sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to different counterbalanced manipulation conditions at each session: control (told inactive—given inactive); expectancy (told active CBD—given inactive); drug (told inactive—given active CBD); and expectancy + drug (told active CBD—given active CBD). Primary outcomes were pain threshold, tolerance, intensity, unpleasantness, conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and offset analgesia (OA). There was a significant main effect of instructions on OA, such that the OA response was significantly larger when participants were told that they received CBD, regardless of drug content. Pain unpleasantness was significantly reduced in the drug, expectancy, and expectancy + drug conditions, relative to the control condition. The drug and expectancy conditions separately improved CPM, whereas the expectancy + drug and control conditions produced the lowest CPM change scores. We did not detect significant effects for pain threshold, tolerance, or intensity. Our results indicated that separate pain outcomes can be differentially affected by CBD and/or expectancies for receiving CBD. Future investigations of the psychological and pharmacological mechanisms underlying CBD analgesia are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000465
       
  • Ibudilast moderates the effect of mood on alcohol craving during stress
           exposure.

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      Abstract: Neuroinflammation is implicated in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and neuroimmune therapeutics show promise in treating AUD. Proinflammatory signaling contributes to progressive elevations in the dysfunction of mood and alcohol craving. The current study sought to examine potential biobehavioral mechanisms of neuroimmune modulation in AUD under experimental conditions. In a community sample of individuals with AUD who completed a placebo-controlled crossover trial of ibudilast, we tested the effect of ibudilast on the relationship between mood states and alcohol craving. Multilevel modeling analyses tested the hypothesis that ibudilast would moderate the effect of positive and negative mood states on alcohol craving during stress and cue exposures. Results revealed that after stress-induction, participants’ feelings of depression and happiness were more strongly predictive of their craving for alcohol while taking ibudilast as compared with placebo (ps < .03). These results suggest that with neuroimmune modulation, positive and negative mood states may have a stronger influence on one’s desire to drink, such that craving may be more mood dependent. No moderating effect of ibudilast on mood states and craving were observed after alcohol cue exposure. Given the potential of anti-inflammatory treatments to reduce depressive symptomatology, this strengthened relationship between mood and craving under ibudilast might reduce the likelihood of stress-related craving and subsequent drinking over time. Moreover, ibudilast may enhance the benefits of happiness, such that maintaining positive mood in the face of acute stress may attenuate craving. Future trials directly testing the clinical implications of these mechanistic findings are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000458
       
  • The feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a remotely
           delivered, financial-incentive intervention to initiate vaping abstinence
           in young adults.

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      Abstract: Electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping) has become increasingly popular, especially among youth. Although vaping nicotine is thought to be safer than smoking combustible cigarettes, vaping cessation has become a topic of interest because of health concerns and the potential risk of electronic cigarette use leading to the use of other substances. The current study is the first to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a remotely delivered intervention using financial incentives to reinforce vaping abstinence among young adults. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare two cotinine measures, NicAlert and Alere iScreen, for remotely monitoring vaping abstinence. Using a single-case design, college students (N = 8) were given NicAlert and iScreen saliva cotinine tests to verify vaping abstinence. During a baseline condition, financial incentives were delivered contingent on submitting cotinine samples during live telemedicine calls (across varying baseline durations, consistent with multiple-baseline designs), whereas during an abstinence condition, escalating financial bonuses were delivered contingent on negative cotinine samples only. All participants attended 100% of their scheduled telemedicine calls and all participants quit vaping nicotine during the 2-week intervention, following the introduction of abstinence-contingent bonuses. Participants also rated the intervention favorably on a number of dimensions. Participants liked the iScreen cotinine tests, and found them easier to use, than NicAlert. Future research should focus on exploring strategies for promoting long-term sustainability of incentive-based interventions for vaping abstinence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000468
       
  • Interactions between daily abstinence plans and approach/avoidance
           motivation on cigarette smoking in pre-quit smokers.

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      Abstract: Enhancing motivation to quit among smokers who are not ready for cessation is a key component of several interventions. However, there is a dearth of empirical data about motivational factors and smoking behavior among pre-quit smokers. Here, we examined interactions between approach/avoidance goal motivations and daily abstinence plan (i.e., plans to either continue or abstain from smoking) on daily cigarette use. Current smokers (n = 82; M = 11.4 cigs/day; 46% Female) completed a baseline assessment, including a measure of approach/avoidance motivation [Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation Scales (BIS/BAS)], followed by 28-days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). EMA included a morning assessment of abstinence plan, and evening assessment of cigarettes smoked. Multilevel linear models tested interactions between BIS/BAS and abstinence plan on cigarette smoking (defined as percent change from within-subject mean). There was a significant abstinence plan × BIS interaction, F(1, 637) = 6.567, p = .011, and abstinence plan × BAS interaction, F(1, 637) = 6.553, p = .011, on cigarette smoking. High BIS and low BAS were each associated with reduced smoking on abstinence days and increased smoking on non-abstinence days. Modest rates of smoking cessation may be due to the unassisted, spontaneous nature of most quit attempts. Among pre-quit smokers, high behavioral inhibition and low behavioral activation may underlie the ability to intentionally vary smoking levels according to individuals’ daily abstinence plans. Future studies should examine how motivational factors during the pre-quit stage may predict long-term smoking cessation in the future. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000473
       
  • Use patterns, beliefs, experiences, and behavioral economic demand of
           indica and sativa cannabis: A cross-sectional survey of cannabis users.

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      Abstract: Cannabis products available for retail purchase are often marketed based on purported plant species (e.g., “indica” or “sativa”). The cannabis industry frequently claims that indica versus sativa cannabis elicits unique effects and/or is useful for different therapeutic indications. Few studies have evaluated use patterns, beliefs, subjective experiences, and situations in which individuals use indica versus sativa. A convenience sample of cannabis users (n = 179) was surveyed via Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk). Participants were asked about their prior use of, subjective experiences with, and opinions on indica versus sativa cannabis and completed hypothetical purchasing tasks for both cannabis subtypes. Participants reported a greater preference to use indica in the evening and sativa in the morning and afternoon. Participants were more likely to perceive feeling “sleepy/tired” or “relaxed” after using indica and “alert,” “energized,” and “motivated” after using sativa. Respondents were more likely to endorse wanting to use indica if they were going to sleep soon but more likely to use sativa at a party. Hypothetical purchasing patterns (i.e., grams of cannabis purchased as a function of escalating price) did not differ between indica and sativa, suggesting that demand was similar. Taken together, cannabis users retrospectively report feeling different effects from indica and sativa; however, demand generally did not differ between cannabis subtypes, suggesting situational factors could influence whether someone uses indica or sativa. Placebo-controlled, blinded studies are needed to characterize the pharmacodynamics and chemical composition of indica and sativa cannabis and to determine whether user expectancies contribute to differences in perceived indica/sativa effects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000462
       
  • Acceptability and feasibility of incorporating contingency management into
           a public treatment program for homeless crack cocaine users in Brazil: A
           pilot study.

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      Abstract: Homeless substance users are particularly hard to treat. In this pilot study, we evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of incorporating Contingency Management (CM) into a public Abstinent-Contingent Housing (ACH) treatment program developed to treat currently homeless crack cocaine users. A total of 21 homeless crack cocaine users were randomized to receive 12 weeks of ACH alone (n = 9) or ACH plus CM (ACH + CM) (n = 12). Twelve treatment providers in the ACH treatment program were trained to deliver the CM intervention. CM was rated as relatively (41.7%) or very (58.3%) easy to understand and relatively (50%) or very (50%) easy to conduct by the ACH treatment providers. On a 10-point Likert scale, providers rated the importance of incorporating CM into public treatment programs for crack cocaine at M = 8.3 (SD = 2). Participants exposed to CM rated as relatively (33.3%) or very (66.7%) easy to understand. One hundred percent liked receiving the intervention “a lot,” and 78.9% believed it helped them achieve and maintain crack cocaine abstinence. Finally, compared to the ACH condition, the ACH + CM condition was consistently associated with better treatment retention and cocaine use outcome measures, yelling small to large effect sizes. However, possibly due to the small sample size, most of these differences did not achieve statistical significance. CM was well integrated into the ACH treatment program and was well accepted by both the providers and participants, suggesting the feasibility of incorporating CM into a public treatment program for homeless crack cocaine users from low- and middle-income countries. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000467
       
  • Expectation for stimulant type modifies caffeine’s effects on mood and
           cognition among college students.

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      Abstract: Caffeine is regularly used by college students to enhance mood and academic performance. Although high doses confer risk for negative consequences, moderate doses of caffeine may lead to acute improvements in mood and cognitive functioning. Notably, the pharmacological effects of caffeine may be enhanced by expectancy effects. College students may also engage in nonmedical prescription stimulant use for similar purposes, as students expect strong cognitive enhancement from prescription stimulants and consider them to be more efficacious than caffeine. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the pharmacological effects of caffeine on mood/drug effects and cognitive performance are enhanced when expecting a conceivably stronger stimulant (i.e., Adderall) compared to when expecting caffeine. Sixty-five undergraduate students were randomized to condition across two variables: drug ingested (placebo or 200 mg caffeine) and drug expected (caffeine or Adderall). Participants completed self-report measures of mood and drug effects pre- and post-drug, as well as cognitive assessments post-drug. There were significant main effects of drug ingested and drug expected on several post-drug measures. Subjects receiving caffeine reported feeling more high, stimulated, anxious, and motivated than subjects receiving placebo. Further, subjects expecting Adderall reported stronger amphetamine effects and feeling more high, and performed better on a working memory test, than those expecting caffeine. Effects tended to be strongest in participants receiving caffeine and expecting Adderall. Modifying expectancies, in conjunction with the pharmacological properties of caffeine at moderate doses, may be one mechanism by which college students may experience differential effects of caffeine. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000448
       
  • Nuanced relations between simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use motives
           and negative consequences among college students: The role of multiple
           product use.

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      Abstract: Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use is common, but it exacerbates negative consequences. Individuals use alcohol and cannabis products in different ways and have distinct reasons for use. The present study examines day-level effects of motives on consequences on SAM-use days, accounting for consumption, and tests whether using multiple alcohol (e.g., beer + liquor) and/or cannabis (e.g., concentrate + leaf) products on the same day mediates these relations. College students engaging in SAM use at least once in the past month (N = 281; Mage = 20.17) completed two bursts of 28 consecutive days of data collection. We examined within-person effects of motives (effect-enhancement, social, offered [it was offered], coping) on number of negative consequences and on experiencing hangover, nausea, or blackout; and indirect effects via two concurrent mediators: using multiple alcohol products and multiple cannabis products. Total effect models showed effect-enhancement motives were related to nausea, social motives to number of total consequences and hangover, and coping motives to blackout. Effect-enhancement, social, and offered motives evinced significant indirect effects on consequence outcomes via multiple alcohol, but not cannabis, product use. Coping motives did not exhibit significant indirect effects, and were related to multiple cannabis, but not alcohol, product use, although all other motives were related to both mediators. Findings support recent work demonstrating within-person relations between social motives and negative consequences on SAM-use days. Limiting the number of alcohol products consumed on SAM-use days may be beneficial, particularly for young adults using to enhance intoxication or for social reasons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000454
       
  • Electrophysiological responses to emotional and cocaine cues reveal
           individual neuroaffective profiles in cocaine users.

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      Abstract: Smokers with stronger neuroaffective responses to drug-related cues compared to nondrug-related pleasant images (C> P) are more vulnerable to compulsive smoking than individuals with the opposite brain reactivity profile (P> C). However, it is unknown if these neurobehavioral profiles exist in individuals abusing other drugs. We tested whether individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) show similar neuroaffective profiles to smokers. We also monitored eye movements to assess attentional bias toward cues and we further performed exploratory analyses on demographics, personality, and drug use between profiles. Participants with CUD (n = 43) viewed pleasant, unpleasant, cocaine, and neutral images while we recorded electroencephalogram. For each picture category, we computed the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects motivational relevance. k-means clustering classified participants based on their LPP responses. In line with what has been observed in smokers, clustering participants using LPP responses revealed the presence of two groups: one with larger LPPs to pleasant images compared to cocaine images (P> C) and one group with larger LPPs to cocaine images compared to pleasant images (C> P). Individuals with the C> P reactivity profile also had higher attentional bias toward drug cues. The two groups did not differ on demographic and drug use characteristics, however individuals with the C> P profile reported lower distress tolerance, higher anhedonia, and higher posttraumatic stress symptoms compared to the P> C group. This is the first study to report the presence of these neuroaffective profiles in individuals with CUD, indicating that this pattern may cut across addiction populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pha0000450
       
 
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