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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2548-0731 - ISSN (Online) 2587-2087
Published by İstanbul Üniversitesi Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Evaluation of the medicinal potential of a traditionally important plant
           from Turkey: Cerinthe minor L.

    • Authors: Ezgi ERSOY; Selim KARAHAN, Mehmet BOĞA, Ercan ÇINAR, Sevcan İZGİ, Emel MATARACI KARA, Yeter YEŞİL, Esra EROĞLU ÖZKAN
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Cerinthe minor L. has been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in Turkey. Since the plant has remained uninvestigated pharmacognostically, this study aims to provide data on the phytochemical profile and in vitro biological activities of the ethanol extract prepared from the aerial and root parts of Cerinthe minor L.Methods: The phytochemical profile of the extract was determined by LC-MS/MS. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Cerinthe minor ethanol extract were determined as pyrocatechol, and quercetin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant ac- tivity of the extract was investigated by DPPH, and ABTS cation radical scavenging activity, and CUPRAC activity assays. Enzyme inhibitory activity assays were used to investigate anticholinesterase, antityrosinase, and antiurease activities. Cy- totoxic potential of the plant was clarified by using the XTT method, and antimicrobial activity of the extract was established by the microbroth dilution technique.Results: According to the LC-MS/MS results, 11 different constituents were present in the extract, and the major com- pounds were, malic acid (5392.18±60.93 μg/g extract), fumaric acid (4730.99±58.66 μg/g extract), and rosmarinic acid (2470.07±176.12 μg/g extract). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found as 10.39±0.73 μg PEs/mg extract, and 0.75±0.07 μg QEs/mg extract, respectively. The extract demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity, whereas no enzyme in- hibitory activity was exerted against the tested enzymes. No cytotoxic activity was observed on human renal (A498, UO-31) or human colon (COLO205, KM12) cancer cell lines. The extract was shown to possess low-moderate antimicrobial activity against C. tropicalis with a MIC value of 78.12 μg/mL.Conclusion: Having several pharmacologically valuable compounds, and not causing any toxicity on studied cell lines, Cerin- the minor is a plant that requires attention with its medicinal potential.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Investigation of medication use patterns among pregnant women attending a
           tertiary referral hospital

    • Authors: Berna TERZİOĞLU BEBİTOĞLU; Seyhan HIDIROĞLU, Reyhan AYAZ, Alican SARISALTIK, Derya KOÇ
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Medication use during pregnancy presents a challenge and concern for pregnant women and health- care providers. The aim of this study was to explore patterns and factors associated with medication use by pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in a gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Turkey. Data were collected by a questionnaire between October 2019 and January 2020. The questionnaire was consisted of 35 questions about participants’ attitudes towards the use of medication. The sociodemographic features, medi- cation and herbal product use during the current pregnancy, and participants’ attitudes towards the use of medication were investigated.Results: A total of 485 pregnant women were included in the study. The prevalence of using at least one medication during the current pregnancy was 45.6%, whereas herbal product use was 3.9%. Overall, 10.5% of participants used medication to treat chronic/long-term diseases before pregnancy. The most frequently used drugs were agents for nervous system (32.8%), followed by anti-infective drugs (20.8%) and agents for the alimentary tract and metabolism (19.2%). Participants with uni- versity degree or higher education, who had chronic disease before pregnancy, who had one or more previous pregnancies, who had a planned current pregnancy, who were in the second or third trimester, and who were unemployed were likely to use at least one medication.Conclusion: Medication use is common in pregnancy and is associated with several maternal factors. The factors affecting medication use during pregnancy should be considered in order to incorporate them into clinical pharmacy practice when treating groups that need to be followed more closely in terms of drug use.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Assessment of knowledge and attitude of undergraduate students’ of
           Ahmadu Bello University Zaria towards depression

    • Authors: Fatima Idris AUWAL; Maryam Yusuf TANİMU, Samira Nndawan ABDU-AGUYE, Hadiza Usman MA'AJİ
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and was projected to become the second most burdensome disease by 2020. While there is growing literature on the mental health literacy of adults, there has not been a parallel interest in mental health awareness of young people in Nigeria. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards depression in undergraduate students.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from August to November 2019. Ethical approval for the study was sought from the University’s research ethics committee. Consenting students across all levels were then sampled and recruited. Participants were presented with the ‘friend in need’ questionnaire designed to elicit the participants’ recognition of mental health disorders depicted in the form of a vignette.Results: Out of the 415 questionnaires distributed, only 365 were adequately filled indicating an 88% response rate. The majority of the participants were female (62.5%) and a total of 132 respondents (36.2%) correctly identified and labelled the depression vignette. Insomnia was the most identified symptom (29%) of depression by the participants. More than one- quarter (30%) of the participants reported that they would be extremely worried about the depressed character and believed it will take the character longer than a few months to recover (54%). Friends were the most recommended source of help (33.1%), followed by professionals (30.7%) and then others.Conclusion: It was established that university undergraduate students do not have adequate knowledge about depression.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of diazepam in human plasma by developed and validated a
           high-performance liquid chromatographic ultraviolet method

    • Authors: Emrah DURAL; Beyza Nur KAYA
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Diazepam is accepted as a safer drug to medicate in many serious cases, acting as an anticonvulsant, an anxiolytic and a treatment for many types of poisoning. Monitoring it is important in achieving successful treatment and reducing the risk of toxic effects. In this study, it is aimed to develop and validate a sensitive, repeatable, and reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis for the determination in human plasma.Methods: Separation was carried out using a reverse-phase C18 column (4.0 mm x 150 mm, 3 μm) at 30 °C. The solution was prepared with a 10 mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) was employed as a mobile phase at the isocratic flow with 0.5 mL/min rate. Quantification was applied at 230 nm. A solid-phase extraction method was established and optimized, which was then used in the preparation of the plasma (0.5 mL) samples to the analysis.Results: The method was found to be linear (r2= 0.9805) between 100 and 1200 ng/mL. The analysis run was ≤12 min. Intra- day and inter-day accuracy were found between -5.78 and 5.93 and precision was ≤1.82%. The limit of detection and quan- tification were calculated as 20.42 and 61.86 ng/mL, respectively. Recovery was found between the range of 95.12% and 106.83%. The method was determined to be robust according to changes in UV, mobile phase organic solvent content, mobile phase pH, column temperature, and operator.Conclusion: This simple, sensitive and reliable method is suggested for accredited-reference laboratories working on the therapeutic drug monitorization and/or overdose-toxicological quantified analysis of diazepam in human plasma.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Antioxidant activity and three phenolic compounds from the roots of
           Taraxacum gracilens Dahlst.

    • Authors: Seçil KARAHÜSEYİN; Aynur SARI, Nurten OZSOY
      Abstract: Background and Aims: The genus Taraxacum is a member of the family Asteraceae. Taraxacum species are widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract and its chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions from the roots of Taraxacum gracilens Dahlst. and isolate some of its phenolic compounds.Methods: The roots of T. gracilens Dahlst. werefirst macerated with EtOH and fractionated to obtain chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, and then phenolic compounds were isolated by column chromatography. The polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the fractions were evaluated by measuring their abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by Fe3+- ascorbate, their reducing powers, and their hydrogen-donor activities.Results: Three phenolic compounds [vanillic acid (1), caffeic acid (2) and luteolin (3)] were isolated from the roots of T. grac- ilens Dahlst. The ethyl acetate fraction from the ethanol extract of T. gracilens Dahlst. roots showed the highest antioxidant activity due to its richest phenolic contents, whereas the ethanol extract containing the least phenolics was the weakest in activity.Conclusion: The fractions have potential to act as antioxidant agents. T. gracilens Dahlst. roots were investigated for the first time in literature data in terms of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A review on hydrogen sulfide: Is it pro-nociceptive or

    • Authors: Hazal EKEN; Nurcan BEKTAŞ TÜRKMEN, Rana ARSLAN
      Abstract: Pain is sensed by the activation of painful nociceptors in the periphery or by pain mediators, such as bradykinin, serotonin, histamine, and prostaglandin, released from the damaged tissue, afferent transmission to the medulla spinalis, and by trans- mission stages to the high centers over the dorsal horn. Pain, which was seen as only a warning sign in the past, is now ac- cepted as a phenomenon in itself that needs to be treated and the search for new, stronger active substances with fewer side effects in the treatment of pain is in demand. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a modulator of T-type Ca+2 channels, especially in Cav3.2, which are known to play a critical role in the processing of pain. H2S can also show an anti-nociceptive effect by open- ing K+ channels and blocking nociceptors. Exciting preclinical data has demonstrated that H2S-derived Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesic agents can be used to treat various types of pain. H2S increases the resistance of gastric mucosa against injury occurred by drugs used for pain relief and accelerates its repair, so it provides an advantage to derivatized drugs. In addition, H2S donors have also been shown to induce analgesia through μ-opioid receptors. Based on the studies, it is thought that the combination of H2S with opioid receptor agonists may provide an additive or even synergistic analgesic effect. It is estimated that the modification of H2S, with currently used analgesic drugs to prevent various side ef- fects and increase analgesic effects, is a promising and wise approach.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The comparison of losartan and ramipril on the incidence of hyperkalaemia
           among hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Mohammed Salim KT; Saravanakumar RT, Dilip C
      Abstract: Background and Aims: The Joint National Committee 8th guideline recommends the initiation of renin angiotensin aldoste- rone system (RAAS)-linked drugs for hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and ramipril, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, are widely utilized antihypertensive agents with sound efficacy and safety. The study compared the hyperkalemia incidences in CKD patients exposed to losartan and ramipril.Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for 12 months in the nephrology outpatient setting of a private tertiary care referral hospital in the Malabar region of Kerala. CKD patients with hypertension who were on ACE inhibitors or ARB therapy constituted our study population. Their demographic details, serum creatinine and potassium and urine protein were documented for three consecutive patient consultations.Results: There were an equal number of samples (n=186) in each of the losartan and ramipril administered groups. Losar- tan and ramipril doses preferred by the nephrologist were 1.25, 25, 50 & 100 mg and 0.625, 1.2, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg, respec- tively. The Mann-Whitney U test showed statistical significance (p0.05) between RAAS-related drugs and patients’ total daily doses. We noticed more frequency of hyperkalemia in the losartan group (n=11, 5.9%) than in the ramipril group (n=4, 2.2%). Initially, the mean serum potassium was low in the ACE inhibitor (4.35±0.55) subset, and then there was augmenta- tion in the second (4.46±0.52) and third (4.52±0.55) patient consultations. The repeated measures ANOVA tests depicted the samples to be different (p<0.05) in the serum potassium measurements within the losartan group (p-=0.018) and ramipril group (p<0.001).Conclusion: Losartan gave favorable clinical effects in CKD patients with regards to serum creatinine and potassium. How- ever, the frequency in reduction of proteinuria was profound in ramipril understudies.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Synthesis, antifungal activity and in silico ADMET studies of benzyl
           alcohol derivatives

    • Authors: Justina BENSON OGALA; Yusuf HASSAN, Abdullahi SAMAILA, Murtala ISAH BİNDAWA, Tugba TASKIN TOK
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Fungal infections continue to pose a serious threat to human well-being due to the increasing cases of resistance against the existing antifungal drugs. Consequently, efforts are increasingly focused towards investigating new moieties with potential activity against different fungal species. The object of this work was to synthesize and evaluate the antifungal activity of five benzyl alcohol derivatives against Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum and also to study the biochemical as well as the ADMET properties of the compounds in silico.Methods: The target compounds were obtained by the reduction of the appropriate aldehyde using sodium borohydride. Subsequently the compounds were tested against the two fungal species using ketoconazole as the positive control. The biochemical activities as well as the ADMET properties were calculated at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G* basis set with the help of Gaussian09 (G09) software.Results: The findings revealed that some of the compounds exhibited interesting inhibitory action against C. albicans while others against T. rubrum. However, the MIC and MFC results demonstrated that none of the compounds were fungicidal at the concentrations tested. In silico ADMET studies showed that all the compounds have a good cell permeability index, their human intestinal absorption values were within the recommended scale and with good plasma protein binding.Conclusion: The benzyl alcohol derivatives studied in this work have exhibited some encouraging antifungal activity and fa- vorable biochemical as well as pharmacokinetic properties.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • An in-vivo herb-drug interaction study of Tinospora cordifolia extract on
           the pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in normal Wistar rats

    • Authors: Asha THOMAS; Seema KAMBLE, Sohan CHİTLANGE, Archana THIKEKAR
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (TC), from the Menispermaceae family, is a well-known traditional herb used to treat diabetes mellitus and a variety of other ailments, according to traditional Indian literature. Herbal treat- ments are commonly used as alternatives to medicines. Anti-diabetic herbal medicines containing TC are available in the market. TC has been identified as a powerful CYP2C9 inhibitor, boosting the risk of herb-drug interactions (HDI) when used with medications metabolized via the CYP pathway. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic HDI of TC extract with Gliclazide (GL) after oral co-administration in Wistar rats using in vivo pharmacokinetic studies.Methods: A simple, sensitive & accurate RP-HPLC/PDA method was developed and validated. Chromatographic separations were performed on a C18 analytical column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 40 mM ammonium acetate buffer (55:45 v/v) pH 3.0 and flow rate gradient programming. The drug concentrations in plasma were measured using the RP-HPLC method after oral co-administration of TC extract (100 mg/kg) with GL (8.3 mg/kg) in Wistar rats.Results: The pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction studies showed that the bioavailability of GL had significantly increased, with a significant influence on Cmax, AUC0-48, and suppression of volume of distribution (Vd), with no change in Tmax.Conclusion: The results obtained from this in vivo study proposed that there is a potentially significant PK HDI when GL and TC extract are administered together. This knowledge of potential HDI could be beneficial to healthcare providers and diabetic patients on GL medication. Further research is needed to anticipate this pharmacokinetics HDI of GL in humans.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Sex-dependent effects of resveratrol and regular exercise on markers
           related to cellular stress in the hearts and kidneys of rats

    • Authors: Nur Banu BAL; Sevtap HAN, Suzan USANMAZ, Orhan ULUDAĞ, Emine DEMİREL YILMAZ
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Regular exercise and several food supplements are recommended for a healthy lifestyle. In this study,the sex-dependent effects of resveratrol and regular exercise training on cellular stress response were investigated in the hearts and kidneys of rats.Methods: Male and female Wistar rats (3-month-old) were used. Resveratrol (7.5 mg/kg, in the drinking water) and exercise training (for 40 minutes, three days per week) were applied for 6 weeks. The markers related to cellular stress were measured in left ventricle and kidney tissues.Results: Cardiac total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were greater in males than females, but no difference was observed in kidney tissue. Exercise training increased both TAC and nitrite levels in the heart in females but not in males. Even cardiac nitrite levels were decreased in males by exercise. Cardiac phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK) expression and renal glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) expression were higher in the control male group compared to the female group. Cardiac tumor necrosis factor-ɑ (TNF-ɑ) expression was higher in females than males but not in kidneys. However, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression was higher in males than females in both kidney and cardiac tissues. The phospho-inhibitor κB-ɑ (p-IκB-ɑ) did not change between gender in cardiac tissues but had a decreased level in male kidneys compared to the female control group. Expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in females and phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt) in males were lower in kidney tissue. Resveratrol and exercise treatments markedly decreased Akt protein expression in male kidney tissue.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the markers involved in cellular stress response were affected differently by the resveratrol and exercise treatments considering sex and tissue dependencies.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Aromatherapeutic essential oils and their pharmaceutical combinations:
           Tools for inhibition of quorum sensing activity and biofilm formation of
           human pathogens*

    • Authors: Müjgan ÖZFENERCİ; Elif Burcu BALİ, Demet ERDÖNMEZ, Ufuk KOCA ÇALIŞKAN
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Aromatherapy, as one of the complementary therapies, uses essential oils as the main therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. In the present study, it was aimed to investigate inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) and bio- film formation of aromatherapeutic essential oils (AEOs) and their pharmaceutical combinations (PC-I and PC-II).Methods: The anti-QS potential of AEOs were determined using the biosensor strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Anti-QS activity was detected by agar-well diffusion and violacein pigment inhi- bition assays. Blocking of PAO1 swim and swarm motilities and biofilm formation was also performed.Results: Most of the AEOs demonstrated highly active (>95%) violacein pigment inhibition. Additionally, they inhibited swarming (40.34%-72.80%) and swimming (20.06%-50.08%) motilities of PAO1. Moreover, the majority of AEOs also de- creased the biofilm formation, particularly on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.Conclusion: Consequently, aromatherapeutic formulations might be a complementary or prophylactic cure for infectious dis- ease by their anti-QS and antibiofilm activities rather than just antimicrobial effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluations of oleic acid and conjugated
           linoleic acid

      Abstract: Background and Aims: Oleic acid (OLA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) occur in dairy products and meats and are also widespread at lower levels in many other foodstuffs. It is known that OLA and CLA are very bioactive compounds with sub- stantially anti-carcinogenic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potentials of OLA and CLA which were tested against cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines and to determine their genotoxicity.Methods: The cytotoxic activities of OLA and CLA against to cancer cell lines (U-87-MG, A549, MCF-7, CaCo-2, HeLa and PC- 3) and a control cell line (HEK293) were assessed by MTT assay. Ames MPFtm mutagenicity assay on 4 strains (TA98, TA100, TA 1535 and TA 1537) of Salmonella typhimurium was used for genotoxicity determination.Results: CLA showed cytotoxic activity on PC-3 cells, while OLA was created on A549 and PC-3 cell lines with the IC50 of 20 nM and 15 nM, respectively. No cytotoxic activity was observed on MCF-7, HeLa, U-87-MG, and CaCo-2 cells with the ad- ministered doses of OLA and CLA. It has been proved that OLA and CLA are characterized by a high cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells, as observed in the cell line test. There was no evidence for a mutagenic effect of OLA and CLA in the Ames test, with or without metabolic activation (S9) against Salmonella typhimurium strains.Conclusion: These in vitro test results indicate that these fatty acids can be considered a beneficial dietary supplement for enhancing anti-cancer therapy.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Chemical constituent of Isochrysis galbana microalgae extract and its
           cytotoxic activities on leukemic cell lines

      Abstract: Background and Aims: This study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect of Isochrysis galbana microalgae extract. Methods: In the study, the chemical composition of Isochrysis galbana microalgae extract was analyzed, and its cytotoxic effect against K562, HL60, U937, MOLT-4, and Raji cancer cells was investigated. ECV304 endothelial cells were used as a healthy cell line for the understanding of its selective cytotoxicity. To determine the effects of Isochrysis galbana extract, an MTT cytotoxicity assay was performed.Results: According to the results of the experiments, the highest cytotoxic effect of Isochrysis galbana microalgae extract was shown at about 24.07±6.48% cytotoxicity against Raji cells. There were a large number of bioactive molecules in the ex- tract, and these molecules showed a specific response to Raji cells when considering the synergistic and antagonistic effects of these molecules on each other.Conclusion: According to the results of GC-MS analysis of Isochrysis galbana microalgae extract, the most intense molecules in the content were Dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy- (CAS) Beta-Hydroxy Dodecanoic Acid, and Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-methyl-1,3-isonide. The investigation of the effect of these molecules specifically against Raji cells is important to determine the possible anti-leukemic molecules and their combinations that show cytotoxicity against this cell line.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Cardiac effects of dapagliflozin in diabetic rats with subacute exposure

    • Authors: Tugce BORAN; Bahar ULUS KARACA, Ayça KARAGÖZ KÖROĞLU, Engin KAPTAN, Feriha ERCAN, Gül ÖZHAN
      Abstract: Background and Aims: Dapagliflozin (DAPA) is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a monotherapy or combination therapy with other antidiabetic medicines. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved DAPA to minimize the risk of hospitalization due to heart failure in patients with T2DM because of its antihypertensive and antihyperglycemic activities. However, further study of DAPA is necessary to ensure the safety of patients.Methods: T2DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection (35 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) in male rats that were fed a high-fat diet for two weeks before STZ injection. The diabetic rats were exposed to 10 mg/kg DAPA by oral gavage during sub-acute treat- ment. Total cholesterol levels and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Heart tissues were histologically examined, and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels were measured.Results: DAPA has the potential to inhibit diabetes-induced oxidative stress and morphologic damage to heart tissue, and increased cTnT levels of the heart, which is important for cardiac contractility.Conclusion: DAPA might have a protective effect on the heart at a 10 mg/kg oral dose; however, further experimental and clinical studies are required to clarify the cardio-protective potential of DAPA.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • In vitro inhibitory potential of Amaranthus lividus L. against therapeutic
           target enzyme

    • Authors: Gozde HASBAL ÇELİKOK; Tuğba YILMAZ ÖZDEN, Özlem SAÇAN, Ayse CAN, Refiye YANARDAĞ
      Abstract: Background and Aims: The search for new enzyme inhibitors in plants is attractive because they can be used as drugs in the treatment of various diseases. Amaranthus spp. (Amaranthaceae) includes about 70 different species, some of which are ed- ible and some of which are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. Amaranthus lividus L. is a vegetable whose stems and leaves are used for human consumption in Turkey.Methods: In this study, the in vitro enzyme inhibition potential of A. lividus on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinester- ase (AChE), elastase, lipase, neuraminidase and tyrosinase was investigated for the first time. For this purpose, water extract of A. lividus was prepared. The tests of enzyme inhibitory activity were carried out by spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods.Results: The water extract showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Also, it displayed good elas- tase, lipase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. However, it exhibited low inhibitory activity on AChE and neuraminidase.Conclusion: The plant and its active constituents may be used as an antidiabetic enzyme inhibitor with future phytochemical constituent analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +030
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