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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 101)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 152)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advanced Herbal Medicine
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2423-3579
Published by Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Nature’s brain boosters: Exploring the potential of medicinal plants and
           natural compounds in neurosciences

    • Abstract: As we all know, medicinal plants and natural compounds have been used for centuries in traditional medicine, and recent research has shed light on their potential for treating a wide range of neurological disorders. From Alzheimer’s to Parkinson’s to depression and anxiety, there is growing evidence that natural compounds can play a crucial role in promoting brain health and preventing or mitigating the effects of neurological disease. Over the last few decades, a growing interest has been in using natural compounds to treat neurological disorders. This is partly due to traditional pharmaceuticals’ limitations and side effects and partially because research has shown that many natural compounds have potent neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. One example of a natural compound extensively studied for its potential in treating neurological disorders is curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric. Curcumin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and has been studied for its potential in treating Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, depression, and other neurological conditions. Other examples of natural compounds that have been studied for their potential in treating neurological disorders include resveratrol (found in red wine), omega-3 fatty acids (found in fish oil), and cannabidiol (found in cannabis).
  • Characteristics constituents with antidiabetic significance from Indian
           mangrove apples

    • Abstract: Background and aims: There is limited information on the chemical nature of the edible fruits of the mangrove Sonneratia apetala, which is utilized in traditional medicine in coastal areas. The goal of the current research was to identify the biologically active substances behind their therapeutic effects, particularly blood sugar regulation. Methods: To determine the chemical fingerprint of S. apetala fruit extract, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling were used. The antioxidant properties were thoroughly examined. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes were also used to evaluate the impact of S. apetala fruit extract on the regulatory mechanism for the metabolism of carbohydrates. Results: S. apetala fruit extract showed high concentrations of phenolics, flavonoids, and water-soluble vitamins (C, B2, B5, and B6). Quercetin, catechin, rutin, myricetin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, sinapic acid, and ascorbic acid were among the recognized therapeutically active substances found in RP-HPLC. The presence of β-amyrin and lupeol in S. apetala fruit extract was determined by the GC-MS profile. The carbohydrate-slitting enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase were also strongly inhibited by S. apetala fruit extract. Conclusion: The fruit of S. apetala contains therapeutically useful polyphenolics, triterpenoids, phytosterols, and vitamins. It can lower blood sugar absorption by blocking enzymes that break down carbohydrates and has potent antioxidant qualities.
  • The effect of combined administration of Ginger (Zingiber officinale
           Roscoe) and Depakene on pain reduction in patients with migraine headaches
           compared to Depakene alone

    • Abstract: Background and aims: Migraine is known as one of the most debilitating diseases with high prevalence worldwide. This study aimed to compare between combined administration of ginger and Depakene (sodium valproate) capsules (intervention group) and the use of Depakene (control group) alone to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ginger in the treatment of migraine. Methods: This randomized one-blind clinical trial was conducted with 80 patients suffering from migraine headaches. A total of 40 patients in the intervention group received two ginger capsules of 250mg manufactured by Zintoma (Gol Darou Co.) along with 500 mg Depakene orally daily for sixteen weeks, and 40 patients in the control group received Depakene (500 mg/d) alone. The variables included the severity of the headache, the number of headaches per month, and the sleep quality of patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics: frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, and analytical statistics: χ2, independent t test, and pair t tests. Results: For pain intensity, the mean score of pain after the intervention in the intervention group was significant so that it was lower than the mean score in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in disability severity induced by migraine headaches between the two groups after the intervention so that it was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Administration of the ginger capsule (500 mg) with Depakene (500 mg) was considered to improve pain severity, disability, and sleep pattern in patients with migraine compared to administration of Depakene alone. Therefore, this combination therapy can be considered a choice in the treatment of these patients.
  • Antagonistic effects of thiamine versus lead acetate exposure-correlated
           with hepato-renal toxicity in diabetic and non-diabetic rats: A
           stereological and biochemical survey

    • Abstract: Background and aims: The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of thiamine on the toxicity of lead acetate (PbAc) in the liver and kidneys of diabetic rats. To evaluate the effect of thiamine, stereological criteria, and biochemical processes were used. Methods: Forty-eight female rats were used and divided into eight groups of six animals. G I: served as the control group; G II: diabetic group; G III: PbAc group; G IV: thiamine group; G V: diabetes + thiamine group; G VI: PbAc + thiamine group; G VII: diabetes + PbAc + thiamine group; G VIII: diabetes + PbAc group. Results: The total volume of hepatocytes in the liver and the volume of cortex, medulla, and glomerulus in the kidney were significantly increased in the both diabetic and PbAc groups compared to control animals. Moreover, the sinusoids and central vein volumes showed a significant decrease in both the diabetic and PbAc groups compared with the controls. The PbAc and diabetic groups showed higher total cholesterol (TC), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (Cr), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations than the control group. It was discovered that thiamine significantly alters the levels of the desired parameters, bringing them closer to the control group. Conclusion: Thiamine is a potent antidiabetic agent, and this compound supplementation possesses hypoglycemic properties and has an effect on the hepatorenal structure in diabetes rats.
  • The protective effects of lavender herbal tea on spasticity and ataxia in
           patients with multiple sclerosis

    • Abstract: Background and aims: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease with (an) unknown cause(s) that affects the central nervous system, the brain, and the spinal cord and causes loss of control, vision, balance, and sensation. Ataxia and spasm are commonly observed in patients with MS and cause a significant decrease in functioning and quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, and rehabilitation are usually used to deal with ataxia and spasms. Given the World Health Organization’s emphasis on using herbal medicines with fewer side effects and the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of lavender extract, the present study aims to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic lavender extract on ataxia and spasm in MS patients. Methods: The present study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eighty-four patients with MS referred to Imam Ali Clinic and Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Patients in the intervention group were given lavender tea, and those in the placebo group received the placebo for 60 days. Before and after the intervention, spasticity was assessed using the Ashworth Scale and the spasm repetition scale. International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were used to evaluate ataxia. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The results showed the mean Ashworth and spasm index before and after intervention did not differ significantly between the two groups of control and placebo (P < 0.05), but lavender tea could increase BBS and decrease ICARS significantly in the group receiving it (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Due to phenolic and flavonoid compounds and high antioxidant properties, lavender can decrease spasticity and ataxia and improve the functioning of other chemicals and drugs used to treat MS in patients.
  • Nephroprotective effect of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) apple juice on
           kidney of paracetamol-induced injury in Albino rats

    • Abstract: Background and aims: Cashew is an evergreen tropical tree native to South America. It has spread to several locations around the globe, including Africa. The plant’s various parts have been effective in treating a variety of diseases. This study aims to assess the nephroprotective effect of aqueous Anacardium occidentale cashew apple juice on the kidney of paracetamol (PCM)-induced injury in albino rats. Methods: Wistar rats were used to conduct this study. Group 1 was given saline as usual. While groups 3, 4, and 5 were administered 1, 2, and 4 ml/kg of the aqueous extract, group 2 received normal saline. In groups 2-5, animals received oral PCM 2000 mg/kg body weight on the eighth day. All animals were weighed again and sacrificed under a light diethyl ether vapor 20 hours after the last dose administration. Results: The extract significantly (P < 0.05) raised packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and platelet values compared to group 2. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the weight-to-body size ratio of rats in none of the groups given extracts (P < 0.05) when compared to group 2. Creatinine and urea level were considerably lower in the groups who received extract. Additionally, histological research supports biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The study shows that A. occidentale cashew apple may help manage renal disorders and protect the kidney against hazardous substances.
  • Evaluation of the effects of Astragalus fasciculifolius hydroalcoholic
           extract on rat ileum contractions: The role of adrenergic, opioid, and
           nitric oxide receptors

    • Abstract: Background and aims: This study aimed to determine the effects of Astragalus fasciculifolius hydroalcoholic extract on rat ileum contractions: The role of adrenergic, opioid, and nitric oxide (NO) receptors. Methods: A. fasciculifolius extract was prepared using 70% alcohol by maceration extraction. 2 cm pieces from the end of the rat ileum were placed in a tissue bath containing Tyrode’s solution. The tissue bath solution is constantly oxygenated. Potassium chloride (KCl), naloxone, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), propranolol, and different concentrations of calcium chloride were used to stimulate the ileum. Ileum contractions were recorded isotonically under 1 g of initial tension. The results were calculated as the amount of shortening (in millimeters). Results: This study showed that A. fasciculifolius extract caused a significant increase in ileum contraction compared to the control group (P < 0.001). This increase in contraction was amplified in combination with opioid or NO receptor antagonists (P < 0.001). Also, this effect was not significantly different in association with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that A. fasciculifolius extract enhances the contractile function of the ileum in rats. This function is reinforced by opioid receptor antagonists and NO.
  • Therapeutic effect and molecular associated mechanisms of silymarin on
           osteoarthritis: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Background and aims: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint and common skeletal disease around the world. We aimed to review silymarin and its major active constituent effects and underlying mechanisms for relieving OA. Methods: The study protocol was designed according to the PRISMA statement. An extensive search was performed in several main databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, finally, 11 studies were included. The desired data were extracted from the studies and registered into an Excel form and the consequences and mechanisms were surveyed. Results: Silymarin, inhibits or downregulates IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iONS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In terms of antioxidant capacity, it decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid peroxidation in serum and synovial fluid. In addition, it reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leukocytes (Th17), and HB levels. Silymarin increases superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, it can up-regulate and increases the anabolism of sirtuin1 (Sirt1), SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9), IL-10, IL-4, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1), Collagen type II and extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. Conclusion: Because silymarin is a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant polyphenolic flavonoid, it can be effectively used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of OA; however, more clinical trial studies are still needed to determine its side and analgesic effects.
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