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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Archives of Razi Institute
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.182
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0365-3439 - ISSN (Online) 2008-9872
Published by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Synthesis of bio-active silver nanoparticles against human lung cancer
           cell line (A549)with little toxicity to normal cell line (WRL68)

    • Abstract: Nanomaterials are characterized by mechanical, thermal, chemical, biological and other properties different from the basic materials that make them up due to their large surface area to size ratio and quantum effect. There are multiple ways to produce nanomaterials mechanically, chemically and physically, but they are not safe for the environment. Researchers have sought to find safe methods for the production of nanomaterials, such as green manufacturing, that is, manufacturing nanomaterials from plants, and there are other sources such as bacteria or fungi that are used in the production of nanomaterials. The aim of this study was to try to find an alternative to chemically manufactured drugs, such as those used in the treatment of human cancers, through nanotechnology manufactured from plant sources (green-biosynthesis), which is characterized by abundance and low economic cost. Silver nanoparticles were green-synthesized using aqueous extract of licorice plant, their properties were diagnosed and the differences were compared with the crude aqueous extract. The nanoparticles size ranged between 60.27 - 89.80 nm, while the sizes of the crude aqueous extract particles ranged between 53.96 - 113.1 nm. Atomic force microscopy was used to find out the shapes, topography, roughness and protrusions of the surfaces of biosynthesized AgNPs and aqueous extract particles, where the roughness rate of the nanoparticles was 75.54 nm, while it appeared. In vitro, AgNPs showed a higher anti-lung cancer activity against A549 cell line than that of the extract at an inhibitory concentration for half of the cells used in the experiment (IC50) 58.78 µg/ml, and the IC50 of the extract was 67.44 µg/ml, as well as the results showed that the toxicity of AgNPs on the normal hepatocyte line (WRL68) were less than the toxicity of the aqueous extract, with IC50 concentrations 244.2 and 147.0 µg/ml respectively, and it is worth mentioning that the lower the inhibitory concentration for half of the cells used in the experiment (IC50) was with higher toxicity.
       
  • A comparative investigation applying Testicular Fine needle aspiration
           cytology and open testicular biopsy histology for diagnosis of azoospermia
           and severe oligospermia

    • Abstract: The two most popular tests used to diagnose male infertility are open testicular biopsy histology and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). This study's goal was to assess the cytological characteristics of 186 infertile males aged 24-63 years with testicular FNAC. Additionally, we looked into the relationship between men with oligospermia (severe) (sperm count 5 million/ml) and azoospermia via both cytological and histological diagnosis. With a 1.5-inch, 25-gauge needle, the testis was aspirated from three different locations (the upper, middle, and lower pole). Papanicolaou (Pap) stain or Giemsa stain were used to make smears on albumenized slides, which were then dried in the air and stained. A biopsy of the testicles was performed there, preserved in Bouins solution, processed as usual, and stained with H&E stain. According to our findings, 66.7% of patients had secondary maturation arrest, whereas 18.3% and 15.1% of patients had hypospermatogenesis and Sertoli cell only (SCO), respectively. The comparison's findings showed that both procedures were very similar to one another. Only 3 (1.6%) of the 28 normal FNAC instances had hypospermatogenesis with lymphocyte infiltration, according to biopsy histological examinations. The majority of SCO patients were over 50 years old. This important study finding revealed that FNAC is more effective than testicular histology for assessing male infertility.
       
  • Effects of Contraceptive Drugs on Some Physiological and Hormonal
           Parameters of the Thyroid Gland on Blood Triglycerides and Lipoprotein of
           Male Rats

    • Abstract: This study was designed to estimate the effect of contraceptive drugs on some of the physiological parameters of the thyroid gland and its relation to fertility standards of male rats and effect on triglycerides, lipoproteins follicle stimulation hormone, and cholesterol levels in the blood as a result to contraceptive treatment. Levonorgestrel tablets were used as a contraceptive administered orally to male rats, animals divided into 3 groups (6 animals for every group) first group consider as control group received normal saline only second group administered 0.32mg of levonorgestrel third administer 0.64mg orally for 2 months. The fertility of rats was estimated by improving 3 females for each male and calculating the number of fetuses and pregnancies. Results concluded a decrease in male desire and mating for females, in the second and third groups. The level of T3 decreased significantly compared to the control group, (Testosterone) and cholesterol in the fetuses, some of them mutilated, and some pre-emptive and some are less than normal, while fetuses members of the first group were normal control. After the trial have been killed and dissected animals with sampling l the level of the hormone T4 with The effect of an increase in the level of blood triglycerides in the second set and a decrease in the level in the third treatment group compared with the control group also reported the results of laboratory and a clear decrease in high-density lipoproteins were also pointing the results of laboratory, In addition, represents a significant reduction in the concentration of sperm and it is activity addition to what has been approved distortion sperm with a significant decrease in the hormone levels of the male (p <0.05), and it can be concluded from this that the pill a clear effect on the fertility of male doing what caused the pathological imbalance hormonal reverse its results negatively on the ability of the male fertilization.
       
  • Molecular analysis of virulence genes HpmB and rsbA among proteus species
           isolated from different infectious Patients – Iraq

    • Abstract: Proteus spp. can be found on every continent. They could be detected in contaminated water, soil, and manure, where they aid in the decomposition of organic substances originating from animals [1]. Proteus is a gram-negative bacterium genus that causes a wide range of human illnesses [2].The purpose of this research is to find some virulence genes in Proteus spp from many sources from the laboratories of government hospitals in Karbala city, and Al-Hussies hospital in Al-Muthanna city, 50 samples were collected from patients. Patients' wound, ear, and sputum swab samples were taken for identification by clinicians at this institution. 17 sputum samples, 13 ear samples, and 20 wound samples were dispersed among 27 (54 %) females and 23 (46 %) males. The virulence genes HpmB and rsbA were identified after the genomic diagnosis of Proteus species. A thirteen Proteus isolates identified with HpmB primer and sixteen isolates with rsbA primer. The DNA sequence analysis of rsbA and HpmB genes showed in all samples presented 99.52 % identity for rsbA gene, while in HpmB was deference from sample to another. The sequence results were registered in NCBI under accession number (LC661938) and (LC661939) respectively.
       
  • The Modulatory Role of Orexin 1 Receptor in nucleus accumbens(NAc) on
           spatial memory in rats

    • Abstract: The neuropeptide orexin is mainly localized to neurons within and around the lateral hypothalamus and exhibits high affinity to orexin 1 and 2 receptors (OX1R, OX2R). Orexinergic neurons send their axons to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which expresses OX1Rs. Previous studies have shown the involvement of orexins and their roles in learning and memory processes in the dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus, but no study has yet examined the effects of orexin in the NAc on memory. In the present study, the effect of post-training and pre-probe of trial intra-NAc administration of SB-33486-A (OX1R antagonist) (12 μg/0.5μl) and TCS-OX2-29 (OX2R antagonist) (10 μg/0.5 μl) on consolidation and retrieval in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task was examined. In experiment 1, rats were trained in MWM and immediately after every training received bilateral injections of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (control group), SB-334867-A, and TCS-OX2-29 into NAc. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except rats received DMSO, SB-33486-A, and TCS-OX2-29, 15 minutes before the probe test. Then, probe and visible tests were performed after the last training and distance moved, escape latency, and velocity were recorded. In experiment 3, rats trained in experiments 1 and 2 immediately after the probe test were given the trials for visuo-motor coordination assessment on the visible platform. According to the results, injection of SB-334867-A, could increased distance moved and escape latency compared to the control group in consolidation phase of spatial memory (P < 0.05), but not in the retrieval phase of spatial memory (P > 0.05). However, TCS-OX2-29 had no effect. These results suggested that the inactivation of NAs OX1Rs but not OX2Rs impairs consolidation but not retrieval of spatial memory in rats.
       
  • Preparation of Nano-Medicine to Eliminate Bacteria H-Pylori Infection

    • Abstract: Helicobacter pylori is considered one of the difficult types of bacteria that are difficult to treat with the currently used antibiotics of amoxicillin, erythromycin and metronidazole, which have proven ineffective against these bacteria. In our current work, modern technology was used to treat these bacteria by converting the aforementioned antibiotics to their Nano state by using the lyophilization method and diagnosed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).A mixture of the three Nano-antibiotics was prepared together in a Nano-Medicine and was used to treat H. pylori bacteria in cultures to determine their effectiveness on these bacteria, and the results were highly effective in inhibiting these bacteria at the lowest concentration (OD=0.042). And with the highest concentration (OD = 0.038) compared with the three micro-antibiotics individually, where the OD values of each of amoxicillin, azithromycin and metronidazole, respectively were 0.523, 0.521, 0.453, and the OD values of the three Nano-antibiotics were given for each of the Nano-amoxicillin, Nano-azithromycin, and Nano- metronidazole, respectively, 0.386, 0.258 , 0.167 It can be observed that the percentage of inhibition in each of the Nano-antibiotics is higher than the inhibition in the micro-antibiotics, which happens that the Nano-Medicine had much higher inhibition than each of the three micro- and Nano-antibiotics alike.The safety of using Nano-antibiotics in the prepared Medicine was confirmed by the use of electrochemical technology by cyclic voltammetric device to identify the electrochemical properties through oxidation and reduction in the blood media. The results of the study showed the appearance of reduction peaks only and the absence of any oxidation peaks in the prepared kit, as well as for each of the three nano-antibiotics separately, and the result was that they are all non-oxidants. So it can be used safely as it is a good antioxidant as a treatment. While the same three micro treatments showed blood oxidation due to the appearance of oxidation peaks for all of them.The study proved that all H. pylori isolates are resistant to all usable antibiotics. All of the antibiotics in the Nano-Medicine have an anti-bacterial effect.
       
  • Detection of the levels of Immunoglobulin G and Platelet in Patients
           Suffering from hypothyroidism

    • Abstract: Hypothyroidism is described as the inability of the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body's metabolic needs. Hypothyroidism may be caused by primary thyroid failure or by insufficient activation of the thyroid gland by the brain or pituitary gland. In this research, The study include 60 samples, there were 40 people who had thyroid diseases and 20 healthy persons. All examinations and samples were conducted at Al-Marjan Teaching Hospital in Babylon Governorate from June 2021 to November 2021. After 10 minutes of expelling 5 ml of blood serum was taken, the blood was thrown into a container. The purpose of this research was to examine the levels and distribution of surface platelet IgG (IgG) in patients with thyroid disease. In addition, we examined risk factors for thyroid disease. p = 0.008 and p = 0.05) showed an association between thyroid disease and sex( female and the presence of ANA. Platelet count (P = 0.99) did not differ significantly between the two groups despite thyroid status. A few people with thyroid problems had higher platelet levels, but there were no significant changes in the antinuclear test (P = 0.47) or other markers. this study shows patients with hypothyroidism had hemoglobin deficiency less than (p=0.0001), TSH(p=0. 001) and MPV(p=0.001) and significant for that results. No one with thyroid function data had any different characteristics, except for the hemoglobin level, which was the same for all of them. Many people with autoimmune disorders have thyroid. The results also suggest that thyroid and platelet autoimmunity may be present even if there are no symptoms. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed based on a number of factors or determinants of the disease, It also found that it had an effect on hemoglobin and platelets, which patients saw, so it was important to monitor these tests.
       
  • Relationship between Characteristics of the Wound and Healing Duration
           among Patients Treated during Home-Visits

    • Abstract: Wound healing is a vital but complex process in humans, containing a multilayered process governed by chronological yet overlapping stages, which are composed of hemostasis/ inflammation part, proliferation stage, and remodeling phase. The wound healing complexity makes it susceptible to pause at several levels. Wound healing can potentially have influenced by Factors that affect cellular function and physiologic responses. This research aimed to investigate the wound healing duration and demographic properties and characteristics of the wound among patients treated during home-visits in Erbil City.
       
  • Nutraceutical effects of Justicia carnea leaf powder supplementations on
           performance, blood indices, heat shock protein 70, oxidative
           deoxyribonucleic acid damage biomarkers and intestinal microbes of broiler
           chickens, under tropical condition

    • Abstract: The main reasons preventing broiler chickens from reaching their genetic potential and hurting their performance in the tropics are heat stress occurrences. The goal of this research is to ascertain how supplementing with Justicia carnea leaf powder (JLP) affects the performance, blood indices, antioxidant status and gut microflora broiler chickens in tropical environments. A completely randomised approach was used to assign 240 Cobb 500 broiler chicks to the experimental diets (6 replicates per diet; 10 birds per replication). Diet 1: No supplement (negative control); Diet 2: 200mg/kg vitamin C (positive control); Diet 3: 2500mg/kg JLP; Diet 4: 5000mg/kg JLP. At day 42, the body weight gain of the birds fed diet 4 was significantly higher than those on diet 1. The packed cell volume, red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration of the birds fed diets 3 and 4 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed the control. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol were lower (P<0.05) in birds fed diets 3 and 4, compared to those fed diet 1. The serum heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were lower (P<0.05) in birds fed diets 3 and 4, compared to diet 1. The lactic acid-producing bacteria population was higher (P<0.05) in birds fed diets 3 and 4, compared to those on the control diet; while the coliform bacteria (LAB) population was reduced in birds fed diets 3 and 4, compared to diet 1. The 2500 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg JLP dietary supplementations enhanced the body weight gain, improve the erythrogram indices, and reduced the blood AST, ALT, cholesterol, HSP70, 8-OHdG and caeca coliform population but increased the caeca LAB population.
       
  • Severity of COVID-19 infection correlation with IL-17 polymorphism

    • Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in many studied genes have been related to the severity of COVID-19. This study was carried out to investigate whether the polymorphisms of two SNPs (rs763780 and rs2275913) of the gene polymorphisms for IL-17 are connected to the COVID-19 severity. The effect of these polymorphisms on the levels of IL-17 and the relationship between the level of IL-17 and the severity of COVID-19 were also investigated. RT-PCR was performed to detect SARS-COV-2. Blood samples have been taken for analyses of IL-17 levels by ELISA test and Genomic DNA was extracted for genotyping. Genotyping was performed using Real Time –Polymerase Chain Reaction. The results indicated that the IL-17 level significantly increases in patients compared with control (healthy people) and there is a relationship between the severity of COVID-19 and IL-17 levels (p<0.01) between severity group. Mean ± SE of IL-17 was 67.99 ±2.05 ng/L for the control group, 147.60 ±3.34 for mild or moderate, (218.15 ±6.27) for the severe group and (283.97 ±5.59) for the critical group. And there is no-significant Relationship between SNP80 and IL-17 level (ng/L) with different types of severity and there is no-significant Relationship between SNP13 and IL-17 level (ng/L) with different types of severity (p ≤ 0.05) both of them. The severity of COVID-19 and the prevalence of the AA genotype were shown to be significantly correlated. Nevertheless, rs2275913 A-allele carriers in the patients were shown to be at risk (P = 0.021) comparison with control group, show increase risk in the severe group (p-value= 0.005, p>0.05) and critical group (p-value = 0.023, p>0.05) but no compact between the mild group, There is no relationship (p< 0.05) between the prevalence of the GA genotype and the severity of COVID-19.
       
  • Interleukin 17 and growth differentiation factor 9 influence in a sample
           of Iraqi Infertile Males

    • Abstract: Infertility is defined as the inability of couples to have a baby after one year of regular unprotected intercourse, affecting 10–15 percent of couples. The present study aimed to observe the influn of IL17 and GDF 9 among three groups control, azoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia infertile male. The total participants are 93 consisting of 83consisting of 18 Azoospermia , 65 Oligoasthenospermia and10 control group. The mean plasma level of IL-17 in group 2 and group 3 was (21.317 ± 3.605, 15.101 ± 2.416 ng/l) respectively which significantly higher than in controls group (5.392 ± 1.731 ng/l). The mean plasma level of GDF9 in group 2 and group 3 was (3.299 ± 1.051 and 6.2603 ± 2.621 ng/l) respectively which significantly higher than in controls group (12.807 ± 2.170 ng/l). One-way ANOVA and Least significant differences (LSD) post hoc test were performed to assess significant differences among means. R-squared is a measure of how well a linear regression model fits the data. It can be interpreted as the proportion of variance of the outcome Y explained by the linear regression model. It is a number between 0 and 1. In non-obstructive forms of severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia like the selected case in the current study, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is suggested if viable spermatozoa are present by using testicular biopsy for spermatozoa extraction.
       
  • PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 2 GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN
           TWO COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKEN STRAINS (COBB 500 AND HUBBARD F-15) AND
           THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH PERFORMANCE TRAITS

    • Abstract: In two commercial broiler breeds (Cobb 500 and Hubbard F-15), the polymorphisms of chicken insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene were studied. A total of three hundred avian blood samples were obtained. Using a fast salt-extraction technique, genomic DNA was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction, 1146 bp fragments of the gene were amplified (PCR). The amplified fragments were subjected to restriction enzyme digestion using HinfI endonuclease enzyme, and the digested products were separated on a 2% agarose gel. The findings indicated that there are two alleles T and C for the target locus, with respective frequencies of 73.3% and 26.7%. Three distinct genotype variations, TT, TC, and CC, were found, with genotype frequencies of 59.1 percent, 28.4 percent, and 12.5 percent, respectively. The test based on actual and anticipated frequencies of various genotypic variances of the IGF2 gene revealed that the divergence from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not significant (p≤0.01) commercial broiler breeds (Cobb 500 and Hubbard F-15) chickens. In addition, it was shown that birds with genotype TC had a greater body mass at 8 weeks of age compared to those with genotypes TT and CC. It was determined that the IGF2 gene exhibited a significant degree of variability and might be regarded a possible genetic marker in selection and breeding programs for poultry.
       
  • The effect of nonnutritive sweeteners on the antimicrobial activity of
           

    • Abstract: Eucalyptus tree is an excellent source of antimicrobial agents; It is used in many oral cure products. Their bitter taste could compromise their usage, so fortifying the extracts with nonnutritive sweeteners could be a promising procedure for masking their unpleasant taste. The present study is an in-vitro evaluating the antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus (alcoholic and aqueous) extracts against salivary Mutans streptococci and then conducting the effect of nonnutritive sweeteners on the antimicrobial activity of these extracts against salivary Mutans streptococci. The test microbes were sensitive to different concentrations of eucalyptus alcoholic and aqueous extract and the inhibition zone increased as the concentration of the extracts increased. All the Mutans isolates were killed at a concentration of 75mg/ml for the alcoholic extract and 175mg/ml for the aqueous extracts. In this experiment, the concentration of up to 15% of stevia and up to 5% of sucralose did not affect the antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus alcoholic extract. While, the concentration of up to 1% of stevia and sucralose did not interfere with the antimicrobial activity of aqueous eucalyptus extract against salivary Mutans streptococci. Increasing the concentration of nonnutritive sweeteners in this experiment appeared to interfere with the antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus extract against salivary Mutans streptococci.
       
  • Histological study of Alteration in Testes and Epididymis of Domestic
           Rabbits Caused by Tribulus Terrestris and vitamin E.

    • Abstract: The current study was carried out in the experimental field of the College of Veterinary Medicine. University of Baghdad. With the aim of studying the effect of feed additives (Tribulus Terrestris and vitamin E) on histological alteration in testis and epididymis tissue in local male rabbits for the period from march until January 2022. Two rabbits from each group were sacrificed and were approximately 26 weeks old, after tissue gonads were observed. and morphometric investigation, macroscopic variables (including body weight and testicular weight and volume) They were measured, as were the microscopic parameters of the testicular seminal tubule. Comparison among the various variants offered. The histological section study after the end of the experiment period showed the absence of a negative effect from the use of the plant, a dose of 1 g per day, as well as vitamin 60 IU for each animal orally through feed, but on the contrary, there was a positive effect on spermatogonia and spermatocytes in all animals, while the spermatogonia in the treated groups were more dense ,especially in the second and third group than control group. The seminiferous tubules were lined with spermatogonia , spermatocytes and round spermatid significantly (P<0.5)in treated groups than control group. While the epididymis tissue did not show traces of histological changes such as epididymal hyperplasia and others. Sperm were more frequent in the lumen of the epididymis as well as the lumen larger than those of the control. Through the results of this study, we can conclude that the pole plant and vitamin E have an effect positively in the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules and the epididymis with an increase in sperm formation and differentiation towards maturity.
       
  • Effect of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Fortified with Se on the haematological
           and some biochemical traits of Local Iraqi Goat kids

    • Abstract: The study was aimed to estimate the role of organic selenium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the status health and physiological conditions of kids. Ten goat kids at 7 days were used, with average started a life body weight (b.wt.) 4±0.2 kg. Kids were divided into two groups, these groups of goat kids were established randomly (Five kids for each). Group 1 (G1) had been treated with selenium-fortified yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus selenium) with a dose (30 mg/kg) of body weight. Group 2 was a control group, left untreated. The treatment was started from 7 days of age until three months of age. The kids were daily administered orally for three months of the experiment. The jugular vein was used to draw blood samples at 90 days of the experiment to measure RBC, Hb, PCV and WBC. Blood serum was separated using a centrifuge to estimate (ALT, AST, total protein, Albumin and Globulin) concentrations. The results revealed that the (G1) was increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the Hb, PCV and Globulin as compared with control. While AST was improved as compared with control. From this results concluded that the use of yeast fortified by organic Selenium has improve the concentration of haemoglobin, PCV, globulin and digressing of AST enzyme.
       
  • Involvement of the orexin 1 and 2 receptors in nucleus incertus (NI) on
           modulation of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze

    • Abstract: The nucleus incertus (NI) is a distinct area within the brainstem near the posterior part of the tegmentum. This part of the brain consists of some heterogeneous neurons that play roles in different functions, including response to stress, arousal, learning, and modulating hippocampal theta rhythm. Orexin neuropeptides also have widespread distributions and overlapping actions within the NI. However, the actions of the orexin receptors in the NI are not well characterized. In the present study, the effect of post-training and pre-probe of trial intra-NI administration of SB-33486-A (OX1R antagonist) (12 μg/0.5μl) and TCS-OX2-29 (OX2R antagonist) (10 μg/0.5 μl) on consolidation and retrieval in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task was examined. In the experiment 1, rats were trained in MWM and immediately after every training received injections of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (control group), SB-334867-A, and TCS-OX2-29 into NI. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except rats received DMSO, SB-33486-A, and TCS-OX2-29, 15 minutes before the probe test. In subsequent experiments, probe and visible tests were performed after the last training and distance moved, escape latency, and velocity were recorded. In experiment 3, rats trained in experiments 1 and 2 immediately after the probe test were given trials for visuomotor coordination assessment on the visible platform. The results showed that the spatial reference memory consolidation phase was significantly impaired by SB-334867-A or TCS-OX2-29 (P < 0.05), while the retrieval phase was not affected (P > 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the orexinergic system in the NI has a key role in consolidation in rats through both OX1 and OX2 receptors.
       
  • Detrimental Effect of Tannin on Growth Performance, Visceras Weight and
           Blood Biochemistry in Broiler Chickens Reared Under Tropical Area

    • Abstract: This research was carried out to investigate the effects of tannin administration on the production performance, viscera weight, and lipoprotein levels of tropically-raised broiler chickens. Cobb Strain broiler chicks aged one day were used in an experiment with a completely random design, three treatments, and four replicate pens, each containing nine birds. Three dietary treatments were assigned to the birds: basal diet (negative control), basal diet + 0.03% Zn Bacitracyn (positive control), and basal diet + 0.05% tannin for the starter phase of 1-21 days and the grower phase of 22-42 days, respectively. Tannin supplementation significantly increased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in all phases relative to the control group. Tannin supplementation in the diet significantly reduced daily feed intake during the grower phase, final body weight, carcass weight, intestine weight, liver weight, and total visceral weight compared to the control group. Tannin had lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Tannin addition in broiler diets might not improve growth performance and health. Therefore, it is not suggested as a substitute for antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in broiler diets.
       
  • Evaluation of immunogenicity of Clostridium perfringens type (B) toxoid
           and inactivated FMD (O) virus with adjuvant (ISA70-MF59)

    • Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and Enterotoxemia are important diseases of hoofed animals. Vaccination against livestock pathogens, especially these two diseases, plays an important role in prevention and control. The use of combined vaccines (combined vaccine) with the aim of creating a better immune response and producing cheaper vaccines is a very important contribution to this industry. This project aimed to compare the immunogenicity of FMD (O) and Clostridium perfringens Type B Toxoid with adjuvant (MF59) and Montanide (ISA70), to create the best immunogenicity. To investigate the immune responses of vaccines, it is injected into an animal model and the antibody titer is measured by ELISA test and VN antibody titer. The results showed that the formulation with MF59 adjuvant brought more and more stable immunogenicity against foot and mouth disease and Clostridium perfringens type (B), and the length of the immunogenicity period also increased significantly. Therefore, the combined Clostridium perfringens - FMD vaccine can play a role in the industry as an alternative vaccine against Clostridium perfringens and FMD in livestock.
       
  • Molecular Identification Of Candida albicans and C.dubliniensis Using
           Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequence In Kerbala ,Iraq.

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to confirm the phenotypic diagnosis of the two species Candida albicans and C.dubliniensis that were previously isolated in a previous study from cases of oral candidiasis, using polymerase chain reaction and determination of the nitrogenous base sequences of the 18-srRNA products duplication using the primers NS1, NS8, The sequences of the multiple bases were analyzed using the Basic Local Blast Alignment Search Tool program (BLAST), which proved that the two diagnosed Candida strains belong to the two species C .albicans and C.dubliniensis respectively, and by comparing these sequences with the data available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database we found the study isolate C.albicans showed a similar percentage of 99% with universal strains of C.albicans from Japan, Brazil, the United States, Germany, India, China, Pakistan and Egypt. While C.dubliniensis strain had the highest genetic similarity rate of 99% with C.dubliniensis isolate from the United States, Netherlands, France and Germany. The study strains were recorded in the gene bank database with the sequence code MZ574137 and MZ574410.1 for C .albicans and C.dubliniensis respectively. The results of the duplication of the 18 SrRNA region also showed the presence of variations between C.albicans and C.dubliniensis represented by the presence of three mutations of the first type and two mutations in the second type at different sites of the sequence.
       
  • Evaluation of IL-6, IL-25 & IL-35 in the COVID 19 Patients and their
           Correlation to DemographyData in the Symptomatic Patients

    • Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2, also known as SARS-CoV-2, was first discovered in Wuhan, which is located in the province of Hubei in China. Cytokines play important role in the course of COVID 19 infections through their inflammatory or anti-inflammatory activities. This study was designed to detect the diagnostic value and relationships between the interleukins under this study, in addition to their relationships of demographic data in patients suffering from COVID 19. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 based on laboratory (PCR) and the control healthy group were each given their own section of this investigation. The patient group had a total of 120 patients, including 62 men and 58 females, while the control group consisted of just 32 individuals (22 males and 10 females). Subdivision was then performed according to vaccinations, chronic diseases, gender, and residence. Cytokines levels were detected by using ELISA technique. The immunological status of COVID 19 patients was determined by measuring interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 25 (IL-25), and interleukin 35 (IL-35). During the research, it was found that interleukin-6 was highly significant for patients with COVID 19 (0.001), and when compared with patients with chronic diseases it was not significant (0. 376) as well with residence (0.353) and gender (0.574), but it was significant with patients vaccinated with the corona vaccine(0.029), it was also found to be highly significant with IL- 25 &IL- 35. (.000). As for interleukin 25, it was highly significant for patients with COVID 19 (.007),and when compared with patients with chronic diseases it was significant (0. 049).While with residence ( 0.421) and gender (0.681) was no significant , but it was significant with patients vaccinated with the corona vaccine ( 0.047), it was also found to be highly significant with IL- 25 & IL- 35.( .000). As for interleukin 35, it was significant for patients with COVID 19 (0.013), and when compared with patients with chronic diseases I no significant (0. 344) as well with residence (0.877) and gender (0.880), but it was significant with patients vaccinated with the corona vaccine (0. 048).
       
  • A comparative study of antiretroviral (Lopinavir/ritonavir) and Remdesivir
           used in the pandemic in Iraq on the clinical outcome in patients with
           SARS-CoV-2

    • Abstract: Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which emerged in December 2019, has infected millions of people worldwide and has been attributed to a large number of deaths. Due to the large number of mortalities, a number of studies assessed the effectiveness of some drugs in the fight against COVID-19, mainly by reducing the hospitalization rate among elderly and compromised patients. Among the drugs used to treat covid-19 was lopinavir-ritonavir combination, and Remdesivir. Due to considerable differences in effectiveness and clinical outcomes between the two treatments, this study compared the clinical outcomes of covid-19 patients treated with antiretrovirals (Lopinavir/ritonavir) and Remdesivir. Method: a total of 33 patients on Lopinavir/ritonavir and 35 patients on Remdesivir were selected for this study. Using a retrospective approach, a comparative analysis was conducted on the basis of demographics, hospital stay, laboratory parameters of C-reactive protein and plasma blood oxygen saturation, clinical treatment, as well as a clinical outcome assessment extracted from hospital Archive Data. Results: Both treatments improved patient outcomes, yet there was a significant difference between the Lopinavir/ritonavir and Remdesivir groups based on PLT, CRP, SPO2, and Mono results, with Remdesivir showing better clinical outcomes. No significant difference was reported in WBC, LYMPH, and LDH between the two treatments. It is still necessary to conduct further research to determine how effective both treatments are in treating severe covid-19 patients due to the limited number of available studies, and the inconsistent in the research methods and measurments used.
       
  • Clinical and Biochemical study of pregnancy toxemia in Iraqi ewes

    • Abstract: The study included 60 samples of ewes blood were collected (50 ewes were lying down suffering from pregnancy Toxemia and 10 healthy ewes were considered as a control group), all of them were in the last month of pregnancy from the Awassi strain in different regions of Salah Aldin Governorate, for the period from the beginning of October /2021 until the end of February/2022, where the ages of the animals included in the study ranged from 2-8 years. Biochemical analysis determination of serum concentrations of all parameters by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer except the BHBA and NEFA by ELISA method . The results of the clinical criteria tests for temperature, respiration and pulse showed a non significant differences (P<0.05) in the infected animals compared with the healthy group. Clinical signs which were represented by depression, loss of appetite, weight loss, lying down, odor of ketogenic bodies with breathing, and inability to walk, neurological signs, dental grinding, jaundice, blindness, bloat, dystocia, animal death and fetal death. The study showed from the results of the biochemical parameters tests in the blood a significant increase (P<0.05) in the parameters of the results of BHBA, NEFA, Triglycerides, Total bilirubin and liver enzymes, (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT) in the affected pregnancy toxemic animals compared with the control group, while a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed in the parameters of Glucose, Cholesterol, Total protein, Albumin and Globulin in the affected animals compared to the healthy group. As for the study of the relationship of disease with oxidative stress criteria, the study noted a significant (P<0.05) increase in the level of malondialdehyde concentration and a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the level of the antioxidants glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the affected.
       
  • Comparative Effect of Ascaridia Galli infection on the Two Laying Hens
           Lines on the liver function and Immune Response

    • Abstract: In this study, we compare the effects of Ascaridia galli infection on the immune response and liver function of two laying hen lines as well as determine their infection resistance. Fifty laying hens at eight weeks of age were used, (25 Lohmann brown-classic and 25 Lohmann lsl-lite) where each line was divided into two groups: an infected group (n=15), which was orally infected with a single dose of 500 A. galli embryonated eggs, and a control group (n=10), which was given normal saline. After 4 and 8 weeks, blood was collected from the wing vein, in order to assess the AST, ALT, total protein, and IgY levels in serum. The results demonstrated that the infected Lohmann brown-classic and Lohmann lsl-lite chickens presented significantly increased (p≤0.05) AST, ALT, and IgY, compared with the respective control groups. Moreover, Lohmann brown-classic hens presented a significantly increased (p≤0.05) IgY concentration at four weeks after infection, compared to Lohmann lsl-lite hens. From our results, we can conclude that genetic variation plays a key role in the immune response against A. galli, where the Lohmann brown-classic line was found to be more resistant, when compared to the Lohmann lsl-lite line.
       
  • Increasing levels of serum anti-spike S1-RBD IgG after 120 days of the
           Pfizer-BioNTech-mRNA second dose vaccination

    • Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, such as Pfizer-BioNTech, have demonstrated high efficacy; however, there is limited data on the duration of immune responses, besides their relationships to age, gender, BMI and the presence of previous COVID-19 infection. The study's goal is to evaluate SARS COVID-19 Anti-Spike IgG levels after 30 days (1 month) and 120 days (4 months) of the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine given to medical students at Al-Iraqia University in Baghdad. This study was performed after the acceptance and approval of the Medical College of Al-Iraqia University and the Iraqi Ministry of Health (MOH). Two groups of students were randomly picked up from Medical College of Al-Iraqia University, who were completely vaccinated by administering two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech/ 0.5 ml for each dose after taking their permission to draw 5 ml of their blood (one group after 1 month and the second group after 4 months of vaccination), which was done in the Higher Education lab inside the Medical College of Al-Iraqia University. It took approximately 4 months to collect the samples (from October 2021 until February 2022), after that serological analysis was done for measuring the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG by using Elabscience /SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG ELISA Kit/ USA (+ve <0.06) that was performed in the Higher Education lab of Medical College of Al-Iraqia University. Demographic data were also collected from participants including age, gender, BMI, blood group and the presence of previous Covid-19 infection. For statistical analysis, we used SPSS version 26 and STATISTICA version 12 to input, check, and analyze data. For qualitative variables, standard approaches of frequencies and percentages were used, while for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation were used. A P value of < 0.05 was considered a significant plasma level of the SARS COVID-19 Anti-Spike IgG.
       
  • Evaluation the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the Salmonella
           typhi infections of Iraq patients

    • Abstract: Aim: the aim of our study is investigate the antibacterial activity of prebiotics (inulin, starch) and probiotics against Multi drug resistance (MDR) Salmonella typhi bacterial isolates.Methodology: determination of the inhibition effect of probiotic and prebiotic against Salmonella typhi isolates done by agar well diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration.Results: prebiotic showed the best was inulin a very high and positive response to word inhibition by increasing the diameter zone that inhibition zone about (10-25)and the inhibition zone of Bacteriocins of lactobacillus from yogurt against Salmonella typhi showed significant differences were identified regarding the inhibition zone values of lactobacillus from yogurt against Sal.typhi.Discussion: Probiotics are the live micro-organisms having host beneficial effects by enhancing microbial balance in intestine, whereas, prebiotics are indigestible food components having beneficial effects by enhancing the activity and growth of one or more colonic bacteria.Conclusion: Lactobacillus filtrates had considerable effects against the test Sal. typhi isolates.
       
  • Detection of the level of interleukin-8 in the serum of burn patients by
           ELISA technique

    • Abstract: Background: Burns injuries are the most frequent injuries in the world, with a death rate ranging from 2.3% to 3.6%, children and people of working age make up 85-90% of burn cases. Burn injury results in metabolic problems, a generalized inflammatory response, inefficient energy use, and other physiological alternations that may cause organ and system dysfunction and sepsis, which is mostly caused by multiple organ failure and has unique characteristics in burn injuries, is the most dangerous complications of burn injuries. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between sepsis in burn patients and the level of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in their serum.Methods : Sixty patients with burn injuries induced in this study. Blood samples were taken from 60 burn patients and 30 healthy individuals as controls. BacT/Alert and Vitek2 were used to identification the bacteria and determine the susceptibility for these bacteria, and Enzyme-Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine IL-8 serum level.Results: We have observed IL-8 elevated level in serum of burn patients compared with healthy individuals. The patients with sepsis had higher IL-8 concentrations than patients without sepsis. The concentrations of IL-8 was significantly higher in patients with sepsis compared with healthy individuals.Conclusion : The data of the present study revealed a significant increase in the level of IL-8 in patients with sepsis compared with healthy controls.
       
  • Evaluation of the effects of Amoxicillin on tooth development in rats by
           histological and histomorphometric study

    • Abstract: Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in children. As a result, it is prescribed as the first line of defense against cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory infections.The objectives of this study was to evaluate the effects of amoxicillin on the formation of dentin and enamel during the secretory and early phases of mineralization.Materials and methods used to perform this study was sixteen pregnant adult Wistar rats were equally divided into two groups. The first group that do not received drug and prescribed with a saline solution (control group), the other group received 250 mg/kg/day amoxicillin (study group). From the 13th gestational day until delivery, the treatment were given every day by oral gavage. After birth, the newborn rats were also received the same treatment as their mothers from first day of birth until 7or 12 day after birth. The newborns will be sacrificed at 7 and 12 days postnatally, the jaws will be dissected, and taking the maxilla,were the samples fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and the upper first molars were analyzed histologically by H & E stain and histomorphometrically by image J to examine the enamel, dentin, ameloblast and odontoblasts mean thichness in both groups and in each healing periods.The results of study was, the mean enamel, ameloblastic layer and odontoblastic layer thickness were significantly different in the amoxicillin 250 mg/kg groups when compared to the control group. Whereas, the result revealed non significant group difference in the dentin thickness in both duration , the p value at 7 days (P = 0.147) and the p value at 12 days is (P = 0.054). Vacuolization of the ameloblastic and odontoblastic layer were observed in amoxicillin-treated groups in both duration.
       
  • Study on propagation and adaptation of EDS-76 avian adenovirus in duck and
           SPF primary embryonic chicken cell culture comparison to duck and SPF
           embryonated chicken eggs

    • Abstract: Background and Aims: Egg Drop syndrome (EDS) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases of poultry with severe economic losses in laying hens. The disease is caused by an adenovirus and can be transmitted horizontally and vertically. In this study, Egg Drop syndrome virus (EDSV) infection on duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF), SPF embryo fibroblasts and SPF egg embryos were investigated using different methods and the results were compared with virus culture in duck and SPF chicken eggs.Materials and Methods: Duck and chicken fibroblast cells were used as primary cell culture in DMEM media, and low pathogenic duck Adenovirus were used to infect duck and SPF fibroblasts primary cell cultures and duck and SPF eggs. The titer of the virus was measured by HA, ECID50, PUK, and TCID50 assay.Results: The results of the study revealed that the EDS virus could be easily proliferated in DEF, and duck egg’s chorioallantoic membrane Compared to chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) SPF eggs and SPF chicken eggs chorioallantoic membrane.Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that, duck egg embryos and primary duck fibroblast cell line are more appropriate to replications of EDSV in comparison to CEF and SPF chicken eggs. This suggested that the use of DEF culture for the production of avian adenovirus EDS-76 is a suitable candidate for the use of embryonic egg culture.
       
  • Diagnosis of Pebrine Disease in Silkworm Using Molecular Methods

    • Abstract: Since, pebrine disease as the most important and dangerous disease of silkworms, spreads horizontally through the spores and vertically through the eggs, combating the disease and eliminating it completely from livestock production has been associated with many problems. The aim of this project was to identify the molecular cause of pebrine disease in silkworms using a sensitive, specific and accurate method. So, a 136 bp fragment was selected based on the Nosema bombycis (N. bombycis) partial SSU rDNA sequence and a pair of primers was designed. Then, using the conventional PCR method, the target fragment was amplified and sequenced. After that, to determine the detection sensitivity, using the Real-Time PCR method, 5-fold serial dilutions of N. bombycis DNA were prepared, and the last dilution that produced a fluorescent signal was considered as the minimum detection limit. All tests were performed in duplicates. Based on the results of the sensitivity test, the standard curve including Ct values and DNA concentration was used for analysis. Also, 80 unknown samples examined by light microscope, were evaluated using conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR. Both PCR results showed no amplification for the negative control samples. The findings demonstrated that the lowest detection limit for N. bombycis was less than 6 pg of DNA; while, this amount was 8 ng for conventional PCR. From 80 samples examined, 55, 60 and 62 samples were positive, for light microscope, conventional and Real-Time PCR methods, respectively. The findings suggested that the Real-Time PCR method has a higher ability to detect the causative agent of pebrine disease than the conventional PCR method, and both methods are superior to light microscopy. Therefore, due to the fewer steps and higher accuracy of Real-Time PCR, it can be introduced as a suitable method for diagnosing pebrine disease.
       
  • The control program of brucellosis by the Iranian veterinary organization
           in industrial dairy cattle farms

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection in livestock that induces a major public health concern in developing countries, including Iran. Despite the Iranian veterinary organization's (IVO) efforts to control brucellosis, it is still prevalent in domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the control strategy used by the IVO in infected herds on serological, cultural, and molecular methods. For this purpose, blood specimens were sampled from a total of 8750 vaccinated dairy cattle in two Brucella-infected farms. These farms were recognized as positive for Brucella by a screening program. Sera were evaluated by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and wright test analysis. Positive dairy cattle were slaughtered under IVO supervision. The remaining cattle were evaluated every 3 weeks and positive animals were slaughtered. This procedure was continued until the remaining animals revealed three successive negative responses in serological tests. Several lymph nodes and milk samples were collected from 164 seropositive cattle and subjected to bacterial isolation and confirmation by Bruceladder-PCR. Brucella melitensis biovar 1 and RB51 vaccine strains were recovered from milk and lymph node samples, respectively. Shedding of B. melitensis in the milk of vaccinated cows is a serious problem resulting in the further spread of brucellosis. The policy of “Test and slaughter” on infected dairy cattle farms showed their usefulness for the control of brucellosis outbreaks. For the uncontrolled spread of brucellosis in Iran, effective control of bovine brucellosis required several serological surveillances to identify infected herds, eradication of the reservoirs, and vaccination of young heifers with RB51.
       
  • Comparison of Liver Function Test Result Between Architect C8000 and COBAS
           C501 Automatic Chemistry Analyzer

    • Abstract: Liver function tests are frequently used to screen liver function, monitor therapy, and determine the severity of liver problems. Our study aimed to assess the consistency of the results of the liver function parameters between the two analyzers, Architect c8000 and Cobas C501. This laboratory-based analytical observational study was conducted in a cross-sectional manner. Sample collection was done through a consecutive sampling procedure from June to December 2019 in the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Dr. Mohammad Hoesin General Hospital, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Our research sample was the patient's liver function examination results, carried out using the Architect c8000 and Roche Cobas c501 chemistry analyzers. Serum albumin, ALT, AST, and total protein were the variables studied. The Spearman, Mann-Whitney, and Bland-Altman tests were used to evaluate the comparison test. 100 blood samples were obtained in this study. The results revealed a highly significant correlation (r> 0.90, p = 0<001) between the four liver function parameters. The results of the liver function parameters inspected by the two analyzers did not differ significantly (p> 0.05). In addition, there was a solid agreement on all parameters, with a near-perfect level (concordance correlation coefficient > 0.90) and more than 95% of data points falling within the acceptable range. The Architect c8000 and Cobas c501 analyzers produced similar results for liver function tests; hence, these devices can be used interchangeably.
       
  • Evaluation of chemical, biochemical and anti-microbial effects of
           Salvadora Persica and Moringa Oleifera extract to produce organic
           disinfectant products

    • Abstract: Objective: Oral hygiene is one of the most influential and important issues on the health of people and it has been for centuries that people are using herbal components for this aim. Oral cancer forms in the oral cavity, and its origin is always in the growth of malignant epithelial tissue cells. Due to the spread of this cancer in Iran, we intend to measure the antibacterial effects of combination of Salvadora persica and moringa oleifera extract. Cariogenic bacteria are one leading cause of oral cancer. We used this extract in Mouthwash, Toothpaste and chewing gum, and we expect to reduce cell proliferation and can be used in prevention and treatment. Methods: The new organic mouthwash, chewing gum, and toothpaste were designed and prepared using moringa oleifera oil, Salvadora persica and moringa oleifera extract, and the powder of Salvadora persica wood and moringa oleifera leaves. With the use of herbal compounds in the preparation of these products, the quantity of essential chemical ingredients of the prepared samples were decreased. Results: We examined the quality and stability of Mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing gum, that indicates the standard level of each substance. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial effects of our products, which indicate our products can significantly reduce the total bacterial count. Conclusions: For the first time, a combination of Salvadora persica and Moringa oleifera extract replaced chemicals in Mouthwash, Toothpaste and chewing gum. Natural herbal ingredients with antimicrobial activity which are effective in maintaining low bacterial counts in the mouth, and as a result improving oral hygiene and health.
       
  • The impact of berberine loaded Selenium nanoparticles on K. pneumoniae and
           Candida albicans antibiotics resistance isolates

    • Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) and berberine (BBR) against antibiotics resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans cells treated with solutions of different concentrations of each bare selenium nanoparticles, berberine and berberine loaded selenium nanoparticles (BLS) by using disk diffusion method. The results indicated that the activity of Se NPs, berberine and BLS have been statistically (P< 0.05) when the concentration of all agents increase as well as there was a statistically effect of BLS against K. pneumoniae and C. albicans compared with Se NPs and berberine alone at P< 0.05. The highest zone of inhibition of Se NPs were 14 mm and 16 mm toward K. pneumoniae and C. albicans, respectively at the concentration 20 Mml compared with the concentrations 10 Mml and 15 Mml. While berberine showed maximum zone of inhibition at the concentration 1200 mg (15 mm for K. pneumoniae, 18 mm for C. albicans) and it was statistically significant in comparison with other concentrations 400 mg and 800 mg. in addition, the berberine loaded selenium nanoparticles (BLS) revealed statistically increasing (P< 0.05) when the concentration increased where it registered a high zone of inhibition 22 mm and 25 mm against K. pneumoniae and C. albicans, respectively at (20 Mml of Se NPs: 1200 mg berberine) in contrast with 10 Mml Se NPs: 400 mg berberine and 15 Mml Se NPs: 800 mg berberine. The results of the current study explained that there was a statistically synergistic effect of berberine loaded Se NPs in comparison with that for berberine and Se nanoparticles only in case of both of K. pneumoniae C. albicans. This study is considerably promising as a blueprint to enhance the weak antimicrobial agents and back to life of old antibiotics.
       
  • Transdermal microneedle-mediated delivery of rasagiline nanoparticles

    • Abstract: The goal of this study is to formulate rasagiline mesylate (RM) as a transdermal microneedle. RM is an antiparkinson drug, acoording to BCS it can be classified as class lll with low permeability and subjected to extensive first pass metabolism.At first it was formulated as nanoparticles by the use of chitosan (CS) polymer and ion gelation method, then the prepared nanoparticles were incorporated into transdermal microneedle (MN) that formulated by a polydimetThe transdermal drug delivery system is administered by the skin and attains a systemic effect. It is a kind of drug dosage that includes drug transport to the epidermis and potentially dermal tissue of the skin for locally therapeutic effect, while an exceptionally significant drug division is transported in systemic blood circulation. This study aimed to formulate rasagiline mesylate (RM) as a transdermal microneedle delivery. RM is an antiparkinson drug; it can be classified as class III with low permeability and subjected to extensive first-pass metabolism. At first, it was formulated as nanoparticles using the chitosan (CS) polymer and ion gelation method; then, the prepared nanoparticles were incorporated into a transdermal microneedle (MN) formulated by a polydimethylsiloxane template. The two-step casting process uses two polymer concentrations of PVA and mixes with other polymers in a 3:1 ratio (PVP and chitosan) and glycerin as a plasticizer. The selected MN formula was MN4 which had a promising shape, was free of bubbles, had fine and well-formed sharp needles passed the folding endurance test with 130 folding times before broken, had a drug content of 97±10.02%, and the Ex-Vivo Permeation. The results of this study showed a significant (p > 0.05) permeability enhancement and increase of flux (160%) compared with the transdermal patch. RS polymeric nanoparticles were successfully prepared and loaded within dissolving microneedles of sufficient mechanical strength to penetrate the stratum corneum and enhance the amount permeated through it to induce systemic effect transdermally.
       
  • Preparation and in vitro evaluation of rasagiline mesylate hybrid
           nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Rasagiline is a selective and irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B effective for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD), and in experimental models, they had antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. It has low permeability and has low permeability and oral bioavailability is weak and highly variable due to extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism (35%). The aim if study is to formulate rasagilinemesylate (RM) as lipid- polymer hybrid nanoparticle in order to enhance its permeation, increase its chance to be absorbed by lymphatic circulation to avoid metabolisim and control its release. Successful formulation (PCL-2) was reached by nanoprecipitation method using in organic phase poly caprolactone with RM and lecithine in aqueous phase DSPE-PEG, lipid /polymer ratio 24% and DSPE/lecithine 50% that resulted in a stable nanoparticels having: Particle size 132±4.58 nm, Polydispersity index 0.273±0.02, zeta potential-25.6±3.3, entrapment efficiency 46±3.9% and drug loading 51.93±6.5. The result of study showed that the diffusion was more effective on the release profile than degradation and resulted in a Fickian diffusion mechanism.
       
  • New recording of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Tortoise Testudo graeca using
           Nested PCR method

    • Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread Zoonotic diseases, especially in warm and humid areas, and affects all Mammalia, including humans and many herbivores and carnivores. The present study investigated the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in Iraqi tortoises for the first time in Iraq using PCR technology.A total of 28 (T. graeca) were collected between October 2018 and March 2019 from Study stations and then sent to Animal House, which belongs to the Department of Biology, to perform the dissection. The body cavity was opened, and all organs were removed. Tortoises' liver, heart and brain are removed and kept at -20 ºC until used. Then the samples were subjected to DNA extraction. The Nested PCR technique was then implemented using two pairs of primers, and then PCR products were analyzed using %1.5 agarose gel electrophoresis. The amplification of the gene during the first cycle indicated that 10 samples gave positive results with a total percentage of( %11.9). It includes five liver samples, three heart samples, and two brain samples (%17.85%10.71, and %7.14, respectively). While the amplification of the gene was obtained in seven samples( %8.33) during the second cycle of the reaction, The highest percentage of the presence of the gene had been recorded in the liver of the tortoises (%14.28 ) and the lowest in the brain( %3.57).The study is the first data on the molecular detection of T.gondii in wild tortoise Testudo graeca in Iraq; these results show that tortoises have a role in the transmission of T.gondii and are believed to acquire infection by feeding them on small invertebrate animals or plants contaminated with the oocysts of the parasite.
       
  • Detection of main causative agents among young children suffering from
           epiglottitis in Hilla city, Iraq

    • Abstract: epiglottitis is a rapidly progressive infection of the epiglottis leading to upper airway edema. If left untreated, epiglottitis can result in airway obstruction and death.The aim of this study to detected of main causative agents (viral infection by immunofluorescence antibody technique and PCR technique and bacterial infection detection by specific gene among young children suffering from epiglottitis, detection of some virulence factor genes of bacterial isolates.This study included 85 young children with age ranging from 10-15 years. Children with epiglottitis visited to clinical private in Hilla city, for the period between March 2021 to June 2021. Virus was identified on 85 blood samples by using cer test Human simplex virus Card test, the results revealed that, 12(14.1%) specimen were related to virus infection, the sera of patients were showed anti-IgM to HSV-1 antibodies. HSV( 1) was detected in blood samples by qPCR technique. (12)specimens who give positive results by indirect immunoflorucent assay, it was found all 12 isolated were related of HSV-1, produced the specific 200 bp fragment when compared with allelic ladder. 85 saliva samples were collected from young children suffering from epiglottitisThe samples were cultured for 18-24 hours at 37°C. They then cultivated for 18-24 hours on various selective media at 37°C. The colony morphology, microscopically, and biochemical testing were used to identify Haemophilus influenzae as a first Identification. out of 85 clinical specimens, 63(74.1%) were positive culture, while 22(25.9%) no growth on culture media; out of 63 specimens only 22(34.9%) isolates were belonged to Haemophilus influenzae by biochemical tests, while 41(65.1%) related to other types of microorganisms. VITEK 2 was used to validate the isolates of bacteria from young children suffering from epiglottitis. The findings indicate that 22(34.9%) isolates related to Haemophilus influenzae have been confirmed with an excellent ID message confidence level (94 to 99.8% likelihood percentage). This method is characterized by quick bacterial detection. DNA was taken from all suspected isolates previously identified as Haemophilus influenzae using the vitek2 technology, and traditional PCR was used to amplify specific, hel gene for Haemophilus influenzae primers utilizing these DNA samples.
       
  • Propolis silver nanoparticles as an adjuvant in immunization of rats with
           Citrobactor Freundii antigens

    • Abstract: This study examined the impact of C. freundii KWCSAg antigens alone and in combination with propolis nanoparticles on humoral (IgG) and cellular immune responses in rats. The ELISA IL4 and IgG , Delayed Type Hypersensitivity-Skin Test (DTH), and phagocytosis activity tests were used in the study. A total of 45 rats were separated into five groups, each with 9 rats: The first group received a 1000 μg\ml dose of KWCSAg-CF. The second group received an injection of (1000 μg/ml) KWCSAg-CF antigen along with 30mg/ml propolis AgNPs. The third group received an injection of (1000 μg/ml) KWCSAg-CF antigen along with 10 mg/ml propolis AgNPs. The fourth group had 30 mg/ml propolis AgNPs. One millilitre of PBS (pH 7.2) was subcutaneously injected into the fifth group (the negative control group). Rats received booster injections of the same antigens after 14 days. Blood was taken for the purpose of detecting immunoglobulin (IgG) and interleukin (IL-4) at days 21, 28, 32, 46, 50, and 60 following injection. The second groups, when compared to other groups, showed the most significant rise in IL-4 and IgG concentration, followed by the third group, the first group, and the fourth group, when compared to the negative control group(5th group).In all immunized groups, the DTH test result demonstrated an increase in the means of induration with significant differences (P 0.05) of the concentrated antigen after 24 hours and 48 hours, and subsequently a decrease after 72 hours as compared to the negative control group. At 48 hours after the concentrated antigen was indurated, the second group, however, displayed the most meaningful increase in diameter.
       
  • Comparative evaluation of biosimilar Trastuzumab with reference
           Trastuzumab activity in HER2-positive breast cancer patients

    • Abstract: BackgroundOne of the breast cancer subtypes, epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), accounts for 15% of all breast cancers and is characterized by aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. For patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets HER2 receptors, is prescribed in addition to chemotherapy to increase their chances of survival. However, the high expense of this therapy makes it impossible for patients in developing nations to easily afford to undergo this biological therapy. Trastuzumab biosimilars were consequently launched as a substitute that offers comparable effectiveness but at a reduced price. By monitoring serum levels of the tumor biomarker CA15-3 and evaluating NT pro-BNP for the adverse cardiac effects of both therapy in HER2 positive breast cancer patients before and after 6 cycles of biological therapy, this study compares the biological activity and cardiac safety of reference trastuzumab with biosimilar trastuzumab.Patients and Methods36 females with metastatic and early stage HER2-positive breast cancer who visited the oncology department at Rizgary Hospital were included in this prospective research. The patients' ages ranged from 30 to 80. 18 individuals got reference trastuzumab, while the remaining 18 also received chemotherapy and biosimilar trastuzumab. Each patient had a data sheet created for them that contained details from hospital-reserved files.`ResultsIn the Herceptin group, there is an insignificant difference in the median of CA15-3, No significant difference was detected between the means of NT proBNP before and after treatment.In the Biosimilar group, there was a significant reduction in the median CA15-3. Also for BNP, there is a significant increase in the level of NT proBNP before and after treatment ConclusionEvaluating the association of trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity during breast cancer treatment with different factors, we discovered that there may be an increased risk of cardiotoxicity after trastuzumab treatment
       
  • Upregulation of XRCC1 DNA repair gene, Interleukin-8, and Bcl-2
           

    • Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest tumors due to its competence to invade and metastasize. The DNA repair gene (XRCC1), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene, and Bcl-2 gene perform a crucial role in the development and progression of GC. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of these target genes in GC patients In Kurdistan region of Iraq (KRG). Gastric cancer tissues were taken from 29 patients that were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma that underwent gastric resection and 21 tissue samples were taken from healthy patients that underwent gastroscopy. The gastric tissues were collected in different hospitals in Erbil- and Sulaymaniyah city in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and data regarding the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), age, gender, and stage of the disease were recorded and analyzed using GraphPad Prism. The gene expression levels of XRCC1, IL-8, and Bcl-2 from gastric tissue were studied by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). The result showed that H. pylori infection was equally distributed among males and females in the tissues of gastric patients, while most of the H. pylori-negative patients were females. It is also found that gastric patients from 30-60 years old are more commonly positive tested for the H. pylori test. Furthermore, in this study patients diagnosed with gastric inflammation are more often tested positive for H. pylori, while patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were all negative tested for this infection. Additionally, it found that the target genes (XRCC1, IL-8, and Bcl-2) were significantly upregulated in GC patients compared to the healthy group.Finally, our result revealed that of XRCC1, IL-8, and Bcl-2 were upregulated in the Kurdish patients with GC compared to the healthy control group, and targeting XRCC1, IL-8, and Bcl-2 genes might be interested field and promising strategy for cancer treatment.
       
  • Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium nucleatum and its
           virulent factor FadA among ulcerative colitis precancerous and colorectal
           carcinoma patients in Iraqi Kurdish population

    • Abstract: Fusobacterium nucleatum is considered as one of the main risk factors that play key role in promotion and progression of colorectal carcinoma. The main goal of this study is find out the association between the prevalence of various subtypes Fusobacterium nucleatum with inflammation and colorectal cancer progression, in addition to screening the positive ratio of the possession of FadA gene. One hundred tissue samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients from colonoscopy and surgical operation biopsies. The patients categorized into (Ulcerative colitis, precancerous colitis and colorectal carcinoma) according to their colonoscopy and histopathology examination reports. Molecular detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum and FadA gene were performed via PCR and gel electrophoresis, then phylogenetic analysis for Fusobacterium nucleatum was done using 16S rRNA partial sequencing based on specific primers. The results showed significant differences among the four groups regarding the prevalence of Fusobacterium nucleatum. The most prevalent subtype was Fusobacterium nucleatum subtype animalis which constitutes 7 out 17 samples. The ratio of FadA positive gene was 20% among the Fusobacterium nucleatum positive cases. This finding suggested strong correlation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colon inflammation and cancer progression steps, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subtype animalis was the most prevalent subtype.
       
  • LEVELS OF APE1 REPAIR GENE AND CLEC4M IN LUNG CANCER PATIENTS RECEIVING
           CISLATIN CHEMOTHERAPY

    • Abstract: This study was aimed to detect the levels of APE1 gene expression and CLEC4M level in lung cancer patients and their association with cisplatin hemotherapy . Overall 105 individuals, attended to the Al-Amal National Hospital for cancer management/Baghdad, were selected and divided into three equal groups included the newly diagnosed with lung cancer, cancer patients received cisplatin and healthy control group. All study groups were subjected for sampling the venous blood that tested molecularly by RT-PCR to detect APE1 gene and serologically by ELISA to measure the concentration of CLEC4M protien. Significantly, the values of both cancer groups were higher than reported in control group. Relative index revealed there was a significant difference of the mean fold change level of APE1 in two groups , newly diagnosed (3 fold) and Cisplatin therapy patients (2 fold) vs. control group , p-value = 0.005. No significant differences were detected between fold change mean of expression and all parameters in demographic criteria and cancer histological type in both groups. Regarding of Human C Type Lectin Domain Family 4 Member M (CLEC4M) protein level , highly significant difference in cases receiving Cisplatin (139.2 ±25.9) and newly diagnosed (331.0 ±38.1) vs. control (100.3 ±47.5) ,p-value < 0.001.There is no significant difference between the concentration level of CLEC4M and all parameters in demographic criteria and cancer histological type. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate that higher expression levels of new APE1, CLEC4M in addition GSH ,especially after chemotherapy, are benefit as diagnostic and prognostic markers for resistance to platinium chemotherapy in Iraqi lung cancer patients.
       
  • Establishment of Reference Intervals for Renal Function Clinical Chemistry
           Parameters in an Indonesian Tertiary Hospital

    • Abstract: Reference intervals aid clinical decision-making for clinical chemistry values. Laboratory test results are compared to reference intervals to aid in the diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring decisions. Due to the differences in ethnicity, gender, age, and analytical methods, reference intervals (RIs) vary between populations. This study aimed to establish the reference values for renal function tests in targeted populations in Indonesia. This research is conducted in a cross-sectional observational analytic design. The research sample consists of medical check-up data from health professionals at Dr. Mohammad Hoesin hospital in Palembang, Indonesia. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to determine the normality of data distribution. The RIs were computed using reference limits at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles (abnormal distribution) or ± two standard deviations (±2SD) (normal distribution). The independent T-test (parametric) or Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the RIs of males and females (non-parametric). Males and females had a significant difference (p<0.001) in the values of uric acid, urea, and creatinine parameters, requiring the reference intervals to be separated. The following reference intervals have been established: uric acid 230,78-526,99 mol/L for males and 179,03-415.17 mol/L for females; urea 2,22-4,99 mmol/L for males and 1,78-4,28 mmol/L for females; and creatinine 61,01-106,99 mol/L for males and 40,67-77,81 mol/L for females. This study defines gender-specific reference intervals (RIs) for three renal function test parameters for the adult population of Palembang, Indonesia. The deployment of population-specific RIs may facilitate better laboratory testing.
       
  • L-theanine improves locomotor function in a model of Multiple Sclerosis
           Mice

    • Abstract: This study designed to investigate the protective effects of L-theanine on experimental Multiple sclerosis in mice. Frothy Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into 4 experimental groups: control no treatment received a regular chew pellet, and the cuprizone (CPZ) group received a standard chew pellet containing 0.2% (w/w) CPZ. In group 3, mice were fed a regular diet and administered p.o. with L-theanine (50mg/kg). In group 4, mice received a diet containing CPZ and were administered p.o. with L-theanine (50mg/kg). Finally, reflexive motor behavior and serum antioxidant levels were determined. Based on findings, CPZ significantly decreased ambulation score, hind-limb suspension, front limb suspension, and grip strength (P<0.05). The CPZ + L-theanine reduced the adverse effect of the CPZ on ambulation score, hind-limb foot angle, surface righting, and negative geotaxis (P<0.05). The CPZ + L-theanine increased front and hind-limb suspension, grip strength, number of the cross, and duration of a stay on the rotarod compared to the control animal (P<0.05). CPZ administration significantly elevated serum malondialdehyde (MDA) while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels decreased compared to control mice (P<0.05). The CPZ + L-theanine leads to the cessation of MDA production while increasing SOD, GPx, and TAS levels (P<0.05). These results suggested L-theanine has a protective effect against CPZ-induced MS in mice.
       
  • Study of local black Iraqi goats genotypes for the Cytb gene

    • Abstract: Goats are the earliest domesticated ruminants. The local goat, Capra hircus, is considered one of the most important animals globally to provide good livestock production under harsh environmental conditions. The study aimed to detect the genetic structures of the local Iraqi goats bred in the central and southern regions of the country and to investigate the possibility of benefiting from genetic structures to construct improvement programs to increase the productivity of these animals. Blood samples were obtained from 15 domestic black goats. A total of 10 ml of each animal were placed in plastic containers of 10 ml. The DNA was extracted and sent to the laboratories of Juan Ju University in the People's Republic of China to analyze the sequences of the nitrogenous bases of the Cytb gene. The results showed the presence of a genetic morphology for a segment of 670 base pairs for all studied samples, and 15 sequences of this strain were recorded in the gene bank under the following accession numbers (LC496367.1:1- (LC496353.1:1). The sequences of nitrogenous bases for this piece of the gene and registered in the gene bank of some international goat breeds were used to compare them with the sequences of black Iraqi goats to analyze the phylogenetic tree, calculating genetic distance, studying haplotypes and calculating neutrality. The results showed the presence of one mutation in the studied segment of the Cytb gene, which has a size of 670 bp. The mutation in base 46 of the studied gene, which is a mutation that converts from the purine group to the pyrimidine group, i.e., the shift from the nitrogen leaders A<C, and in all the studied samples. Which led to the transformation of the amino acid Asparagine into Histidine, where 233 amino acids were obtained, dominated by the amino acid Isoleucine and Leucine over the other amino acids, at a rate of (14.34%, 11.21%), respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed the existence of two main branches, one of which included the local black Iraqi goat breed, and the other included all the international breeds under comparison.
       
  • Evaluation of the coenzyme Q10 and some biochemical parameters in patients
           with ischemic heart disease

    • Abstract: Ischemic heart disease is a common diagnosis and a leading cause of death in both men and women. It accounts for 30% of deaths worldwide, including 40% in high-income countries and approximately 28% in developing nations. Several cardiac markers have been used to diagnose and manage cardiovascular diseases. The Coenzyme Q10 has a potential role in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases by improving cellular bioenergetics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of coenzyme Q10 and other biochemical parameters in ischemic heart disease (angina pectoris and myocardial infarction). A case-control study was conducted at the Intensive Care Unit of Ibn-Sina Teaching Hospital and Al-Salam General Hospital in Nineveh Province, Iraq, for two months, from 1st April to 1st June 2022. It included 90 adult participants divided into two groups: Case group included 60 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and diagnosed with ischemic heart diseases (Myocardial infarction or angina pectoris), and the control group included 30 healthy participants matched in age and gender with the case group. Subsequent assay of CRP, CPK, troponin level, and serum coenzyme Q10. In this study, 81.7% of patients in the case group were diagnosed with myocardial infarction. Means of S. LDH, CRP, CPK, and troponin were significantly higher, while means of coenzyme Q10 were significantly lower in the case group than in the controls. Statistically, a significant moderate negative correlation was detected between coenzyme Q10 level and age; significant weak correlations were seen between coenzyme Q10 level and all of S. LDH, CRP, and troponin levels. Patients with ischemic heart diseases had considerably low serum levels of coenzyme Q10 compared with the control group. The highest mean of lipid profile except TG in patients with IHD compared with the control group explains the role of cholesterol compounds in the progression of IHD. No significant correlations between coenzyme Q10 with BMI and CPK. Negative correlation between coenzyme Q10 with age, s. LDH, CRP, and troponin.
       
  • Assessment of hydroxyproline content in rabbit achilles tendon treated
           with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF)

    • Abstract: Tendon is similar to rope and consists of strong, flexible, dense connective tissue. Tendon disorder healing is challenging because it is an avascular tissue, the repaired tissue appears scar-like, and its biomechanical properties never ultimately return what it had prior to the injury. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on hydroxyproline content of the Achilles tendon after injury. Twenty –four adult rabbits weighing (1.5-2) kg were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups (eight for each), the A-PRF group in which the tendon defect was treated with xenogeneic advance –platelet-rich fibrin, the L-PRF group used xenogeneic L-PRF for tendon defect treatment, and control groups treated with normal saline. Hydroxyproline concentration was measured one and two months postoperatively. Clinically, lameness was improved in the A-PRF group compared to the L-PRF and control groups at the end of the third-week post-surgery. Hydroxyproline level was significantly increased in the A-PRF group (50.33±1.44) as compared with L-PRF (44.70±1.12) and control 35.97±1.05) groups after two months post-surgery (P<0.05). However, the L-PRF group showed an increase in hydroxyproline content compared with the control at the same period. The results of the current study demonstrated that Advance-platelet-rich fibrin could enhance hydroxyproline content of rabbit Achilles tendon after injury. Xenogenic PRF can be used as an alternative biomaterial to accelerate and regenerate tendon tissue.
       
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-308 gene polymorphism in children
           Haemophilia A

    • Abstract: Background; haemophilias are the commonest X-linked inherited blood loss diseases, that if not correctly treated may cause chronic diseases and life time debilities. The challenging and problems in babies are dissimilar from that in elder kids and adults. Blood loss condition still dominate as the diagnostically triggers in kids, but the locations of blood loss differ with ages, Aim and objectives; TNF-α-308 gene polymorphism in kids with moderate to severe hemophilia and correlation of genetic background with clinical phenotype of the cases, Subjects and methods; This study was a case-control, carried out on Fifty hemophilic cases& fifty healthy cases of matched age & sex from September 2020 till October 2021, Results; A significant change was found among positive and negative inhibitors regarding number of factor 8 exposure days >20 days (in positive inhibitors was 59.3% compared to negative inhibitors 27.8%), Conclusion: The (TNF-)308 gene polymorphism is significantly correlated with inhibitors progress in severe Haemophilia A cases. TNF-Alpha gene might be of use as biomarker as well possible immune response modulator in Haemophilia A patients receiving substitute treatment.
       
  • Epidemiology study of Trichinella Spiralis infection in Tyumen region

    • Abstract: Trichinosis is a parasitic infection with worldwide distribution, which is caused by consuming pork or other meats containing cystic larvae of the parasitic nematode Trichinella Spiralis. This study aimed to investigate the status of infection Trichinella Spiralis in domestic and wild animals. To study the spread of trichinelles in animals, a retrospective analysis was conducted based on the study of research journals and conducted their research methods of compressor trichinelloscopy(microscopic) and digestion of samples in artificial gastric juice (biochemical). A total of 17 positive samples were detected for trichinellosis during the observation period, of which 58.8% belonged to a badger (Meles Meles), and 35.3% to the brown bear (Ursusarctos), and only 5.9% of wild boar (Susscrofa). The mean long-term extent of infection belonged to badgers (18.2%), bears (7.9%), and wild boars (0.05%). The study found that between 2015 and 2020, seventeenTrichinella cases were recorded among wildlife in the Tyumen region and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region. The number of annual Trichinella detection cases was declining, indicating the effectiveness of veterinary services. This study determined that the primary source of infection was bears, badgers, and wild boars. Among the 17 positive samples, 58.8% belonged to the badger, 35.3% to the bear, and only 5.9% to the wild boar.
       
  • Preliminary results of a genetic study of children with Duchenne
           Myodystrophy in Aktobe, Kazakhstan

    • Abstract: DMD is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular illness with a progressive course caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein dystrophin (DMD; locus Xp21. 2). This study's purpose was to investigate look into the clinical aspects of DMD progression according to mutation type. Included in the study were 38 boys aged 3 to 11 years. Laboratory (biochemical evaluation of the level of creatinine phosphokinase, MLPA, and NGS analysis of the DMD gene), genealogical, and clinical approaches were utilized (adapted Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, the study of auditory-speech memory by the method of "Memorizing 10 words", general neurological assessment). MLPA revealed a deletion in 22 cases (57.8%), duplication in six cases (15.7%), and negative results in 26.5%. (11 cases). To discover point mutations, 11 infants with negative MLPA results were sequenced. According to the results of NGS, point mutations were identified in 6 boys (4 single-nucleotide deletions and 2 single-nucleotide duplications), whereas 5 boys lacked mutations. Due to the high proportion of neuro-hereditary diseases in the general structure of neurological pathology, the profound disability of patients with progressive mental and physical disadaptation, and the generally fatal course of these incurable afflictions, molecular genetics research is of particular importance.
       
  • Anti-bacterial activity of four distinct propolis extracts against P.
           larvae and M. plutonius; etiological agent of American and European
           foulbrood disease of honeybees

    • Abstract: Four different propolis samples obtained from different regions in Iran were evaluated for their antibacterial effects against the bacterial agents responsible for two important honey bee diseases. P. larvae and M. plutonius as the etiological agent of American and European foulbrood diseases were subjected to propolis ethanolic extracts in agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the antibacterial agent (propolis) against the two indicator organisms was determined by microdilution technique using different concentrations of the propolis extracts. Finally, the synergistic antibacterial actions of the mixed propolis samples were determined and their MIC and MBC values recorded. A two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate correlations among the diameters of the inhibition zones, the bacterial agents and the propolis extracts used. Based on our results, three of the propolis samples showed significant antibacterial effects against P. larvae and M. plutonius during agar well diffusion assay. While, the antibacterial capacity of the propolis samples when mixed in equal proportion were significantly enhanced as seen by the obtained MIC and MBC values. Approximately, 0.02mg/mL of mixed propolis samples were required for inhibiting the growth of both pathogens. A direct correlation was observed between propolis concentrations and antibacterial activity. The results of the study are conclusive of the significant antibacterial actions of Iranian propolis samples against the etiological agents of the mentioned honeybee diseases, suggesting their probable use as a safe biological agent that could be used for the control of American foulbrood (AFB) and European diseases.
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of Specific Antibody Against Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis ESAT-6 Recombinant Antigen in Healthy Subject With Positive
           and Negative Skin Test

    • Abstract: Background and objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Laboratory diagnosis of the disease includes various bacteriologic and immunologic methods. Despite the effectiveness of many of these methods in diagnosing active TB, their high cost and time consuming nature have led the researcher to adopt more accurate and rapid screening methods based on specific antigens for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study is an attempt to measure the specific antibody serum level against the ESAT-6 recombinant protein in healthy people and compare its level in TB patients. Procedure: The target population included TB patients (27 patients) and healthy individuals with no clinical TB symptoms (87 people). The healthy population were divided into two groups including positive PPD (35 people) and negative PPD (52 people) using the Tuberculin skin test. The specific antibody level against the ESAT-6 recombinant antigen and the PPD protein was measured using an indirect ELISA test.Results: The results of the study showed that a majority of the healthy population showing no symptoms of clinical TB and negative skin test results did not have antibodies against the recombinant (%98) and PPD (%96) antigens. On the other hand, there was a high level of the specific antibody of the recombinant and PPD antigens in TB patients (%77). It is notable that in people with positive skin test results, the level of the antibody against the EAST-6 recombinant antigen and PPD antigen was 94%. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ELISA method based on measurement of antibody against the EAST-6 recombinant antigen can be a proper diagnostic method for rapid and accurate screening of healthy from infected people.
       
  • Central and Peripheral Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Food Choice and
           Macronutrient Selection in Meat-Type Chick

    • Abstract: TThis report aimed to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on food intake in broiler chicks with different rations. All birds received a starter diet until five days of age, but experimental diets were provided on days of injections. In experiment 1, chickens received an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of LPS (25, 50, and 100 ng) with a standard diet. In experiment 2, chickens received intraperitoneal (I.P.) injections of LPS (50, 100, and 200 µg) with a standard diet. In experiment 3, birds received ICV injection of saline and different diets: a standard diet without fat, a diet containing nutrient energy 20% higher than standard, a diet containing nutrient energy 20% lower than standard, and a standard diet containing fat were offered to them to investigate desire of chicken to diets. Experiments 4-6 were similar to experiment 3, except chickens received ICV injections of LPS. In experiments 7-9, chickens received I.P. injections of LPS with different diets. Then, cumulative food intake was measured until 180 minutes post-injection. According to the results, ICV injection of LPS decreased food intake (P<0.05). I.P. injection of the LPS reduced food intake (P<0.05). ICV injection of saline increased chickens' desire for the standard diet with fat (P<0.05). ICV injection of the LPS(50 and 100 ng) increased the appetite for a standard diet with nutrient energy 20% higher than standard and a standard diet containing fat at 120 and 180 min after injection(P<0.05). In addition, I.P. injection of LPS (200 µg) significantly increased the desire for a standard diet with nutrient energy 20% higher than standard and a standard diet containing fat (P<0.05). These results suggested chicken's desire for different types of rations affects by central or peripheral administration of the LPS.
       
  • Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of the steroidal and
           non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on seizures during the estrous cycle
           in rat

    • Abstract: Because of the mutual relationship between neural infalmation and seizures, this study aimed to determine the effects of ICV injection of the steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on PTZ induced seizures during the estrous cycle in the Rat. 105 adult female Wistar rats in 7 groups including control (saline), Ketorolac (7.5,15 & 30 µg), Methylprednisolone acetate (0.15, 0.3 & 0.6 µg), each with 4 subgroups (proestrus, estrus, metestrus & diestrus) in 3 replicates were used (n =5). After a week of acclimatization, estrous phase determination and synchronization were done. Acute epilepsy was inspired by intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 80 mg/kg of Pentylentetrazol (PTZ), 30 minutes after ICV injection of ketorolac and prednisolone. Initiation time of myoclonic seizures (ITMS), initiation time of tonic-clonic seizures (ITTS), seizures duration (SD) and mortality rate (MR) were accounted for 30 minutes. Data were showed as mean ± SD and analyzed by using One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison post hoc test (P<0.05). According to the results, Ketorolac (15 & 30 µg) and Methylprednisolone acetate (0.3 & 0.6 µg) significantly increased the ITTS and ITMS meanwhile decreased seizure duration, during the estrous cycle compared to the control (P <0.05). Also Mortality rate and sezire duration were significantly decreased by Ketorolac (7.5, 15& 30 µg) and Methylprednisolone (0.3 & 0.6 µg) compared to the control during the estrous cycle (P <0.05). so it seems that both Ketorolac and Methylprednisolone possess dose dependent anticonvulsant effects may be by decreasidng neural inflammation.
       
  • Co-aggregative effect of probiotics bacteria against diarrheal causative
           bacteria

    • Abstract: Probiotics have been used for over a century to prevent and treat disease, may reduce the effects of gastroenteritis, and are now used to treat acute diarrhea. In this study Co-aggregative effect of probiotics bacteria against diarrheal causative bacteria was evaluated. Eleven isolates of probiotics bacteria were used in the current study, including Lactobacillus plantarum, (1) Lactobacillus gasseri, (2) Lactobacillus fermentum, (3) Lactobacillus acidophilus, and (2) Lactococcus garvieae. All isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, autoaggregation ability, adhesion ability, antibacterial activity, acid tolerance, and bile salts tolerance.The results showed most of them had the ability toauto aggregate after 4h, with the highest percentage of 57.14% for L. fermentum. For the antibiotic susceptibility test, all the isolates showed resistance ability against Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole except one isolate. On the other hand, all the isolates except one were susceptible to both Vancomycin and Tetracycline. All tested isolates had adhesion ability with different survival rates, reached to 34.57% for L. plantarumin acidic conditions, and highest survival rate was 85.17% for L. garvieae for bile salt tolerance. Probiotics isolates had an antibacterial effect against diarrheal causative bacteria with inhibition diameter between (17-49) mm for different Lactobacillusspp. and Lactococcus spp. isolates. Also,the co-aggregative ability of probiotics isolates against diarrheal causative bacteria was studied, and results showed that probiotics isolates had a co-aggregative effect against diarrheal causative bacteriaE. coli, S. sonnei, and P. alcalifaciens, after 24h of incubation. The highest co-aggregative effect of probiotics isolates L. fermentum and L. acidophilus showed against P. alcalifaciens with a co-aggregation percentage reaching 100%, and the lowest co-aggregative effect was recorded at 14.29% against E. coli. The current study showed the probiotics properties and co-aggregative effect of probiotics bacteria against diarrheal causative bacteria.
       
  • A new technique for human sperm cryopreservation using emptied
           sheep’s ovarian follicles

    • Abstract: Human sperm cryopreservation is a technique used routinely in Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in order to preserve male fertility in cases where the patient is undergoing a procedure that may affect fertility, such as treatment with chemo- or radiotherapy, vasectomy, and in case of sperm donor to prevent the transition of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of emptied sheep’s ovarian follicles as a container for cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. Thirty semen samples from oligozoospermic patients and 10 samples from normozoospermic men were used. They were diagnosed according to the standard criteria of WHO 2010.Semen samples classified into four groups (G1-G4) according to sperm concentration: (3-5 million/mL); (6-10 million/mL); (11-15 million/mL) and (16-20 million/mL) respectively. Each sample is divided into two equal parts. One part was cryopreserved without cryoprotectant, while the other was diluted 1:1 with 10% glycerol-based cryosolution. Sheep’s ovarian follicles were obtained from a local slaughterhouse and prepared by slicing the ovaries and evacuating the follicular fluid and oocyte. The emptied follicles were injected with the prepared semen samples. After cryopreservation and thawing, the semen mixture aspired outside the follicles, and sperm parameters: (concentration, progressive motility, total motility, and normal morphology) were measured. Sperm concentration, progressive, and total sperm motility significantly (P<0.01) decreased post-thawing compared with pre-freezing in all groups. In samples cryopreserved without cryoprotectant, sperm concentration was significantly (P<0.01) higher than in those cryopreserved with glycerol, while progressive and total motility were significantly (P<0.01) higher in samples cryopreserved with glycerol than in those cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in all groups—no significant difference found in normal morphology between pre-freezing and post-thawing. Emptied ovarian follicles are an appropriate carrier for cryopreservation of human sperms, especially for patients with oligozoospermia. This technique's best sperm survival rate was observed when using glycerol-based cryosolution.
       
  • The GGC medium reduces the DNA fragmentation of human spermatozoa via in
           vitro activation

    • Abstract: In vitro sperm stimulation by adding certain chemicals has been discovered to become one of the most significant techniques for dealing with sperm DNA fragmentation, which is one of the leading causes of male infertility. GGC medium is an invented triple antioxidants-containing medium (10 mM/ml green tea extract, 10 mM/ml Glutathione, 60 mM/ml Vitamin C, sodium pyruvate 0.01g/L, and 10% human serum albumin applied to 1L Ringer solution) for in vitro human sperm activation. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the human sperm DNA after in vitro activation using a GGC medium. Two hundred semen samples were enrolled in this study. The samples were split into three groups before activation by swim-up technique: control group (G1) with no activation medium, G2 and G3 activated with Ferticult flushing medium, and GGC medium, accordingly. Then, the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was assessed pre- and post- swim-up activation. When comparing pre-activation to post-activation, the findings of DNA fragmentation revealed a significant increase in pre-activation. Furthermore, relative to the other treatment groups, there was a strong significant (P<0.05) reduction of DFI in samples activated with GGC medium. When comparing DFI between pre-activation and post-activation, G2 and G3 showed a substantial reduction (P<0.05). According to the findings of this study, both mediums may reduce DNA fragmentation; however, the GGC medium shows the most significant outcomes when contrasted to the Ferticult medium given to activate spermatozoa in vitro.
       
  • Post-COVID-19 complications and their laboratory findings: A cohort study

    • Abstract: Type 2 severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus infection has become the most well-known pandemic infectious viral disease in the present century. This study aims to find out the post-COVID-19 infection complications via a well-designed observational study. A total of 986 recovered cases (only the period ranged between 2 to 3 months after recovery) were obtained from public and private hospitals in Kirkuk and Erbil governoratesIraq. The admitted patients were asked to answer a questionnaire through interviews; the laboratory findings were obtained from the patients. The results suggested that approximately half of post-COVID-19 patients (%45.606) were suffering from chest pain, while (%32.357) of the cases suffered headache and chest pain. Liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) showed abnormal percent values of 38.6,24.07, and 26.09, respectively. Renal function enzymes, mainly urea, were found to be abnormal in 45.37% of recovered individuals. Furthermore, abnormal LDH levels were found in (77.9%)of post-COVID-19patients. This finding revealed that chest pain was an inflammatory condition and liver and renal enzyme disturbances, while elevation in LDH was the predominant long-term complication in post-COVID-19 patients.
       
  • Immune response and histological changes in broilers chickens vaccinated
           with Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines.

    • Abstract: Mycoplasma is unique among prokaryotes because of their small size, small genomes, and complete lack of cell walls; they include cell wall-less prokaryotes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of vaccination at 1 day old of chicks with the killed and a live vaccine (CRDF) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on humoral immune response and immune organs by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to measure Ab titers and investigation on histopathological changes. 130 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups, 30 birds in each group, groups treated as follows: G1: the chicks were vaccinated with a live FMG vaccine (eye drop one drop 0.03ml/dose), G2: the chicks were vaccinated with killed MG (0.3 ml s.c) vaccine, G3: the chicks vaccinated with killed MG and a live MG vaccine G4: considered as the control group, in this group the chicks were not vaccinated. Blood samples were collected at 21 and 35 days old to measure titers of specific Antibodies. At 35 days old, the chicks were dissected, and the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were removed for histological evaluations. In 21-day-old chicks, the results showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) between all vaccinated groups in Ab titers compared with the control group, with the highest mean in G3 followed by G2 and G1, respectively. While in 35 days old, showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) in G3 compared with other vaccinated groups, G2, G1, and the control group. Also, there was a significant increase in all vaccinated groups at 35 days old compared with 21 days old. In the G1 group, the histopathological examination results showed a moderate lymphocytic hyperplasia bursal follicle; in G2, varying degrees of lymphoproliferative were observed in the major bursal follicle, while in G3, marked lymphocytic hyperplasia bursal follicle observed. In G4 (control group) no obvious histopathological findings were recorded.
       
  • Role of serum ferritin, D-dimer, and C- reactive protein parameters in
           COVID 19 severity

    • Abstract: Following the epidemics caused by the transmission of the common virus between humans and animals (COVID-19), coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third and most deadly strain of RNA virus that can cause respiratory, digestive, and nervous system problems, and there are many unknown complications. This study included 170 clinical samples of nasopharyngeal swaps (100 patients and 70 controls for both males and females). RT-PCR was performed, and blood samples were taken for biochemical analyses. They were obtained from Iraqi patients aged 25 to 92 years old. Between November 2021 and March 2022, COVID-19 patients were admitted to Dar al-salam Hospital, Alyarmok Teaching Hospital, and Alshefaa Hospital. AFIAS D-Dimer, AFIAS ferritin, and NycoCard CRP tests were performed on the patients and were classified depending on the severity of their infection (mild or moderate, severe and critical). The results showed a significant increase in ferritin in critically ill patients (545.58 ± 57.71). A significant increase of D-dimer was found with different severity with highly significant in the critical group (3.93 ± 0.79). With varying degrees of severity, a substantial rise in CRP was discovered with highly significant in the critical group (96.27 ± 14.55) between the severity group (p-value <0.001). Also, COVID-19 individuals in the age range (50 – 60) tended to be more severe than younger people, whereas the effect of gender is not significant in any patient group. The biochemical factors, including D-Dimer, ferritin, and CRP, are effective in the disease's occurrence of symptoms and severity.
       
  • The healing effect of biodegradable scaffolds treated with bone-marrow
           obtained mesenchymal stem cells on major tendon damage in the dog as a
           model

    • Abstract: The present study planned to evaluate the implantation of decellularized small intestinal submucosa- SIS-ECM seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to repair full-thickness Achilles tendon defect. Twenty healthy adult 8-12 months old stray dogs (15±3kg of weight) were used in this study under an aseptic environment and general anesthesia. A 1. 5 cm segment long segmented-based resection was performed in the mid-substance of the Achilles tendon in the control group (n=10) left without treatment. While, in the treated group (n=10), the defect of the tendon was bridged the stumps with Decellularized- SIS seeded with BM-MSCs (5 ×106) cells implanted, then suture the stumps of the tendon using the modified Kessler technique (4-0) polypropylene thread. The biomechanical observations of the tendon defect showed an increase in the tensile strength with a significant (p≤0.05) difference in the combination group compared to the control animals. Histopathological observations of biopsies harvested after (the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks) revealed that the implanted graft seeded with MSCs enhanced high-quality cellular infiltration and better host tissue healing. Similar to the normal tendon, a dense organized collagenous tissue with high cellularity and vascularity was seen due to the presence of the remodeled ECM. However, the arrangement of collagen-fiber-derived connective tissue appeared to be more dominant than that in the combination group, with less adhesion on the 12th week post-treatment. These findings suggest that the BM-MSCs inoculated with SIS can be employed to repair a damaged Achilles tendon due to the fact that this combination enhances the regeneration of the affected tendon.
       
  • Goiter in cross breed goat kids at Basrah province, Iraq

    • Abstract: Goiter due to iodine deficiency was detected in cross-breed goat kids at Basrah, Iraq. Forty-four (44) cross-breed goat kids 1-3 months old show signs of palpable enlargement of the cranio-ventral neck region. Ten(10) clinically healthy cross breed goat kids were considered as a control group. Diseased animals show painless palpable and visible enlarged thyroid glands with or without enlargement of the neck, Sparse hair coats with little alopecia, Slow growth rate, Irregular appetite or unwillingness to suck, Weakness, and emaciation. Furthermore, the Presence of thyroid thrill during palpation of jugular furrow was also detected. Moreover, Diseased goat kids show no significant difference in body temperature, However, A significant increase was encountered in respiratory rate with a significant decrease in heart rate. On the other hand, no significant changes have been detected in the hematological analysis between diseased goat kids and the control group Concerning the chemical analysis between the diseased cross-breed goat kids and the control group, the results of the present study indicated a significant increase in TSH, Whereas, T3, T4, FT4, Glucose level, Vit. E (α-tocopherol) and Serum glutathione peroxides were lowered in diseased cross-breed goat kids compared with the control group, In contrast, a significant hyper- cholestrolemia was indicated in diseased animals than in the control group. It was concluded that Goiter in kids could reflect harm effects terminated mostly with death. Therefore, improving the maternal diet is an important reason to reduce the development of the disease.
       
  • the Genetic polymorphisms of NOD2 and ATG16L1 in different types of
           digestive tract inflammation

    • Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The two clinical manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (IBD). Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between immune system molecules' single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the incidence of IBD. The purpose of the study was to examine the potential impact of the SNPs NOD2 rs2066844 and ATG16L1 rs2241880 in a group sample of Iraqi IBD patients. The AG genotype for rs2241880 was associated with an increased risk for CD (P = 0.1) and negative association with UC; whereas the AA genotype presents a less in CD patients and negative association in UC (P = 0.89). For this SNP, G allele was associated with risk of CD but not for UC. For the rs2066844 there was No significant differences for NOD2 in both CD and UC, association between variation and diseases were not observed.
       
  • The occurrence of the strongylid nematodes, Kalicephalus viparae viparae
           (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae), in viper Snakes, Macrovipera lebetina
           (Reptilia: Viperidae), Southwestern Iran

    • Abstract: An ancylostomatid Kalicephalus spp. is the common parasitic intestinal nematode of reptiles. West-Asian blunt-nosed viper, a venomous snake found in extensive areas of Iran. Between June - September 2017, two dead viper snakes were referred to the parasitology laboratory and examined for intestinal parasites. Several white elongated round worms were collected and fixed to identify under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) based on morphological and molecular characteristics. For the molecular survey, some parts of identified worms were extracted and the ITS of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Five round worms were found in one snake and three worms with similar morphological characteristics in another one. All collected female hookworms were taxonomically identified as Kalicephalus viperae viperae. The SEM findings showed the head was small and had three dorsal, ventral, and middle circumoral papillae which there was the spike-like process on the median papilla of K. viperae. Also, the buccal capsule was bivalvular and included two lateral valves consisting of several chitonid pieces. The tail of the female worm was slim, long with a blunt end and a terminal spike at the end. In the molecular survey, the ITS of rDNA amplified at about 850 bp was identified as K. viperae. The ITS gene rDNA phylogeny analysis of K. viperae sequence showed the isolated species has high similarity to Ancylostoma species from around the world and close to A. braziliense with 88% discrepancies in the phylogenetic tree. The morphological characteristics and a large part of K. viperea viperea rDNA nucleotide sequence were reported in viper snakes for the first time in the world and in Iran.
       
  • Anatomical, histological, and immunohistochemical description of the
           abomasum in one-humped adult camel (Camelus dromedary) in the South of
           Iraq

    • Abstract: The camel is an important mammal, especially in the Middle EAST, although it has received less attention than other mammals and ruminants. Due to the lack of studies in this field, the current research was designed to investigate the morphological, histological, and immunohistochemical of one-humped camel's stomach. In this study, the third chamber (abomasum) of the stomach in adult one-humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) were evaluated (n=12). The morphological study of the third chamber showed that it consisted of two parts, the letter J, where the front part was found to be tubular, the outer surface is smooth, swollen, and transparent, while the inner surface has longitudinal folds with a low height. The posterior part is spherical, and the inner surface is divided into two regions. Histological study showed that the abomasum consists of four layers and is lined with simple columnar epithelium. The lamina property is composed of loose connective tissue. It contains different glands that, according to their location from the abomasum, where cardiac, Fundus, and pyloric glands are found, as well as stomach cells such as neck cells, mucous cells, chief cells, and parietal cells.In contrast, the sub mucosa layer is composed of loose connective tissue. It was also observed that the muscular layer is developed and contained from two layers, a circular inner and the outer one is longitudinal. It was also noted that the fourth layer is composed of loose connective tissue. The histochemical study showed a positive response to the PAS reagent.
       
  • the Liver Function Abnormalities in COVID-19 Patients and Their
           Association with Age and Sex: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: In December 2019, the onset of an unidentified disease known as pneumonia of an unidentified reason took place in Wuhan city, China. Liver dysfunction has occurred in COVID-19 infected patients. The current study aimed to investigate the liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 infected patients and their relationship with age and sex. Methods: A cross-section study was designed and conducted at Al-Hakeem hospital in Al-Najaf city in Iraq. This study comprised 167 patients with SARS-CoV-2 confirmation using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Liver function tests results were compared among different age groups and between the two genders. The analysis of categorical variables was achieved via the Chi-square test. The differences of the continuous variables between both sexes were detected via Mann–Whitney U test. A statistically significant p-value was determined to be less than 0.05. IBM SPSS software (version 26) was utilized for data analysis. Results: Among 167 patients with COVID-19 infection, 82 (49.1%) had abnormal liver test and 85 (50.9%) were normal (p=0.816). No significant differences were noted in liver test abnormalities among the various age groups (p=0.784). The percentages of liver function abnormalities in males and females were (68.3%) and (37.5%) respectively. Significant differences were detected between males and females (p=0.001). The distribution of AST and ALT between males and females was shown to be significantly different (p =0.012) and (p =0.009) respectively. The ALP (U/L) and total bilirubin (mg/dL) median values between males and females were shown to be statistically insignificant. Conclusions: In our study, we estimated that the risk of liver function abnormalities was not significantly different among all age groups and infected males had a higher incidence of liver dysfunction with significant differences in serum AST and ALT levels between both sexes.
       
  • Evaluating the influence of rosemary leaves extract on hormonal and
           histopathological alterations in male rabbits exposed to cypermethrin

    • Abstract: Rosemary Leaves ( Rosmarinus officinalis) gained importance as natural antioxidants which strengthen the endogenous antioxidant defenses through die. The present experience was designed to assess the protective effect of ethanolic extract of rosemary leaves on the adrenal gland and testicular toxicity in male rabbits exposed to cypermethrin. 40 of healthy male rabbits were distributed into four groups of 10 animals each, the animals were administered cypermethrin 66.5mg/kg alone or in concurrent with Rosemary extract in both dosages ( 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 45 days, the blood samples were taken from all animals for estimation hormones indices , the Anaesthetized animals were euthanized and adrenal gland and testes were separated for histopathological analysis. Results revealed that the exposure to cypremethrin induced stressful and infertility as evidenced by elevation level of cortisol concurrently with lowering in ACTH level markedly, also recording elevation in FSH and LH levels while decline in estradiol level related to reduction in the levels of testosterone compared to health control were noticeably. While Concurrent exposure to cypermethrin and Rosemary extract significantly improved hormones criteria compared to rabbits exposed to cypermethrin alone. histological lesions in this study , the adrenal gland appeared thick fiberous capsule surrounded the adrenal tissue, destruction adrenal cortex and vacuolation of three layers cortex, while in testes marked inhibition of spermatogenesis and degeneration of sertoli cells with few numbers of Leydig cells were showed. These alteration brought by cypermethrin toxicity , while the treatment of rosemary leaves extract simultaneously with cypermethrin alleviated the deleterious effect of cypermethrin on adrenal gland and testes also restored spermatogenesis . Conclusion; We referred that the extract of rosemary leaves possess antiinfertility and strong antioxidant activities and can be used as fertility increasing drug to controlling sexual hormones also spermatogenesis, preventing toxicity and its pathophysiological consequences
       
  • CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDENT, AND ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF aqueous
           EXTRACT OF BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA) USING GC-MS

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE– Antioxidant and antibacterial chemicals are key sources in medicinal plants. Alkaloids, phenolics, steroids, terpenes, flavonoids, terpenes and volatile oils are just a few of the secondary metabolites found in these plants. Phytochemicals, particularly the secondary metabolites produced by plants, are important for human nutrition, wellbeing, and the prevention of illness as well as for their antibacterial properties. METHOD- The goal of this study was to ascertain the aqueous broccoli extract's chemical make-up. The phytochemical molecule that the GC-MS technique identified. The DPPH assay, which is appropriate for regular plant material screening, was performed to assess the antioxidant capacities of broccoli extract (in vitro). subsequently looks at how well they perform against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative harmful microorganisms. RESULTS- GC-MS analysis of Broccoli extract revealed the existence of the 9-Octadecenamide, [C18H35O], Hexadecane [c16h34] and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 2-methyltetrahydro-5-oxo-3- furancarboxylate [C23H33NO6]. There were significant changes in the extract's ascorbic acid-free radical scavenging activity at the doses of 200, 100, and 25 g/ml (P 0.05), and the activity was dose-dependent. The effectiveness of aqueous broccoli extract as a powerful, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent against tested bacteria is demonstrated by an increase in the diameter of the inhibition zone, which increases in direct proportion to the concentration of the extract and even surpasses the activity of some antibiotics. CONCLUSION- A appropriate concentration of aqueous broccoli extract strongly inhibits microbial and antioxidant growth, especially when treating exrernal infections without any danger against resistant bacterial isolates, it is strongly advised to use aqueous broccoli extract as a cost-effective alternative antibacterial and antioxidant agent.
       
  • Estimation of interleukin 32 and interleukin 37 serum levels in Iraqi
           patients with Rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by persistent inflammation in the synovial joints. In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Interleukine-32 (IL32) is known to have significant pro-inflammatory effects, and IL37 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that reduces immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the interleukin (IL) - 32 and IL-73 levels of serum in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The samples included 50 (46 females and four males) patients with RA and 40 healthy controls. ELISA detected serum IL-32 and IL37 levels. CDAI measured the disease parameters' activity, and ESR was measured by the Westergren method. CRP, RF, and ACPA were measured by using ELISA. The results showed elevated serum IL-32 and IL 37 levels in patients with RA (p<0.05). The mean duration of rheumatoid arthritis in most patients was < 12 years. The level of disease activity among the cases group was mainly moderate (70%). The means of interleukin-32 and interleukin-37 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis had No significant differences. This study showed that given that IL32 and IL37 play an essential role in RA pathogenesis, there was no correlation between serum levels of IL32 and IL37 with disease duration or activity.
       
  • Correlation of estrogen receptor alpha serum level with gene polymorphism
           and its effect on women with unexplained infertility, Basra, Iraq.

    • Abstract: Females having infertility of unknown etiology are considered significant medical and health problems. This study focused on the role of the ESR alpha gene polymorphism PvuII (rs2234693) and its effect on the amount of ESR alpha in the blood of women who cannot get pregnant for no known reason. A total of 184 females were evaluated, including 102 with unexplained infertility and 82 age-matched control females (with at least one live child with no history of infertility). Blood samples were collected, genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples, and genotyping of the ESR1 gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. An ELISA assay assessed ESR alpha expression levels. The study revealed that the mean serum value (ESR) was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P <0. 05). The genotypes (TT, TC, CC) and alleles (T, C) significantly influenced the plasma level of ER alpha in the study population. The presence of the C allele was considered a risk factor, and polymorphism had an appositive effect on ESR alpha expression levelin unexplained infertility in women.
       
  • Interleukin-1β rs1143634 polymorphism and susceptibility to
           periodontitis in the Iraqi population

    • Abstract: Periodontitis is a complex multifactorial inflammatory disease. The genetic basis of periodontitis has been studied. IL-1β (beta) is a crucial proinflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of periodontitis with highly polymorphic. To investigate whether rs1143634genetic variant of Interleukin-1 beta gene is associated with increased risk for periodontitis. Genotyping of the Interleukin-1β rs1143634 polymorphism was performed using the PCR-RFLP method in 90 in age 35 to 60, divided into two groups: 64 periodontitis cases (stage 3 and 4 periodontitis according to 2017 classification) and 26 racially matched healthy as control groups. Fisher's exact test showed a significant decrease in TT homozygous genotype in periodontitis cases compared to the control group (P=0.018), suggesting that this genotype is a protective factor in the test population. Allele frequency showed an odd elevated ratio (1.24) and increased risk for periodontitis in subjects with allele C and reduced odd ratio (0.81) and reduced risk for periodontitis in subjects with allele T.Allele T of Interleukin-1β rs1143634 polymorphism could be a protective factor, while Allele C of this polymorphism could be a risk factor for periodontitis in the studied Iraqi population.
       
  • Phenotyping and genotyping evaluation of E. coli produces carbapenemase
           isolated from Cancer Patients in Al-Basrah, Iraq

    • Abstract: Background: One of the most important nosocomial organisms that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) in cancer patients is Escherichia coli. A significant cause of concern in the management of UTIs is the development of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. E. coli with carbapenem resistance has become more of a problem, particularly in Iraq. The objective of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant E. coli in Al -Basrah governorate, Iraq.Methods: Conventional tests and the Vitek®2 system were used to identify the isolated uropathogens and determine the susceptibility of E.coli isolates to antimicrobials. In addition, E.coli isolates were tested by mCIM, and eCIM methods and the major carbapenemase genes including bla SPM, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaKPC were detected by polymerase chain reaction(PCR).Results: 120 urine samples were collected from cancer patients in Basrah center of Oncology Al-Sader Teaching Hospital, with patients who were suspected of having urinary tract infections. Identification of bacterial growth by using biochemical tests has revealed different bacterial species, the most frequent bacteria were E. coli 22(53.65%) isolates The results of the current study showed that out of (n=22) E.coli isolates 13(59.09%) isolates gave positive results for produced carbapenemase by using the (eCIM)and 11(50%) isolates gave positive results for produced carbapenemase enzymes. by using the (sCIM). The majority of E.coli in this study possessed the blaVIM gene 13 (59.1%) followed by the5 (22.73%) blaKPC gene , 5 (22.73%) blaIMP gene, and the 4 (18.18%) bla SPM gene.Conclusions: There is a spread of more than one type of carbapenemase among the E. coli isolates from UTI cancer patients' in Basrah hospital. E. coli identified in the current study have a strong capacity to produce carbapenemase enzymes against the four generations of antibiotics including imipenem and meropenem antibiotics.
       
  • Diverse expression patterns of EBV oncogenes (LMP2A, EBV-encoded microRNA,
           and EBV-encoded dUTPase) in EBV associated gastric carcinoma and their
           association with viral loads

    • Abstract: The chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) test is the gold standard for detecting EBV associated gastric carcinoma. Also Real-time PCR method is a sensitive test that can detect the viral load in samples. As such, three EBV oncogenes were investigated. RNA extracted and cDNA synthesis performed from gastric carcinoma tissues of 9 patients, that EBVGC subtype previously had been confirmed. In addition, 44 patients that had positive Real-time PCR result but negative CISH result was also included as control. TaqMan Real-time PCR analysis was performed to determine the expression of EBV-encoded microRNA and the expression of EBV-encoded dUTPase and LMP2A were analyzed by SYBR Green Real-time PCR. EBV-encoded microRNA and LMP2A were identified in 2 out of 9 (22%) EBVGC subtypes. In addition, EBV-encoded dUTPase in EBVGC was detected in 4 out of 9 (44.5%). EBV-encoded dUTPase was also expressed in a sample of control group. Expression of LMP2A, EBV-encoded microRNA, and EBV-encoded dUTPase viral oncogenes in patients with high EBV viral loads indicates that these expressions correlated with viral loads. Our findings indicate that the EBV-encoded dUTPase gene may be involved with non-response to treatment of EBVGC patients and might be considered as a Biomarker-targeted therapy.
       
  • Monitoring of Newcastle disease virus vaccine strain replication in
           embryonated chicken eggs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain
           reaction

    • Abstract: Knowledge of virus and replication kinetic plays a key role in developing a vaccine. This research intended to monitor the process of replication and determine the best harvesting time of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) V4 vaccine strain in allantoic fluids of specific pathogen-free (SPF)-embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), hemagglutination (HA), and egg infective dose fifty percent (EID50) tests. For this purpose, the V4 vaccine strain of the virus was intra-allantoically inoculated into 96 10-day-old SPF-ECEs at the rate of 0.1 mL/ECE. The allantoic fluids of inoculated eggs were collected from 6 eggs at 6 h intervals up to 96 hours post-infection (hpi). The harvested suspensions were confirmed to contain NDV by the mentioned serologic and molecular techniques. Based on the results, the virus was first detected at 36 hpi in ECEs by RT-PCR. The peak of HA and EID50 titers in allantoic fluids was started at 42 hpi, and the titers were at the highest level until the end of the experiment. The results indicated that the best virus harvesting time for NDV V4 vaccine strain in ECEs is between 42-60 hpi. These findings pave the way to achieving the adequate and enhancing production rate, immunogenicity, and cost-related parameters in V4 Newcastle vaccine development.
       
  • A promising natural anticancer compound derived from Gymnoascus
           dankaliensis

    • Abstract: Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells and is universally estimated to be a common cause of death. No decisive treatment has been identified to cure cancer. Therefore, scientists have focused on developing safe and effective treatments. The activity of natural compounds isolated from living organisms, such as fungi, has been investigated in cancer cells. This study aimed to isolate and analyze natural products as secondary metabolites (SM) of the fungus Gymnoascus dankaliensis and identify their activity against RS and HCT-18 (HRT-18) cell lines. G. dankaliensis was isolated from dung samples and identified using a molecular method. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified from isolated genomic DNA and sequenced. The isolate was grown on a rice medium as a solid stat formation medium to extract natural metabolite products using the ethyl acetate extraction method. GC-MS analyzed the compound of the natural extract, and the activity of the natural extract was identified against RS and HCT-18 cell lines. The results revealed the ability of G. dankaliensis to produce a natural product as a secondary metabolite composed of five compounds. The growth of the treated RS and HCT-8 cell lines with the natural extract was inhibited after incubation for 27h; IC50 were 3.57 and 8.61 µg/ml on the HCT-18 and SR cell lines, respectively. In conclusion, the natural extract, isolated from the SM of G. dankaliensis, showed activity against cancer cells, affecting the RS and HCT-18 cell lines in contrast with the control. These results revealed that the product is a promising anticancer treatment.
       
  • Immunological Role Of Toll Like Receptor Markers (TLR2 and TLR4) In
           Patients With Helicobacter pylori Infection At Basrah, Iraq

    • Abstract: Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped, flagellated, microaerophilic bacteria found in the human gastric sub-mucosa. This study aimed to investigate the association between toll-like receptor markers (TLR2 and TLR4) and the infection with Helicobacter pylori. The study involved 224 participants randomly divided into 2 equal groups (n=112). The patient group (n=112 ) was involved with several gastrointestinal symptoms. They were compared to a control group (n=112) with negative H. pylori tests. Patients and control were subjected to upper digestive endoscopy with gastric biopsy for the rapid urease test, rapid diagnostic test, and ELISA test for TLR2 and TLR4 detection. The recorded data showed that 36 (32.1 %) patients with H. pylori were in the second to the third decades of their life (25-34 years), while 22 (19.6 %) positive H. pylori-infected individuals were in the age range of 15-24 years, which were very close to the participants in the age range of 35-44 years. On the other hand, it is revealed that 15 (13.4%) participants were in the fourth to fifth decades of life. This rate was very similar to the groups of patients within the sixth to seventh decades of their life (13 (11.6 %)), but the lowest number of cases with H. pylori patients found in the age range of 55-64 years were recorded 7.1%. In conclusion, the concentration of TLR2 and TLR4 is higher in H. pylori-positive participants compared to the control group. This might reflect the response of innate immunity of the body to the presence of H. pylori infection, and thus it may be used as an ancillary tool in the detection of the patient's susceptibility to this type of infection.
       
  • Anticandidal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on fluconazole-resistant
           Candida isolates causing diarrhea in calves, In Vitro

    • Abstract: Gastrointestinal disease in calves may pose a significant threat to the livestock industry. Due to the increased rate of resistance to antifungal drugs and the side effects of these drugs, it is essential to find suitable alternatives, such as nanoparticles, with favorable antifungal effects and few side effects. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of yeasts causing diarrhea in calves and to evaluate antifungal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on fluconazole-resistant isolates. Fecal samples from 94 calves (age: < three months old) with clinical signs of diarrhea were examined by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Susceptibility of fungi to fluconazole and antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on drug-resistant isolates were evaluated using the broth microdilution method. Candida albicans (41.63%) was the predominant cause of diarrhea in calves. In addition, 51.2% of the C. albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole. All fluconazole-resistant isolates were eliminated when treated with 119 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The prevalence of diarrhea is relatively high in calves. Considering the predominance of drug-resistant Candida and the favorable in vitro effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles against these isolates, it is recommended to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on these isolates in vivo.
       
  • Genetic Diversity of Hottentotta Scorpions (Scorpionidae: Buthidae) in
           Khuzestan, Iran

    • Abstract: The genus of Hottentotta scorpion is one of the few medically important scorpions in Iran. Morphological analysis using the ANNOVA T-test with a significance level of P value <0.05 showed differences between the Hottetotta saulcyi and Hottetotta zagrosensis. However, this method was not able to distinguish between members of the same species. We amplified gene fragments of 12SrRNA (374 bp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) (624 bp) from Hottentotta scorpions collected from Khuzestan by PCR. Based on sequence 12SrRNA, all H. saulcyi specimens (HS4, HS6 and HS7) except HS5 were included in cluster B. While, two specimens of H. Zagrosensis (HZ6 and HZ1) with 99% bootstrap value were placed in cluster A. By using 12SrRNA sequences, the highest genetic distance between the Khuzestan specimens was related to HS5 and HS7 which was calculated to be 16.7%. However, the amount of amino acid difference between HS5 and HS7 using COXI sequence was 9.2%. The genetic distances of HS7 and HS5 with the only scorpion reference sequence H. saulcyi were 11.8% and 9.2%, respectively. Morphological data showed the separation of the two species, which was consistent with molecular phylogenetic trees. On the other hand, the genetic distance of specimens HS7 and HS5 with other members of the group as well as the scorpion reference sequence using COXI gene confirmed the possibility of an intraspecies difference that could not be proved by the morphological data alone.
       
  • Histopathological study to evaluate the effectof aqueous extract of
           Portunuspelagicusand mebendazole on hydatid cysts in mice

    • Abstract: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by a tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus sp.which has a global distribution. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the crustacean aqueousextract of Portunuspelagicusfor 2 weeks of treatment compared to mebendazole onhydatidcystinlaboratory mice male Balb / C strain.Micewere infected intraperitoneally with 2000 protoscolices. After 12 weeks of infection, each mice was treated with mebendazole (50mg/kg)and the hot aqueous extract of p.pelagicus (8, 16 g/kg).Samples of infected organs (liver, spleen, and lungs) were examined under a microscope to evaluate the morphological and histopathological changes of hydatid cysts and tissues.The study confirmed macroscopically that there were a number of hydatid cysts of different sizes in the liver, spleen, and lungs, splenomegaly, and congestion of the lungs of the positive control group. The histological changes in the organs of the group treated with the crustacean extract, they were represented by the presence ofvacuolation of hepatocytes in the centrilobular area, of the liver,while in the lungs show intensive peri-bronchiolar inflammation, pulmonary vascular congestion, and in the spleen,the deposition of amyloid-like material in the white pulp, extramedullary hematopoiesis,While the histopathological changes in the organs of mice treated with mebendazole,were represented by the presence in the liver mild vacuolation of the centrilobular area while in lungs show mild pulmonary vascular congestion, emphysema, and also in spleen shows normal white pulp, the normal red pulp of mice.It seems that the aqueous extract Portunuspelagicusandmebendazoleare effective in controlling the contamination in the intermediate hosts
       
  • Effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane on post- anesthesia cognitive
           dysfunction in normal and type II diabetic rats

    • Abstract: Both animals and human studies have documented cognitive and behavioral impairment after exposure to inhalational anesthetics. Therefore, the current study was designed to demonstrate if the anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane can result postoperative cognition dysfunction in normal and diabetic rats. 60 male Wister rats aged 12 weeks were divided into 6 groups (n=10); group C (normal control), group CD (diabetic control) group S (sevoflurane anesthesia) group I (isoflurane anesthesia) group SD (diabetic sevoflurane anesthesia) group ID (diabetic isoflurane anesthesia). Animals were anesthetized by either 2.5% sevoflurane or 1.5 % isoflurane respectively for 2h. 1 week later animals were undergone cognitive tests on (Morris water maze, T maze and open field arena), thereafter animal were sacrificed and hippocampus homogenates were studied for caspase 3 activity by western blot assay. Induction of type II diabetes in CD, SD and ID groups was carried out by feeding on high fat diet for 8 weeks before the start of experimental . During the fourth week Type II diabetes was induced in the experimental group by single IP injection of 30 mg/kg STZ. Control (normal and diabetic) rats showed no change in long-term/reference memory, non- spatial working memory, exploratory activity or caspase 3 expression in hippocampus homogenate. Anesthesia with isoflurane in normoglycemic rats resulted in significant decline in long-term/reference memory, and non-spatial working memory while exploratory activity and caspase 3 expression in hippocampus homogenate showed no change as compared to normal control rats. Both isoflurane and sevoflurane in diabetic rats demonstrated decline in long-term/reference memory, non-spatial working memory, exploratory activity and caspase 3 expression in hippocampus homogenate as compared with normal control rats. Diabetes revealed significant post-anesthesia cognitive dysfunction after anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane in all the studied domains as compared to either normal control or diabetic control.
       
  • Screening of exons 4-9 polymorphisms of FTO gene in endometrial and
           ovarian cancers

    • Abstract: Endometrial and ovarian tumors are almost mechanistically affected by reproductive hormones. Ovarian cancer may be explained as metastatic disease or as synchronous primary ovarian cancer, and the distinctive diagnosis is a challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutations in fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene and investigated the association of these mutations with the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers as well as with cancer grade and stage. Blood samples from 48 endometrial and ovarian cancers cases and 48 healthy women were collected. genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was done for amplification of FTO exons 4-9. Sanger sequencing resulted in identification of 6 different novel mutations submitted to DDBJ: p.W278G and p.G284G in exon 4, p.S318I and p.A324G in exon 5 and two mutations in intron 4. Other mutations also detected in FTO gene sequencing results, rs112997407 in intron 3, rs62033438, rs62033439, rs8048254 and rs8046502 in intron 4. The novel p.W278G, p.S318I and p.A324G mutations were predicted to be damaging. We didn’t find significant association for all variables with cancer risk or clinical stage and grade except for rs62033438 variants which showed significant association with cancer grade especially AA genotype (OR= 15, 95% CI:1.32 -169.88, P= 0.03). In conclusion, the statistical analysis did not clarify whether FTO mutations are indeed implicated in cancer. Further studies with more samples are recommended to provide a more accurate picture of the correlation between FTO mutations and endometrial and ovarian cancer susceptibility.
       
  • Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioid Lam.
           (Lamiaceae) esessential oil

    • Abstract: The genus Ziziphora is belong to medicinal plants. It’s often used as a stomach tonic, carminative, antimicrobial, and expectorant, in addition the extracted essential oils can be utilized as a second line of defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of essential oils of Z. clinopodioides as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens (Bacillussp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp.). The antibacterial activity of Z. clinopodioides essential oil was determined using the microdilution (MD) method in nutritional broth medium and the agar disk diffusion assay. The result demonstrated that essential oil exhibit strong antibacterial properties against both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Sequentially regarding to MIC and MBC values Escherichia coli was a higher level of resistance to the essential oil compared to Bacillus sp. Our findings suggested that the essential oil of Z. clinopodioides could be used as an antibacterial agent. Total antioxidant capacity of Z. clinopodioides leaves were assessed as ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of the leaves’ essential oil extract. The total antioxidant capacity was determined using ascorbic acid (y = 0.1185x + 49.508, R² = 0.3877). While the result of Z. clinopodioideswas (y = 0.1372x + 40.032, R² = 0.4503).
       
  • Physiological and histological effects of Ginseng oil on reproductive
           efficiency in adult male rats

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a collection of metabolic illnesses known by chronic hyperglycaemia. It is one of the most common chronic diseases, which is caused by in insulin functions or secretions deficiency, or both and may cause carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism to be disrupted. The pituitary gonadal axis malfunctions, testicular tissue dysfunctions and poor quality of sperms are all symptoms of DM, which is one of the most common causes of reproductive abnormalities. The current study has been designed to demonstrate the impacts of treatment with Ginseng oil oxidative stress-induced physiological and histological alterations in the male reproductive system of rats with subcutaneous(s/c) injection alloxan . The study done on 30 mature male Wistar rats, were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=10). The first group, which served as the negative control, second group (positive control) injection with (s/c) a single alloxan dosage (120 milligrams per kilogram of body weight ) third group given alloxan and treated with ginseng oil (0.5cc at dosage (5 g /kg body weight daily) for 30 days. The percentage of live sperms increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the group that was given Ginseng oil orally, when compared to the alloxan group, the percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities were dropped, and the total number of sperm count was decreased. In the rat testis, (s/c) given alloxan (120 mgs/kg), aberrant spermatids were present with a decrease in the sperm numbers in the lumens of seminiferous tubules, as well as a division in the irregular germ cells. The current study concluded that Ginseng oil exerted an antioxidant effect on male reproductive system of rats injection with subcutaneous(s/c) alloxan.
       
  • Molecular Study of ACE2 Gene Polymorphism of COVID-19 Infection Among the
           Kurdish Population in Kurdistan Region- Iraq

    • Abstract: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current pandemic infection of human respiratory system, which is caused by which caused by Sever Acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection was classified by World Health Organization (WHO) as a universal pandemic in February 2020, there have been 494.587.638 confirmed cases and 6.170.283 deaths. The present study was conducted to investigate molecular genetics of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene in correlation to COVID-19 patients in Kurdish population. Eighty-six individuals clinically diagnosis with COVID-19 and control groups. After the genomic DNA extraction these participants the target 1,2, and 8 exons of the ACE2 gene were amplified using PCR technique, then Sanger sequencing technique was performed to analyze genetic variants of ACE2 gene in 70 DNA samples of COVID-19 hospital patients at Emergency Hospital in Erbil city, Sarchnar Hospital in Sulaymaniyah city, Lalav Hospital in Duhok city and Wafa Hospital in Halabja city from Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The current study was designed in to two groups control group and patient group. The patient group was divided in to two sub groups severe and mild patients in different ages and genders. As a result, there was no any mutations at the positions 1, 2 and 8 exons sequences, while single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and identified three different types mutation at intron position: twenty-six of c.12405 del T, two of c.12407 T>G, and two of c.12406 G>A in a total 86 participants. This result show that genetic difference does not impact on the COVID-19 infection severity among the Kurdish population regarding to ACE2 gene polymorphism.
       
  • Relationship between SCD1 gene polymorphism and the production and
           composition of milk in the Iraqi Awassi sheep

    • Abstract: Selection on the basis of genetic makeup became an important tool in the process of genetic improvement. The development of molecular biology opened the way to study the genes of farm animals and genetically improve them. The aim of this study was to determine the Allele frequency and genotype distribution of the SCD1 gene and its relationship to milk production and its main components from fat, protein, lactose and non-fat solids percentage in Iraqi Awassi sheep. 51 female Awassi sheep were used in this study. The genotype distribution of the SCD1 gene in the studied Awassi sheep sample was 50.98, 41.18 and 7.84% for each of the CC, CA and AA genotypes, and the discrepancy between these percentages was highly significant (P≤0.01), and the appearance of the C and A alleles with a frequency of 0.72 and 0.28 respectively, highly significant differences (P≤0.01) appeared in the total milk production according to the genotype. As for the milk components, it was found that there were significant (P≤0.05) differences in the percentage of fat and the percentage of non-fat solids. From the results of the current study, it can be concluded that the SCD1 gene can be adopted as an important indicator in the development of genetic improvement strategies for Awassi sheep to maximize the economic return from breeding projects by selecting and cross-breeding the genotypes that achieved the best productive performance.
       
  • Cardioprotective effects of octreotide against sepsis-induced
           cardiotoxicity in mice

    • Abstract: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory consequence resulting from microbial infection, it is assessed as a worldwide healthcare issue. Sepsis can result in multiorgan dysfunction, including cardiac, renal, hepatic, and even cerebral dysfunction. Cardiotoxicity can occur in both humans and rodents during sepsis, leading to increased mortality. The current study aims to explore the possible cardioprotective effects of Octreotide during sepsis-induced cardiotoxicity. This study was done with a total of forty male albino Swiss mice, aged 8-12 weeks, and weighing 25-30 gm. These animals had free access to food and water. After two weeks of adaptation, mice were divided into the following four groups (n = 10): (1) Normal group: apparently healthy mice. (2) CLP group: mice underwent CLP operation. (3) Vehicle group: mice received DMSO(4) Octreotide group: mice received octreotide10 mg/kg subcutaneously in 2 divided doses for 5 consecutive days.All groups underwent CLP operation on the 4th day, then sacrificed on the 5th day then blood and tissue sampling was done. Octreotide group demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the myocardial levels of cardiac troponin-I as compared to the CLP group. Furthermore, the octreotide groupdemonstrated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the serum level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, & IL-1β) as compared to the CLP group. Additionally, the octreotidegroupshowed a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the myocardial activity of SODand a reduction in MDA level as compared to the CLP group. Histologically, all mice in the CLP group showed a significant (p<0.05) cardiac tissue injury, while the octreotide groupshowed a significant (p<0.05) reduced level of cardiac tissue injury. The results of the present study revealed that octreotideattenuatessepsis-induced cardiotoxicitythrough different protective effects, they include the anti-inflammatory effect through their ability to decrease serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Also, the anti-oxidant effect through their ability to decrease myocardial levels of MDA and increase the myocardial activity of SOD. Additionally the direct cardiac protective effect through the lower level of cardiac troponin- I and the reduction of histopathological changes during sepsis-induced cardiotoxicity.
       
  • Investigation of the inhibition activity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles
           for Herpes simplex type 1

    • Abstract: Several studies have shown that Herpes simplex type 1 )HSV-1 (is one of the viruses resistant to medications, so potential antiherpetic agents need to be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) on the HSV-1 infection. Characterization of Al2O3-NPs were performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The MTT test was used to investigate the toxicity action of Al2O3-NPs on viable cells. quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and TCID50 assays were used to achieve antiherpetic performance Al2O3-NPs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to determine the inhibitory impact of Al2O3-NPs on viral antigen expression, and Acyclovir was utilized as a standard agent in all tests. HSV-1 subjected to Al2O3-NPs at the maximum non-toxic concentration (100 μg / mL) leads to a decrease of 0.1, 0.7, 1.8, and 2.5 log10 TCID50 in the infectious titer relative to virus control (P<0.0001). This concentration of Al2O3-NPs was correlated with 16.9%, 47.1 %, 61.2 %, 72.5 % and 74.6 % inhibition rate,calculated on the basis of HSV-1 viral load compared to virus control. Our results have shown that Al2O3-NPs have a robust antiviral activity against HSV-1. This function demonstrates excellent potential for using Al2O3-NP in topical formulations for treating orolabial or genital herpetic lesions.
       
  • Effects of the melatonin and vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol acetate) as
           antioxidants on biochemical blood parameters, lipid profile, and LD muscle
           vitamin E concentrationn of Awassi lambs fed a high-energy diet and normal
           diet

    • Abstract: Health specialists currently suggest low-cholesterol diets, suggesting that cholesterol in the form of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduces the risk of chronic atherosclerosis. Large volume of literature describes the biological roles of vitamin E and its application to preventing disease and improving health and productive performances of farm animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (Alpha tocopherol acetate) supplementation and melatonin implants on biochemical blood, lipid profile and muscle vitamin E content of Awassi male lambs fed by a high and normal diet in Iraq. The lambs were divided into teen groups as control normal energy diet T1 (NED) T2 (HED,) concentrated lamb fattening feed. Two level of Melatonin (18 and 36 mg implant) were applied to T3, T4, T5, T6 treatment and 2 level of Vitamin E (Alpha tocopherol acetate) diet 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg to T7. T8. T9 and to T10 respectively. Results from present study indicate that Vitamin E 200, 400 mg/lamb/day and melatonin implantation 18 mg, 36 mg/lamb/day significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein in serum while decreasing globulin level, glucose concentration in serum, melatonin implantation 36 mg/lamb and vitamin E 400 mg/lamb/day recorded significantly (P<0.05). The same effect on decreasing cholesterol concentration in serum 42.6 mgdl, 40.5 mgdl respectively compared to non-treated groups. Vitamin E 200 mg/kg/lamb recorded the lowest AST level in serum 43.3. Lambs implanted with Melatonin 36 mg/lamb and fed a high-energy diet (T8) resulted in a significant decrease of serum ALT activity (P<0.05) in comparison to other treated groups 12.7 U/L was achieved. Lambs fed normal energy diet with vitamin E 200 mg/kg/lamb (T4) exceeded other treated groups in decreasing ALT levels in serum by 9.35 U/L. Interestingly, Muscle vitamin E concentrations for lambs received 200, 400 mg/lamb/day day 2, 7 and 14 of the storage period and a fed high energy diet (T10) or normal energy diet (T5) were significantly higher compared to control group (T1, T6).
       
  • A novel application of zinc oxide nanoparticles for inhibition of
           Molluscum contagiosum virus infection

    • Abstract: Molluscum contagiosumvirus (MCV) is an infection caused by molluscum contagiosum virus. Antiviral medications used to treat MCV infections have several problems, including drug-resistant and toxicity. As a result, the improvement of safe, innovative, and effective antiviral drugs is critical. Therefore the aim of the current study was to investigate ZnO-NPs effects on M. contagisum infection, and molluscum contagiosum virus replication, which are among the main exciting viruses that menace human health. The antiviral activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) against MCV infection was investigated in this work. FESEM and TEM electron microscopy were used to examine the nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was assessed using the MTT assay, and anti-influenza effects weredetected using RT-PCR and TCID50. An indirect immunofluorescence experiment was used to investigate the inhibitory effect of nanoparticles on viral antigen expression. In all tests, acyclovir was employed as a control. Compared to virus control, post-exposure of MCV with ZnO nanoparticles at the highest dose but isn't toxic (100 g/mL) resulted in 0.2, 0.9, 1.9, and 2.8 log10 TCID50 reductions in infectious diseases virus titer (P0.0001).This ZnO-nanoparticles level was accompanied by an inhibition percentage (17.8%, 27.3%, 53.3%, 62.5 %, and 75.9%), respectively, measured based on viral load compared with the virus control.Compared to the positive control, fluorescence emission intensity in virally infected cells that administrated ZnO nanoparticles was statically decreased. Our findings demonstrated that ZnO-NPs have antiviral effects against the MCV. This property indicates that ZnO-NP has a high potential for usage in topical formulations to treat facial and labial lesions.
       
  • The association of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 polymorphism and
           SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Iraqi population

    • Abstract: The quick and advancing prevalence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 produced a global crisis surge with a profound impact on human health and worldwide economic constancy. The virus is known as one strain of coronavirus, which causes the respiratory infection responsible for the current pandemic of COVID-19. The virus spike protein has a high binding affinity to human ACE2 depending on crystallization analysis and biochemical interaction studies. Consistently, studies reveal that rs2285666 a polymorphism found in ACE2, diverse significantly between European and Asians, changing ACE2 expression. The alternating allele TT of rs2285666 SNP increased gene expression to 50%; thus, it may have a role in SARS-COV-2 infection vulnerability. This study was aimed to investigate rs2285666 SNP association with SARS-CoV2 infection as a first report in the Iraqi population. Fifty (20 Male/30 Female) Covid-19 patients with severe symptoms with mean age (of 41.5 ± 10.7) and 50 (20 Male/30 Female) healthy people as a control group with mean age (of 41.5 ± 10.7) were included in this study. Sample of a patient tested as a mutant genotype (TT) by RFLP assay. The results reveal a MAF value of 0.3 for this gene in Iraqi samples, more than Europeans (0.2) and less than East Asians (0.55). The codominant model had significant OR of both alleles CT and TT (OR=4.26 & 6.7; p value=0.012 & 0.023 respectively). In conclusion, there is an association between increased severity of SARS-Cov-2 infection and rs2285666 polymorphism of codominant genotype model of the Iraqi population. However, several other factors may affect disease severity, such as ethnic group differences, sex, comorbidity, virus strain, and others.
       
  • Detection of some causes of feline eye infections in Baghdad city

    • Abstract: The aim of current study was to determine the causes that associated with ocular infection in cats that received at Baghdad veterinary hospital through March 2020 to the April 2021.Forty cats (22 females and 18 males) were examined at a small animal clinic in Baghdad veterinary hospital, during the period from March 2020 to the April 2021. The cats were suffered from severe eyes infection (inflammation, lacrimation, redness and other ocular signs ). On the other hand, ten healthy cats were examined and prepared also to bacterial isolation as control group. Sterile cotton swab with transport medium were taken gently from corneal and conjunctiva area of infected eyes for bacterial isolation. The swabs were placed in ice box within 24 hours for laboratory culture. Sterile swabs with transport media were used in our study,swabs passed direct on inferior conjunctival sac of compromised eye avoiding contact with eyelashes and skin of eyelids. All swabs were inoculated on the following media (5% Sheep blood agar, MacConkey agar and Nutreint agar ) at 37ºC for 24 to 48 h.ImmunoChromatoGraphy assay (ICG) of FCV on samples. The results showed that 50%of Mixed bacterial and FCV was the significant cause of isolates, Also it showed that S. aureuswas the most bacterial cause of eye infection, young female were mostly infected at February month. In conclusion, The wide distribution of ocular infections in cats due to different causes specially with bacteria including Staphylococcus spp. and virus (FCV). The seasonal variation between months is playing a major factor in the spreading of eyes infections in feline.
       
  • Expression of MMP1 and MMP7 in Mice liver after Exposure to AflatoxinB1
           using Immunohistochemistry Technique

    • Abstract: Mycotoxin is a class of poisonous secondary metabolites generated by filamentous fungi and found in agricultural commodities all over the world. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate how aflatoxin B1 affected hepatic cellular architecture and Matrix metalloproteinase expression in particular (MMP1 and MMP7) in the livers of experimental mice (IHC). A total of sixteen mice (four groups) were studied after being given pure aflatoxin B1 (9mg/kgbw, 6mg/kgbw, and 3mg/kgbw) (produced from Aspergillus flavus) or a control group (not treated). MMP1 and MMP7 expressions were also measured using the MMP1 and MMP7 expression assays (IHC). The degree of liver damage is related to the AFB1 concentration and the duration of exposure. IHC reveals a considerable rise in MMP1 and MMP7 expression in the livers of mice given a maximum concentration of 90% ((9 mg/bwt) pure AFB1), which approached the toxin's effect toxic dosage.MMP1 and MMP7 expression were also increased by AFB1 at dosages of 60 and 30% (6mg/bwt and 3mg/bwt, respectively), although not to the same extent as 90 percent. MMP1 was significantly more expressed than MMP7 compared to control, and AFB1 at 90, 60, and 30 percent concentrations caused changes in hepatic cellular architecture, organisation, and liver tissue damage, as well as dramatically increased MMP1 and MMP7 production in hepatic tissue following treatment. Increased levels of pure aflatoxin B1 will harm liver tissue and MMP1, MMP7 expression. MMP1 was more substantially expressed than MMP7.
       
  • In vitro study of primary isolation and culture of Adipose-derived stem
           cells and induction of Chondrogenic differentiation

    • Abstract: Background: Articular cartilage has constrained potential to restore. The mesenchymal stem cellular remedy has presented new treatment possibilities for this circumstance. The experiment aimed to verify the chondrogenic differentiation capacity from rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in vitro inside the presence or absence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1). Methods: Rat's subcutaneous adipose tissue minced into a small piece (2-3 mm3) was aseptically collected from the subcutaneous fat under anesthesia then digested with collagenase type I (1 mg/mL). Spontaneous chondrogenesis occurred in both AD-MSCs pellet cultures and was similar in both TGF-β1 treated. The untreated pellet cultures were collected after 21 days. Histological assessment for evaluating the level of proteoglycan by alcin blue staining and Immunohistochemistry for detecting the presence of collagen type II. Results: A monoclonal antibody directed against collagen type II. Adipose-derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) isolated from rats were immunophenotyped for the expression of MSCs cell surface markers and was performed by Flow cytometer which demonstrated AD-MSCs highly expressed CD73 (99.69±2.6%), CD90 (98.11±0.3%), and week expression CD44 (17.15±0.3%). The result of histological staining showed the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the hyaline cartilage. This staining indicated a deposit of "acid mucopolysaccharides" in the proximity of the cells. Additionally, most cells are comprised of rounded cells stained positive for the presence of the cells encompassed by extracellular matrix (ECM) which were like chondrocytes as seen from the magnified view, lightly pink stained nuclei, and nuclear fast red stain. However, the immunohistochemistry method demonstrated the presence of TGF-β1 led to a decrease in the levels of collagen type I and increased levels of collagen type II. Conclusion: In conclusion, subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived stem cells can be used in cartilage tissue engineering
       
  • Comparison between Polymerase Chain Reaction and blood culture for
           diagnosis of neonatal sepsis

    • Abstract: Neonatal sepsis can be defined as any systemic bacterial infection confirmed by a positive blood culture in the first month of life. This study was designed to evaluate the polymerase chain reaction as the diagnostic approach to identify the neonatal sepsis instead of blood culture. In this study, 85 blood specimens were collected from 85 patients with suspected septicemia, age ranged between 1to 28 days from both sexes (53 males and 32 females) during the period from November 2014 to March 2015. From each neonate, a minimum of 1–3 ml of blood was collected by standard sterile procedures 2 ml for blood culture while 1 ml used for DNA extraction. A minimum of 2 ml of blood is taken through venipuncture and injected into two or more "blood bottles" with specific media for aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The blood is collected using aseptic technique. The recorded data showed that the bacterial culture was positive in 7.06% patients versus 92.9% patients revealed a negative bacterial culture. The most common types of bacteria isolated were three isolates of Klebsiella spp. (50.0%), followed by one isolate of Staphylococcus aureus (16.67%), one E. coli (16.67%) isolate, and one Enterobacter spp.(16.67%) isolate. Finally, molecular detection for bacterial sepsis was done by using specific primers (16 sRNA, rpoB and its). It was found that 16 sRNA genes were present in 20% of samples and rpoBgene present in (18.8%). While its gene used for detection of fungi revealed negative results in all samples.
       
  • The influence of vaginal dysbiosis on intracytoplasmic sperm injection
           outcome

    • Abstract: In women at the reproductive age, vaginal infection is a gynecological condition with a variety of health consequences. Bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and aerobic vaginitis are the most prevalent types of infection. Although reproductive tract infections are known to have an impact on human fertility, no consensus guidelines on the microbial control in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization therapy are currently available. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of asymptomatic vaginal infections on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in infertile Iraqi couples. Forty-six asymptomatic infertile Iraqi women were evaluated for the existence of genital tract infections by taking a vaginal sample on the day of ovum pick-up for microbiological culture during their intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycle. Based on the acquired results, a multi-microbial community colonized the participant's female lower reproductive tract and only 13 women achieved pregnancy compared to 33 who didn’t. Candida albicans was found in 43.5% of the cases, 39.1% Streptococcus agalactiae, 19.6% Enterobacter species, 13.0% Lactobacillus, 8.7% Escherichia coli, 8.7% Staphylococcus aureus, 4.3% Klebsiella, and 2.2% Neisseria gonorrhea. However, there was no statistically significant effect on the pregnancy rate observed except for Enterobacter spp. and Lactobacilli. In conclusion, the majority of patients had a genital tract infection; Enterobacter spp. had a substantial negative influence on the pregnancy rate, and lactobacilli were highly related to positive outcomes in participating females.
       
  • Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Causing Aerobic Vaginitis in
           Women from Baghdad City

    • Abstract: Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition, characterized by abnormal vaginal discharge, high inflammatory response, signs of epithelial atrophy, increase in aerobic bacteria of intestinal origin and decrease in the normal flora especially Lactobacillus spp. . It is one of most common reproductive tract infections among women. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility levels of the dominant bacterial species found in the vaginae of women infected with AV. A total of 89 high vaginal swab (HVS) were collected from women aged (18-50) years old attending some hospitals and private gynecology clinics in Baghdad City. All obtained swabs were cultured on different culture media and the primary diagnosis was performed according to standard laboratory diagnosis protocols. To confirm the diagnosis and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial isolates, VITEK 2 Compact Automated System GP and GN colorimetric identification cards and AST GN, AST GP cards were used according to Manufacturer Company constructions (BioMérieux / France). Out of 89 swabs, ninety five pathogenic strains were obtained including 62 isolates (65.2%) Gram positive and 33 isolates (34.7%) Gram negative bacteria. Staphylococcus spp. (46.3%) was the most representative strains followed by Escherichia coli (15.7%). All Gram positive bacterial strains displayed the highest resistance rates (100%) toward penicillins and cephalosporins while the highest sensitivity rates were toward daptomycin followed by vancomycin and gentamicin (p=0.001). Gram negative bacteria displayed the highest resistance rates toward penicilins, beta-lactam combination, monobactam and cephalosporins, while the highest sensitivity rates were toward amikacin followed by imipenem meropenem and gentamicin (p=0.001).It is worth mentioning that Gram positive bacteria showed 100% sensitivity toward tigecycline. Thirty eight (40 %) of all obtained bacterial strains were extensively drug resistance XDR, 57 (60%) were multidrug resistance MDR and no pandrug resistance PDR was reported. Gram positive bacteria including 21% XDR and 44.2% MDR strains, while Gram negative bacteria including 18.9% XDR and 15.7% MDR strains.
       
  • A Boolean network approach to study the mechanism associated with
           inflammatory response induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    • Abstract: Context: Anaerobic Porphyromonas gingivalis is a rod shape bacterium and is a primary agent of periodontal inflammation and thus periodontitis. This bacterium disturbs the normal flora of the oral cavity and causes dysbiosis. Evidence Acquisition: Databases including Google Scholar Scopus and PubMed were employed to find the evidence by using keywords like ‘Porphyromonas gingivalis’, ‘Boolean network’, ‘inflammatory response and Porphyromonas gingivalis’, ‘inflammation and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Only those articles were selected that reviewed the role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in oral inflammation. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes and reorganized host immune systems against host normal flora, which causes a dysbiotic state. A reorganized immune system induces dysbiosis and periodontitis. Specifically, the role of the C5a receptor of the complement system is very important in this mechanism. P. gingivalis can change the metabolic pathways of phagocytic cells without impeding inflammation. Toll-like receptor and complement signaling are inverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis, which aids them in overcoming immunological responses, however, they sustain the inflammation process, which promotes dysbiosis. A systems perspective, instead of a subjective approach, is required to comprehend this intricate process. A Boolean network is a system approach that seems to be a better approach to understanding this complicated interaction process of Porphyromonas gingivalis with immune system and inflammation. Conclusion: In short, attempts to understand the complex process using the Boolean network will ultimately help in the early detection of periodontitis and immediate treatment can prevent soft tissue destruction and dentition loss.
       
  • Marrubium persicum improved the biological parameters associated with
           angiogenesis and inflammation in mice

    • Abstract: The genus Marrubium, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is highly praised in herbal medicine of different countries for having renowned healing properties. Herein, the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis potential of Marrubium persicum methanol extract was evaluated in mouse air pouch model of inflammation. Aerial parts of M. persicum were solvent extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Subsequently, air injections were performed (for 3 days) into the mice's backs to bring about an air pouch while carrageenan was used to induce inflammation. The mice were divided into four groups including; negative control (normal saline into the pouch), control (carrageenan), treatment and positive control (dexamethasone). The inflammatory markers were analyzed 48h after injecting carrageenan and quantification of angiogenesis in granulation tissue was assessed using a hemoglobin assay kit. M. persicum methanol extract at doses of 3.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg represented significant decreases in inflammatory parameters. In comparison to the control group, the optimum dose (3.5 mg/kg) lessened the myeloperoxidase (MPO) and angiogenesis activity as well as hemoglobin levels, meaningfully. In sum, the methanol extract of M. persicum exhibited anti-inflammatory effects against carrageenan-induced inflammation which could be related to its antioxidant and also the inhibitory effects on neutrophils’ infiltration.
       
  • In silico analysis of a 29 kDa Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex protein
           (P29) as a vaccine candidate against cystic echinococcosis

    • Abstract: Vaccination can be a key step in controlling hydatid cyst infection in humans and livestock in endemic areas of the disease. The aim of the Present study was to determine some of the basal biochemical properties followed by prediction and screening of B-cell and MHC-binding epitopes of EgP29 protein in silico. Some of the basic physico-chemical properties along with antigenicity, allergenicity, solubility, post-translational modification (PTM) sites, subcellular localization, signal peptide, transmembrane domain, secondary and tertiary structures followed by refinement and validations were computationally determined for this protein. Also, B-cell epitopes were predicted and screened using various web servers, while MHC-binding and CTL epitopes were predicted using IEDB and NetCTL servers, respectively. The protein is a 238-residue, 27 kDa molecule, with high thermotolerance (aliphatic: 71.81) and hydrophilicity (negative GRAVY). There were several glycosylation and phosphorylation sites in the sequence, without a transmembrane domain and signal peptide. Moreover, several B-cell and MHC-binding epitopes were found in the EgP29 protein, which could be further used in multi-epitope vaccines. In conclusion, results of the present study can be a promising sign for achieving effective approaches to the preparation of a multi-epitope vaccines against echinococcosis. So, it is necessary that the effectiveness of the protein and its epitopes be evaluated in vitro and in vivo.
       
  • Molecular-Genotyping Detection of Entamoeba histolytica in Diarrheic
           Patients

    • Abstract: Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan that is found worldwide. The degree of pathogenesis of clinical isolates varies greatly. This study was aimed to molecular identification of E. histolytica in children using the nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), and then, a genotyping of positive E. histolytica isolates using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay through targeting serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) gene. For this purpose, a total of 50 bloody diarrheic stool samples were collected from the children attended to the Al-Zahraa’ Teaching Hospital and Alkut Hospital for Gynecology, Obstetric and Pediatrics (Alkut, Wasit, Iraq) were subjected to the present study from September to December 2021. Firstly, the extracted DNAs that amplified using specific primers through targeting 18S rRNA gene and tested using nPCR assay were revealed an overall 48% (24/50) positive samples for E. histolytica. For genotyping, our results were detected an existence of four different genotypes (I, II, III and IV) with a significant prevalence of Genotype-II (54.17%) when compared to Genotype-I (20.83%), Genotype-III (12.5%) and Genotype- IV (12.5%). In addition, results of melting temperature of targeted genotypes were 84ºC, 83 - 83.5ºC, 82.5ºC and 81ºC for Genotype-I, II, III and IV, respectively. In conclusion, molecular amplification of 18S rRNA gene was revealed the large prevalence of E. histolytica among bloody diarrheic children of study areas; while, amplification of SREHP gene was reflected the widespread phenotypic variation of the Genotype-II suggesting the high ability of this genotype to spread infection in children. In different endemic areas as Iraq, the utilization of high-resolution genotyping methods showed the extremely polymorphic genetic structure of this parasite.
       
  • Effect of Individual and Combination Supplementation of Diets with
           L-Carnitine and Methionin on Broiler Chicken Productive Performance

    • Abstract: This Experiment was conducted in poultry farm at College of Agriculture/ University Of Anbar from 8/2/2021 - 23/3/2021 to find out effect of adding different levels of L-carnitine and methionine on productive performance of broilers. One Hundred- fifty broiler chicks unsexed (Ross 308), one-day-old (obtained from local hatchery) were used. The Birds were randomly divided to three treatments (3 replicates/ treatment). Each replicate included (10 chicks), the treatments lasted for 42 day which included as following: T1: Basal diet without addition, T2: included adding lead acetate 400 mg/kg feed, T3: included adding carnitine 300 mg/ kg feed + lead acetate 400 mg/kg feed, T4: included adding methionine 100 mg/ kg feed + lead acetate 400 mg/kg feed, T5: included adding methionine 100 mg/ kg feed with carnitine 300 mg/ kg feed + lead acetate 400 mg/kg feed. Chicks were fed same diets in content of crude protein and energy represented during the starter, grower and finisher phases. Feed and water were ad libitum. Body weight gain and feed consumption were weekly recorded. Feed conversion ratio was also calculated. Results showed that Birds in (T5) fed diets with (carnitine + methionine) observed highest live body weights comparison with T3 (carnitine + lead acetate) and T4 (adding methionine+ lead acetate). Data of results showed no significant differences were recorded in body weight gain. Also, Results obtained increase with feed consumption for treatment T5, while birds in T1 and T4 recorded lowest means in feed consumed. However, birds in T4 and T5 observed best feed conversion ratio as compare with T1, T2 and T3. Therefore, it can conclude that addition carnitine and methionine enhanced broiler productive performance.
       
  • Role of date palm pollen on heifer's puberty and maturity in Iraq

    • Abstract: The use of herbal remedy has played a key role throughout the history of medicine, and human beings have always used these valuable resources to treat their health problems and diseases. Phoenix dactylifera (Palm) is known as the one of the most famous medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the possible effects of date palm pollen supplementation on heifer's puberty. This study was conducted in Najaf- Iraq on 10 crossbred heifers 6 months old, from the period of December 1st, 2021 to August 1st, 2022. The animals were divided randomly into two groups: T1 was supplemented with 2g of date palm pollen (DPP) plus main ration, while T2 was supplemented only with main ration. The results revealed that there was a significant effect (P<0.05 and P<0.01) in T1 over the T2 in acceleration heifer’s puberty and sexual maturity. The results also showed a significant effect (P<0.01) between T1 and T2 at the level of the hormones, FSH, LH and estrogen in the age of puberty, as well as the presence of a significant difference (P<0.01) and (P<0.05) between T1 and T2 at the level of the hormones FSH and estrogen in the age of sexual maturity. The results also showed a significant effect (P< 0.05) for T1 on T2 in weight at puberty and maturity age. This study aimed to accelerate puberty and sexual maturity in the heifers.
       
  • Evaluation of the role of MAP4K4 in focal adhesion dynamics and regulation
           of cell migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    • Abstract: In the process of migration and metastasis of cancer cells, it is necessary to rotate the focal adhesion (FA). MAP4K4 plays a very important role in the formation of cytoskeletal regeneration, but its role in regulating FA dynamics and cancer cell migration is not well understood. This present aimed to investigate the role of MAP4K4 in the regulating of FA dynamics and cell migration in human breast cancer cell line. For this purpose, different variants including MAP4K4 (wild type), partial active mutation kinase (MAP4K4-T178D), mutant with inactivated or reduced activity kinase (MAP4K4-T178A) and inactive kinase mutation (MAP4K4-K54R) was used in the evaluation. GFP-paxillin was also used as a marker in basal breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in determining FA dynamics. Time lapse and confocal microscopes were used to record FA dynamics and cell migration. The findings of the present study showed that cells expressing MAP4K4-K54R, MAP4K4-T178D and MAP4K4-T178A type slowly down the FA turnover rates and had much larger FAs than those expressing WT MAP4K4 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, inhibiting of MAP4K4 strongly inhibited FA formation and reduced the speed of cell migration. In conclusion, MAP4K4 regulates FA dynamics and cancer cell migration, most probably through activating FA proteins and cytoskeleton.
       
  • The Role Akt/Rab5A Signaling in Regulating Cell Migration of MDA-MB-231
           Breast Cancer Cell Line

    • Abstract: Rab5A and Akt pathways are reported to be responsible for invasiveness of cancer cells, indicated by the fact that Rab5A activates the downstream Phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which results in promoting cancer metastasis. However, a little attention has been given to the emerging role of Rab5A and Akt signaling pathways in regulating the direction of MDA-MB-231 cells migration. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line was used as a model in this study due to it being highly metastatic and motile. Time-lapse microscopy was used to examine the effect of Akt and Rab5A inhibitors on cell migration, proliferation and wound healing. Later, the cells were transfected with GFP-Akt-PH or GFP-Rab5A (used as a biosensor to detect Akt and Rab5A). Therefore, Confocal time-lapse images were used to visualize Akt and Rab5A at the front and rear edges of the cells. The recorded data demonstrated that Akt and Rab5A inhibition reduced the cell migration, proliferation and wound healing. The results of the current study also demonstrated that Akt localize at the trailing edge while Rab5A localize more at the leading edge than the trailing edge of cells. Taken together this study suggests that Akt and Rab5A inhibition might regulate the direction of breast cancer migration.
       
  • Detection of AcrA and AcrB efflux pumps in multidrug-resistant klebsiella
           pneumonia that isolated from wounds infection patients in Al-Diwaniyah
           province

    • Abstract: Many infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae are a main cause of death and treatment restrictions worldwide. In K. pneumoniae, efflux pumps system plays a dangerous role in drug resistance. Therefore, this study was designed to investigated the involvement of the AcrA and AcrB efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from wounds patients. During June 2021-February 2022, 87 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria were obtained from wounds samples patients consulted to the hospitals in AL-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. The disc diffusion method was used to perform an antibiotic susceptibility test after microbiological/biochemical identification. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to look at the prevalence of efflux genes (acrA and acrB). The results showed that resistance to Carbenicillin 72(82.7 %), Erythromycin 66(75.8 %), Rifampin 58 (66.6%), Ceftazidime52 (59.7 %), Cefotaxime 44 (50.5 %), Novobiocin 38 (43.6 %),Tetracycline 32 (36.7 %), Ciprofloxacin 22(25.2 %), Gentamicin 16(18.3 %), Nitrofurantoin6(10.3 %) in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The PCR procedure revealed that the occurrence of the acrA and acrB genes is 55 (100%) and 55 (100%), respectively. The findings of this investigation show that the AcrA and AcrB efflux pumps play a key character in antibiotic resistance in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial isolates. As a result of the unintentional transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes, precise detection of resistance genes using molecular approaches is required to switch the extent of resistant strains.
       
  • Systemic interleukin-6 response after intravesical instillation of
           Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and mitomycin C in superficial bladder
           cancer

    • Abstract: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is proposed to play a significant role in pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer (UBC). This role may be influenced by chemotherapy (mitomycin C; MMC) or immunotherapy (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; BCG). A case-control study was conducted to determine IL-6 levels in serum of newly diagnosed cases (NDC) of superficial UBC, as well as in patients treated with MMC or BCG intravesical instillation. A total sample of 111 patients (36 NDC, 45 MMC and 30 BCG) was included, as well as a control group of 107 healthy controls (HC). IL-6 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results revealed that median levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in NDC group (15.8 pg/mL; p < 0.001) compared to MMC and BCG groups (7.5 and 5.3 pg/mL, respectively) or HC (4.4 pg/mL); while, there were no significant differences between the latter three groups (MMC, BCG and HC). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that IL-6 is a very good predictor of UBC in NDC group versus HC (area under the curve = 0.885; 95% confidence interval = 0.828-0.942; p < 0.001; cut-off value = 10.5 pg/mL; Youden index = 0.62; sensitivity = 80.6%; specificity = 81.3%). Logistic regression analysis confirmed this significance and IL-6 was associated with a higher risk of UBC (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.26; p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study indicated that IL-6 level was upregulated in serum of NDC of UBC. Further, IL-6 level was restored to normal levels after intravesical instillation of MMC or BCG.
       
  • THE EFFECT OF EARLY FEEDING AND TRANSPORTING TIME FROM HATCHER TO FARM ON
           THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    • Abstract: Emerging researches suggest that an early feeding approach has a long-term influence on chick growth performance and nutrient metabolism. The present study was designed to determine the effect of early feeding and the time of chicks transferring from the hatchery to the field on productive performance, carcass traits of broiler chicks. 225 chicks, one-day old of broiler chickens Ross 308 with mean live body weight of 45g were used, and were randomly distributed to five treatments by 45 chicks per treatment with three replicates (15 chicks per replicate). The experimental treatments were as follows: T1 (control treatment) – the chicks were transferred 24 hours after hatching to the field without feeding, T2 –the chicks were fed immediately and transferred to the field 24 hours after hatching, T3 – the chicks were fed immediately and transferred to the field 6 hours after hatching, T4 – the chicks were fed immediately and transferred to the field 12 hours after hatching, T5 – the chicks were fed immediately and transferred to the field 18 hours after hatching. The current results showed that no significant (P > 0.05) effects of the experimental treatments on final body live weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. In addition, an insignificant (p > 0.05) effects of the treatments on the weights of carcass, abdominal fat, breast, thigh, back, wing, neck, heart, liver, and gizzard were found. It can be concluded that there was no evidence of a positive effect of early feeding and transporting duration after hatching on productive performance and carcass characteristics of broilers.
       
  • Antifungul activity of phenols compound separated from Quercus infectoria
           and Citrullus colocynthis aginst toxic fungi

    • Abstract: Penicillium expansum is one of the most harmful post-harvest fungal pathogen. Aspergillus flavus is saprotrophic fungal organism with broad distribution producing mycotoxins which are toxic to human and animal. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of phenolic alcohol extract for the dry plants Oak (Quercus infectoria Oliv) and Bitter Melon (Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad). Three concentrations of phenolic alcohol extract of Oak and Bitter Melon (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml) have been prepared, against two fungi Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus flavus. The results showed that all the three concentrations of phenolic extracts gave antifungal activity, the percentage inhibition of diameter growth (PIDG) increased with increasing concentrations. The C. colocynthis extract gave the highest average of PIDG (%38.29) followed by Q. infectoria with an average of PIDG (%34.13) against P. expansum and A. flavus. The A. flavus fungus experienced more potent inhibition, with an average of PIDG (%49.05) than P. expansum with an average of PIDG (%23.37). The results showed that the C. colocynthis extract gave the highest PIDG (%70.7±3.90) followed by Q. infectoria with PIDG (% 31.1±3.335) at a concentration of (300 mg/ml) on P. expansum. While the results for phenolic extracts of C.colocynthis and Q. infectoria on A. flavus showed that the antifungal activity of C. colocynthis extract have the highest PIDG (%72.09±4.10) followed by Q. infectoria with PIDG (% 62.49±3.63) at a concentration of (300 mg/ml). We concluded that the phenolic extracts of Q. infectoria galls and C. colocynthis fruit showed an inhibitory activity against two types of toxin producing fungi, P. expanisum and A. flavus.
       
  • Serological and Molecular Detection of Human Brucellosis in Rural Areas in
           Wasit Province, Iraq

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is endemic in Iraq, and annual surveys using the advances diagnostic assays are needed. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of human brucellosis, in rural areas in Wasit province, using ELISA and PCR. A total of 276 serum samples randomly obtained from participants from different rural areas in Wasit province. The results showed that out of 276 serum samples tested by ELISA, 30.07% were positive samples. Significantly, mild infection was increased when compared to moderate, severe and highly severe infections. To confirm the species of Brucella, seropositive samples were tested by PCR assay targeting BCSP31 gene for Brucell spp. and IS711 gene for B. abortus and B. melitensis. Molecular findings confirmed 30.12% positive samples to Brucella spp., which including 28% and 44% positives to B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively; whereas, 28% positive samples to other undifferentiated species of Brucella. Association between seropositivity and demographic risk factors, age and gender, were reported a significant higher seropositivity among individuals aged 21-40 years (41.91%), and lowered among those aged 20 years (13.56%). For gender, insignificant high rate of positivity was detected in females (36.07%) than males (28.37%). Association between degree of severity of infection and demographic risk factors recorded that mild infection (75%) was increased among individuals of 20 years; while, moderate and severe infections were elevated significantly in groups of 21-40 and 41-60 years. the highly severe infections were appeared obviously in those of 21-40 years (15.91%). Regarding gender, the mild and moderate infections were elevated significantly in males; whereas, severe and highly severe infections were increased significantly in females. In conclusion, this study appears the first random epidemiological study investigated the prevalence of human brucellosis in rural areas in Iraq. Undifferentiated species of Brucella was detected in PCR positive results. Incorporation of molecular techniques for diagnosis will help resolve the Brucella genus, and detection the main sources that play roles in transmission of infection.
       
  • Effects of Malva Parviflora Leafs as the herbal additives on Broilers
           productivity

    • Abstract: Malva parviflora is a leafy vegetable belonging to the family Malvaceae. Medicinal plants have had several vital chemical compounds, with some biological functions. Supplementation of these plants to the animals diets lead to significant betterments in the animals' productivity and health status. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Malva parviflora as a substitute for commercial premix carrier in the poultry diets to see the response on some of the productive and economic traits in broilers. 576 one day old Ross 308 chicks were randomly divided into eight groups with three replicate (24 bird /replicate) per group. Each group was subjected to the one of the following treatments: Tr 1. (Control) contained 2.5% of diet supplemented with homemade premix (with carrier Malva parviflora weed leaves meal), Tr 2. 2.5% provimi premix, Tr 3. 2.5% Turkis hpremix, Tr 4. Dutch premix, Tr 5. 50% homemade premix + 50% provimi premix, Tr 6. 50% homemade premix + 50% Turkish, Tr 7. Homemade premix + 50% Dutch 50% Tr 8. 25% from each four types premixes. Live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, growth rate، Production Index، economic indicator and mortality rate averages were measured to the 5 weeks of age. Result showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) among treatments in weight gains at all periods. Treatment 1،26،5 ،4، showed the highest weight gain at 5 weeks of age;however, Tr.3،7 showed the lowest value. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the rate of feed consumption among treatments during the different periods. Birds in Tr.3 consumed the highest amount of feed compared with control, Also there was significant differences in feed conversion ratio among all treatment groups at all periods where ,The highest value was found in (Tr.3), and the lowest value was recorded in Tr.1.At least there was large differences in cost of locally premix which recorded the cheapest and lowest value about 1300 U.S.A$ less in every ton compared with the commercial premixes
       
  • Quantification of acute and chronic Theileriosis in sheep by quantitative
           PCR (qPCR)

    • Abstract: Small ruminants theileriosis are widespread in Iraq andacute infections usually with hight mortality. However, the survived animals suffer from low production of meat and milk. Coinfection with more than Theileria sp.And/or Anaplasmosis could have an impact on the disease severity. The main finding was identifying T. lestoquardi, T.ovis ,T.annulata,blood samples of infected sheep with a history of chronic theileriosis (n=48) and with acute clinical theileriosis sign (n=24) were being collected from fields located in Babylon province (middle of Iraq)after chlinical examination and Polymerase chain reaction and real time PCR were performed for detection.Theileria.lestoquardi was the highest of these species within the acute and chronic cases.As well as, the load of this species in acute cases was significantly higher (P<0.01) to that in chronic. However, the load of T. ovis and T. annualta were similar in acute and chronic cases. Importantly, all these cases were coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophylum. This could be due to the infection of leukocytes meanwhile weakening of the animal’s immune system. Also, these parasites transmitted by the same tick-vector. The impact of this finding could help in disease prevention and diagnosis.
       
  • Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Persistent Bacterial Coinfection
           of a COVID-19 Patients with Molecular Detection of Antibiotics Resistance
           Genes

    • Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have a considerable risk to public health in the world, due to its high ability to develop resistance to different classes of antibiotics. It has been discovered as a prevalent coinfection pathogen that causes sickness exacerbation in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. aeruginosa from COVID-19 patients in Al Diwaniyah province, Iraq and to identify its genetic resistance pattern. 70 clinical samples were obtained from severe cases of patients (RT-PCR positive for SARS-COV-2 on a nasopharyngeal swab) who attended Al Diwaniyah Academic Hospital. 50 P. aeruginosa bacterial isolates were detected via microscopic examination, routine cultured and biochemical testing, then validated by the VITEK-2 compact system. VITEK reported 30 positive results, which later confirmed through molecular detection using 16s RNA specific for detection and a phylogenetic tree.20 isolates had positive PCR findings and 5 isolates submitted to GenBank with accession numbers OL314557.1, OL314556.1, OL314555.1, OL314554.1, OL314553.1.For antibiotic resistance genes, the number of the isolates containing blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M 18 (90 percent) and 16 (80 percent) respectively. To study its adaptation in a SARS-CoV-2 infected environment, genomic sequencing investigations were undertaken with phenotypic validation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa play an important role in in vivo colonization in COVID-19 patients and could be one of the causes of death of these patients which indicates the great challenge to clinicians in the facing of this serious disease.
       
  • Detection of antibiotic resistance genes (CTX-M, Van A & Van B) of
           Enterococcus faecalis isolated from children with bacteremia by RT-PCR

    • Abstract: Fever is one of the most common diseases that affect humans, as it is the result of any disease or development and worsening of the disease for most people with general infections in the body. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance genes (CTX-M, Van A & Van B) of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from children with bacteremia by RT-PCR. A total of 200 child was enrolled in the study, 100 child with fever and 100 healthy child (not suffering from any problem), that is, they are a control group for detection of antibiotic resistance genes (CTX-M, Van A&B) of Enterococcus faecalis by RT-PCR. The age of the two groups ranged from one to five years. Four ml of venous blood sample was collected from each child; the venipuncture area was sterilized first with alcohol at a rate of 70%, followed by medical iodine and then sterilized with alcohol again to avoid contamination with skin flora. The blood samples were cultured on media for isolating bacteria. Then, the resistant isolates of E. faecalis to vancomycin and cefotaxime antibiotic were taken and kept in special nutrient agar media where the DNA of the bacteria was extracted using (Zymogene Extraction kit, Japan). The detection of the exact genes (CTX-M, Van A&B) was done using Real Time PCR technology according to the protocol mentioned by the company (Sacace biotechnology, Italy). The study presented that, 40% of children with fever have positive blood culture compared with 5% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.001). The study found that, 32.5% of bacteremic children were due S. aureus, 30%, 5%, 4% was due to E. faecalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp, respectively with significant difference (P<0.01).
       
  • Prevalence of Anti-Human Herpes virus type 7 IgG Positivity Rate among
           Children with Fever and Skin Rash in Diyala province-Iraq

    • Abstract: Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is a T-lymphotropic virus which was first isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a beta herpes viruses. It is highly prevalent virus since over 90% of adults were seropositive. The majority of primary infection occurs in early childhood and its prevalence peaks at 60 % in 11–13-year-old. This study was designed to investigate the seroprevalence of HHV- 7 infection among apparently healthy children as well as child patients with fever and skin rash in Diyala community and its association with certain socio-demographic variables. The current study is a cross-sectional conducted in Diyala province-Iraq which was extended from July 2020 to March 2021.A total 180 child patients with fever and skin rash were included. Their age range was (1 -14) years. Additionally, 60 apparently healthy age matched children were enrolled as control group. Special questionnaire was prepared for this study including socio-demographic information, clinical notes and the results of complete blood count. The human privacy was esteemed through obtaining parent’s verbal approval. Blood specimen was aspirated from all study groups. Sera were separated and kept at -20 0C until tested. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detection of anti-HHV-7 IgG were used (Mybiosource-China). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 27, and P value was considered significant wherever it was less than 0.05. The anti-HHV-7 IgG positivity rate in patients was 19.4%, and that in healthy individuals was 31.7% with insignificant difference (P= 0.051). The highest HHV-7 IgG positivity rate was found among patients 1-4 years old, matching that in the healthy group with statistically insignificant difference (P= 0.675). Regarding the gender, residence and number of children/ family were all insignificantly affects the distribution of HHV-7 IgG in control group. The mean ± SD of hemoglobulin (Hb) concentration among participants with negative anti-HHV-7 IgG compared to their positive counterpart was insignificant (P= 0.987). The mean ± SD of total WBC count among those positive for anti-HHV-7 IgG was insignificantly higher compared to their negative counterpart (P= 0.945).
       
  • Prevalence, Haematological and Molecular Studies of
           HaemonchusContortusIsolated from Goat at AL-Muthanna province, Iraq

    • Abstract: Parasitic infections, especially helminthes infections of the gastrointestinal tract due to the latent symptoms play a very important role in the growth and efficiency of ruminants.The current research was performed to determine the prevalence of haemonchosis in goats and effect of some risk factors such as age, sex, and months on the infection rate. Also, our study includes investigate the hematological and biochemical changes in the haemonchosis-infected goat, then, utilized the PCR technique to confirm the H. contortus diagnosis in goats. The result of epidemiological study revealed that only 73 out of 693 examined goats were positive to infect with Haemonchus spp. at infection rate of (10.53%). The incidence of Haemonchosis was related to climatic conditions, with the highest (23.07 %) and lowest (4.34 %) percentages occurring in October and June, respectively. Furthermore, the highest (14.01 %) and lowest (4.76 %) infection percentages were recorded in goats aged > 5 years and 9 months to 2 years old, respectively. According to sex, infection percentages were (14.24%) and (7.02 %) for female and male respectively.Hematological and biochemical parameters results revealed that infected goats suffering from gradual decline in Hb concentration, pocket cell volume, total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count, lymphocyte, neutrophil, total serum protein and albumin, while, eosinophil count was increased significantly. Also, serum enzymes ALP, ALT, and AST showed significant increases in infected goats. The result of PCR were showed that specific primers (HcI-F, HcI-R ) were successfully for amplifying the ITS-2 rDNA gene with 295bp -long fragment to H. controtus.Due to the effect of age, sex and season on H. contortusinfection, it is very important to have control and prevention programs and treatment schedule in the herd.
       
  • First Molecular investigation of lumpy Skin Disease in Buffaloes Using the
           Qualitative and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays, Iraq

    • Abstract: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is one of the most important infectious bovine diseases in Iraq in the last 10 years; however, the current study represents the first investigation to confirm the disease in buffaloes as well as ticks with estimation the association of positivity to clinical vital signs and risk factors. A total of 150 buffaloes were subjected for blood sampling, skin lesions and ticks. All the collected samples; 150 blood, 13 skin lesions, and 29 tick samples, were examined molecularly using the conventional and real-time PCR assays. The total positive results of blood, skin and ticks by conventional PCR were 5.33, 7.69 and 0%, respectively; while for real-time PCR, it was 15.33, 7.69 and, 0%, respectively. Insignificant differences were showed between values of temperature, pulse and respiratory rates of LSD positive and negative buffaloes by the conventional and real-time PCR assays. The association of positive conventional PCR results to risk factors (age, sex and region) was revealed a significant increase in prevalence and risk of LSD in buffaloes aged  1 year; but for gender, insignificant variation in prevalence but not risk was seen between females and males. In case of different geographical region, significant higher prevalence was reported in Wasit; while, buffaloes of Maysan and Wasit were appeared at higher risk than those of Dhi-Qar. Regarding real-time PCR, insignificant differences were found between values of  1, 1-4 and  4-8 years age old, but not in group of 8 that showed a significant decline in positivity (0%). For sex, insignificant variation in prevalence, but not risk, was seen between females and males. Concerning region, buffaloes of Wasit province were recorded a significant higher values of prevalence and risk than other regions. LSD in buffaloes is mainly sub-acute, and PCR appeared to be a suitable diagnostic method in detection of infection; however, furthermore studies are necessary.
       
  • Application of a multiplex PCR assay for Molecular Identification of
           pathogenic and non - pathogenic leptospires based on lipL32 and 16S rRNA
           genes

    • Abstract: Leptospirosis is a serious zoonotic infection and the most prevalence disease is in the tropical and subtropical region. The definitive diagnosis of Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira infection is already using culture methods, serological tests such as the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and molecular detection methods (PCR) are possible. In this study, we used multiplex PCR method for detection of pathogenic and non - pathogenic Leptospira based on lipL32 and 16S rRNA genes. All serovars were obtained from the Leptospira Reference Laboratory of Microbiology Department, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. The PCR product for the lipL32 and 16S rRNA genes was 272 bp and 240 bp respectively. The sensitivity amplification for the multiplex assay was 10-6 pg / μl for 16S rRNA gene and 10-4 pg / μl for lipL32 gene. The sensitivity for multiplex PCR was 10-3 pg / μl. The results supported the idea that multiplex PCR can be used to detect Leptospira samples. This method was also able to differentiate between saprophytic and pathogenic leptospires and was able to do so much easily than conventional methodologies. Due to the slow growth of Leptospira and the importance of time in diagnosis, molecular methods such as PCR are suggested.
       
  • Secretory excretory and somatic immunogenic antigens profiles of adult
           Fasciola spp.

    • Abstract: Fascioliasis is a common human-animal disease that is reported in most parts of the world. Fascioliasis is also prevalent in different provinces of Iran. Since it has done no study on the excretory/secretory and somatic immunogenic antigens profiles of adult Fasciola in Iran, therefore, the present study was performed on the Fasciola collected from Mazandaran province. For this purpose, the Fasciola worm was isolated from the liver of infected sheep, then its excretory/secretory and somatic antigens were prepared from adult worms. The protein of the samples was measured by the Lowry method. Then, somatic and secretory excretions were examined by SDS-PAGE and the protein profile of the two substances was determined. To evaluate the immunogenicity, the somatic and secretory excretions antigens of Fasciola were injected into white rabbits and after boosting, the blood serum of the rabbits was collected and then Western blotting was performed on them and the results were evaluated. According to the results of Western blotting, 11 somatic antigen bands with a molecular weight of 149,122, 99,85,75,65,50,46,40,37,30 kDa and 12 protein bands of excretory/secretory antigens with molecular weights of 100,82,75,70,58,55,47,40,38,37,30,25 kDa were observed in adult Fasciola that immunogenic, which appear to have a protective effect or can be used to prepare a diagnostic kit.
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of Vitamin B12 in Acetaminophen Induce
           Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats

    • Abstract: Acetaminophen toxicity can be treated with vitamin B12, according to some medical studies. Acetaminophen poisoned rats are the subject of the current study, which examines the effects of vitamin B12 on their health. Male Wister rats were used in this research. There were three groups of animals: acetaminophen (750 ml/kg), vitamin B12 (0.63 g/kg), and distilled water (750 ml/kg). All animals were given oral medication for seven days. On the seventh day, the animal was sacrificed. The plasma levels of Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Glutathion (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Caspase3, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the cardiac blood samples. Vitamin B12 lowers liver enzyme levels in the blood, increases overall antioxidant levels in the blood, and compensates for tissue glutathione deficiency while lowering serum elevations. TNF-α and interleukin-6 levels are also reduced by caspase3. Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were both considerably reduced by vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 was found to have a protective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, according to this study.
       
  • Detection of virulence factors from Candida spp. Isolated from oral and
           vaginal candidiasis in Iraqi patients

    • Abstract: Yeast-like fungi (YLF) of the genus Candida are unicellular microorganisms of relatively large size and rounded shape, aerobes, and belong to conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. The genus Candida includes approximately 150 species, which are classified as Deuteromycetes due to the absence of a sexual stage of development. This study aimed to identify virulence factors from Candida spp. isolated from oral and vaginal candidiasis. Fifty-eight oral and vaginal swab specimens were collected from patients, including (28) oral swabs from children and (30) vaginal swabs from different infected women. All isolates were subjected to direct examination, Morphological tests, Germ tube formation, growth at 45ºC, CHROM agar Candida culture, and VITEK 2 Compact system to ensure this diagnosis. (31) isolates were identified as Candida spp., including (21) (C. albicans (14), C. glabrata (1), C. guilliermondii (2), C. dubliniensis (3), C. parapsilosis (1)) were isolated from oral swabs and (10) isolates included C. parapsilosis (4), C. albicans (6) were isolated from vaginal swabs. Moreover, these isolates had been detected to have some virulence factors, including phospholipase, esterase, proteinase, coagulase, hemolysin, and biofilm formation. Different species of Candida were isolated and identified from oral and vaginal. Phospholipase (Pz), Esterase (Ez), and Proteinase (Prz) were produced by 19( 61.29%), 16 ( 51.61%), and 26(83.87%), respectively, out of 31 isolates, whereas. All isolates produce coagulase enzyme except C. dubliniensis, which did not produce coagulase enzyme. All Candida spp. isolates produce hemolysin and biofilm formation in different percentages.
       
  • Diagnosis of oral candidiasis in patients under 12 years: 18S rRNA as a
           marker of molecular characterization of Candida tropicalis

    • Abstract: Candida tropicalis infection is highly related with the presence of several virulence factors that encoded by some genes , Among them secretion enzymes, adhesion, biofilms formation and phenotypic switching in oral candidiasis . The aims of this work to diagnosis of C.tropicalis depending on the presence of 18SrRNA and also to detect several virulence genes molecularly , this study conducted in Al-Rifai General Hospital and Mohammad Al- Mousawi Children′s Hospital in Nasiriyah city for the period from the beginning of January until the end of October 2020. 150 samples were collected from children infected with oral thrush and their ages ranged from newborns to 12 years. C.tropicalis isolates were obtained from patients with oral candidiasis. In current study five types were isolated of Candida genus, C.albicans (66.68%) , C. tropicalis (13.21%), C. krusie (9.43%), C.parapsilosis (7.55%) and C.glabrata (2.83%). 18SrRNA gene was confirmed in the isolates . All isolates were positive for cph1 and hwp1, and other were positive to sap1(78.5 %) and plb1(71.4%) genes .There was inconsiderable genetic variation to local isolates when compared with global strains when using sequences and phylogenetic tree. Generally the presence of these virulence factor genes has a major role in causing infections.
       
  • The effects of Metformin treatment on diabetic albino rats' pancreas,
           liver, and kidney histology

    • Abstract: Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, has traditionally been considered the standard therapy for hyperglycemia. Metformin's several modes of action include inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, anti-glucagon activity, and insulin-sensitizing effect. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of Metformin on the liver, pancreatic, and kidney tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Twenty mature albino white male rats were allocated at random into two groups. Intraperitoneal injections of alloxan monohydrate were utilised to induce diabetic Mellitus type II in the first ten rats. The second group of rats were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline. Both groups were then separated into four subgroups: Group 1 consisted of non-diabetic rats that were only administered distilled water (control), Group 2 consisted of non-diabetic rats that were administered metformin at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, and Group 3 consisted of diabetic control animals that were administered alloxan intravenously and distilled water orally, but were not given any medications. After seven days of DM induction, diabetic rats were administered Metformin at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day orally. After one month of therapy, the animals were slaughtered and their organs were harvested. Compared to the control group, the histological results of pancreatic tissue were normal in the treatment groups. In contrast, liver and kidney sections from non-diabetic control, non-diabetic, and diabetic animals given 1000 mg/kg/day of Metformin had normal histology. Still, both tissues of untreated diabetic control mice exhibited lymphocyte infiltration. Metformin has been found to have significant blood glucose lowering properties and the capacity to protect several organs from the negative consequences of diabetes.
       
  • Effect of non-nutritive sweeteners on antibacterial activity of black and
           green tea aqueous extracts against salivary mutans streptococci (in-vitro
           study)

    • Abstract: Herbal medicines, such as plants and their constituents, have been used globally to treat and cure disorders since antiquity, long before the discovery of modern drugs. Some of these items require an addition to make them more appealing to consumers. This study is an in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of tea (black and green tea aqueous extracts) against salivary Mutans streptococci, followed by an analysis of the effect of non-nutritive sweeteners on the antibacterial activity of these extracts against salivary Mutans streptococci. The examined bacteria were sensitive to various doses of black and green tea aqueous extract, with the inhibition zone expanding as the concentration of the extracts rose. At a dosage of 225mg/ml for black tea extracts and 200mg/ml for green tea extracts, all Mutans isolates were destroyed. In this trial, 1% stevia or sucralose did not inhibit the antibacterial activity of any tea extract, nor did 5% stevia inhibit the antimicrobial activity of black tea extract. In addition, this concentration inhibits the antimicrobial properties of green tea extracts. In this investigation, it found that increasing the content of nonnutritive sweeteners interfered with the antibacterial activity of black and green tea aqueous extract against salivary Mutans streptococci.
       
  • Investigation of the clinical and diagnostic aspects of Peste des Petits
           Ruminants (PPR) in sheep from the southern region of Iraq

    • Abstract: In the southern region of Iraq, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) has been identified and diagnosed. The study was done on (300) local sheep breeds of varying ages and sexes exhibiting PPR symptoms, while (25), healthy sheep breeds served as the control group. Additionally, the diagnosis of PPRV was confirmed by PCR. Infected sheep exhibit a variety of clinical symptoms. However, DNA sequencing was used to detect genetic links and genetic variation, and the results revealed a closed genetic relationship with the NCBI BLAST PPRV India isolate (GU014574.1) at total genetic variation (0.02-0.01%). Results indicate a large rise in PCV and ESR in conjunction with leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia, a significant difference in clotting factor indices, and a significant increase in ALT, AST, and CK. In addition, there was a substantial variation in acute phase response. Postmortem examinations revealed various erosive lesions on the upper and lower gums, severe hemorrhagic enteritis, particularly of the small intestine, and obvious congestion of the lungs. Histopathological changes revealed an obvious flattening of the intestinal mucosa as well as an enlargement of the villi. In addition to a granuloma in the sub-mucosa, chronic inflammatory cells, primarily lymphocytes, were seen invading the mucosa. It has been determined that the sickness was circulating in the southern region of Iraq and severely afflicted sheep, which might result in significant economic losses owing to the detrimental effects of the virus that causes the disease on the various bodily parts.
       
  • The histopathological and oxidative stress profiles in Japanese quails
           (Coturnix japonica) induced by dietary lead

    • Abstract: In their native habitat, avians are exposed to external toxicity factors, the most prominent of which are chemical lead compounds that threaten human and animal health. The goal of this investigation was to estimate the adverse effects of lead acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2 (H2O)3) on the health status of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). 18 adult male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were employed in this investigation. After two weeks of acclimatization, the birds were randomly divided into three groups: the control group received no Pb+2, the Low Dose Group received 50 mg/kg of Pb+2 as lead acetate Pb(CH3COO)2 (H2O)3 in the diet, and the High Dose Group received 100 mg/kg of Pb+2 as lead acetate Pb(CH3COO)2(H2O)3 in the diet, for 30 days. Results showed that the Pb bioaccumulation was recorded at the highest values in the liver compared with the kidney, and as expected, the ranges of the lead accumulation were significantly higher in the animals who received 100 mg/kg Pb compared with animals who received 50 mg/kg Pb and the control group. In the high dose group, serum content showed significantly increased levels (P≤0.05) of aminotransferase enzymes (ALT and AST ), glucose, creatinine, and uric acid levels compared to other groups, while antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GSH, and GSH-PX) levels in the liver and kidney were significantly reduced (P≤0.05). The results showed that the MDA appeared to be significantly increasing (P≤0.05) in the high dose group compared to the other groups. Compared to the low dose and control groups, the high dosage group produced substantial histological abnormalities in the liver and kidney.
       
  • The effect of active compounds and trace elements extracted from Artemisia
           fruit on some liver enzymes in humans

    • Abstract: Artemisia is a perennial wild shrub with large branches and compound leaves. Artemisia contains about 400 types, and its medical importance is due to the presence of many active substances and compounds such as volatile oils, alkaloids and flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, and coumarins. This study was designed to study the effect of the aqueous extract of the fruit of the Artemisia plant on the organs of the body, as well as to know its ability to activate the hepatic enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT/GPT). The fruit of this shrub was extracted using the measurement technique gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MASS) and organic solvent hexane and ethyl acetate in one to one ratio. It contained 21 compounds, a high percentage of their terpenes, essential aromatic oils, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds. The results showed a significant improvement in the enzyme (ALT/GPT) level after adding different concentrations of hot aqueous extract to the fruit of the Artemisia plant. The fruit of the Artemisia plant can be used to treat many diseases and improve the activity of liver enzymes.
       
  • The relation between increasing anxiety and prolactin-releasing peptide in
           Rats

    • Abstract: PrRP, also known as prolactoliberin, is a bovine hypothalamic extract neurohormone that stimulates prolactin synthesis in a rat pituitary adenoma cell line and lactating rat pituitary cells. PrRP has been shown to control the intake of food and energy expenditure, but it may also have a role in stress sensitivity, reproduction, cardia productivity, secretion of endocrine components, and lately, neuroprotective characteristics, among others. The current study was performed to identify if prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) had any effect in increasing anxiety clinical features in rats as an animal model. The study included 114 Wistar handling-acclimated male rats (160 gm, 2 months old); divided randomly into three major groups. The rats were divided randomly into three major groups (38-control animals (38C), and 38-PrRP animals (38P), both were examined using the EPM test to test for stress-related signs, such as fear of height (5 mins duration for each rat). The maze was cleaned with water to eliminate the previous rat odor after the experiment for each rat was completed. The tests were performed between 13:00 to 17:00 of the day. Then, a week later, 38(19-PrRP animals (19P) and 19-control animals (19C)) were examined using the SP test conducted between 13:00 to 16:00 of the day. Fifteen minutes before EPM, the 38C received intranasal 0.9%-10µl NaCl (per nostril), and 38P received intranasal 10-10mol/l-10 µl PrRP (per nostril), and the anxiety-related signs, such as time spent in open arms (less time means more anxious), during the EPM test were recorded. The 19P and 19C received 10-10mol/l-10µl PrRP and 0.9%-10µl NaCl, respectively, (intranasal, per nostril, and 15 minutes before the SP test, where a stranger rat was placed in a specific cage in front of each of the 19P and 19C animals in a separate cage, in which both cages provided visual and olfactory but no confrontational contact). The results showed that PrRP significantly (p˂0.05) decreased the time spent by the treated rats on the open arms.
       
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation of arginine-silicate- Inositol and
           Phytase Complex on Egg Quality, Egg Shell Strength, and Blood Biochemical
           Characteristics of Laying Hens

    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effects of Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; Arg = 49.47 %, silicone = 8.2 %, inositol = 25 %) supplementation on egg quality, shell strength, and blood biochemical traits of laying hens, as well as the effects of substituting inositol with varying concentrations of phytase on the traits as mentioned above. 90 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 26 weeks old, were randomly distributed in 6 treatments with 3 replicates (cage) and 5 birds per replicate. The isocaloric and isonitrogenic diets are used according to the age period requirements of the Lohmann Brown Classic management guideline. The treatments were as follows: 1ST treatment T1: received basal diet without additives, T2 received basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate mixture (49.5±8.2 % respectively),T3 received basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate- inositol ( ASI ) mixture (49.5, 8.2 , 25 % respectively), T4 received basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate mixture (49.5±8.2 % respectively) +500 FTU/kg, T5 received basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate mixture (49.5±8.2 % respectively) +1000 FTU/kg and T6 received basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate mixture (49.5±8.2 % respectively) +1000 FTU/kg +2000 FTU/kg. Results indicate a significant increase (P <0.05) in the relative yolk weight in T4, T5, and T6 (26.93, 26.83, 26.77%) compared to T1 (25.84%) and a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in T4, T5 compared to T3 (26.02%), while no differences observed between T2 (26.17%) compared to other experimental treatments. The relative albumin weight significantly decreased (P≤ 0.05) in phytase supplementation treatments T4, T5, and T6 (63.21, 63.05, 63.22%) compared to T1, T2, T3 (64.99, 64.30, 64.08%), while a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) observed in T3 compared to T1. The relative shell weight significantly increased (P≤ 0.05) in T3, T4, T5, and T6 (9.90, 9.86, 10.12, 10.02%), respectively, compared to T1, T2 (9.17, 9.53%) with a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in relative shell weight in T2 compared to T1. The eggshell thickness significantly increased (P≤ 0.05) in T3, T4, T5, T6 treatments (0.409, 0.408, 0.411, 0.413 mm), respectively compared to T1, T2 (0.384, 0.391 mm).
       
  • Analysis of proinflammatory cytokines in COVID -19 patients in Baghdad,
           Iraq

    • Abstract: Due to the pandemic of COVID -19 disease and the fact that the effective variables in the severity and control of the disease have not been established, numerous factors have been investigated, including the study of inflammatory factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the proinflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID -19, conducted in Baghdad, Iraq. The age of the patients was above > (15) years old, with confirmed infection documented by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The subjects were 132 patients, 69 (52.3%) males, and 63 (47.7 %) females. Patients were divided into three pathological groups: mild patients (45), moderate patients (34), and severe patients (53), each group was divided into four weeks according to symptoms onset date. The most common clinical symptoms were cough, fever, and headache, while sore throat, gastrointestinal symptoms, chest pain, and loss of taste and smell were less common in COVID -19 patients. Sandwich-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits were used to evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. The results IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated in mild during the four weeks with (p=0.0071) and (0.0266) respectively, levels of IL-1β were increased with highly significant differences (p=0.0001) while levels of IL-8 were decreased with highly significant differences (p=0.0001) during the four weeks. In moderate patients, levels of (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) increased without significance (p=0.661, 0.074, 0.0651), respectively; in contrast, the levels of TNF-α increased with significant (p= 0.0452) across four weeks. Severe COVID-19 patients showed significantly increased differences in levels of (IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα) (p= 0.0438, 0.0348, 0.0447), respectively, while no significant differences in the level of IL-1β (p= 0.0774). This study showed that investigating inflammatory factors in the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial in controlling and treating.
       
  • Isolation and molecular identification of salmonellapullorum from broiler
           chicken in Iraqi fields

    • Abstract: Pullorum disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases in the world, with devastating consequences. In the chicken sector, there have been financial losses. It is brought on bySalmonella enteric subspecies serovar Gallinarum biovar pullorum; definitive detection requires culture followed bybiochemistry analysis and serotyping. This study aimed to verify the presence of bacteria by culture, biochemical characterization, PCR assay, and sequencing. One hundred samples were collected from 12 broiler chicken flocks of different ages for 8districts of Baghdad province, including cloacal swabs (65), visceral organs (15), and dropping (20). Salmonella colonies were identified byselective culture broth and agar with biochemical description for 75% of the total samples, with a higher incidence in visceral organs than dropping and cloacal swabs. ،The Sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis of 16S rRNA gene for representative Salmonella isolates. The presence of Salmonella Pullorumisolates in global genetic strains; was revealed a matching NCBI isolates similarity of 99.02% with (MF445124.1) and 98% with (MH352164.1), respectively. In the current state of molecular and genetic research, phlyogentic research announced the real presence of SalmonellaPullorumin Baghdadprovince's broiler chicken, also showing the phylogentic characteristics and links to some global isolates. The detection of SalmonellaPullorumin broiler flocks of the current study extent of health risks to other uninfected birds present in the free range.
       
  • Effect of melatonin implants and nutritional restriction on growth
           performance of local male lambs

    • Abstract: This experiment was conducted in the sheep field of the Department of Animal Production at the College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, for the period from 17 Oct. 2021 to 9 Jan.2022. It included 16 local male lambs, their ages ranged between 5-6 months, with an average weight of 35.31± 3.72 kg. The objective of this experiment was to identify the effect of melatonin implants and nutritional restriction on the nutritional and growth performance of local male lambs. Lambs were randomly distributed into four equal groups (4 lambs/group) and placed in individual pens. The duration of the actual experiment was 69 days, and it was divided into two stages, the first stage of nutritional restriction was 42 days, and the second stage of re-alimentation was 27 days. In the stage of nutritional restriction, the first group (T1) was fed on Ad libitum as a control treatment, while the second group (T2) was fed on Ad libitum with melatonin implants at a dose of 36 mg subcutaneous-ear implanted, the third group (T3) was fed on a restricted diet (R) of 75 % of the Ad libitum, while the fourth group (T4) was fed on a restricted diet of 75% of the Ad libitum with melatonin implants at a dose of 36 mg subcutaneous-ear implanted. In the stage of re-alimentation, the feed was provided freely and for all experimental treatments until the end of the re-alimentation stage.
       
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation of arginine-silicate- Inositol and
           Phytase Complex on performance and blood biochemical traits of laying hens
           

    • Abstract: Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; Arg = 49.47%, silicone = 8.2%, inositol = 25%) is a novel, bioavailable source of Si and Arg and may offer potential benefits for laying hens' performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Arginine-Silicate and inositol/phytase on the performance of laying hens. A total of 90 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replicates (5 birds per replicate). The treatments were as follows: 1ST treatment PC: positive Control group (basal diet without additives (, 2nd treatment: basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate complex (49.5±8.2 % respectively), 3d treatment: basal diet +1000 mg/kg arginine-silicate- inositol (ASI) complex (49.5, 8.2 , 25 % respectively) , 4th treatment: T 2 +500 FTU/kg , 5th treatment: T2 +1000 FTU/kg and 6th treatment :T2+2000 FTU/kg . Results indicate a significant increase (P <0.05) in hen house production (H.H. pro.%) of T5 (95.06 %)compared with T1(91.67%) and no significant differences between T2, T3, T4, T6 (91.84, 93.21, 93.46, 92.98%) and compared with T1 and T5. were no significant difference observed in average egg weight and egg mass between the experimental treatments all over the period. Daily feed intake (DFI) significantly decreased (P <0.05) with supplementing diets with deferent levels of phytase with arginine–silicate mixture T4, T5, andT6 (113.56،113.06، 112.10 g) compared with T1(114.34 g ) which has no significant differences compared with T2 and T3 (113.96, 113.92 g). Phytase supplementation significantly (P <0.05) improved FCR g feed/egg in T5 (119.02) compared with T1 and T2 (124.89, 124.32), while no significant differences between T3.T4.T6 treatments (122.39, 121.80, 120.69) respectively and compared with other treatments. The experimental treatments observed no significant difference in g feed/ g egg.
       
  • Effect of Bovine Milk on Implant Osseointegration: an in vivo Study

    • Abstract: Back ground: It is recognized that the success of implant dentistry depends on several factors that may related to biochemical properties and modification in mechanical properties.The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of using bovine milk as an irrigant solution on implant osseointegration.Methods: Preparation of implant socket was done by drilling of bone holes in 20 femurs of the rabbits at steady rotation speeds with different irrigate solutions (normal saline / commercial pasteurized bovine milk). Mechanical test and histological investigation were performed for estimation of removal torque record and implant contact area, BIC .Results: Findings illustrate that implant contact area (BIC) and removal torque mean values are higher in experimental in comparison to control with more bone apposition and maturation at 4&8 week measured periods .Conclusions: Osseointegration is accelerated by using bovine milk in an irrigation and rinsing of implant socket
       
  • The Role of Selenium on the Status of Mineral Elements and Some Blood
           Parameters of Blood Serum of Lambs

    • Abstract: Background: Selenium is one of the compounds belonging to the trace minerals group, which needs less than 100 mg/day. This element is one of the main constituents of selenoproteins, and the function of selenoproteins is to help make DNA and protect cells from damage and infection. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of different sources of selenium on some mineral elements in the blood serum of lambs.Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted using twenty 4-month-old lambs with an average weight of 37± 2.2 kg, 4 treatments, and 5 replications in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments tested included control, sodium selenite, nanoselenium, and VitEsel. The duration of the experiment was 30 days and blood sampling of lambs was performed at the beginning of the experiment (zero), 15, and 30 days.Results: Different sources of selenium showed a significant effect on the concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc (P<0.05). Different sources of selenium in this experiment decreased the concentration of iron, and copper and increased the concentration of zinc and plasma selenium in different periods of the experiment (P<0.05).Conclusion: The use of different sources of selenium changed the concentration of the studied elements and shows the difference in their bioavailability.
       
  • Effect of different levels of metabolizing energy on productive
           performance of two grower quail strains

    • Abstract: Two strains birds of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), 250 birds of desert and 250 birds of white color, with one day old and not sexed, 5 treatments, with 5 contained 50 replicates in any treatment. These treatments included 5 levels of metabolism energy 2700, 2800, 2900, 3000 and 3100 Kcal / Kg diet. The research included one stage with 1-42 days of birds old. The results confirmed a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for strain, metabolism energy levels and overlap them on body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (g feed: g weight gain), water consumption, water conversion ratio (ml : g weight gain), protein conversion ratio(g protein : g weight gain), energy conversion ratio(Kcal. : g weight gain), carcass weight, in addition to albumin and triglyceride. So the results showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for metabolism energy levels and the interaction on feed consumption, protein consumption, edible giblets percentage, tenderness and juiciness. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were recorded for the level of metabolism energy on total cholesterol. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) have found for the interaction on mortality percentage. Net return (Iraqi Dinar/Kg live weight) for desert quail better than white, 2900 Kcal./Kg diet and The interaction effect of desert strain with 2900 Kcal.
       
  • Documentation of genetic diversity by Insulin-Like Growth Factor1 Receptor
           (Exon2) gene for Fallow deer (Dama dama) in Iraq

    • Abstract: Insulin Like Growth Factor1 Receptor (Exon2) (IGF1R) gene plays an important role in physiological impacts, as growth, development, reproduction, and metabolism. there is a significant difference (P≤0.05) were noted between IGR1R (exon 2) gene with body weight of Dama dama. In addition, the heterozygosity pattern (AB) was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than the other pattern (AA). There are three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 144G˃C, 147A˃G and 210A˃C) within IGF-1R (exon 2) locus. The statistical analyses indicated the presence of three different haplotypes (GAA, CAA and GGC). The analysis of relative frequencies indicated that the most frequent haplotype in the studied Dama dama population was Hap3 (GGC) of (43.4782%) out of the other observed three haplotypes. The results of SSCP-PCR were revealed the variability of target gene between the genotype frequencies in Fallow deer (Dama dama) with high level of significant (P≤0.01) with two patterns (AA and AB) and absent of BB pattern. The allele frequency of AA record the high level (71.74%) than the other genotype (AB) (28.26%), with high frequency level of A allele (0.86) than B allele (0.14). In current findings, SSCP genotyped in the Dama dama DNA observed an estimated 72% monomorphic loci, and 28% polymorphic loci approximately. Hardy Weinberg equilibrium test (H.W.) was applied to the SSCP-PCR data matrix and the statistical test was based on a chi-square (χ2) test. Chi-square was (55.928%) with high significant level (P≤0.01) was recorded in present study. As related with AA and AB genotypes mean, there is a significant difference (P≤0.05) were noted between IGF1R (exon 2) gene with body weight of Dama dama as well as the heterozygosity pattern (AB) was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than the other pattern (AA) (30.34±3.01kg versus 24.85±1.94kg) respectively. A significant impact (P≤0.05) between IGF1R (exon2) polymorphism and heart girth was founded to be related with (heterozygous) AB pattern (76.92 ± 3.20 cm), whereas the lower value was related with AA pattern (71.33 ± 2.49 cm). As related with body length and height at shoulder, there are no significant differences effects were showed.
       
  • Effect of Adding Cordyceps sinensis Extract and Probiotic to the Diet on
           productive performance of broiler

    • Abstract: Abstract: This study was carried out at the poultry farm of animal production Dep. College of Agriculture –University of Anbar during the period from 28/10/2021 to 8/12/2021 (42 days), to show the effect of adding Cordyceps sinensis (C.S.) extract and a probiotic in productive performance of broilers. 210 chicks one day unsexed chicks of strain (Ross 308) were used with an average weight of 40 g, randomly distributed into 7 treatments, and each treatment containing 3 replicates (10 chicks/replicate) and treatments were as follows: T1: was a control without any addition to the diet, T2 and T3 adding C.S extract at a level of 300 and 600 mg/kg feed respectively, T4 and T5 adding a probiotic at the level of 3 and 6 gm/kg feed respectively, T6 adding of C.S extract at a level of 300 mg/kg feed + the probiotic at a level of 3 gm/kg feed, T7 adding of C.S extract at a level of 600 mg/kg feed + the probiotic at a level of 3g/kg fodder. 6 g / kg feed. The results showed a significant superiority (P≤0.05) in favor of the treatments T6 and T7, which included the mixture of C.S extract and the probiotic in the average body weight at the sixth week, over the rest of the treatments except for the T3 treatment which included addition C.S extract at a level of 600 mg/kg feed. As for the weight gain, a significant superiority (P≤0.05) was observed for the T3 treatment which included addition C.S extract at a level of 600 mg/kg feed and T4 which including addition the booster at a level of 3g/kg feed, respectively, as for the feed consumption rate, it was noted that all the added treatments were significantly reduced. (P≤0.05) compared to the control T1, and about the cumulative feed conversion factor (0-6 weeks), we notice that the treatments of the mixture T6 and T7 were significantly (P≤0.05) improved compared to experiment treatments. We conclude from this that the addition of C.S extract and the probiotic improved the productive performance of broilers without any negative effect.
       
  • Neurotransmitters Disorders with Mild Hyperphenylalaninemia: The Ones That
           Should Not Be Missed

    • Abstract: Background: Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid. Dietary phenylalanine converts to tyrosine by activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal-recessive disorder result from enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) Deficiency. Elevations of phenylalanine in the plasma classified depend on the degree of enzyme deficiency to classic PKU (PHE ≥1200 μmol/l) and mild PKU (PHE >600 μmol/l and <1200 μmol/l) and non-PKU-HPA (hyperphenylalanemia) or mild hyperphenylalaninaemia (MHP) (PHE ≤600 μmol/l). Patient and method: this is a single center study to consecutive patients who are managed at the pediatric neurology department and out patient clinic at Welfare Teaching Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, during the period from 1st of October 2019 to 1st of October 2020. A total of 5 patients who were prove to have a non Pku hyperphenylalaninaemia (PHE < 600 µmol/L) who confirmed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis and proved had sepiapterin responsive by sepiapterin loading test which showed >30% decreasing in phenylalanine level. All patients were present with a neurological complaint, their age between three months and 15 years old and the treatment was sapropterin, L.dopa and 5HT (5-hydroxytreptamine). The study included the demographic and clinical profile, biochemical response to sepiapterin and clinical response to treatment according to development quotient. Result: Five patients had been enrolled in this study; all of them had gross motor developmental delay as a main presentation, one case also had seizure and dystonia and one case had fluctuation of symptoms, 4 cases had consanguineous marriage and 2 cases had a family history of same condition, all cases had more than 30% decreasing of phenylalanine level by BH4 loading test, all cases were showed significant clinical improvement after treatment except one of them which was showed a moderate improvement. The tetrahydrobiopterin therapy significantly enhanced dietary phenylalanine tolerance and permitted a phenylalanine-free medical formula to be discontinued in all patients in whom phenylalanine within a therapeutic targe (120-300 μM] were achieved. Conclusion: Mild hyperphenylalaninemia is not a mild disease as it may have related to neurotransmitter disorders.
       
  • Serological detection for toxoplasmosis among patients with Covid-19 in
           Thi-qar province

    • Abstract: Background. Covid-19 is a viral disease that affects humans caused by a type of virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae called SARS-CoV-2 virus. The infection associated with this disease, like any other disease, can be a parasite, like Toxoplasma gondii. Methods. Examining the levels of antibodies to the Toxoplasma gondii in the serum of patients with COVID-19, where the levels of IgG, IgM for T. gondii are measured by immunoassay of patients sera by ELISA system. Also examined the level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in covid-19 patient with or without Toxoplasmosis among all of the examined samples. Results. As a results for 120 of total samples of serum were collected from COVID-19 patients, who were confirmed to have the disease clinically and by radiographic examination, 60 samples from these, with 30 sample control, then sera that were examined for immunological was conducted to investigate the antibodies against T. gondii. Conclusions. The results showed a significant difference between the infection with Covid-19 and T.gondii during the chronic phase of Toxoplasmosis in comparison with negative relationship in acute phase. The results of INF-γ levels among Covid-19 patients were positive for all sample included in the test ( 30 Covid-19 patients and 30 patients COVID-19(+)/T.gondii IgG) compared to control group .
       
  • Effect of Vitamin D3 on some antioxidant parameters in chilled semen in
           Awassi Ram

    • Abstract: Chilled semen has been used in farm animals to maintain semen viability. However, it might be damaged by reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and then reduced semen fertility. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the different concentrations of vitamin D3 as antioxidants in Awassi chilled semen. Two-three ejaculates from three Awassi rams were used in this study. Samples were pooled, diluted with Tris-egg yolk extender (1:10) then aliquots. Three vitamins D3 concentration (T1=0.02, T2=0.004, T3=0.002 gm/ml), as a treatment, and one control without any addition, was added to aliquots. Treatments and control groups were cooled to 5 ºC. Samples were centrifuged at 2000 RPM for 20 minutes at times 0 and 72 following treatment. The seminal plasm was kept in a freezer at 20 ºC until evaluation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Total antioxidants capacity (TAC), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), were used in this study to evaluate the antioxidant activity of vitamin D3. One way analysis of variance repeated measures was used in this study by using the SAS program. The results showed that the TAC, and SOD increased significantly in T1 compared to T0, T1, and T2. In addition, CAT increased significantly in T2 compared to T0, T1, and T3. ROS and MDA was not significantly changed between treatments. Although there were no significant difference in MDA between treatments, but it decreased numerically on T1 compared to other treatments. In conclusion low dose of vitamin D3 has a potential antioxidant capacity which bring a new site to use it to prolong semen storge.
       
  • The effect of Eucalyptus globulushydro alcoholic extract on LH, FSH and
           testosterone concentrations and sperm morphology

    • Abstract: Background: Scientists have been paying attention to the life-giving properties of medicinal plants for many years. Among these plants is the eucalyptus plant. This plant has various compounds such as cineole and terpenes. It also contains compounds such as flavonoids, aliphatic aldehydes, sesquiterpene, quinotanen, catechins, salts, and vitamins. Methods: In the present study, the hydroalcoholic extract of Eucalyptus leaves with concentrations of 175, 350, and 700 mg/kg body weight, spermatogenesis was studied in 40 adult Wistar rats in five groups of eight. Adult male mice received the extract at the above concentrations by gavage for 28 days. Control mice received only solvent and water, and control mice received no substance other than municipal tap water and normal food. After the last administration of the drug, the animals were weighed, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from their hearts. Results: Concentrations of LH, FSH, and testosterone were measured by ELISA kit. The results showed that body weight and testis, seminiferous tube diameter, Leydig cell diameter, epithelium thickness and number of Leydig cells, spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatids, sperm, and testosterone concentration increased significantly with the group. But no significant difference was observed in the concentration of FSH and LH hormones and the number of Sertoli cells. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that eucalyptus leaf extract may increase the proliferation of sex cells in the seminiferous tubules of rats.
       
  • The Impact of Human Mammary Tumor virus (HMTV) on the Expression of
           Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Death –Domain associated
           protein (DAXX) in Breast carcinoma tissues

    • Abstract: The presence and characteristics of HMTV in Iraqi breast cancer women are still unknown .Furthermore, the identification of HMTV in human breast carcinoma tissue of patients differs by country, and the factors that influence it are still unknown. In many epithelial tumor types, the EGFR and its signaling pathways outcomes are necessary for behavior of cells and regulating their proliferation , and it has been discovered that DAXX has strong carcinogenic characteristics and could be a new treatment target. This case control retrospective study investigated the presence of HMTV in paraffin embedded blocks(FFPT) of tumor samples from 60 Iraqi women patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer and 20 cases of benign tumors as control group. HMTV env sequences were identified by Real time PCR. EGFR and DAXX expression were immunodetected by immunohistochemistry technique. Chi-square test and Fishers exact test was applied for statistical analysis to compare HMTV with EGFR and DAXX expression, and other clinicopathological features of study population . P < 0.05 was considered significant. HMTV sequences were detected in 15 (25%) samples of malignant breast tumors, and 8 (40%) samples of breast benign tumor. There was no statistical significant association between the detection of env sequences of HMTV and age, grade, hormone receptors, EGFR, or DAXX expression when compared to clinicopathological characteristics. However, Statistically the data showed highly significant difference in the expression of EGFR between study groups, age , and histological types (for all p value  = 0.0001), and negative significant association was observed between EGFR and both Her2 and TNBC. There was statistical significant difference between DAXX (+) and DAXX (−) in study groups as( P =0.002),and it significantly associated with age and histological types of breast cancer(P= 0.031,0.007 respectively). Statistically no significant association was found between DAXX and EGFR , grade, Her2.TNBC of breast cancer.The current study found HMTV env sequences in breast tumors of Iraqi women, suggesting that a larger sample size is needed to illustrate the likely causative role of HMTV in the development of human breast malignancy. Moreover, a negative associations was found between HMTV and both DAXX and EGFR expression.
       
  • Evaluation of Phosphorus Storage and Performance of Broilers Using Phytase
           Synthetic Enzyme

    • Abstract: Background: Phytic acid is a stored form of phosphorus in cereals so 65 to 70% of phosphorus in plant sources is phytate, and broilers are only able to use part of the phosphorus in plant sources. To meet the needs of chickens, it is necessary to use other artificial resources, which not only impose part of the cost of the breeding period, because of its presence in the manure, is one of the factors polluting the environment. This study aimed to use different levels of phytase enzyme to reduce dietary phosphorus levels.Materials and Methods: In this experiment, 600 Ross 308 broilers were used. Five treatments and six replications, and in each replication, 20 chickens were used in a completely randomized design (CRD). Experimental treatments include 1) basal diet (control) 2) basal diet with 15% less phosphorus 3) basal diet with 15% less phosphorus + 1250 (FTU) phytase enzyme 4) basal diet with 15% less phosphorus + 2500 (FTU) phytase enzyme 5) basal diet with 15% less phosphorus + 5000 (FTU) phytase enzyme. The evaluated traits included weekly feed intake, weekly weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics, ash, calcium, and bone phosphorus.Results: The use of phytase enzyme in different diets had no significant effect on food intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P>0.05). However, the use of phytase in different diets had a significant effect on the percentage of Gizzard, Heart, Liver, Proventriculus, and Spleen (P<0.05). The most changes were the increase in the ratio of feed intake and weight gain in the fourth week compared to the third week so that the changes in the ratio of feed intake ranged from 1.85 to 1.91 and this ratio for weight gain also ranged from 3.12 to 3.86 was recorded and the lowest feed conversion ratio was obtained at the same age. The percentage of raw ash of broiler chickens was significantly increased by adding dietary phytase. The lowest amount of ash, calcium, and phosphorus belonged to the second group (diets with low phosphorus and no enzyme). .
       
  • Evaluation of the Efficacy of Sodium Chloride Nanoparticles on the
           Vitality of Leishmania Major(In Vitro)

    • Abstract: Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important communicable diseases between humans and animals that is transmitted to humans by soil mosquito species. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Sodium Chloride nanoparticles (NaCl NPs) on the vitality of Leishmania major promastigote compared with the standard dose of Pentostam under laboratory conditions. Leishmania major promastigote causes Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in humans. Methods: Various concentrations of 2, 4, 6, and 8 μg/ml of the NaCl NPs were prepared. These concentrations were tested in vitro on L. major growth by the culture of the parasite in the cell culture microplate. After the fourth day, a different concentration of NaCl NPs was added with three replicates for each concentration. Later, the numbers of promastigotes were counted daily using a Haemocytometer stained by Trypan blue solution stain duration of the study, which continued for four days. Results: The results showed that the Growth Index (GI) rate of L. major promastigote was decreased with increasing NaCl NPs concentration. The Growth Index rates were: 1.32×106, 1.31×106, 0.95×106, and 0.78×106 for the above-mentioned concentrations. These values were compared with the rate of the Pentostam group and control group, which were 1.09×106 and 3.43×106, respectively. The results revealed that the highest inhibition percentage was 92% for 8 μg/ml NaCl NPs after 96 hours, with several promastigotes of 0.38×106 compared with the Pentostam group and control group, which were %86 and %0.00 for inhibition percentage with 0.74×106 and 5×106 for promastigote, respectively in the same period. The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference among concentrations at P≤0.05 compared with the Pentostam and control groups. Conclusion: The current study concluded that the NaCl NPs have an excellent biological effect in inhibiting L. major promastigote growth in vitro. These promising results paved the way for employing NaCl NPs as a treatment method for cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
       
  • Effect of Eucommia Ulmoides on Healing of Bon Defect using Histological
           and Histomorphometric Analysis in Rat: in vivo Study

    • Abstract: Bone repair is a complex multistep process. The flavonoid group present in Eucommia ulmoides helps to increase the bone mineral contents density of bone. The Study aimed to evaluate the healing process of bone defects treated with Eucommia ulmoides and compare it with the control group using histological and histomorphometric tests. Twenty-four albino rats were anesthetized, and both femurs were prepared by drilling intra-bony defects (2 mm diameter, 3mm depth). In each rat, the right bony defects were considered control while the left bony defects were treated with Eucommia ulmoides; scarification is done in 3 periods: 1, 2, and 4 weeks, healing interval (n=8). Histological and Histomorphometric analysis of bone microarchitectures was done for more evaluations; the bone cells were counted (osteoblast, osteocyte, and osteoclast) for comparison with the normal percentages. Also, trabecular number, trabecular area, and bone marrow area per mm2 were measured using the image j program. The recorded histological data revealed that acceleration of bone healing in the Eucommia ulmoides group compared with the control group. Highly significant differences were seen in the animals treated with Eucommia ulmoides compared with the control group for almost all histomorphometric parameters investigated in this Study. In conclusion, Eucommia ulmoides can improve bone healing and increase osteogenic capacity in rats.
       
  • Effect of Licorice Essential Oil (Glycyrrhizaglabraglabra) on Performance
           and Some Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens

    • Abstract: Background: Licorice is a medicinal and aromatic plant that has been considered because of its valuable compounds such as glycyrrhizin. The aim of this study was to reduce the use of chemical antibiotics from licorice essential oil to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics, cellular and humoral safety, as well as various biochemical factors in the blood serum of broilers.Materials and Methods: A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks according to a completely randomized design were assigned into four treatment groups. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate contained 10 chicks. The experimental treatments comprised a control, the group receiving a basic diet with 0.1% licorice essential oil, group receiving a basic diet with 0.2% essential oil of licorice, the group receiving a basic diet with 0.3% essential oil of licorice. Broilers were provided ad libitum access to feed and water according to a 3 phase feeding program on a starter, grower, and finisher diet.Results: There was not a significant difference in body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio among the birds given the control or the essential oil licorice levels in different stages of the experiment (P>0.05). However, birds receiving level 0.1% of licorice essential oil had the lighter relative weight of the gallbladder, and level 0.3% of licorice essential oil had lighter abdominal fat compared to the control group (P<0.05). Blood glucose, cholesterol, and LDL concentrations also decreased significantly in birds receiving licorice essential oil as compared to the control (P<0.05). The cellular immune response in the birds fed diets containing the licorice did essential oil not differ from that of the birds in the control (P>0.05) but there was a significant difference in the humoral immune response at the level of 0.1% licorice essential oil compared to the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: In general, the results of this experiment showed that adding licorice essential oil to the diet can be effective in improving the health and safety of the bird.
       
 
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