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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  

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Archives of Razi Institute
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.182
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0365-3439 - ISSN (Online) 2008-9872
Published by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Butea monosperma as a collective phytomedicine, including environmentally
           sustainable, conservative and beneficial plant

    • Abstract: Nature exists as a golden spot and supplies the remedies to treat all diseases of mankind. Plant kingdom stand for plethora of natural compounds, well known for utilized in therapeutic applications and might act the way for expansion of novel mediators having decent efficiency in many pathological disorders in future. In India and throught the world herbs becoming principle and popular medicine. Recognized green medicines are better than synthetic one with less side effects. From ancient periods plants have been intended for their medicinal properties for treating various health ailments because of their lesser side effects, availability of the agent, their cost and potential effectiveness. Medicinal value of plants comes from various vegetative parts of the plant including flowers, fruit, bark, roots, leaves, seeds and its modified parts. The Indian forests are the major repository of remedial and aromatic medicinal plants, which are composed for production of plethora remedies against various diseases. Butea monosperma is one of traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant considered as rich source of ingredients which can be used in drug development as home remedies to treat various diseases such as diarrhea, constipation, hypertension, dehydration, bronchial asthma, leucorrhea, infection, liver, stomach disorders including cancer. The seed powder known for having specific pharmaceutical and insecticidal activities. This study highlights the traditional ayurvedic importance of a eminent medicinal plant Butea monosperma, with its active chemical constituents, pharmacological importance, environmentally sustainable, ecological, and economical importance of the plant. This plant can be planted everywhere to make use of its versatile applications.
  • Human and animal intestinal commensals and probiotics vs modern challenges
           of biosafety: problems and prospects

    • Abstract: The appearance of an array of data on the study of the intestinal microbiota in Metazoa has significantly expanded our understanding of the role of commensals in the control of a wide range of physiological functions in higher organisms in norm and pathology. In the intestine, where the microbial load significantly exceeds the number of microorganisms of other ecosystems, the components of the intestinal microbiota are a constant source of stimuli that induce activation of the host immune systemThe introduction into practice of biomedical research of innovative high-resolution methods, including multi-omix technologies, has brought data that change our understanding of intestinal commensals, including probiotics with GRAS status, widely used in medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. The ability of these bacteria to induce negative processes in the host body that are beneficial for bacterial proliferation and expansion revealed a clear lack of our knowledge about the logic of their life and the mechanisms of interaction with eukaryotic cells. This determines the urgent need for comprehensive research of probiotics and the development of standardization of their safety assessment. Apriori's confidence in the exceptional benefit of the bacteria widely used in medicine, agriculture and biotechnology has determined the seriously omission in our control system today - the lack of standardization of studies for the safety assessment of bacteria with GRAS status . The moment has come when it became clear that this gap should be promptly filled and that only exact understanding the molecular base of interacting the microbes with eukaryotic cells can provide the foundation for effective practical developments in controlling the evolution of bacterial virulence and probiotic safety strategy, as well as the competent use of genetic technologies for monitoring the environment and managing infectious processes, thus avoiding the dramatic consequences of large-scale interventions in the micro and macro worlds.
  • Oral consumption of Hydro-alcoholic extract of Dactylorhiza maculate
           (Salep) Prevents Appetite and Body Weight in Male Rats

    • Abstract: Obesity is the result of positive energy balance in which various hormones and neurotransmitters are involved. Using Dietary supplements is a common and popular method to lose weight. Medicinal plants with specific effects on metabolizing enzymes, blocking adipogenesis and improving energy metabolism can be a suitable alternative to these supplements. In this study, the role of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Dactylorhiza maculate (Salep) plant on obesity and its related hormones and antioxidants was investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Control, Sham, and Salep extract groups (three doses): 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg. The extract was fed by gavage for 29 days. After the 29th day, blood and tissue samples were taken. Rats’ ELISA kits were used to measure adiponectin, obestatin, resistin, orexin-A, insulin, epinephrine, Agouti Related Neuropeptide (AgRP), omentin, chemerin, amylin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), and ghrelin. In addition, we measured leptin, cholecystokinin, antioxidants, and lipid profile factors. Evaluation of weight changes showed that Salep extract helped the animals to lose weight significantly in 160 and 320 mg/kg Salep groups. Leptin, adiponectin, AgRP, obestatin, CCK, chemerin, adiponectin, and total antioxidant showed a significant increase compared to the control group. In contrast, ghrelin, omentin, resistin, NPY, amylin, orexin-A, epinephrine, and MDA decreased in the Salep groups. Lipid profile was also affected by the extract. These findings suggest that the Salep extract prevents appetite, reduces ghrelin, and affects digestive factors; the Salep extract can change the secretory factors of adipose tissue and lipid profile, and ultimately help to lose weight.
  • COVID-19 Vaccine hesitancy among Medical Students of North Delhi

    • Abstract: India has remarkably managed to successfully develop and approve two vaccines for Covid 19 which are Covaxin and Covishield. Vaccine hesitancy phenomenon is present even among healthcare professionals.acceptance of vaccination by healthcare or medical students is also of paramount importance. To find out the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy and associated factors in medical students of North Delhi. A cross sectional study was planned among 210 undergraduate students from a medical college in New Delhi. The questionnaire consisted of questions about identification data, history of COVID 19 infection, vaccine hesitancy. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 21.0 and for categorical data analysis Chi- square test was used.Among the study participants, the majority of them (77.6%) belonged to the age group 20-25 years. Males (63.3%) were more as compared to (36.7%) females. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 27.6% among the study participants. Factors like semesters, mother’s education and mother’s occupation of study participants were statistically significantly (p<0.05) associated with vaccine hesitancy regarding COVID 19. Serious side effects, vaccine effectiveness and recent events in the past were the reasons for vaccine hesitancy.This study concludes that about one fourth of study participants were vaccine hesitant.Semesters, mother’s education and mother’s occupation of study participants were statistically significantly (p<0.05) associated with vaccine hesitancy regarding COVID 19 vaccine. About one fourth of study participants had mentioned serious side effects as the reason for vaccine hesitancy. Introduction to an education curriculum in the MBBS can enhance students’ knowledge regarding COVID 19 vaccines and its preventive aspect for future
  • The impact of chitosan nanoparticles coating with Sodium lactate on beef
           hamburger quality during storage at 4 °C: oxidative stability, microbial
           and sensorial characteristics

    • Abstract: In this study, the nano chitosan particles were produced by ionotropic gelation between sodium tripolyphosphate and chitosan. The effect of nano chitosan with or without sodium lactate coating was evaluated on physicochemical (pH, TBA, i.e., thiobarbituric acid, total volatile basic nitrogen and peroxide), microbial (total mesophilic and psychrotrophic viable counts, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds) and sensorial properties of beef burgers within 24 days of storage at 4 ° C. The solutions of 1% nano chitosan (T1), 2% nano chitosan (T2), 2.5 % sodium lactate (T3), 1% nanochitosan +2.5 % sodium lactate (T4) and 2% nanochitosan+2.5% sodium lactate (T5) were used for the coating. The results showed the increment of microbial growth of all treatments during storage time while the T4 and T5 samples had the lowest microbial counts which shows the synergistic effect of sodium lactate and nano chitosan. The pH of all samples was in acidic to neutral status (5.48 - 7.15) and increased during 24 days of storage and the pH value of T4 and T5 samples increased with a lower slope. On the other side, the evaluation of peroxide and TBARS values exhibited that nano chitosan had more efficient preservative effect than sodium lactate and both of them in alone form had lower antioxidant activity than their combined form. Furthermore, among all treatments, T4 and T5 samples have the best sensorial scores. These results indicated that nano chitosan and sodium lactate have synergistic effect and can be effectively applied to expand the shelf life of beef burgers.
  • Newcastle disease vaccination program in broilers using a Apathogenic
           heat-resistant vaccine

    • Abstract: The Newcastle disease (ND) is among the most common and deadly poultry diseases worldwide. Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. The Newcastle Disease V4 Heat-Resistant (NDV4HR) vaccine is an Apathogenic heat-resistant live vaccine that can induce immunity in chickens. A total of 60 one-day-old Arain local hybrid broilers divided into three groups of 20. Group A had the usual vaccination program in broiler flocks (7 Days old: B1 type by eye drop+ ND Killed vaccine by IM; 18 and 28 days old: Lasota strain orally), group B did not receive any vaccine, and Group C received orally the NDV4HR vaccine six times from the first day to the 35th day of rearing. All groups were nasally challenged with acute Newcastle virus (genotype VIId) on the 35th rearing day. Regarding HI serum antibody titer of the birds after the challenge, group B had the highest (7.12 ± 1.05), and Group C (6.37 ± 1.31) had a higher titer than Group A (6 ± 1.22). After the challenge with the Newcastle virus, the necropsy findings and clinical symptoms of the disease were almost similar in groups A and C. Group B showed the most signs with higher casualties than other groups. Regarding weight gain, Group C had the most weight at the end of the study (2204 ± 106). On the second day after the challenge, groups A and B had virus shedding through the trachea and cloaca; however, group B shed the virus only through the trachea. Furthermore, on the 7th day after the challenge, group A shed the virus through the cloaca, and group B through the trachea and the cloaca. At the same time, there was no virus shedding in group C. This study showed that V4HR vaccine provokes an antibody response that protects the birds against virulent virus challenge.
  • Isolation and molecular identification of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisin
           producing genes from maize feed contaminated with Fusarium fungus in silos
           of dairy farms in Fars province-Iran

    • Abstract: Mycotoxins are the toxins produced by various types of fungi, including Fusarium, which can produce different types of mycotoxins such as Deoxynivalenol (DON), Zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin, and Fumonisins (FUM). Mycotoxins have the potential to reduce the quality of crops and pose health risks to both humans and animals. This can result in reduced animal production and substantial economic consequences on a global scale. Extensive research has been carried out to investigate the high incidence of contamination in grains by Fusarium fungi. In this study, 80 samples of maize from silos of dairy farms in Fars province, Iran were taken and examined for fungal contamination by Fusarium and potential production of DON and FUM. For this purpose, identification using specific primers for different genes was carried out by PCR test and gel electrophoresis with agarose (1%). Among different counties, the silos in Kharameh with 47.05% and Jahrom with 46.15% had the highest contamination rate, and the lowest contamination rate belonged to Kazeroon with 27.27%. Out of the 30 positive samples contaminated by Fusarium, 21 produced FUM, four produced DON, and five produced both toxins. Fusarium species that contaminated the maize samples were also identified, including 13, 10, and 7 samples contaminated by F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, and F. graminearum, respectively. As a conclusion, the findings of the study indicate that 37.5% of the corn samples from dairy farm silos in Fars province were contaminated with the Fusarium fungus, which had the potential to produce the toxic mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins.
  • Morbidity profile of the patients attending Mobile Medical Unit camps in
           Telangana – a record-based study

    • Abstract: Introduction: Mobile Medical Units (MMUs) were one of the major initiatives under the National Rural Health Mission. These MMUs help in reaching the unreached. It helps people in remote, underserved areas to access healthcare at affordable prices at their doorstep. Objectives: In this study, we aim to assess the morbidity profile of the patients attending Mobile Medical Unit camps in Yadadri-Bhuvanagiri district between April 2022 to December 2022. Methodology: This is a record-based study. MMU is run by department of Community and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bibinagar in six selected villages of Yadadri-Bhuvanagiri district. (Fig.1). A register is maintained for recording the details of patients visitingthe MMU camp. Patient’s name, age, gender, place, mobile number, height, weight, blood pressure (BP), glucometer based Random Blood Sugar (GRBS), diagnosis, and details of medication dispensed were entered in the register. Diabetes was diagnosed using the WHO criteria , hypertension using the Eighth Joint National Committee guidelines , obesity using the WHO Asia Pacific guidelines. Mobile Medical Unit camp data is entered into excel database at the end of every month. As it is a record-based analysis, we used data between April 7th 2022 to December 31st, 2022 for analysis. Results: A total of 1494 patients were treated in the MMU camps during this period. Among them 89.4% were adults & 10.6 % were children (less than 18 years). Among 1336 adult patients, majority of the study participants suffered from osteoarthritis followed by non-communicable diseases. The mean systolic BP of the adult population was 131 (±21) mmHg and diastolic BP of the population was 77 (±13) mm Hg. The mean random blood glucose levelof the adult Population was 150 (±74) mg/dl. A total of 158 children were less than 18 years, out of which 78 participants were males and 80 participants were females. Majority suffered from upper respiratory tract infections among males (23.1%) and females (25%) respectively. Conclusion: The study further suggests that NCD epidemic is spreading to rural areas where necessary health infrastructure is insufficient. MMUs can bring a significant change in the public health system, which needs to re-orient its priorities.
  • Investigating the Mechanisms Involved in Scopolamine-Induced Memory

    • Abstract: In the present study, the mechanisms involved in scopolamine-induced memory impairment have been investigated. The molecular events that take place during memory mostly include mechanisms that are seen in the acquisition phase. Results show that one of the mechanisms of memory destruction caused by scopolamine, in addition to weakening the cholinergic system, is the indirect effect of scopolamine on other neurotransmitter systems, including the glutamatergic system. Scopolamine injection increases dopamine by inhibiting M2/4 muscarinic auto receptors. These auto receptors are located on dopaminergic presynaptic neurons, and their activation reduces the release of dopamine. Therefore, blocking these auto receptors by scopolamine can increase the release of dopamine. Both D1 and D2 receptors are involved in the process of learning and memory. In general, stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors follows an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve, meaning that both insufficient and excessive amounts of dopamine cause memory impairment. Therefore, one of the mechanisms of scopolamine-induced memory impairment can be an indirect effect on the dopaminergic system. Effect on cell membrane potential, effect on neuron plasticity and interaction with acetylcholine. Serotonin plays a complex role in memory and learning. Serotonin receptors (5-HT2A) also play a role in memory function through their effect on calcium transport. This action is similar to dopamine receptors and other G-protein-coupled receptors, which activate phospholipase C, enter calcium into the cell, and activate calcineurin. Activation of 5-HT2A receptors as well as 5-HT4 receptors by specific agonists of these receptors enhances LTP, which plays a very important role in memory. On the other hand, specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonist improves LTP. 5-HT6 receptor antagonist can improve memory function. Therefore, different serotonin receptors have different roles on memory function, and the interaction between scopolamine and these receptors needs further study. It has been shown that histamine increases the secretion of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and postsynaptic H1 and presynaptic H3 receptors play an important role in memory and learning, but whether scopolamine can cause memory impairment through interaction with histamine receptors, not reviewed.

    • Abstract: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent commonly used for the treatment or prevention of bleeding. Indications for TXA are diverse, including heavy menstrual bleeding, trauma, postpartum hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and surgical site bleeding. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. Anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2 or COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China has spread at an alarming pace throughout the world and declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The air droplet spread of SARS-CoV2 which is potentially fatal is of great global health concern. Various drugs and treatment modalities have been tried to date but none has been found to be definitive. Tranexamic acid commonly used in pigmentary disorders in Dermatology due to its ability to reduce the melanocyte tyrosinase activity also possesses anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory properties which have been observed to suppress the cytokine storm and modulate coagulopathy in patients suffering from COVID19. Tranexamic acid when administered early has been effective in decreasing the severity of symptoms in patients of COVID-19 but on the contrary, has also been associated with life-threatening thrombosis if given as a single drug.
  • Linalool, Cineole, and β-Bourbonene Coupled with Aerobic Training
           improved the PSEN1/APP/IL1β/CASP3 networks, oxidative capacity and
           miRNA-210 in mice with Alzheimer's disease.

    • Abstract: Alzheimer's is an advanced nervous disorder related to aging. This research aims to determine the effect of eight weeks of aerobic training and linalool, cineole, and β-Bourbonene on preventing and improving Alzheimer's disease. Mice randomly divided into 8 groups: Control group, Mice induced Alzheimer's disease treating with β-amyloid (Alzheimer group), Alzheimer's mice were treated with bioactive compounds of herbal medicine (Linalool with a concentration of 25 mg/kg, Cineol with a concentration of 100 mg/kg, β-Bourbonene with a concentration of 0.20 μg by gavage for 8 weeks, Alzheimer+Biocompounds group), Alzheimer's mice treated with aerobic exercise with a moderate intensity treadmill for 8 weeks (Alzheimer's+Training group), Alzheimer's mice treated with bioactive compounds of herbal medicine and aerobic exercise for 8 weeks (Alzheimer+Biocompounds+Training group), Healthy mice were first treated with the bioactive compounds of the herbal medicine, and then were induced with Alzheimer's (Biocompounds+Alzheimer group), Healthy mice were first treated with aerobic exercise using a treadmill with moderate intensity for 8 weeks and then induced Alzheimer's disease (Training+Alzheimer group), Healthy mice were first treated with the bioactive compounds of the herbal medicine and aerobic exercise for 8 weeks and then induced Alzheimer's disease (Biocompounds+Training+Alzheimer group). Compared to other groups, the IL1β/CASP3/PSEN1/APP level improved in mice first treated with aerobic exercise and biocompounds. Oxidative capacity was improved by exercise training and bioactive compounds. In addition, exercise training and bioactive compounds regulated the miRNA-210 in the hippocampus of the mice with Alzheimer's. We could conclude that consuming biocompounds and aerobic training can manage and prevent Alzheimer's.
  • Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in Birds of Iran and its Pathological
           Findings: A Review study

    • Abstract: Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoan parasite that affects numerous avian species worldwide, causing a range of diseases collectively termed trichomonosis. This review study aimed to present a comprehensive analysis of the prevalence of T. gallinae in birds of Iran, along with an exploration of its associated pathological findings. Through an extensive search of published studies, scientific databases, and relevant literature, we identified several studies conducted in Iran that focused on the prevalence of T. gallinae in different bird populations as well as their pathological effect. These studies utilized a variety of techniques, including direct microscopic examination, culture methods, and molecular tools to detect and identify the presence of this parasite. This review study indicates that T. gallinae infections are prevalent among various bird species in Iran, including Domestic pigeons, Zebra Finches and Turkey. The prevalence rates reported showed significant differences among various regions and bird species, ranging from as low as 2.5% in zebra finches to as high as 70% in pigeons. The clinical signs of infected birds varied from no clinical signs to visible yellowish-white masses of caseous necrotic material, hyperplasia of mucous cells and significant congestion of lung. These findings underline the importance of T. gallinae as a significant pathogen affecting avian populations in Iran. Using at least two techniques such as culture or PCR in addition to direct smear is recommended for better diagnosis of infection. The study highlights the need for further epidemiological studies to better understand the risk factors associated with T. gallinae transmission and to develop effective prevention and control strategies.
  • Wound healing activity of green synthesized copper nanoparticles through
           cell proliferation-migration, antimicrobial effects, and nitric oxide

    • Abstract: The present experimental study was designed to evaluate the in vitro wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) green synthesized by the methanol extract Ferula macrecolea Boiss, as a plant with various pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects in traditional and modern medicine. The precipitation approach was used to green synthesis of CuNPs through mixing the methanol and copper sulfate solution. Cell viability and fibroblast proliferation assay were performed by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay. The migration abilities of fibroblasts cells were evaluated using a cell scratch in vitro wound healing assay. Effects of CuNPs on iNOS expression genes were also performed by Real-time PCR. In vitro antibacterial susceptibility test of CuNPs was carried out according to the standards protocol of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The analysis of SEM revealed that the green synthesized CNP exhibited a globular shape with a size ranging from 15-90 nm; while their majority were at 40-60 nm. The results of the MTT assay showed that the calculated CC50 value of green synthesized CuNPs was 236.3 μg/mL. The optimum concentrations of the CuNPs which were selected based on the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value; whereas dose-dependently increased the proliferation of fibroblast cells. The CuNPs dose-dependently increased the rate of wound closure after 16 and 24 h. The results of the Real-Time PCR showed that CuNPs causes an upregulation in expression level of gene of nitric oxide synthesis (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 cells. CuNPs showed the promising antimicrobial effects against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Ps. aeruginosa. The present study showed the high potency of CuNPs green synthesized by F. macrecolea for wound healing through their antimicrobial, proliferation of fibroblast cells, and provoking iNOS.
  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Ferula elaeochytris
           Korovin methanolic extract in rat model

    • Abstract: Today, the current chemical agents for pain control have relatively many complications. They are associated with the occurrence of disorders in the digestive system, kidney damage, or addiction, which has caused people to find newer drugs that, in addition to removing side effects, are cheap and available. The present in vivo survey aimed to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Ferula elaeochytris Korovin methanolic extract (FEME) in male Swiss mice. After obtaining the methanolic extract through the maceration process, the antinociceptive efficacy of FEME at doses of 25 to 100 mg/kg was assessed by the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests. In addition, anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed by the Carrageenan-induced paw edema model. We found that in the tail-flick and hot plate test, FEME mainly at the dose of 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the latency time as well as better the time of the observance of licking or jumping in comparison with normal saline (P<0.001). We reported that FEME at 50, and 100 mg/kg considerably declined the pain behaviors in the acute and chronic phase in comparison with normal saline (p<0.001). FEME markedly (p < 0.05) declined paw edema in a dose- and time-dependent response, so a significant difference was observed in paw edema followed by treatment with FEME at 50 and 100 mg/kg (p<0.001). To conclude, this study reported the potent analgesic and inflammatory effects of F. elaeochytris methanolic extract to control peripheral and central pain. However, additional experiments are mandatory to clear the accurate mechanisms of action of this plant.
  • Content & Reviewers

  • The emergence potential of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia felis as
           zoonotic agents causing eye and respiratory infections in humans and

    • Abstract: Abstract Members of the Chlamydiaceae are obligate Gram-negative intracellular pathogens causing panoply of infectious diseases. As a zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) has been associated with a wide spectrum of infections in both wild and domestic animals, particularly birds. In humans, C. psittaci generates influenza-like symptoms, pneumonia, endocarditis, fever, chills, myalgia and headache. Similar to other Chlamydia species, virulence factors of C. psittaci mainly involve Type III secretory system, type IV system effectors (TARP), CopN, HctA and HctB, OmcA, OmcB, OmpA, major outer membrane protein (MOMP), PorB and Euo. In particular, C. psittaci may predispose patients to other respiratory pathogens. Direct contact and inhalation of contaminated air droplets from birds is a risk factor of infection transmission. Other risk factors are pregnancy, dense population, intensive agriculture, bird litter, and close contact with cats and dogs. Therefore, more care should be taken concerning close contact with these pet animals. Fortunately, these infections have been treated more effectively thanks to the development of novel drug delivery systems over the past decades. Considering highly contagious potential of C. psittaci and C. felis alongside wide host range and available risk factors, proper control strategies are essential to prevent their dissemination. خلاصهاعضای Chlamydiaceae پاتوژن های درون سلولی گرم منفی اجباری هستند که باعث ایجاد بیماری های عفونی می شوند. به عنوان یک پاتوژن مشترک بین انسان و دام، کلامیدیا پسیتاسی (C. psittaci) با طیف گسترده ای از عفونت ها در حیوانات وحشی و اهلی، به ویژه پرندگان مرتبط است. در انسان، C. psittaci علائمی شبیه آنفولانزا، ذات الریه، اندوکاردیت، تب، لرز، میالژی و سردرد ایجاد می کند. مانند سایر گونه های کلامیدیا، فاکتورهای حدت C. psittaci عمدتاً شامل سیستم ترشحی نوع III، تأثیرگذارهای سیستم نوع IV (TARP)، CopN، HctA و HctB، OmcA، OmcB، OmpA، پروتئین غشای خارجی اصلی (MOMP)، PorB و Euo است. . به طور خاص، C. psittaci ممکن
  • The predictors of the willingness to receive the third dose of Covid-19
           vaccine based on the Health Belief Model: A cross-sectional study in South
           Khorasan province

    • Abstract: Due to reduced levels of antibody provided by vaccines or the emergence of variants COVID-19 infections have re-emerged in many countries. A considerable supplementary intervention is recommended including an additional dose of vaccination. The present study aimed to investigate the predictors of the willingness to receivethe third dose of COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model (HBM) constructs among people referring to health centers in South Khorasan province. In this cross-sectional-analytical study, 283 people over 18 years in South Khorasan province were randomly selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire including demographic information and health status, knowledge about COVID-19 and the third dose of the vaccine, as well as a questionnaire on based HBM constructs through self-report. Finally, the data were analyzed using Chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of the study participants was 36.57±11.56 with range of 18-66 years. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender (P=0.012), marital status(P=0.038), occupation (P=0.013), and constructs of perceived severity (P=0.005), and cues to action (P=0.018), had a significant direct effect and the construct of perceived barriers (P=0.010) had a significant inverse effect on the willingness to acceptance the third dose of the vaccine. Also, the predictor variables explained about 67.7% of the tendency to receive the third dose of the vaccine. The current study suggests that enhancing the perceived severity of Covid-19, along with healthcareproviders recommendation to receive the vaccine and reducing perceived barriers, can effectivelyencourage individuals to receive the third dose of the Covid-19 vaccine. These findings can be utilized to develop interventions aimed at promoting the uptake of the booster dose of the Covid-19 vaccine.key words: COVID-19, Barriers, Booster, Vaccine
  • Editorial

  • Evaluation of specific chicken IgY antibody value developing diagnostic
           capture antibody ELISA kit against Foot and Mouth disease

    • Abstract: The most preferred method for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viral antigen and identification of viral serotype is the ELISA. Diagnostic tests with high sensitivity is necessary both to distinguish infected vaccinated animals and disease control programs for identifying the carrier animals. To detection of FMD virus, the current strategies are mainly based on capture antibody (sandwich) ELISA test. Applying laying pullets as animal bioreactor for production specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) has increased in recent years due to its high yield, affinity, low price, and quick production turnover. In the present study, we aimed to produce a concentrated and purifies IgY polyclonal antibody to design a capture antibody ELISA kit against the FMD virus (FMDV) serotype A. At first, laying hens were immunized by inactivated FMDV serotype virus and then, on days 14, 21, and 28 following vaccination, the eggs and sera were collected and then, the IgY polyclonal antibodies were extracted and purified from the chicken egg yolk using polyethylene glycol 6000–ethanol precipitation procedure. Extracts were filtered, purified by ion exchange chromatography and dialyzed. The purified IgY concentration estimated by Bradford assay, confirmed it presents by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and also its specific immune reaction by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion and Dot blot tests. Moreover, for achieving optimum concentration of antigen/antibody (sera) in sandwich ELISA, checkerboard titration test was setup base on indirect ELISA results. Eventually, 119 previously confirmed samples (including 80 positive and 39 negative) by both Real time PCR (quantitative PCR, qPCR) and with a commercial ELISA kit, used for evaluation of sensitivity and accuracy of our developed Capture antibody ELISA kit. In this manner, the sensitivity and specificity of our designed kit was 100% and 98%, respectively. According to this, the present developed capture ELISA kit based on IgY has high sensitivity and specificity for FMD virus detection and it could be used in future as both commercial detecting and serotyping applications.
  • Molecular study of Hemiscorpius Peters (Scorpiones: Hemiscorpiidae) in
           Hormozgan province, South of Iran

    • Abstract: Background: Three species of Hemiscorpius reported from Hormozgan province for which the available antivenoms do not have the proper effect for treating patients, so it was necessary to do an exact identification of the existing species, as the first step to manage the treatment procedures.Objective: Considering the morphological similarity of the species, the aim of this research is the molecular study of the samples to accurately identify the species.Methods: Hemiscorpius specimens were collected from various locations of Hormozgan province in 2021 to 2023. Cytochrome oxidase I gene was amplified and sequenced. Four sequences obtained from Hemiscorpius specimens collected from Hormozgan province and three sequences from NCBI were analyzed. Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees constructed and discussed.Result: Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees showed similar results. Hemiscorpius acanthocercus placed at the base of the tree as an older species. Hemiscorpius enischnochela is placed next to H. lepturus as the newest species at the tip of the tree. The results confirmed the validity of three species, H. acanthocercus, H. enischnochela and H. lepturus. Hemiscorpius lepturus is placed as a sister group of H. enischnochela, while H. lepturus morphologically is similar to H. acanthocercus. Conclusions: Molecular data from COI gene confirmed the validity of three independent species consisting: H. acanthocercus, H. enischnochela and H. lepturus. Hemiscorpius acanthocercus and H. lepturus are known having dangerous venom for humans and there are reports of death due to their stings. Considering the importance of the members of this genus from the medical point of view, it is necessary to examine all the species of this genus.
  • Investigating the potential application of organic and inorganic
           nanoparticles for gastric cancer treatment: an evidence-based review

    • Abstract: Gastric cancer, which is considered a main global health concern, is the sixth most frequent cancer and the second cancer-related death worldwide. This survey was designed to systematically review the anti-gastric cancer effect of all the organic and inorganic nanoparticles in in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. The investigation followed the PRISMA guidelines and the findings were recorded in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Facility (SyRF) database. We searched the publications in various English databases such as Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed and Google Scholar with no specified publication time frame to obtain papers regarding the anti-gastric cancer properties of nanoparticles. The following terms including: “nanoparticles”, “gastric cancer”, “anti-gastric cancer”, “metal nanoparticles”, “organic nanoparticles”, “inorganic nanoparticles “, in vitro”, clinical” and “in vivo” were applied in this study. Out of 11189 papers, 31 papers including 19 in vitro (45.5%), 3 in vivo (13.6%), 3 clinical trials (13.6%), and 6 in vitro / in vivo (27.3%) up to 2023 met the inclusion criteria for discussion in this systematic review. The most widely used nanoparticles were organic nanoparticles such as polylactic acid, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) (16, 80.0%), followed by inorganic nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles (13, 41.9.0%). This review study showed the high anti-gastric cancer potential of a wide range of organic and non-organic NPs through their activity through some mechanisms such as induction of apoptosis, gene therapy, drug delivery, etc. However, more studies, especially in a clinical setting, are needed to confirm their anti-gastric effects and accurate mechanisms.
  • Molecular characterization of Strongyloides stercoralis in Mazandaran
           Province, North of Iran

    • Abstract: Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic nematode that lives in the mucosa of the small intestine and causes strongyloidiasis in humans. Mazandaran is one of the endemic areas of this parasite in Iran. For detecting S. stercoralis larvae in stool samples various types of techniques such as PCR technique have been used. The present study was conducted to determine the molecular characteristics of S. stercoralis collected from residents of Mazandaran, northern Iran. From April to September 2017, a number of 2195 samples of human feces were collected from different regions of Mazandaran province. First, all stool samples were tested using the formalin-ether method. Then, S. stercoralis positive stool samples and 300 random samples were selected for molecular study. A set of primer pairs for conventional PCR was used in a PCR reaction to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene. To confirm the results of PCR, positive samples were sent for sequencing. The sequence was compared with reference sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cox1 gene of S. stercoralis inferred by the maximum likelihood algorithm. According to our results, in the stool test with the formal ether method, 21 stool samples (0.95%) were found to be positive for S. stercoralis and 162 samples (38.7%) were positive for other parasites . All 21 positive samples were confirmed as S. stercoralis by PCR method. The sequence of the samples overlapped 99% with S. stercoralis in the Genbank. Our results showed that conventional PCR could detect all samples that were microscopically positive.
  • A Systematic Review of the Role of Gummosin in Improving Memory in the
           Scopolamine Impaired Memory Model

    • Abstract: This study systematically investigated the role of Gummosin in improving memory in the scopolamine impaired memory model. Memory and learning are the most evolved and complex functions of the nervous system. Learning is the acquisition of new information that occurs as a change in behavior, and memory is the ability to store and retrieve learned information. In other words, memory is a combination of different processes of acquiring, consolidating, storing and recalling information. Memory consolidation and storage processes are the result of a series of time-dependent neurobiological events that occur after the initial formation of memory. In addition, this fluctuation in processes related to memory storage can fully occur shortly after the original learning experience. Memory is a direct result of learning due to storing and retrieving learned experiences and information. The results of our study showed that scopolamine causes impairment of memory, learning and synaptic plasticity, which was associated with changing the expression of various genes and reducing the number of hippocampal neurons. The disorders that occurred in scopolamine group rats confirm the model used in this study to induce memory and learning deficits, which, in line with previous studies, confirms the model used to induce Alzheimer's. The results of the behavioral tests of this study showed that, in accordance with previous works, scopolamine caused a significant increase in anxiety behaviors, which was associated with a decrease in the time spent in the central area compared to the control group, while donepezil injection led to a decrease in anxiety behaviors. It was possible to increase the time spent in the central area compared to the scopolamine group.
  • Pro- or anti-inflammatory properties of cytokines in COVID-19: which offer
           better protection against disease

    • Abstract: Pro- or anti-inflammatory properties of cytokines in COVID-19: which offer better protection against diseaseI read the article by Al-Mquter et al. that compared circulating levels of 3 cytokines(IL-6, IL-25 and IL-35) amongst healthy controls(HC) and patients with COVID-19. They reported a significant increase in the serum concentration of these cytokines in patients versus HC(1). Their results confirmed again that assessment of cytokine profiles could be used as COVID-19 markers and may also provide practical implications for disease treatment. Nonetheless, understanding the role of cytokines in COVID-19 is complicated because of the complex nature of cytokine networks and the pathogenesis of COVID-19(2). IL-6 is one of the first cytokines produced during COVID-19 and increasing evidence suggests that its alteration may be associated with disease outcome. IL-6 is a pleotropic cytokine and has both pro- and anti- inflammatory effects. Therefore, it appears to operate in protective or pathological immunity to COVID-19. IL-6 can promote immune processes associated with resistance to different pathogens including COVID-19. It contributes to host defense via different pathways, including the stimulation of acute phase responses and hematopoiesis. Nonetheless, dysregulated and persistent synthesis of IL-6 can be resulted to the onset and development of pathological conditions. These different effector functions may be associated with different concentration of IL-6 that may result from different signaling pathwaysIL-6 signaling includes at least three distinct pathways: cis-signalling; trans-signalling and trans-presentation. It seems that IL-6 trans-signalling and trans-presentation are probably responsible for severe progressive COVID-19. These signaling pathways can trigger diffuse inflammation at various levels. Conversely, IL-6 cis-signalling mediates negative feedback mechanisms on proinflammatory cytokines, including suppression of their production, stimulation of their decoy receptors, and inhibition the maturation of Th17 cells. Circulatory IL-6 in COVID-19 patients reaches the peak level at advanced stages around two weeks of disease. Elevated IL-6 (e.g., > 100-120 pg/mL) levels in critical COVID-19 may reflect augmented IL-6 cis-signalling in an attempt to exert homeostatic functions, although there is no general consensus on this issue(3).
  • Molecular study of Anaplasma spp. in horses, sheep, and goats with
           phylogenetic analysis in northwest Iran

    • Abstract: Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution, affecting ruminants, equines, carnivores, and humans. This study aimed to investigate Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) in horses from Ardabil province and Anaplasma ovis (A. ovis) in small ruminants from East Azerbaijan province using the Nested PCR method. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 100 healthy horses in the Ardabil province and 156 healthy sheep and goats (116 sheep and 40 goats) in the East Azerbaijan Province during the spring and summer seasons of 2016 in northwest Iran. The gathered blood samples were stored at -20°C until the molecular experiments were conducted. Nested PCR was employed to detect A. phagocytophilum in horses and A. ovis in small ruminants using extracted DNA and amplifying 16S rRNA and msp4 genes. The Chi-square test of independence was used to determine the relationship between Anaplasma spp., infection, and independent variables, including age, gender, animal species, and sampling location. None of the 100 samples collected from horses in the Ardabil province were positive for A. phagocytophilum. In the East Azerbaijan province, 11 out of the 156 (7.05%) blood samples collected from sheep and goats tested positive for A. ovis. In addition, A. ovis infection was not significantly related to the independent variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence obtained in the present study (MH790273) has 100% homology with the sequence obtained from sheep infected with Anaplasma in Ahvaz (JQ621903.1). The study’s findings can aid in preventing and controlling anaplasmosis in farm animals in northwestern Iran.
  • A study of prevalence and risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection
           among Adult in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    • Abstract: H. pylori is known to increase the risk of developing gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma in adults, worldwide. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors associated with such infection among adult in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. This cross-sectional study was conducted among adult population in Duhok Province, Iraq. During the study period from 2018 to 2020, a total of 259 subjects aged more than 18 years who visited the general hospitals were included. H. pylori seropositivity rate was determined using un enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A standardized questionnaire was administered to all study participants through face-to-face interview. The data obtained from H pylori IgG antibody were analyzed using the chi-square test. The prevalence of anti H. pylori IgG antibody positivity was present in 104 out259 (40.02%) of the adult. Among the studied variables, all the following risk factors were significantly associated with the presence of anti H. pylori IgG antibodies; male (p< 0.043), level of education (p<0.025), history of gastrointestinal diseases (p< 0.001), smoking status (p< 0.001) and a larger sibling number (p< 0.001). This study supports the hypothesis that H. pylori infection in adult is highly related to poor hygiene, smoking status, low level of education and crowded conditions. Therefore, it is crucial to implement effective strategies aimed at enhancing fundamental sanitary conditions, as well as improving educational level and socioeconomic status, in order to reduce the prevalence of H. pylori infection among adults in our region
  • Effects of silver nanoparticle based on ginger extract on Leishmania
           infantum and Leishmania tropica parasites: in vitro

    • Abstract: Leishmania is the main cause of a serious public health problem called leishmaniasis in Iran. Pentavalent antimonial chemicals are usually used for leishmaniasis treatment. But this drugs have a number of negative side effects, including drug resistance, non-specificity, poor responsiveness, toxic effects, inconvenient injections, tissue damage and high cost. The aim of the present study was preparation and evaluation of the efficacy of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica in vitro. The MTT assay was used to assess the toxicity of Ag-NPs derived from ginger extract on macrophage cells. The apoptotic potential of promastigotes caused by Ag-NPs was evaluated using the flow cytometry method. According to our findings, proliferation of L. infantum and L. tropica, promastigotes are dramatically decreased by increasing doses of nanoparticles. The most effective doses of nanoparticle were 80 and 40 ppm after 48, and 72 hours of incubation respectively , while doses of 0.312 and 0.156 ppm after 24 and 48 hours of incubation had the least effect on the growth and activity of L. infantum and L. tropica promastigotes. For the promastigotes of L. infantum and L. tropica, the flow cytometry test revealed that Ag-NPs induced Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in promastigotes of L. infantum and L. tropica demonstrated 67.1% and 41.9% of apoptosis, respectively. The IC50 (inhibitory concentration) for NPs against L. infantum and L. tropica were 4.54 and 4.22 ppm, respectively based on MTT assay. The higher concentrations of NPs such as concentration 80 ppm, led to more lethality of promastigote. In conclusion, overall, Ag-NPs exhibited good in-vitro anti-leishmanial activity against L. infantum and L. tropica promastigotes.
  • Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites among Children attending the
           Hevi Pediatric Hospital in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    • Abstract: AbstractThis study aims to determine the prevalence rate of intestinal protozoan infection among children, in Duhok Province, North of Iraq, during the period between October 2022 to May 2023. A cross-sectional study was done among 740 children attending Hevi Pediatric Hospital, Duhok Province, Iraq. First, all collected stool samples were examined directly by preparing a wet stool smear for detection of the vegetative stage (Trophozoite) of both E. histolytica and G. lamblia. Then, all stool samples were preserved at - 22°C till used for identification of cysts of protozoa and oocysts of C. parvaum by the Telmman concentration stool method. The average child’s age was between 1-14 years in the current study. Out of the 740 stool samples collected, 205 (27.7%) were positive for intestinal protozoan infections, as follows: 160 children (78.0%) tested positive for E. histolytica, 35 children (17.1%) were positive for C. parvum, and only 10 (4.9%) were positive for G. lamblia. However, the results indicate a statistically significant difference between the prevalence of E. histolytica, C.parvum, and G. lamblia infections across different age groups. This result is significant at a P value < 0.05. The highest infection rates of intestinal protozoa, including E.histolytica, C. parvum, and G.lamblia, were reported in age groups between 5-9 years (53.75%, 25.0%, and 60.0%) respectively, then followed by age groups between 1-4 years (28.75%,20.0% and 30.0%) respectively, and finally followed by age group between 10-14 years (17.55, 8.6%, and 10.0%) respectively. The prevalence of amoebaisis and cryptosporidiosis was reported higher than in the other studies done in Iraq, while the prevalence of giardiasis was reported at a lower rate than the rate reported before in Iraq and Duhok mainly. These infections continue to pose a difficult public health issue and necessitate the implementation of stronger and more effective preventative measures.
  • Immunological response and nutritional effects of Lactobacillus
           spp.-fermented garlic on turkey broilers

    • Abstract: In the era of free antibiotics used in animal production, the application of feed additives should be prioritized to improve poultry health and production. This study was conducted to evaluate the influences of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus spp. on the growth rate, intestinal microorganisms, and immune response of turkey broilers. A completely randomised design was used, involving 90 turkey broilers aged 1–56 days, with five treatments and three replicates per treatment. The birds were given feed and water ad libitum for entire the experiment period. The treatments included the supplement of aqueous extract from fermented garlic (FG) to drinking water. The results showed that broilers supplemented with 0.8% FG exhibited the largest final body weight (1,158 g/bird), body weight gain (19.64 g/bird/day), and significantly improved feed conversion ratio (1.962) while decreased the feed intake of turkey broilers from to 1–56 days. The immune organ indices including the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius indices were increased in the treatment of 0.6% FG (P<0.05) while antibody titres (at 28 and 42 days of age) were improved in the 0.6% and 0.8% FG treatment (P<0.05). Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the intestines of these birds, while the amount of Escherichia coli was reduced (P<0.05) and Lactobacillus spp. increased (P>0.05) without a significant effect. It can be concluded that supplementation with 0.8% FG improved growth performance, and 0.6% FG may enhance the immunity of turkeys. The use of 0.6 and 0.8% FG could be widely applied for poultry production.
  • Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Diphtheria
           attending Infectious Disease Hospital at Delhi

    • Abstract: Diphtheria is a re-emerging disease with changing epidemiology. Recognising diphtheria's clinical profile, patterns of morbidity and mortality, and level of immunisation is very essential. This study was planned to study the clinic-epidemiological profile of patients with Diphtheria at Infectious disease Hospital, New Delhi. The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Delhi included 94 patients who were diagnosed with Diphtheria were included in the study. The study tool was a questionnaire that had questions eliciting details such as socio-demography, clinical history, examination findings, vaccination history and clinical history. The case fatality rate was calculated. Means and proportions were calculated. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. The mean (SD) of the age of the participants was 9(4.4). Laryngeal involvement was found in 10(11%). Complete diphtheria vaccination doses were taken by 6(6.4%). The case fatality rate was 13%. Complications such as Neuropathy were found in 21(22%), cardiac problems in 12(13%) and respiratory problems in13(14%). Longer duration of illness, delayed presentation and complications were associated with poor clinical outcomes. (P-value <0.05).The majority of diphtheria cases belonged to the age group of 6-10 years and lower socio-economic group. Most of them had partial vaccination against diphtheria. Around one-third of patients had complications related to diphtheria and the case fatality rate was high. Poor clinical outcomes were linked to longer disease duration, delayed presentation, and complications. Key preventive measures for controlling the deadly diphtheria disease include specialised immunisation programmes for poor immunisation coverage areas and early detection and treatment of suspected cases.
  • Molecular prevalence of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in Oral
           squamous cell carcinoma using real-time PCR

    • Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been established as a causative agent in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Specifically, HPV types 16 and 18 are known to be prevalent in oral cancers. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 in OSCC cases in Qazvin province, Iran. Thirty-eight paraffin-embedded samples of OSCC was selected, and DNA extraction was performed using the Roche High Pure FFPE DNA isolation kit. The quality of the extracted DNA was assessed through PCR amplification of the human β-Globin gene. HPV detection was carried out using SYBR green-based real-time PCR with GP5+ and GP6+ primers targeting the L1 region of HPV. HPV genotyping was conducted on positive samples using specific primers. Statistical analysis was done between HPV infection in OSCC and age, sex, and anatomical location (p < 0.05 considered significant). This study analyzed 38 biopsy specimens obtained from male and female OSCC patients, with an average age of 64. Among these samples, 13 tested positive for HPV, resulting in a prevalence rate of 34.2%. The age group with the highest HPV infection rate was 61–70 years (10.5%). Notably, HPV type 16 was detected in 21.0% of the samples, HPV type 18 in 10.5%, and other viral subtypes in 2.6%. No statistically significant correlation was found between HPV prevalence and gender or age. The findings indicate that 34.2% of OSCC samples in the Qazvin province harbor HPV, with types 16 and 18 being the most common in tumors affecting the tongue. Additionally, no association was observed between HPV infection and age or gender. To address HPV as a risk factor for OSCC, public health initiatives such as vaccination, awareness campaigns, and accessible healthcare services should be implemented. They are, furthermore, incorporating HPV DNA testing into practice.
  • miR-451a-5p/miR-34a-5p restoration could suppress human breast cancer cell
           proliferation and migration through Wnt/β- catenin and ERK/P-ERK
           signaling pathways

    • Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs of 21–25 nucleotides in length and display an essential role in regulating cancer initiation, development, and progression. Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly detected malignancy in women, and it is one of the main motives of death worldwide. In this study, the impacts of microRNA-451a-5p and miR-34a-5p (tumor suppressors), individually and combined, transfections were conducted on the apoptosis, proliferation, and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. For carrying out this research, malignant breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were transfected with miR-451a-5p and miR-34a-5p mimics. Then, the cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation, migration and, the protein and gene expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, MMP9, ROCK, vimentin, c-Myc of the cancer cells were assessed by MTT, flow cytometry, q-RT-PCR (expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, MMP9, ROCK, vimentin, c-Myc genes), wound healing, and western blot assays. The resluts indicated that the miR-34a-5p and miR-451a-5p could additionally induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1-phase, repress the proliferation and migration in the breast cancer cells, and could also decrease β- catenin, ERK/P-ERK protein expressions. The present data documented that restoring tumor suppressor miR-451/miR-34 in vitro strongly induced the programmed cell death and obviously inhibited the cell proliferation and migration in human breast cancer cells. Taken to gather, miR-451a and miR-34a have a considerable role in breast cancer cell proliferation and migration ability via Wnt/β-catenin and ERK/P-ERK signaling pathways. Therefore, the simultaneous restoration of the presented tumor suppressor miRNAs may be proposed as a valuable and potential therapeutic strategy in breast cancer treatment. However, further study should be meaningful.
  • Investigation of enteric parasites with a focus on zoonotic parasites in
           the feces of Galliformes

    • Abstract: Galliformes have a global distribution and are bred by humans as domestic animals or game birds. The world's poultry population is increasing due to high consumer demand for poultry products. Due to the increasing growth of Galliformes breeding, this study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites in the feces of some species of Galliformes.Galliformes have a global distribution and are bred by humans as domestic animals or game birds. The world's poultry population is increasing due to high consumer demand for poultry products. Due to the increasing growth of Galliformes breeding, this study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites in the feces of some species of Galliformes. In this study, 100 distinct fecal samples were collected from seven different Galliformes species, including rural chickens, peacocks, partridges, pheasants, turkeys, quails, and guinea fowls. Sampling of each bird was done separately. These birds were kept in cages. To identify gastrointestinal parasites, the samples were evaluated using the Clayton-Lane method, modified Ziehl-Neelsen, and Trichrome staining methods. Out of 100 birds sampled, 53% of birds were positive for gastrointestinal parasites. 30% of birds were infected with Eimeria spp., 18% of birds were infected with nematodes, and 5% of birds were infected with Giardia spp.. The highest rate of parasitic infestation in Galliformes was related to protozoan infections and the highest rate of protozoan infection was related to Eimeria (30%). Complex infestation was not detected. Considering that most parasitic infections have been detected in apparently healthy birds, it is recommended to observe hygiene and to regularly disinfect cages and reduce the density of birds in the nests. Due to the zoonotic potential of Giardia and due to the contamination of some birds with this parasite, this issue should be considered by public health officials, bird sellers' markets, owners, and breeders of these birds.
  • Genome sequences of Canine Parvovirus type 2c prevalent in Western Mexico

    • Abstract: Canine Parvovirus 2 is one of the main etiologies of viral gastroenteritis in dogs worldwide. This disease is characterized mainly by the presence of diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia and dehydration. This virus is responsible for a high mortality and morbidity rate in dogs younger than 3 months and those incomplete or not vaccinated. Monitoring of viral variants in our region has shown that in the last 7 years, variant 2c has been circulating exclusively, which is unusual if we consider that in the rest of the world at least 2 variants co-circulate among dog populations. In Mexico, there are no studies that report genomic sequences of CPV-2 which are relevant for population comparisons at the genetic level; thus, the purpose of the present study was to sequence genomes associated with CPV-2c. To meet this objective, stool samples were collected from dogs with suspected CPV-2 infection; five positive cases diagnosed by lateral flow testing and PCR were selected for viral genome sequencing. Comparative analyses showed that the genome sequences obtained were >99% homologous to those reported for CPV-2 in GenBank. On the other hand, 52 nucleotide mutations were identified in the vp1/vp2 gene of which 3 impacted the amino acid transition (T226S, F267Y, A440T). Phylogenetic analysis of the vp1/vp2 gene showed that the five sequences cluster in a clade called "III", which is related to sequences from USA and Uruguay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genomic sequences associated with CPV-2 in Mexico, which is of great relevance for the epidemiological-molecular understanding and evolution of the virus.
  • Effect of Ultrasound on the Physical, Biochemical, Anti-oxidant, and
           Antimicrobial Properties of Industrial Iranian Honey

    • Abstract: Honey is a sweet and nutritious product of Apis mellifera bees. It contains glucose, fructose, water, minerals, vitamins, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and enzymes . Honey has various functional properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, prebiotic, and anticancer, which are essential for human health [4]. Because of its unique properties, honey is known not only as a nutritious spice but also as a medicine with healing properties. Honey is a high-dense sugar solution; it can produce coarse crystals by changing the conditions (such as glucose level, humidity, temperature, impurity, and ecology) and lead to quality loss . This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasound at two different frequencies of 30 and 42 kHz on the physical, biochemical, anti-oxidant, and antimicrobial properties of industrial Iranian honey. All samples (except control) were treated using ultrasound at 30 or 42 kHz for 1, 5, or 10 minutes at 20 or 45 °C. Then the following parameters were measured: HMF content, pH, acidity, proline, total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, diastase, moisture, sucrose, fructose, glucose, the ratio of fructose to glucose, ABTS, osmophiles, phenol, reducing sugars and total sugars on days 1, 30, 90, and 180. In both treatment groups exposed to ultrasound, there were changes in these parameters. The group treated with 42 kHz ultrasound showed a decrease in moisture, pH, acidity, fructose-to-glucose ratio, total sugars, clostridium, total microbial count, mold, osmophiles, HMF, and an increase in diastase, proline, and phenol. The changes were more significant on days 90 and 180. Ultrasound at 42 kHz for 10 minutes at 45 °C could lead to an increase in the quality and shelf life of industrial honey. In conclusion, this technique can be used in the food industry to provide a higher quality product as well as a more successful export.
  • In vitro evaluation of Anti-Obesity Potential of Phyllanthus fraternus

    • Abstract: Obesity has been an important health concern over a decade, causing serious health issues worldwide. Treatments available for obesity include FDA approved drugs like Lorcaserin, Orlistat, Bupropion, combinations of Phentermine and Topiramate, Sibutramine but these have adverse effects on health. To address the issue the current study was performed on evaluating the anti-obesity potential of Phyllanthus fraternus leaves. These leaves are a rich source of different phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins etc., and the plant has showed to exhibit medicinal properties hence it can be used in the treatment of obesity disorder. The crude extract of plants was prepared in three different solvents i.e., methanol, hydro alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. Determination of lipid inhibition was done using lipase inhibition assay and Amylase assay was carried out to determine if the plant extract possessed anti-diabetic properties. An Oil red staining was carried out to determine lipid accumulation in which the cells were incubated with plant extract for 48 hrs. In order to determine if the plant extract was toxic to 3T3 cells MTT assay was carried out to access cell viability. Through lipase inhibition assay we depicted potent anti-obesity property, isopropyl alcohol extract exhibited 67.45% inhibition at the concentration of 500µg/ml. Methanol extract showed highest percent of α amylase inhibition i.e., 90.03% at a concentration of 1000µg/ml. MTT assay concluded that the plant extracts were not cytotoxic to the cells at a concentration range between 20µg/ml to 100µg/ml the percentage of viable cells was 98% to 63%. The plant extract successfully could be used to treat obesity. The results obtained from the current study revealed that the plant exhibits potent anti-obesity properties.
  • In vitro and in vivo effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles
           against Giardia lamblia infection

    • Abstract: The current experimental study designed to examine the in vitro and in vivo effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against G. lamblia as one of the main causes of parasitic diarrhea. The precipitation method was used to green synthesis of AgNPs by Astragalus ecbatanus aqueous extract. In vitro assay was performed on G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites after exposure with AgNPs at 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL for 10–360 min. Effects of AgNPs on trophozoite plasma membrane and their cytotoxic effects on normal and colon cancer cells were assessed by Sytox green and cell viability MTT assay. For thein vivo assay, BALB/c mice infected by Giardia, were treated with AgNPs at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg/day for one week. On the 8th day post-infection, stool exam was performed to check the Giardia cysts presence and the reduction rate. The AgNPs were in the range between 5 and 80 nm, and the maximum distribution of particlesize was observed at 40–60 nm. AgNPs markedly (p<0.001) increased the mortality of G. lamblia trophpzoites as a dose-dependent reaction; AgNPs at 200 and 300 μg/mL destroyed G. lamblia cysts after 4 and 2 h, respectively. Trophozoites of G. lamblia were more sensitive to AgNPs than cysts, whereas, AgNPs at 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL killed all trophozoites after 4, 2, and 1 h of treatment, respectively. AgNPs dose-dependently dropped (p<0.001) the parasite load and viability of cysts of G. lamblia. Exposure of G. lamblia trophozoites with AgNPs dose-dependently increased the plasma membrane permeability of trophozoites via rising the exposed fluorescence. The CC50 value AgNPs for colon cancer and normal cell lines was 402.3 μg/mL and 819.6 μg/mL, respectively. The selectivity value greater than 2 (2.04) implies that this AgNPs is safe for normal cells compared to cancer cells. This experimental study showed that AgNPs green synthesized by A. ecbatanus displayed considerable in vitro and in vivo anti-Giardia activity and can accordingly a candidate for Giardia infection treatment. Nonetheless, farther researches on the accurate mechanisms of action as well as clarifying all toxicity aspects of the type of AgNPs must be considered.
  • Molecular surveillance of Yersinia pestis from stray dogs and cats and
           their fleas in Algiers

    • Abstract: In recent years, plague has re-emerged in several countries around the world and remains endemic in some regions. In a natural environment, and in contact with rodents and their fleas, stray carnivores are most at risk of catching the disease and maintaining the spread of the bacillus.The objective of this study is to demonstrate the presence or absence of Yersinia pestis in stray dogs and cats in the Algiers region by molecular methods and thus contribute their role in epidemiology of this disease. Molecular research of Yersinia pestis has also been conducted on fleas from these carnivores. Preliminary identification of ectoparasites to genus and species level was performed.Real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting Yersinia pestis pla gene was used to survey the plague agent in fleas and carnivores captured as stray animals in Algiers (Algeria). Positive qPCR results were tested by PCR sequencing using glpD gene.Among 327 fleas captured from 107 dogs and 365 fleas from 140 cats, prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis was higher in cats (86,96%), whereas that of Ctenocephalides canis and Xenopsylla cheopis was higher in dogs (90,57% and 92,63% respectively). While internal and external PCR positive controls were positive, none of the 107 dogs spleen and 140 cat spleens and none of the 256 analyzed fleas were positive for Y. pestis. These results suggest that stray cats and dogs are unlikely sources for plague in Algeria contrary to that has been reported in other plague-endemic countries. This observation illustrates that plague epidemiological chain varies from one region to another one.
  • A Review of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in Middle East:
           Mechanisms, epidemiology, and dissemination from different origins in
           human, animal, food, and soil

    • Abstract: Escherichia coli is a normal gut inhabitant, that is able to cause various diseases such as enteric, urinary tract, cystitis, and systemic infections in humans and animals. The alarming increase in the prevalence of profiles for the extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli isolates is a serious problem all over the world. Colistin is well known as a last-resort antibiotic for the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. Inappropriate use of colistin and other classes of antibiotics in combination with poor infection control especially in developing countries could lead to serious complications in public health settings. The global increase of colistin resistance has been reported in many parts of the world, as well as in the Middle East region. Colistin is used to treat infections caused by extensively drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. The reliable epidemiological data of the colistin-resistant in E. coli isolates is very scarce, however, information for colistin-resistant E. coli from Asia, the world's largest, most populous, and most diverse continent, is generally limited in comparison to Europe and the United States of America. The data of this review article were collected from the respective articles in connection with isolated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from humans, animals, and food-producing animals sections. In the Middle east, colistin-resistant E. coli isolates has been reported from Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Israel, and Lebanon between 2010 and 2022. While colistin resistance is most frequently observed in E. coli isolates, data indicated that the mcr genes have been found to be the most common genes associated with colistin resistance in E. coli isolates, in comparison with mutations in the pmrAsB, phoQ, and mgrB genes.
  • Membrane trafficking mechanisms and their biological relevance

    • Abstract: The majority of chemicals expressed in mammalian cells have complex delivery and transport mechanisms to get to the right intracellular sites. Numerous cellular organelles which include the plasma membrane, have their size, shape, and molecular makeup regulated by membrane transport. One of these transports the majority of transmembrane proteins as well as nearly all secreted proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, where they are created, to their final sites. Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-trafficking mechanism, which is both a prominent and critical component. This system, which is composed of compartments that are dynamically coupled, supports the export and uptake of extracellular material, remodeling and signaling at the cellular interface, intracellular targeting, and preservation of internal compartmentalization (organelles). This system permits both regular cellular activity and specialized tasks, such as neural transmission and hormone control, in animal cells. Human disease, including neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, and cancer, is linked to disruption or dysregulation of the membrane-trafficking system. The treatment and cure of human disease depend on understanding the cellular and molecular principles underpinning membrane trafficking routes. A single gene mutation or mutations that result in impaired membrane trafficking give rise to a number of clinical disorders brought on by modifications in cellular homeostasis. Other eukaryotic creatures with significant economic and agricultural value, like plants and fungi, also depend on the membrane-trafficking system for survival. This review emphasizes the major human disorders connected to the process of membrane trafficking while concentrating on a broad overview of membrane trafficking.
  • Designing an Efficient Poly-Epitope Vaccine Based on Immunogenic Outer
           Membrane Proteins of Salmonella enterica Typhi

    • Abstract: Consumption of contaminated water and foods by Salmonella Typhi cause the most common enteric disease known as Typhoid fever in both humans and animals. Despite the existence of various vaccines but infectious diseases remain a major cause of mortality worldwide. Nowadays, in-silico tools design a reliable and stable vaccine to combat such infections. Data based on microorganism genomes can help to predict the epitopes that can interact with the host immune system. However, mapping epitopes in immunogenic proteins is critical in peptide vaccine development. The study aimed to design and evaluate a multi-epitope vaccine based on the outer-membrane proteins of Salmonella Typhi. B-cells and T-cells epitopes were predicted. Predicted epitopes were connected by AAY, KK, and GPGPG linkers. Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin (HBHA) has been attached to the N-terminal of the final vaccine as a potent immune adjuvant. Epitope’s antigenicity, allergenicity, immunogenicity, and physicochemical characteristics were defined using in-silico tools. Molecular docking of vaccine-TLR4 was done. The RMSD of all atoms in the ligand-receptor complex gradually increases over time, and it continues until 20 ns. The RMSD graph of all atoms means that the ligand-receptor complex mostly remained stable, and the RMSD value converged within ~0.1 nm. ∆G of vaccine-TLR4 is -3.91×104 Kcal mol-1 with 1.93 RMSD. The results indicated protein was stable and non-allergen and Z-scores of multi-epitope vaccines are within the range of native proteins with similar sizes. In conclusion, the multi-epitope vaccine base on outer membrane proteins of the Salmonella Typhi bacterium might be considered to combat typhoid fever.
  • In vitro effect of 1-methyltryptophan isomers on epithelial-mesenchymal
           transition transcription factors in tubular epithelial cells after
           ischemia-reperfusion injury

    • Abstract: The compound 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT) has been shown to act protectively in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signaling is also a regular process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that can after Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) result in as an increase of renal fibrosis. EMT is associated with specific transcription factors – Snai1, Snai2, Zeb1 and Twist. 1-MT could regulate EMT and act as antifibrotic agent. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 1-MT on EMT transcription factors in tubular epithelial cells that underwent 30 min. Renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) were isolated from Lewis rats using a standard protocol with Fe2O3 magnetic separation and selective media as previously mentioned. ischemia and 48 hours of reperfusion. Cells were cultivated and divided into 4 groups: C-TECs– control cells, IRI-TECs – IRI-induced TECs, D-IRI-TECs – IRI-induced TECs treated with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, L-IRI-TECs – IRI-induced TECs treated with 1-methyl-L-tryptophan. IRI was induced in all groups for 30 min by mineral oil (except for C-TECs) followed by 48 hours of reperfusion. RNA and proteins were isolated from harvested cells. Using semi-quantitative PCR (RT-sqPCR) we assessed the relative mRNA expression of EMT transcription factors Snai1, Snai2, Zeb1, and Twist. Hereby we have shown, that the treatment of ischemia-induced TECs with both 1-MT isomers lowers the expression of EMT transcription factors Snai1 and Zeb1 that were increased by ischemia and reperfusion of TECs. This could act favorably in renal IRI decreasing EMT and renal fibrosis, therefore showing the potential of 1-MT as a part of therapy in renal transplantation aimed at renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
  • In vitro anti-Toxoplasma effects and apoptotic induction of queen bee acid
           (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid) alone and in combination with atovaquone

    • Abstract: Toxoplasmosis, which is created by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite is a parasitic, infectious disease. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA, queen bee acid (QBA), is one of the most prevalent fatty acid (>40%) presents in royal jelly. Studies reported various beneficial effects of 10-H2DA antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, improving the immune system, and antimicrobial effects. This experimental survey aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of QBA against tachyzoites and intracellular parasites of the T. gondii RH strain. Anti-Toxoplasma effects of QBA against tachyzoites were examined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay for 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In addition, the effect of QBA on infection rate and intracellular parasites was studied. Real-time PCR was also applied to assess the expression level of the Caspase-3 gene. The best efficiency of QBA was reported at 100 and 50 µg/mL whereas all tachyzoites were diminished followed by 120- and 180-min treatment, respectively. We also found that the best repressing efficacy of QBA on the infection rate and the load of parasites into the Vero cells was indicated at 100 µg/mL (p<0.001): but, the combination of QBA (12.5 µg/mL) along with atovaqoune 30 µg/mL displayed the highest effect on the infection rate and the load of parasites into the Vero cells in the infected Vero cells. The expression level of the Caspase-3 gene was dose-dependently increased after exposure of tachyzoites to QBA; mainly at ½ IC50, and IC50 compared to the normal saline. The achieved findings exhibited the high in vitro potency of QBA especially in combination with atovaqoune against T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites. Although apoptosis induction can be suggested as one of the principle mechanisms; more studies are required to elucidate its accurate mechanisms as well as its efficacy and safety in animal models and clinical settings.
  • Synthesis of Bio-Active Silver Nanoparticles against Human Lung Cancer
           Cell Line (A549)with Little Toxicity to Normal Cell Line (WRL68)

    • Abstract: Nanomaterials are characterized by mechanical, thermal, chemical, biological, and other properties that are different from the basic materials that make them up due to their large surface area to size ratio and quantum effect. There are multiple ways to produce nanomaterials mechanically, chemically, and physically, but they are not safe for the environment. Researchers have sought to find safe methods for the production of nanomaterials, such as green manufacturing, that is, manufacturing nanomaterials from plants. Moreover, there are other sources, such as bacteria or fungi that are used in the production of nanomaterials. This study aimed to try to find an alternative to chemically manufactured drugs, such as those used in the treatment of human cancers, through nanotechnology and from plant sources (green-biosynthesis), which is characterized by abundance and low economic cost. Silver nanoparticles were green-synthesized using an aqueous extract of the licorice plant, their properties were diagnosed, and their differences with the crude aqueous extract were determined. The sizes of nanoparticles were within the range of 60.27-89.80 nm, while the sizes of the crude aqueous extract particles were within the range of 53.96-113.1 nm. Atomic force microscopy was used to find out the shapes, topography, roughness, and protrusions of the surfaces of biosynthesized AgNPs and aqueous extract particles, where the roughness rate of the nanoparticles was 75.54 nm, while it appeared. In vitro test of AgNPs showed a higher anti-lung cancer activity against the A549 cell line than that of the extract at an inhibitory concentration for half of the cells used in the experiment (IC50) of 58.78 µg/ml while the IC50 of the extract was 67.44 µg/ml. The results showed that the toxicity of AgNPs on the normal hepatocyte line (WRL68) was less than that of the aqueous extract, with IC50 concentrations of 244.2 and 147.0 µg/ml, respectively. It is worth mentioning that the lower IC50 led to higher toxicity.
  • Microscopic, Molecular and Antigen Detection and Isolation of
           Cryptosporidium Parvum parasite in calf diarrhea in Iran

    • Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cryptosporidium protozoan in vertebrate animals. In livestock, especially ruminants, infants develop diarrhea syndromes. The infection is widespread throughout the world, as well as in Iran, which is reported from various species. Morphological diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species has many limitations and is of no taxonomic value alone, therefore using molecular methods helps remove these limitations to some extent. The current study is aimed at microscopic, molecular, and antigen detection and isolation of Cryptosporidium Parvum parasite. Firstly, there were 300 specimens collected from different parts of Iran. Next, purification of oocysts from feces was carried out according to the method of Casemore et al., through the flotation technique following which staining was done by means of the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method (Henriksen method), and identification through diagnostic keys. ELISA test was also performed on the specimens for which the results were from 1 positive to 4 positive. Results of our study demonstrated that from the 300 cases tested for Cryptosporidium through the molecular method, 48 cases (16%) were positive. These cases were collected during summer, autumn, and winter, however, more than 50% of positive cases were found among specimens collected in autumn. Furthermore, there were 54 positive cases found by means of PCR test, which indicates 6 cases more than that for ELISA results. Finally, results from PCR detection and ELISA, were subjected to Chi-Square analysis, where no significant difference between the collected data was observed (p=.0587).
  • Production of an efficient enzymatically Fab fragment antivenom against of
           Cobra snake (Naja naja oxiana) venom

    • Abstract: َAbstract Since about 100 years ago, the best and main treatment for millions of global snakebite victims has been the use of polyclonal antivenoms. However, common antivenoms need continuous improvement to reduce rare, their side effects and get faster performance. In this study, by papain digestion of anti-cobra venom plasma and subsequently multi-step purification and optimization, including, ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, Fab antivenom was produced. Then, by SDS-PAGE method, and double immunodifusion (Ouchterlony) tests the existence of the corresponding Fab fragment antibody was seen and confirmed. Also, in potency test in NIH laboratory mice, it was found that each milliliter of the new Fab antivenom was able to neutralize 624 micrograms, (80LD50) of cobra venom, which is about 15% more efficient than the primary plasma in the same concentration and also, 1.57 times more than the cobra antivenom which found in commercial hexavalent antivenom of Razi Institute respectively. According to the results, it seems that this new Fab antivenom can be used as a new candidate for the treatment of cobra snake bite victims.    
  • Chaya Leaf Infusion (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) as a Phytogenic for
           Productivity and Egg Quality of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix
           japonica) 17-20 Weeks Old

    • Abstract: Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) from family Euphorbiaceae is a plant has leaves similar to papaya leaves but with dark green leaf color. This plant contains phytochemical compounds such as alkaloid, flavonoid, triterpenoids, glycoside, and tannin that can function as antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Chaya leaf infusion are processed into infusion before given to the quails through drinking water, this method is used to obtain the phytochemical compounds contained in chaya leaves. This study aimed to evaluate chaya leaf infusion (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) as a phytogenic source on the productivity and egg quality of japanese laying quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 17-20 weeks. Chaya leaf infusion is given through drinking water and is expected to increase the productivity and quality of quail egg. The variables observed consisted of productivity (water intake, feed intake, egg weigh, QDP, egg mass, FCR, mortality) and egg quality (yolk, albumen, shell weight and percentage, egg index, yolk index, albumen index, shell thickness, yolk color, and haugh unit). This study was analyzed using the T test with 2 treatments and 4 replications: T0 = drinking water without any additives and T1 = drinking water with a concentration 10% of chaya leaf infusion. The results showed that chaya leaf infusion had a significant effect (P≤0.05) on quail day production, egg mass, albumen index, and yolk color. Besides that, supplementation chaya leaf infusion significantly reduces (P<0.05) feed convertion ratio. So that the use of 10% chaya leaf infusion in drinking water by giving it 2 times a week can increase the productivity and egg quality of laying quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 17-20 weeks old.
  • Anti-proliferative Activity of Vitex negundo Leaf Extracts on PA1 Human
           Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    • Abstract: In Ayurveda, Vitex negundo (VN) is used as a drug to manage pain, inflammation, problems related to polycystic ovary disease and the menstrual cycle. The bioactive compounds isolated from this plant exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and microbicidal properties. The shrub Vitex negundo is known for its role in the modulation of cellular events like apoptosis and cell cycle. There is still a scarcity of data in the literature on the cytotoxic activity of Vitex negundo extracts on ovarian cancer. Hence, in this study, the phytochemical composition, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities of leaf extracts were evaluated. The chloroform and methanol fractions exhibited higher phenolic content (161.04 ± 0.02 mg/g GAE and 152.56 ± 0.05 mg/g GAE respectively) as compared to other fractions. The aqueous and petroleum ether fractions exhibited higher flavonoid content (515.27 ± 0.28 mg/g QE and 211.82 ± 0.05 mg/g QE respectively). The acetone and methanol extracts showed significant anti-oxidant capacities. Both leaf extracts of Vitex negundo inhibited PA1 cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 88.01 ± 3.14 and 112.30 ± 1.93 μg/ml respectively, as compared to the standard drug Doxorubicin with IC50 value 2.91 μg/ml (p < 0.05, One - Way ANOVA). The Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis allowed us to identify twenty- five bioactive compounds in acetone extract and twenty- two compounds in methanol extract. Therefore, further studies should focus on the isolation of novel compounds, which are more effective and less toxic, and constitute interesting substitutes for the development of anti-cancer drugs.
  • Potential role of microRNAs in response to Aeromonas infection in fish

    • Abstract: The Aeromonas genus is a common pathogen includes more than 30 Gram-negative species that often proceed as opportunistic bacteria. The species of Aeromonas are distributed naturally in different aquatic sources. Infectious processes usually develop in marine animals such as fish under the conditions of stress, and when they are immune-compromised. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptionally gene expression. Their diverse biological functions such as interfering in cell development, proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, metabolism, and apoptosis have been studied on different animals. Fish is the major source of aquatic nutrients all over the world, and its market is continually growing. Overcrowd in aquaculture calls for infectious diseases, which endanger the development of fish aquaculture around the world. Extensive evidence shows that microRNAs are involved in the modulation of infectious processes and regulation of the inflammatory response against the most important fish bacterial infection including Aeromonas. Here, we review the current literature on fish's microRNA repertoires and outlined physiological roles assigned to microRNAs to offer a foundation for future research during Aeromonas infection. Understanding the interaction between the microRNAs and Aeromonas may provide clues to the identification of a remarkable strategy to prevent Aeromonas infection in fish. As well as the profiling and identification of microRNAs in infected fish is the beginning of an extended road to disclosing the functional mechanisms and variations of microRNA regulatory pathways to recognize the major targets across infected fish. Finally, can be expected that further investigations about microRNAs will direct the wider application of microRNAs in the therapeutic strategies of Aeromonas infected fish.
  • Immunological and cytokine profile (IL-25 and IL-35) in patients with
           Entamoeba histolytica infection in Thi-qar Province, Southern Iraq

    • Abstract: Amoebiasis is an intestinal disease caused by a unicellular parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is the most recent specific member in the IL-12 family, that plays a principal role in the inhibitory function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to restrain inflammatory reactions. IL-25 from the IL-17 family, which is broadly released by Th2 cells and epithelial cells is a warning signal produced during cell or tissue injury for triggering immune cells. The present study was designed to determine the cytokine profile (IL-25 and IL-35) in patients with E. histolytica infection in Southern Iraq. This hospital-based study was carried out from August 2022 to May 2023. The study participants were patients suffering from E. histolytica infection referred to the Infectious Diseases Wards of the general hospitals in Thi-qar Province, Southern Iraq. At first, the E. histolytic amebiasis in patients was approved by the nested multiplex PCR. All collected sera were tested using the Human Interleukin 35 (Biotech, China, Cat.RD-IL35-Hu) and IL25 (Biotech, China, Cat.RD-IL25-Hu) ELISA Kits based on the producer’s instructions. A total of 80 patients including 50 patients with E. histolytica infection and 30 people in control group with no E. histolytica infection were included in the present study. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.001) in the serum level of IL-25 among patients with E. histolytica infection (4275.19 pg/mL) in comparison with people in the control group with no E. histolytica infection (2186 pg/mL). The statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference in the serum level of IL-35 patients with E. histolytica infection in comparison with people in the control group with no E. histolytica infection. The findings of the present investigation revealed the high levels of IL-25 in patients with E. histolytica infection; indicating the important role of IL-25 in activating the immune system during intestinal inflammation. Therefore, this cytokine can be used as a diagnosis marker for E. histolytica infection.
  • Prevalence of Trichomoniasis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Among Married
           Women in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    • Abstract: Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) and candida (C.) species are the most common causes of vaginal infections in reproductive-age women. T. vaginalis is a sexual protozoa parasite that causes trichomoniasis. Candida species are fungal and cause an infection in the female genital tract named candidiasis caused by several Candida species. Both microorganisms if not treated correctly may lead to many complications such as abortion, premature delivery, disorders of menstrual cycle, and infertility. The current study aimed to study the frequency of T. vaginalis and Candida species including C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata infections among females with vaginal infection in Duhok City, Kurdistan region, Iraq. About 250 vaginal swabs were collected from women that attended to the Vin Private Laboratory and 150 samples were collected from women that attended to the Arveen Private Laboratory have vaginal infections. Out of these 400 vaginal swabs samples, twenty-four samples were recorded positive for T. vaginalis by direct smear. One hundred ten samples were recorded positive for candidiasis by culturing on the Candida Chromagar. Three species of Candida were isolated including C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata, their prevalence was (60.9%., 28.25, 7.3%, and 3.6%) respectively. Vaginal infection was commonly found in the age group between 25-35 years (49.6%), followed by the group aged between 35-45 years (36.4%). Also, (3.2%) of samples were found to have a mixed infection with trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Because these two causative agents have many complications in women, therefore it is highly recommended a good control measurement to prevent or decrease vaginal infection such as health education, personal hygiene, and treatment of infected women.
  • The effects of Fe2+ nanoparticle on pain responses and neural oscillation
           following chronic neuropathic pain in rat

    • Abstract: Neuropathic pain, a chronic pain condition, caused by nerve damage either of the peripheral or central nervous system. It responds poorly to current drug treatments. The present study investigated the analgesic and anxiolytic effect of Fe2+ nanoparticle, in chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. We also assessed the effects of Fe2+ nanoparticle on brain rhythmical oscillation in rats with neuropathic pain. The CCI model was induced by four loose ligation of the left sciatic nerve. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, as following: control, sham, CCI, CCI+ Fe2+ nanoparticle (1 mg/kg). The Fe2+ nanoparticle was administered by gavage on the day of CCI surgery (day 0) and daily (once a day) for 21 consecutive days after CCI surgery. Behavioral studies were conducted on days -1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after CCI. Acetone test and elevated plus maze (EPM) were performed to evaluate cold allodynia and induced anxiety-like responses, respectively. Open field test was performed to evaluate innate anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, electrophysiological study was performed on day 21 after CCI to evaluate the effects of drugs on brain wave power. Application of Fe2+ significantly reduced cold allodynia in all tested days after CCI compared to the CCI group. Our data demonstrated that Fe2+ nanoparticle gavage caused analgesic and anxiolytic effects on all experimental days after CCI compared to the CCI group. The CCI surgery significantly disturbed theta, alpha and beta power in the brain. Application of Fe2+ nanoparticle could not significantly change brain wave power. It is suggested that Fe2+ nanoparticle has analgesic and anxiolytic effects during chronic neuropathic pain in rats. Furthermore, the CCI surgery effectively disturbed brain theta, alpha and beta power. However, application of Fe2+ nanoparticle could not change deregulated brain oscillation in rats.
  • Regulation of Neuropeptide Y Receptor Gene Expression and ‎Hormone Level

    • Abstract: Obesity and its associated disorders, such as hyperlipidemia, have become a ‎global issue ‎following the consumption of unhealthy, high-fat, and high-‎carbohydrate foods, which ‎burdens the economies and the ‎health systems of human societies ‎worldwide‎.‎‏‎‏ ‏This study aimed to evaluate ‎the effect of oral consumption of 6-gingerol and L-arginine ‎supplements on ‎serum lipid profile (triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and ‎low-density lipoprotein), obesity factors, insulin, corticosterone and testosterone hormones, ‎and ‎expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene in high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) ‎induced ‎obese rats. Thirty rats in five groups were fed a diet specific to each ‎group for 12 weeks ‎and then treated with the oral administration of L-arginine ‎‎(200 mg/day) and 6-gingerol (100 ‎mg/day) for twelve weeks. The food and water ‎intake and weight change were then measured‎. In addition, plasma glucose, ‎triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein ‎‎(HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)‎, low-density ‎lipoprotein (LDL), and serum ‎hormone levels, including corticosterone, testosterone, and insulin, were measured, and NPY, ‎Y1, and Y5 receptor gene expression were recorded using real-time PCR. Administration of ‎‎6-gingerol and L-arginine decreased food intake, ‎weight ‎gain‎, glucose levels, insulin levels, ‎and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index compared to ‎the ‎HCD control group. In addition, corticosterone and testosterone levels in the ‎study groups ‎showed a significant decrease (P
  • Characterization of forced degradants of Tegafur, Gimeracil, and Oteracil
           potassium by Liquid Chromatographic-Electrospray Ionization-Mass
           Spectrometry and simultaneous estimation of triple combination in drug
           substance and finished pharmaceutical

    • Abstract: Tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium are widely used pharmaceuticals to treat lung cancers of the gastrointestinal tract like the oral cavity, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, and also non-small cell lung cancers. Literature review revealed that no study has yet offered a completely stability-demonstrating, validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric approach for the concurrent estimation of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium along with all known degradation products. The simultaneous detection of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium, and their forced degradation products characterization, necessitated the invention of a simple, faster, and less expensive method. The goal of the study was to follow ICH method validation standards to develop and validate a fast, easy, and rugged liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique for the concurrent estimation of Tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium in drug substance and finished dosage form according to ICH method validation guidelines. Tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium were examined on Waters HPLC Alliance system coupled to SCIEX QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer endowed with an interface capable of carryout electrospray ionization. The tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil peaks eluted at retention times of 2.338 min., 3.756 min., and 5.338 min. respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) values of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil were detected to be 0.6, 0.174, and 0.474 μg/mL, respectively however the results for quantification limit (LOQ) were calculated to be 2.0, 0.58, 1.58 µg/mL concentration, respectively. Tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil had linear ranges of 50-300 µg/ml, 14.5-87 µg/ml, and 39.5-237 µg/ml, respectively, with regression coefficients of 0.99956, 0.99986, and 0.999479. Accuracy values for tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil in the ranges of 50%, 100% and 150% for each were respectively, were determined to be 99.9%, 99.9%, and 99.4%. The % RSD for six replicates was less than 2% for precision. According to ICH Q2 guidelines, this approach was effectively evaluated with LC-MS to validate the chemical structures of freshly created tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil degradation products. An accurate and sensitive LC-MS technique was developed and validated for the concurrent quantification of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium in drug material and medicinal dosage form.
  • Sonchus maritimus extracts-loaded niosomes bioconjugated by linoleic acid
           enhance high fructose diet-induced hepatic encephalopathy in albino Wistar

    • Abstract: One of the major roles of nanotechnology in pharmaceutical field is to provides a facility to improve the drug delivery systems and design smart nanocarriers which have the potential to deliver specific biomolecules to the target site for treatment. In this study, we were evaluated a niosomes loaded Sonchus maritimus (SmE-N) on hepatic encephalopathy induced by high fructose diet (HFD) in rats. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of Sonchus maritimus extract (SmE), synthesis of niosomes and its characterization were performed. For in-vivo study, 24 male rats were haphazardly divided into 4 groups (n=6); Control, HFD (35%), HFD + SmE-N (50 mg/kg/day) and HFD + metformin (50 mg/kg/day). Clinical behaviors and Biological markers were assessed for all groups. In vitro results of chromatographic analysis revealed that S. maritimus contains important phenolic acids including gallic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffiec acid, and divers flavonoids including quercetin, rutin and naringin bioactive compounds. The niosome formulation characterized by encapsulation efficiency of SmE reached up to 61.40%. In-vivo results, HFD showed a significant change in behavior parameters, liver glycogen, transaminases enzymes; brain protein and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) levels. In addition, a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in HFD group compared to control group. Furthermore, histopathological observation recorded a profound modification in liver and brain tissues of HFD group. In contrast, the treatment by the SmE-N and Metformin assured a partial amelioration in noticed parameters compared to HFD group, while SmE-N seems a better improvement than the metformin treatment when compared to control group. As conclusion, use of SmE-loaded niosomes and bio-conjugated with linoleic acid seems its powerful to treat complications of fructose-induced metabolic disorder through its hepato-neuroprotective abilities.
  • Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus Aureus from Unprocessed
           Cow's Milk and Investigating the Effect of Bifidobacterium Bifidum
           Probiotic Cell-Free Supernatant on Their Enterotoxins Genes Expression

    • Abstract: This reserach aimed to detect and isolate the genes involved in the staphylococcal enterotoxins production in strains isolated from unprocessed cow’s milk and to examine the impact of Bifidobacterium bifidum probiotic cell-free supernatant on their expression. In this study, standard biochemichal methods as well as Gram staining were used to screening and identification of Staphylococci strains in unprocessed milk. PCR was used to identify strains carrying enterotoxin genes. B. bifidum cell-free supernatant (CFS) was applied to strains containing the target genes, and the genes expression levels were quantified using Real-time PCR. Using 16SrDNA sequencing, the phylogenic relationship of the isolated strains was determined.Analysis revealed that bacteria such as Staphylococcus species were found in the 72% of the samples. PCR test showed the presence of various SE superantigens, including SEA(16.7%), SEC (11.7%), SED(8.3%), SEE (6.7%), and SEB(1.7%) in isolated strains. B. bifidum CFS had obvious antimicrobial activity against strains 24, 51, 54, and 35 of Staphylococcus species, and the MIC and MBC values for these strains treated with B. bifidum CFS were in the range of 31.25 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Strains 51 and 24 were clustered with S.aureus ATCC 25923, and strains 54 and 35 were clustered with S.aureus ATCC 12600, respectively. RT-PCR exhibited that probiotics CFS suppressed the expression of SEA, SEB, SEC, and SEE genes (p<0.05). The average fold change for SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED genes was -1.681, -1.28, -1.52, and -0.84 respectively. The research demonstrated that probiotic bacteria can lower enterotoxin production by downregulating the expression of staphylococcal enterotoxins genes.
  • Proteomic analysis and immunoprofiling of Persian horned viper venom,
           Pseudocerastes persicus from central part of Iran.

    • Abstract: Numerous species of venomous snakes of medical importance exist in Iran. Pseudocerastes persicus one of the medically important snake that is also called the Persian horned viper, has a geographical spread that extends to the east, southwest, and central areas of the country and is endemic across the wider region. As a result, this species is responsible for a significant number of snakebite occurrences.Venom from Pseudocerastes persicus found in the central province of Semnan was found to contain phospholipase A2 and L-amino acid oxidase activities, and high toxic potency. The venom was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a range of components were identified, consistent with the biochemical and toxicological properties of the venom: proteins identified from 2D electrophoresis and shotgun methods included metallo- and serine proteases, phospholipases, oxidases, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitors along with many other components at lower qualitative abundance. This study provides a more detailed understanding of the protein profile of Iranian P. persicus venom, which can be effective in the production of an effective antidote against it. The analysis of the resulting data shows that there is a wide range of proteins in the venom of the Iranian Persian horned viper. This informations can provide a better understanding of how venom is neutralized by polyclonal antivenom. Considering the wide presence of this snake and its related species in Iran and surrounding countries, knowing the venom protein profile of this family can be of great support to antivenom producers such as Razi Institute in the preparation of regional antivenoms.
  • Meta-analysis of Johne’s disease in Iranian animals’
           population (1999 - 2020)

    • Abstract: AbstractJohne's disease occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide. Paratuberculosis has severe economic impacts on the animal industry. Despite the significant economic losses, little knowledge is available on the epidemiological status of paratuberculosis in the animal population of Iran. The aim of this study was evaluating of the prevalence rate of the disease in the Iranian animals’ population with confidence interval and p-value. The search was conducted on the electronic international and national databases and screened. Then, sufficient and relevant data were extracted. Data were analyzed using STATA software v. 14. Prevalence disease rates were determined using random effect models. Fifty-two articles were included in the systematic review. According to the results, the overall disease incidence rate in Iran was 20.39%. The prevalence rate of JD was 22.33 (CI 95%, 18.87- 25.78) in the cattle population, and 25.61 (CI 95%, 21.43-29.78) in sheep. This study showed that cattle and sheep were the most commonly infected host. The highest prevalence rate of disease was 35.88 in Tehran (CI 95%, 16.77-54.99), followed by 32.86 (CI 95%, 25.07-40.65), and 20.10 (CI 95%, 14.63-25.58) in Khorasan Razavi, and Kerman, respectively. The lowest prevalence rate of JD was 2.27 in Ilam (CI 95%, 0.84- 3.70). Based on this result, molecular-based methods were proper compared to other diagnostic methods. This study reports MAP prevalence in dairy herds in the provinces of Iran. Due to infection transmission from animal sources to human and the potential role of MAP in human disease, is emphasize on the need for further study on this issue.
  • Characterization of Razi Bovine Kidney (RBK) Cell Line as a Sensitive Cell
           to Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1)

    • Abstract: Viruses are obligate parasites and are completely dependent on host cells for survival and replication. RBK cell line developed and introduced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, has been successfully established as a continuous cell line over successive passages.RBK cells demonstrate marked sensitivity to certain viruses. In this experimental study, RBK cell line has shown significant sensitivity to BoHV-1 virus. At present research, the characteristics of RBK cell line were performed by molecular and karyotype methods, as well as growth characteristics. Cloning of the RBK cell line was performed using limited dilution method in parallel with analytics for characterization of each cell clone quantitatively and qualitatively. Then four cell clones were compared based on their sensitivity to the BoHV-1 virus. Finally, the RBK-D5 clone was selected as the most appropriate cell line for further study and was subjected to tests for identity, chromosomal analysis and doubling time. In the end, RBKD5 in terms of species origin and contamination-free was confirmed by PCR method. We observed that the cell line directed towards karyotype diversity, because of aneuploidy. Aneuploidy itself can be responsible for the procreation of chromosomal instability. Karyotype diversity represent chromosomal changes in the continuous cell line that carries the characteristic of immortalized cell line. We found that the RBK-D5 was more sensitive to BOHV-1 virus. Surprisingly, its titer was evaluated CCID50/ml 108.5. These results suggested the RBK cell line can be suitable for the BoHV-1 virus; in addition, this cell line is useful for virus detection, propagation and quality control or viral titration.
  • Presence of Enteric Viruses in Shellfish Samples from the Persian Gulf

    • Abstract: Shellfishes are significant economic and nutritious seafood amongst people of different countries. Seafood products, particularly shellfish samples, are potential reservoirs of enteric viruses. This research investigated the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII, HAV, and HEV in shellfish samples from the Persian Gulf, Iran. One hundred and fifty shellfish samples were collected. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis was performed using commercial kits. The real-time PCR assessed the presence of enteric viruses in extracted cDNA samples. Thirty-two out of 150 (21.33%) shellfish samples were contaminated with enteric viruses. Prevalence of NoV GI, NoV GII, HAV, and RoV amongst shellfish samples were 8.00%, 11.33%, 1.33%, and 0.66%, respectively. There were no contaminated shellfish samples with HEV. Simultaneous prevalence of HAV and NoV GI and HAV and NoV GII viruses were 0.66% and 0.66%, respectively. Examined viruses had a higher prevalence in shellfish samples collected through the winter season (P < 0.05). Prevalence of HAV, RoV, NoV GI, and NoV GII amongst shellfish samples collected through the winter season was 2.85%, 9.09%, 11.90%, and 20%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the incidence of enteric viruses, particularly HAV, NoV GI, NoV GII, and RoV, in shellfish samples from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Shellfish samples may serve as a potential source of enteric viruses for the human population. Therefore, routine viral assessments should be conducted. Completely cooking shellfish samples before consumption can significantly reduce the risk of HAV, RoV, NoV GI, and NoV GII infections. Furthermore, given the export value and importance of shellfish samples, their microbial quality and safety should be routinely monitored.
  • The effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in inducing
           interferon-gamma in breast cancer patients

    • Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is among the most pervasive zoonotic illnesses in the world. Human infection rates range from 10% to 80% in many countries. Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are more susceptible to developing acute forms of toxoplasmosis, which can cause brain defects, neurological damage, and encephalitis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in inducing interferon-gamma in breast cancer patients from Iraq. This cross-sectional descriptive work was carried out on women who were suffering from breast cancer referring to Al-Haboubi Teaching Hospital in Nasiriya City-Thi-Qar province (Iraq) during the period extended from January to September 2022. About 3 mL of blood was obtained from all participants and sera were collected. Sera were then tested using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits of Toxoplasma IgM, IgG, and IFN-γ (Nova Tec Immunodiagnostica GmbH, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s protocols. Before blood collection, a printed questionnaire with some demographical information, e.g., age and residence, was completed for participants. The total number of positive patients for T. gondii infection from breast cancer patients in the current study was 60 (85.7%). The results of the analyzing specimens by ELISA test revealed that 85.7% and 74.2% of the patients were positive for IgG and IgM, respectively. The mean level of IFN-γ in breast cancer patients with toxoplasmosis, without toxoplasmosis, and control group was 47.66, 0.00, and 0.57 pg/mL, respectively. Higher IgG and interferon-gamma levels were found in the group of breast cancer patients with toxoplasmosis compared to the group without. According to the ELISA findings, T. gondii was the most common parasite among cancer patients.
  • Investigating the side effects of covid-19 vaccines in Southern Iran: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Abstract: The Covid-19 disease is a newly emerging disease, and the covid-19 vaccine is one of the necessities to prevent this disease. The present study aimed to Investigate the side effects of covid-19 vaccines in southern Iran. We used convenience sampling to conduct this cross-sectional study on 647 people living in cities under the coverage in southern Iran, Kerman. The data collection tool included a researcher-maid questionnaire of vaccine symptoms and signs. The results were analyzed by SPSS software version 24 and ANOVA, and chi-square tests. The mean age of the participants was 40.19±15.20. The results indicated that 431 people (66.6%) reported post-vaccination side effects, with 18.23% of them having severe side effects. We noticed the most severe side effects in AstraZeneca, Sinopharm, Sputnik, and Bharat. Fever, headache, and pain at the injection site were the most common side effects after vaccination respectively, which had a statistically significant relationship with all types of vaccines (P=0.001). The side effects differed in the types of vaccines and most of the vaccines had mild to moderate side effects. People with B blood type showed the most severe side effects while those with AB showed the lowest rate of side effects. Therefore, the injection of the AstraZeneca vaccine in blood group B should be done with more caution. And it is recommended more attention should be paid to blood groups B and A in the injection of Covid-19 vaccines. also, health officials and the government should plan appropriate educational strategies to increase public knowledge and the importance of vaccines in eradicating viral infections
  • Authorizing of Immunogenicity of concentrated and purified Newcastle
           disease virus using downstream processing

    • Abstract: Newcastle disease virus from the Paramyxoviridae family is a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus. NDV is an infection of domestic poultry and nearly all bird species. It has been a very severe difficulty for the poultry industry all over the world Even though it remains a potential threat to poultry industries, this virus is a powerful oncolytic virus as well. In this study a process was accomplished to achieve concentrated and highly purified NDV V4 strain particles. Downstream processing of Newcastle virus strain V4 was characterized by amplifying virus in embryonated chicken eggs. Through a sequence of steps, harvesting allantoic fluid, clarification by centrifuge, concentration by ultrafiltration, size exclusion separation, the reduced volume and pure virus particles were considered for the amount of ovalbumin, hemagglutinin activity, electron microscopy (TEM), electrophoresis, and additionally immunogenicity of prepared antigens. The results presented a high recovery of HA activity in concentrated and pure virus with removing of ovalbumin and the typical morphology based on TEM. Sepharose CL-4B was determined as the best media among all used resins to purify the virus. Prepared formulations as vaccines demonstrated a positive hemagglutinin inhibition for 6 months duration and stable for two years. Organized study provided strong evidence that this method was quite appropriate in concentrating and purifying of intact Newcastle disease virus to use in vaccine research, also in antiserum preparation, or probably like an oncotic agent as an alternative to conventional procedures. Though additional studies are being tested, this procedure can be used practically on a semi-industrial scale in the production of multiple vaccine components.
  • Hepatitis B virus X protein induces expression changes of miR-21, miR-22,
           miR-122, miR-132, and miR-222 in Huh-7 cell line

    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recognized as one of the most deadly malignant cancers which ranks third among all annual cancer mortality rates. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX) is known to play a key role in HCC. The HBX may alter the expression of multiple microRNAs (miRs), which are important in hepatocarcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the importance of HBX protein in mir21, mir22, mi122, mir132, and mir222 expression.Material and Methods: In the present study, a recombinant vector, pcDNA3.1+ expressing HBx was developed. The Huh-7 cell line was transfected with HBx-pcDNA3.1+ recombinant plasmid. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to evaluate mir21, mir22, mi122, mir132, and mir222 expression in the cell line.Results: It was found that expression of miR-21 and miR-222 was upregulated at all points of time since HBx transfection. The expression of miR-21 reached to 4.24-fold after 72 hours post-transfection. The miR-22 had a 7.69-fold downregulation after 24 hours. The miR-122 had a significant downregulation after 48 (10-fold) hours. The miR-132 expression reached its lowest rate at 12 hours after HBx-transfection (8.33-fold). The miR-222 expression was upregulated in transfected cells but was not significantly different (1.18 to 2.45-fold).Conclusion: Significant downregulation of miR-22, miR-122 and miR-132 implicate their inhibitory roles in the progression of HBV-associated HCC. The expression of these microRNAs could be used as a prognosis of the progression of HBV-associated liver disease. Also, in future studies, miR-21 and miR-22 can be used as a target in the development of therapeutic agents.
  • Prevalence of helminths infection in wild rodents of Northwestern Iran

    • Abstract: Rodents act as reservoirs, intermediate or definitive hosts for various zoonotic helminths. Parasitic diseases are among the critical factors affecting the survival and composition of wild rodent populations and wild rodents share their habitat with domestic free-grazing animals- mainly sheep, stray dogs, and cats, which allows the transmission of helminth infections to these animals: i.e., Toxocara and Trichinella. This study investigated the helminth parasite fauna of wild rodents in East Azerbaijan Province, North-Western Iran, and discussed the possibility of parasite transmission among wild rodents. A total of 204 rodents of seventeen different species have been collected in northwest Iran. Information about the genus, developmental stage and rodent species was recorded for each animal. The gastrointestinal tract, liver and diaphragm were examined for the presence of helminths. The recovered specimens were identified based on reference should be included.. The prevalence rate of helminths infection among the captured rodents was 67.16%. Meriones persicus showed the highest infection and diversity rates. This species harbored the zoonotic helminths Capillaria hepatica and species belonging to genera Toxocara, Syphacia, and Hymenolepis. M. persicus specimens from the mountainous area showed the highest infection rate. This study aimed at evaluating the potential role of wild rodent species as reservoirs of helminth infection in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. M. persicus is the more common species in our study and represents a higher proportion of the infected rodents in terms of helminths diversity and frequency. Harboring zoonotic helminths, M. persicus represents a health risk. - Further studies are recommended to evaluate the prevalence of these parasites in the human community and to inform the people concerned about the risk of disease transmission to humans through rodents.

    • Abstract: The biosynthesis of agglutinogenic and adsorbing group A and B glycotopes of erythrocyte's membrane is mediated by the activity of specific glycosyltransferases. The aim of the study – to assess the nature of the biosynthesis of A antigenic glycotopes, depending on pH of the medium during the cultivation of erythrocytes and on antigenic (transferase) characteristics of the donor serum of the other group. Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were obtained from IGBRL and under the program IV of the International Workshop on Monoclonal Antibodies and Red Blood Cell Antigens. Biosynthesis was performed with erythrocytes, fresh serum, medium 199 and antibiotic solution. Eleven of thirty three samples changed the agglutinogenic characteristics by the end of the cultivation period due to the acquisition of additional agglutinogen corresponding to the donor serum. None of the samples lost their inherent agglutinogen due to its absence in the donor serum. Four of six samples of O (I) erythrocytes acquired the ability to be agglutinated by anti-A reagents, especially strongly by polyclonal anti-A, and the manifestation of agglutination depended on the reaction time. Two of the three samples with initial A(II) agglutinogenic specificity added to the donor serum with Bc'+ characteristic of the erythrocytes acquired this characteristic. However, none of five A(II)Ac'+ samples cultured in the serum of Ac'- O(I)Ac'-Bc'+ and O(I)Ac'-Bc'- donor lost its inherent earlier Ac'+ characteristic. The investigation of inhibitory ability of alkaline and acidic glycoconjugates isolated from membranes revealed, that alkaline Alp-00 and Alp-1 glycotopes isolated from glycolipids showed the highest inhibitory activity, and the degree of inhibition of polyclonal anti-A antibodies was even higher than that of monovalent BRIC-131. The possibility of biosynthesis of non-agglutinogenic specific A and B glycotopes under the influence of a different group serum as a source of the corresponding transferase was shown.
  • Development and validation of a microwave-assisted digestion technique as
           a rapid sample preparation method for the estimation of selenium in
           pharmaceutical dosage forms by ICP-OES

    • Abstract: Selenium is a class 2B element according to ICH Q3D guidelines. Selenium sulfide is an anti￾infective agent with antifungal and antibacterial properties used to treat dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. The literature survey revealed that most of the analytical techniques to estimate selenium were found to be time-consuming and/or required high skill. The process involved identifying the isotopes, selecting the measuring approach, and optimizing a typical microwave-aided digesting procedure. To the samples, ammonium hydrogen difluoride, water, and concentrated nitric acid were added. The confirmed microwave digestion program was a two-step program where in the initial step, the samples were ramped at 200°C for 20 minutes and held for 5 minutes. Later, samples were cooled and neutralized by boric acid, then ramped for 20 minutes to a temperature of 180°C and held for 10 minutes. Selenium was estimated at 196.090 nm by ICP-OES. System suitability was run before initiating analysis to ensure that system performance was consistent. Analytical validation parameters like the specificity of the method were demonstrated at 196.090nm, linearity was proven from 10 ppm to 150 ppm of selenium concentration, the detection limit was 1.28 ppm and the limit of quantification was 3.89 ppm. Robustness was confirmed for small changes to ICP-OES operating conditions. The method's precision was demonstrated by analyzing the percentage relative standard deviation for six injections was found to be less than 2.0%. Accuracy was confirmed from 10 ppm to 150 ppm, and all the samples were found to be within the range of 95-105%. A common microwave-assisted digestion technique was developed and the same was validated. The preciseness, specificity, linearity, accuracy, and robustness of the method for estimating selenium in selenium sulfide drug substances and various pharmaceutical dosage forms weredemonstrated. This newly developed microwave-assisted digestion technique has optimum sensitivity, highly reproducible and time saving than the existing methods. This method can be applied to numerous matrices for a finished dosage of selenium sulfide formulations.
  • The role of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens with high
           mortality of Kerman province

    • Abstract: The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the paramyxoviridea family and has great significance in poultry production, which spends a lot of money every year on prevention and economic damage caused by this disease. A wide range of symptoms including respiratory, and nervous disorders, and hemorrhage lesions in the digestive system are seen in this disease. In this research, the presence of NDV in 10 poultry farms with high mortality and respiratory symptoms in Kerman province (between January 2020 to October 2020) was investigated. Tissue samples were collected from mortalities of 10 flocks in different parts of Kerman province and inoculated into embryonated eggs. The NDV was detected in the allantoic fluid by polymerization of partial F gene protein. The virus was positive in the samples of 5 flocks. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also show that The sequence of isolates was related to genotype II (three isolates) and sub-genotype VIId (two isolates) of Newcastle disease viruses and the amino acid sequences of sub-genotype VIId isolates in the 113 to 116 positions were RRQKR and in the 117 positions was the presence of F (phenylalanine). The other three isolates were grouped with B1, Clone, and LaSota vaccines, and the amino acid sequence in the cleavage site included GRQGRL. The similarity between the studied isolates was 99.6- 98.4%. In this study, virulent viruses were isolated and tracked in broiler farms that were vaccinated with live and killed vaccines. It is better to pay more attention to designing the vaccination program.
  • In Vitro Inhibition of Rotavirus multiplication by Copper Oxide

    • Abstract: Group A rotaviruses are the most important cause of gastroenteritis in children under five years of age worldwide. Rotavirus gastroenteritis can be associated with mild to severe diarrhea in children, and in some cases, it can lead to death due to severe dehydration. The annual death from rotavirus infection is approximately 146,480 worldwide, and most of these deaths occur in low-income countries in Africa and Asia. Since there are no specific effective drugs for the treatment of rotavirus infection, and only supportive care is available for infected patients, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs), have various applications in magnetic, electrical industries, and biology. The antiviral effect of nanoparticles (CuONPs) is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiviral effects of CuONPs on rotavirus. The cytotoxic effects of CuONPs on MA-104 cells were investigated by MTT assay. In addition, anti-rotavirus activity of CuONPs was evaluated by TCID50 and Real-Time PCR assay. Our results showed that exposure of rotavirus-infected cells to different non-toxic concentrations of CuONPs did not lead to a decrease in the virus titer compared to the control. While, the virucidal effect of CuONPs on rotavirus was observed at concentrations of 80 and 100 μg/ml (P value < 0.001). Our study indicated that CuONPs are associated with significant antiviral activity against rotavirus multiplication. While the exact mechanism of the anti-rotavirus activity of CuONPs remained unknown. But according to the virucidal test, it seems that loss of capsid integrity and genome destruction in the presence of CuONPs are possible mechanisms of its anti-rotavirus effect.
  • Comparison of Lowenstein Jensen Media and Ogawa Media Usage for Viability
           Test of BCG Vaccine Pasteur P11732 and Russian (Moscow) – 384

    • Abstract: BCG vaccines on the market have employed a Mycobacterium bovis sub-strains derived from the initial strain. To date, there has been no recommendation regarding the sub-strains with the highest effectiveness when administered to humans. Because it remains the standard for Tuberculosis treatment, the BCG vaccine's quality must be verified. One of the parameters for BCG vaccine quality control is the test for viability. The culture method has become the gold standard for viability testing with various testing media. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Lowenstein Jensen and Ogawa media for the viability test of Pasteur 1173P2 and Russian (Moscow) – 384 sub-strains of M. bovis in the BCG vaccine. The number of culturable particles of each sub-strain in the BCG vaccine was estimated and statistically evaluated using the t-test. The Colonies of the Pasteur 1173P2 has characteristics; tended to clump on both mediums with tiny, rough, and pale yellow/cream colors. While the colony character of the Russian (Moscow) – 384 generally has similar feature but did not cluster and had a smooth texture. In terms of growth rate, Lowenstein Jensen and Ogawa media performed similarly for Pasteur 1173P2 and Russian (Moscow) – 384 sub-strains. Maximum growth is reached by week 5. The culturable particles of Pasteur P1173P2 sub-strains did not differ between mediums. Whereas the growth of the Russian (Moscow) - 384 sub-strains was statistically better on Ogawa media. The results of this study reveal that the performance of the media used for determining the number of culturable particles is based on the sub-strains of M. bovis present in the BCG vaccine.
  • The effect of diabetes mellitus on the spectrum of uropathogens and the
           antimicrobial resistance in patients with urinary tract infection

    • Abstract: Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently experience urinary tract infections. Many studies indicated that diabetes patients experience higher treatment costs, morbidity, and death due to UTI as a result of the spread of resistant bacterial strains in hospitals. In the current study, we looked at how glycemic control affects diabetic patients' rates of UTI, the pathogens that cause them, the presence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) organisms, and the infections' relation to diabetes.Methods: Diabetes patients' midstream urine (MSU) samples were taken in a sterile, spotless, and dry wide-mouthed bottle. After following the standard methodology to collect and identify the organisms, disc diffusion antibiotic sensitivity tests were conducted. HbA1c measured for all patients. Using the SPSS 16.0 version, the data were examined.Results: In the current study, 500 diabetic patients provided urine samples, after analyzing of urines it was revealed that189 (37.2%) of those individuals had UTI. Compared to 59 patients with managed glycemia, 130 individuals in the uncontrolled glycemic group experienced the most UTI cases. In both diabetic groups, females had a significantly higher prevalence of UTI than males (88.4% and 11.6%, respectively, 𝑃 < 0.004). 52.3% of women over 46 with uncontrolled glycemia experienced UTIs. The most common bacterial isolate, E. coli, displayed 58.4% MDR. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that, regardless of age or gender, glycemic control in diabetes patients is essential for decreasing UTI rates. It should be noted that, the best empirical treatment for diabetic patients with UTI should involve regular monitoring of the uropathogenic susceptibility patterns.
  • Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies among government
           employees in Iran

    • Abstract: The Covid-19 disease emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly became a global health threat. Around 6,947,192 people have been killed around the world so far, including 144,000 in Iran. Despite the definitive diagnosis of the disease by RT-PCR, immunological and serological tests can check the anti-SARS-CoV-2 N protein antibody titer in people at different stages of infection with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. The serological examination is, therefore, an effective and efficient method for determining the prevalence, especially when asymptomatic cases are present or the diagnosis of those with symptoms is incomplete. The study examined the seroprevalence of covid-19 at the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI) and the Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO). At AREEO, 493 blood samples were collected in June 2020 from volunteers, while at RVSRI, 380 samples were collected in June and July 2020. The total number of volunteers from both organizations was 873. Standard ELISA kits were used to measure IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. A statistical analysis of the obtained data was conducted using SPSS version 22.0. Among the total 873 volunteers examined by RVSRI and AREEO, 10.5% had elevated serum titers either for IgM or IgG, of which 3.55% were women and 6.95% were men. Generally, 8.8% of people tested positive for IgM, which showed a new infection with Covid-19 in people at that time. It partially indicated the start of a new wave of Corona. In RVSRI, 3.42% of people with positive IgM titers (positive or negative IgG titers) were women, while 5.53% were men, and in AREEO, 3.02% were women and 5.72% were men. The rate of seroprevalence of COVID-19 in RVSRI was 11.6%, of which 4.2% were women and 7.35% were men. No significant difference was observed in the rate of seroprevalence of COVID-19 between women and men. The covid-19 seroprevalence in AREEO was 9.7%, of which 3.22% were women and 6.5% were men. No significant difference was observed in the rate of covid-19 seroprevalence in women and men.
  • Study on the effect of phycoerythrin on antimicrobial activity and
           shelf-life extension of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at
           refrigerator temperature

    • Abstract: The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of phycoerythrin (PE) treatment extracted from Nostoc sp. on the shelf-life extension of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillet at 4 ° C and 8 ° C. After extraction and purification of pigment in BG-110 medium, the pigment phycoerythrin was extracted and purified with 56% ammonium sulfate followed by dialysis. After that, the effect of pigment on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The fillet samples were immersed in pigment solution and their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties were examined. The results showed that the concentration and purity of the pigments increased after the dialysis. The results from performed chemical tests and total number of of living mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive and coliform bacteria of the samples compare to the blank sample showed that sample treated with algae extracts were able to control the increase in these parameters. In these tests, the highest levels belonged to Nile Tilapia fillet sample Nile Tilapia fillet coated with PE solution at a temperature 8 ° C and the lowest amount was observed with fillet coated with PE solution at a temperature of 4˚C (p≤0.05). The results of sensory evaluation showed that the highest score of taste, texture, color and total acceptance were observed for Nile Tilapia fillet coated with PE solution at a temperature 8 ° C. In conclusion, the extract pigments from Nostoc sp. has strong antimicrobial activity and can maintain the quality parameters for controlling of spoilage bacteria and extend the shelf life of Oreochromis niloticus.
  • Biochemistry of the Thrombin-Like enzyme and Its Purification from Iranian
           Echis carinatus snake venom: its interaction with platelet receptors

    • Abstract: Abstract Snake venoms are rich in valuable substances that have medical potential in the diagnosis and treatment of hemostatic diseases. The present paper was aimed at the purification and functional characterization basis of a thrombin-like enzyme and its role in the function of the coagulation cascade and platelet aggregation pathway. A thrombin-like serine protease was purified from the Iranian Echis carinatus venom (TLIECV) employing a one-step chromatographic procedure. This peptide was collected in high yield and purity by a single chromatographic step using RP-HPLC equipped with a C18 column. This peptide showed a 3000 Da molecular weight in gel-electrophoresis. Evidence in the SDS-PAGE gel has confirmed high recovery of fraction in optimal terms. Subsequently, this peptide was identified via its intact molecular mass and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Multiple sequence alignments were performed by ClustalW, Bioedit software. Molegro Data Modeller (MDM) 3.0 software was used to predict the putative tertiary structure of the peptide. The enzyme possessed fibrinogenolytic, procoagulant and aggregation inducer properties. SDS-PAGE (12%) was applied to examine fibrinogenolytic function. The purified enzyme degraded the Aα chain of fibrinogen while the Bβ and γ chains were not digested. According to that the deficient human plasma in factor X and normal human plasma was also coagulated by TLIECV, it takes part in the common and intrinsic routes of the coagulation cascade. These findings showed TLIECV is a serine protease identical to procoagulant thrombin-like snake venom proteases, but it specifically releases the Aα chain of bovine fibrinogen. Because of its function to make up the deficiency of factor X and its platelet aggregation inducer property, TLIECV could be considered as molecular impact to reveal the hemostasis mechanisms.
  • Evaluating the Antioxidant Effects of Onion (Allium cepa) on Blood
           Biochemical Factors and Antioxidants After Consuming Tartrazine in Rats

    • Abstract: Colors have been adding to food naturally and artificially for centuries to make them attractive. According to the Food and Drug Organization, eight artificial colors were registered for the nutrition application, one of them is tartrazine, which is widely used in foods and cosmetics. Food colors cause a significant decrease in weight, an increase in proteins and liver enzymes, an increase in thyroid hormones, an increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride. Onion as an antioxidant can reduce the harmful effects of artificial food colors on weight gain, antioxidant activity and blood biochemical factors. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant properties of the onion on serum biochemical factors and antioxidants in Wistar rats after consuming tartrazine. Eighty Rats were divided into four groups,20 mice in each. The first group received water without additives and was considered to be the control, the second group received tartrazine, the third group received tartrazine with onion juice, and the fourth group received only onion juice through gastric gavage. This experiment was performed for 60 days, and then the antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT, GPX, and the biochemical parameters of HDL and LDL were measured. Tartrazine decreased the antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT, GPX, and the biochemical parameters of HDL and LDL. The results showed that the consumption of tartrazine causes the production of free radicals, which is the reason for the significant reduction of antioxidant activities and serum biochemical factors. Onion as an antioxidant in this study reduces the effects of tartrazine on antioxidant activities and serum biochemical factors.
  • Compared to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, Montanide ISA 206 VG induces a
           higher and more durable neutralizing antibody response against FMDV in

    • Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a high prevalence in cloven-hoofed animals. It is highly contagious and remains a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Iran has a widespread vaccination program, but outbreaks of foot and mouth disease continue to occur. Vaccination is one of the most effective methods of preventing foot and mouth disease. The vaccines used in Iran are of inactivated type and contain several serotypes. It is necessary to use adjuvants since inactivated vaccines without adjuvants do not induce a high and durable antibody response. Montanide ISA 206 VG is a mineral-oil-based adjuvant that produces water-in-oil-in-water (w:o:w) emulsion in vaccine preparations. A large number of manufacturers in Iran and around the world still use alum adjuvant (with or without saponin) to produce FMD vaccine. In this study, Montanide ISA206 or Alum adjuvants were used to administer O2010 serotype of FMDV to goats. A total of six goats were divided randomly into three groups. Vaccines were administered subcutaneously (SC), twice one month apart. Blood sampling was done at different times and micro neutralization method was used to measure the neutralizing antibody titer in each of the sera. Seven days after the 2nd vaccination, the Alum group's antibody titer was higher, but not statistically significant. The Montanide ISA206 group's antibody titer was significantly higher than that of the Alum group from the 28th day after the second injection until the end of the study. Six months after the second injection, the antibody titer in the ISA206 group remained at the peak level. The antibody titer decreased and reached the minimum protective level in the group where Alum was injected. The antibody titer 9 months after the second injection in the ISA206 group remains at peak titer levels. In contrast, the antibody titer in the Alum group dropped significantly. ISA 206 VG is capable of generating long-term humoral immunity in goats against FMD serotype O2010 and it could replace aluminum hydroxide adjuvants in FMD vaccine preparations.
  • Covid-19 Vaccination Hesitancy among General Population: A Gender based
           Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    • Abstract: December 2019 was momentous, since it experienced the trajectory of another novel pathogenic HCoV recognized as 2019-nCoV in Wuhan, China, which further unfurled to all the countries in the entire globe; at a lightning stride. Majority of covid-19 vaccines are being manufactured using protein subunit, viral vector, inactivated virus, DNA and mRNA vaccine platforms. To do a gender-based review of the Covid Vaccine Hesitancy among general population and conduct bibliometric analysis. Various articles related to covid vaccine hesitancy, either in the title, abstract or as keywords in search strategy was done. For COVID vaccine hesitancy; we used the definition of “ Reluctance to receive safe and recommended available vaccines”. Thus 408 articles remained for complete evaluation. Finally, these were taken for bibliometric analysis. Data Analysis was done using the Vos viewer Software vs. The strength of co – cited publications showed strong contributors from American and Asian continents. Words with maximum weightage based on their occurrences were female, health personnel, acceptance, social media, socio-economic factors, ethnic groups etc as covered in the red cluster. Whereas, Overlay Visualization on the right-hand side based on the total link strength of MeSH items shows largest clusters with items such as females, attitude to health, trust, cross-sectional studies, acceptance of health care, rural population, public health, parents etc which were towards the centre. The terms towards periphery which have less weightage, need more surveys. Greater perceived susceptibility, risk perception and benefits as well as low levels of barriers and self-efficacy were the prime reasons a person would intent to vaccinate and more specifically among females. The female being the decision maker of the family in most instances, needs to be attended first who can further change the mindset of the entire family and carry the future forward.
  • Isolation, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of
           Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from raw meat of large
           livestock in Iran

    • Abstract: Campylobacter spp. genera are one of the most common causes of microbial enteritis worldwide. This research aims to discover how common Campylobacter organisms are in raw meat from large livestock in Iran and their antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Several 550 fresh ready-to-eat meat samples were gathered from the slaughterhouse, butcher shops, and restaurants in the research region, including cattle (n = 138), goat (n = 102), camel (n = 56), and sheep (n = 254) meats samples. Using routine bacteriological procedures and PCR, Campylobacter spp. was isolated and identified. PCR was used to perform genotype pattering in the identification of virulence genes. The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. The two Campylobacter spp. were found in 84 (15.27%) of the 550 meat test samples. Cattle and camel samples had the greatest (52.38 %) and lowest (3.57%) frequency of Campylobacter spp., respectively. There were significant variations in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in cattle compared to others (P < 0.01; 2 = 43.04 or OR = 7.68, CI = 3.40–17.30). C. jejuni and C. coli amounted to 82.14 % (69 samples) of the Campylobacter spp. they were isolated from the raw meat. C. jejuni was found in 39.28% of the samples (33 samples), whereas C. coli was found in 42.85% (36 samples). Other Campylobacter spp. made up 17.85 % (15 samples). The most prevalent genotypes pattering observed in C. jejuni bacteria collected from several sorts of large livestock samples were ciaB (100%) and flaA (100%), and virbll (7.69 %) were the C. jejuni strains found with the least incidence in various large livestock specimens. ciaB (100 %), flaA (100 %), were the most common genotypes found in C. coli bacteria. The C. coli isolates dnaJ (0%), wlaN (0%), virbll (0%), and ceuE (0%) discovered with the least frequency in a range of large livestock samples. Campylobacter spp. isolated from various sample types and sources were 100% sensitive to aphA-3-1 and GM10. Resistance to E15 (76.93 %), cmeB (69.24 %), aadE1 (69.24 %), CIP5 (69.24 %), and AM10 (69.24 %) was found in the isolates.
  • Molecular identification and phylogenetic study based on the fusion gene
           of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from broiler poultry farms in
           Markazi province, Iran

    • Abstract: Newcastle disease (ND) is an economically significant and extremely spreadable viral illness affecting a wide variety of avian species. ND can rapidly spread within poultry farms and result in considerable economic losses for the global poultry industry. Newcastle disease is endemic in Iran, and despite intensive vaccination efforts in the poultry industry, outbreaks of ND occur unexpectedly. This research aimed to isolate the Newcastle disease virus from poultry farms with breathing problems in the Markazi province of Iran and investigate the isolates' evolutionary relationship and molecular characteristics during 2017-2019. To this end, tissue samples (lung, brain, trachea) were taken from 42 broiler farms exhibiting respiratory symptoms. The samples were inoculated into 9-11 day-old embryonated eggs and the virus was isolated in 20 (47.6%) of the 42 farms. Subsequently, RT-PCR was used to amplify partial F gene sequences from new isolates. The amplified products were sequenced and compared phylogenetically to the standard pilot dataset (125 selected sequences) generated by the NDV consortium. As determined by phylogenetic analysis, all nine isolates belonged to sub-genotype VII.1.1 of genotype VII and were highly similar to isolates from Iran and China. All isolates possessed a polybasic cleavage site motif (112 RRQKRF117), characteristic of virulent strains. Furthermore, the present isolates shared a high nucleotide identity (96%) with viruses previously isolated from other provinces of Iran, as determined by BLAST searches and multiple alignments. In addition, they shared a high degree of sequence similarity but were distinct from existing NDV vaccines. Therefore, the genetic dissimilarity between current vaccine strains and circulating NDVs must be considered in vaccination programs.
  • Study of humoral and cellular immunity and histopathology of target
           tissues following Newcastle Clone12IR vaccine administration in SPF

    • Abstract: Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral infection affecting the poultry production in many countries. Strict biosecurity and administration of live attenuated vaccines against ND virus (NDV) are the main implements in the controlling programs. This study evaluated the efficacy and potency of the Razi Clone12IR Newcastle vaccine in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with either the Razi Clone12IR vaccine (group A1; n=20) or an imported Clone vaccine (B1; n=20) in the first week of life and boosted in the second weeks via eye drop, while negative control chickens received PBS (C1; n=20). Half of the birds in each group were challenged with the virulent NDV strain in the 3rd post-vaccination week (A2, B2, and C2 groups). Specific antibody response was determined on the collected sera by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay up to 8 weeks. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was determined by lymphocyte proliferation assay at 3 and 6 weeks after the second vaccination. Sections of the tissues and organs including trachea, lung, cecal tonsile, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, liver, and small intestine were subjected to histopathology. The immunized groups A1 and B1 showed significantly higher HI antibody titers before challenge compared to the control group. The lymphocyte proliferation response in the peripheral blood of the vaccinated groups was significantly increased. After challenge, A2 and B2 groups conferred good protection and drastically reduced virus shedding. No main lesions were noted in the vaccinated group's tissues or organs in histopathology. In a few cases, mild microscopic lesions including the infiltration of inflammatory cells, which were related to the effect of the vaccine virus, were observed. These results indicate that the Razi Clone12IR vaccine is safe and can be an efficient tool for NDV infections by inducing protective humoral and CMI responses.
  • The correlation between the COVID-19 infection, outcomes and workload in
           emergency healthcare workers in an Iran referral hospital

    • Abstract: The immediate spread of COVID -19 can put a great deal of strain on health care personnel, particularly emergency personnel. Considering the critical role of frontline health care personnel (HCPs) during the pandemic and the life -threatening effects of COVID-19 on them, the present study aimed to evaluate the hospital database among frontline emergency personnel, and to assess the factors affecting health status of the emergency HCPs. In the present study, we collected clinical informative data from 58 HCPs with confirmed COVID-19 whom worked in the emergency ward, in Baqiyatallah Hospital, one of the most referral hospitals in Iran, regarding coronavirus clinical features. We also assessed the factors affecting health status of the emergency HCPs from February 2020 to November 2020. All of the 58 HCPs were personnel of the emergency ward assigned to the COVID-19 with an age range of 20 -59 years old. The median (IQR) of hospital length of stay (LOS) among all patients was 8 days. LOS is a critical factor in predicting hospital resource needs. Twelve patients (21.8%) had ground-glass opacity (GGO) alone, and 20 patients (35.7%) had patchy GGO. In our multivariable analysis, high level of patient’s liver enzymes (P=0.04) and lymphopenia (P=0.01) were significantly associated with the LOS. Our study shows an association of high level of patient’s ESR and CRP with longer LOS. We also found that age and sex had no effect on LOS. In the present study, nurses had the highest number of COVID-19 infection. HCPs who had more working shifts were more infected, and the acute care section of emergency ward was the most infected area of the emergency room.
  • A Comprehensive Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Klippel Feil
           Syndrome: A Case Report from Karachi, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the abnormal development of the cervical spine, leading to the fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae. The syndrome presents with diverse symptoms, including limited neck movement, chronic pain, and neurological manifestations such as limb numbness or weakness. The severity of KFS can vary significantly, and treatment primarily focuses on symptom management and preventing complications such as scoliosis or spinal cord compression. Surgical interventions are often necessary for patients with complex forms of the syndrome. Interestingly, Chiari 1 malformation, a cranial anomaly affecting the brainstem, can coincide anatomically with KFS. In this case report, we present the case of a 9-year-old patient who sought medical attention due to persistent, unchanging neck pain. The patient's medical history was notable for developmental delays and cervical restraint observed during the physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed hydrocephalus and brainstem descent, indicating the presence of Chiari 1 malformation. Comprehensive MRI and CT scans were performed, and a management plan was formulated, primarily involving cranial surgery and physiotherapy. Implementation of the treatment approach resulted in significant improvement in the patient's symptoms. This case highlights the significance of considering Chiari 1 malformation as a potential comorbidity in patients diagnosed with Klippel-Feil Syndrome who present with persistent neck pain. Early detection and appropriate management of both conditions are crucial for achieving favorable outcomes and enhancing the quality of life for affected individuals. Understanding the complex interplay between KFS and Chiari 1 malformation is essential for providing comprehensive care and tailored treatment strategies. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms linking these two conditions and to explore optimal management approaches for patients with dual pathology.By reporting this case, we contribute to the existing literature and increase awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the potential coexistence of KFS and Chiari 1 malformation. Continued efforts in identifying associated anomalies and optimizing therapeutic interventions will aid in improving patient outcomes and ensuring optimal care for individuals affected by these conditions.
  • A comparative study of the effects of Al(OH)3 and AlPO4 adjuvants on the
           production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against bovine parainfluenza
           virus type 3 (BPIV3) in guinea pigs

    • Abstract: Aluminum-containing adjuvants commonly used for inactive human and animal vaccines due to their favorable immunostimulation and safety. However, the effects of different aluminum salts as an adjuvant for bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) vaccine is unclear. In order to find the suitable adjuvant, we studied the effects of two adjuvants Al (OH)3 and AlPO4 on the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) for an experimental BPIV3 vaccine. The animals under study (Guinea pigs) were randomly divided into 5 groups of experimental vaccine containing Al(OH)3 (AH), AlPO4 (AP), Al(OH)3-AlPO4 mixture (MIX), commercial vaccine (COM) and control (NS). The treatment groups were immunized with two doses of vaccine 21 days apart (on days 0 and 21) and the control group received normal saline under the same conditions. The animals were monitored for 42 days and then blood samples were taken. Results indicated that all vaccines were able to induce the production of NAbs, at the levels higher than the minimum protective titer (0.6). An increase in titer was observed throughout the monitoring period. Also, the rising level and mean titer of NAbs obtained from the vaccine containing Al(OH)3 adjuvant was significantly (P≤0.005) higher than the other studied groups. Comparison of NAbs titer in other groups did not show a significant difference. Considering the speed of rising and the optimal titer of NAbs production in the experimental vaccine, Al(OH)3 adjuvant is a suitable candidate for preparing a vaccine against BPIV3 for immunization.
  • The effect of different levels of Zinc oxide nano particles on performance
           and mucousal enzymes activity from 1 to 21 days of age in Japanese quail

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of ZnO-nanoparticles (ZnO-nano) on the growth performance, mucosal enzymes activity in Japanese quail during starter stage. A total of 160 one-day quail were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design (RCD) including four treatments, four replications and 10 quail chicks in each experimental pen. The experimental treatments were: T1- Control (only basal diet content 35.2 mg zinc), T2, T3 and T4 were content basal diet plus 20, 40, and 60 mg ZnO-nano, respectively. Performance traits were recorded as weekly. At 21 days of age, from each experimental cage, one quail was selected whose weight was close to the average weight of the same of the cage, slaughtering and after opening the abdominal cavity and then removed a sample from the jejunum about 5 cm. The sample of jejunum was stored at -80°C until measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase (AML) and lipase enzymes (LIP). The results indicated that live body weight (LBW) was higher at the T3 and T4 groups than control (P<0.05). Also, feed conversion ratio (FCR) were lower in the birds that fed basal diet supplemented with 40 and 60 mg ZnO-nano/kg (T3 and T4, respectively) compared to control treatments (P>0.05). Results showed that increased level of amylase and lipase activity at the birds fed diet supplemented with 40 and 60 mg ZnO-nano/kg of basal diet as compared to control treatment but no significant (P>0.05). The results of this study suggested that adding 40 or 60 mg ZnO-nano/kg to the basal diet can be used as a supplement to improve performance traits and increase of mucosal enzymes activity at Japanese quail during starter stage.
  • Histopathological changes of induced thin layer endometrium by
           pentoxifylline and pentoxifylline loaded-plga effectiveness in female rats

    • Abstract: Pentoxifylline is the vasoactive agents that have an significant role in treatment the thin layer endometrium case. Pentoxifylline, also identified as oxpentifylline, is a member of xanthine derivatives, and it is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor leading to elevates of intracellular cAMP, inhibits TNF and leukotriene synthesis, activates PKA, reduces inflammation and innate immunity, and used as an agent to relieve muscle pain in people with peripheral artery disease (vascular irregularities) and is also a acceptable choice for radiation-induced fibrosis. Therefore, determination the advantageous impact of Pentoxifylline (PTX) and Pentoxifylline loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) was the objective of this study to female rats after being exposed to ethanol to create a thin layer of endometrium, fifty female rats were divided into five groups (G1: negative normal control, G2: positive control, G3: empty PLGA, G4: preference PTX, and G5: PLGA- PTX groups) for a twenty-day treatment period. In this study noticed the histopathogical section revealed a perfect improvement in the tissues of uterine horn of female rats that induced endometrial and treated with PLGA-Pentoxifylline when it appeared a clear healing and an increase in the thickness of endometrium and myometrium in comparison with the ordinary Pentoxifylline treated group that noticed the lowest in recovery characteristics, whilst the positive control group is shown a decrease significantly in the endometrium, myometrium thickness, vascular and glandular density. This study showed that the PTX-loaded PLGA had the capacity to in healing thin layer endometrium with improving the levels of histopathological changes, especially regarding with a thickness of endometrium and myometrium more than an ordinary Pentoxifylline treated group.
  • Seroprevalance and risk factors associated with Akabane virus infection in
           sheep and goat in Fars province, Iran

    • Abstract: Akabane disease is an arthropod-born viral disease that can affect ruminants. This is teratogenic pathogen that causes severe economic losses in ruminants worldwide, including in Iran. However, it has not received enough attention in Fars province, Iran. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine the influence of age, sex, climate, farming system and history of abortions on seroprevalence of the akabane disease in sheep and goat in Fars province. In the present study, Fars province was divided into three climates and randomly, in each climatic region, three cities were selected. In each city, two epidemiologic units were selected and all of sheep and goats in each unite were sampled. Overall, 540 serum samples (391 sheep and 149 goats) were collected and examined by commercial ELISA kit. The results showed that 83 out of 540 (15.4%) samples were seropositive and had antibodies against akabane virus. The effect of gender and age on the rate of akabane virus was not significant. Animals in warm climate were 4.218 times more likely to detect antibodies against the akabane virus than animals in cold climate. Females were 1.32 times more likely to exhibit seropositivity. The odds of akabane virus infection were higher in animals with abortion history in comparison to healthy animals. The results obtained from the present study indicated that the prevalence of Akabane virus in small ruminants in Fars province was high. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out more studies to control methods to reduce the risk of the spread of these viruses.
           WISTAR RATS

    • Abstract: Cloves possess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, among other roles they can play. This study investigated the effect of clove oil (CLO) on testicular and epididymal changes induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl). The twenty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups of five rats. Group A was allowed feed and water ad libitum. Group B was given 20mg/kg of Cdcl, Group C was given 20mg/kg of Cdcl and 10mg/kg of CLO, Group D was given 20mg/kg of Cdcl and 20mg/kg of CLO, and group E was given 20mg/kg of Cdcl and 20mg/kg of Di Methyl Sulphur Oxide (DMSO). After the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 24 hours of fasting; the testes and epididymis were harvested, while the right epididymis was homogenized for sperm analysis. The results revealed a significant decrease in progressive motility in group B while significantly increased in CLO-treated groups (p<0.05). In addition, group B showed a significant reduction in percentage progressive, an increase in percentage non-motile, and a decrease in sperm count. The histological studies showed that the control group displayed normal testicular and epididymal histo-architecture, while the cadmium group B showed a progressive degeneration of the cells and tissues, alleviated by the high dose of CLO in both the testes and epididymis. In conclusion, the current research demonstrated that testicular and epididymal damage induced by cadmium could decrease fertility, and CLO may be used in alleviating the deleterious effects of CdCl.
  • Antibacterial properties of bacteriocin purified from Serratia marcescens
           and computerized assessment of its interaction with antigen 43 in
           Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: Bacteriocins are a kind of antimicrobial peptides that kills or inhibits the growth of bacterial strains. The purpose this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of Serratia marcescens on several pathogenic bacterial strains. Bacteriocin produced by S. marcescens was purified by chromatography with sephadex G-75 column, and its antibacterial effect on gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli ATCC 700928, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1707, S. marcescens PTCC 1621, Vibrio fischeri PTCC 1693 and Vibrio harveyi PTCC 1755 were evaluated by the disk diffusion method (DDM). The structure of bacteriocin was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The interaction of bacteriocin with the antigen 43 (Ag43) of Escherichia coli was evaluated by molecular docking method. Bacteriocin extracted from bacterial isolates had antibacterial activity on E. coli strains but not on other studied strains. Bioinformatics analysis also showed bacteriocin docking with Ag43 with energy of -159.968 kJ/mol. Natural compounds such as bacteriocin can be an alternative to common chemical compounds and antibiotics. To reach a definite conclusion in this regard, there is a need for further research and understanding their mechanism of action.
  • Molecular analysis of Enterococcus faecalis isolates collected during a
           4-year period

    • Abstract: Here, we aimed to determine the characteristics of E. faecalis strains which were collected from an Iranian children’s hospital for four years. We investigated 67 E. faecalis isolates with virulence genes detection and Multi Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) typing. A high frequency of virulence genes was belonging to gelE (73%) and ace (62%). MLVA of 67 E. faecalis isolates revealed 52 VNTR patterns and 38 MLVA types (MTs). It was found there were genetic diversities with the majority of the MT1 as a major MT in different wards of children hospital.
  • Effect of vaccination on distribution and immune response of avian
           influenza virus H9N2 in Coturnix coturnix

    • Abstract: Influenza viruses can multiply in quails and be transmitted to other animal species. Vaccination reduces virus shedding in chickens; in this regard, the effect of killed H9N2 avian influenza vaccine on tissue distribution and virus shedding in quail was evaluated. One hundred and twenty-day-old quails were divided into six equal groups and kept in separated pens and fed.ad libitum. Before vaccination blood samples were randomly collected from wing vein, and four groups were vaccinated with killed H9N2 avian influenza vaccine at 21 days subcutaneously at the neck back. Three weeks later, two groups re-vaccinated. Two weeks later, at age 56 days, three groups challenged with 100 μl of allantoic fluid containing 105 EID50 H9N2 by occulonasal route routes. Blood samples were collected from quails at 42, 56, 63 and 70 days from each group to determine AIV antibodies by HI test. Three quails were randomly selected and euthanized from each group on days 1, 3, and 6 post-inoculation (PI) and tissue samples were collected, and RT-PCR test was performed. During the experiment, no clinical signs or gross lesions existed in any of the groups. However, the virus was detected in different tissues on the first, 3rd and 6th days after a challenge from unvaccinated challenged birds. The virus detection from quail vaccinated one time and challenged was significantly more than two times vaccinated-challenge group (P≤0.05). On the third day of PI, the virus was detected in some organs of the challenged groups. On the sixth day of PI, the virus was detected only in the lungs of two unvaccinated and one time vaccinated challenged birds.It was concluded that quail vaccination against AIV H9 is necessary to protect birds from clinical signs and respiratory tract and intestine replication. Two-time vaccination significantly protects the respiratory and intestine tract compared to one-time vaccination (P≤0.05).
  • Synthesis of Remdesivir Derivatives as a Generation of Anti-COVID-19 Drugs
           Through Acetylation Reactions

    • Abstract: Remdesivir, a competitive inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), is the drug of choice for anti-COVID-19 treatment. However, the instability of these substances in plasma raises doubts about their therapeutic potency. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells may exhibit a variety of antiviral behaviors as a result of the intricate activation pathways. The objective of this research is to develop a synthesis for remdesivir derivatives.Remdesivir derivative was synthesized using acetyl chloride as a reagent in a ratio of 1:3 in dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran solvent at 30°C for 6 hours. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometer (1H NMR and 13C NMR) were used to identify the produced molecule that was discovered as a brownish-yellow crystalline powder. The results of the synthesis yielded 0.8 grams (77.34%), Rf value of remdesivir derivate is 0.54, and the characterization with 1H NMR at δ2.5 ppm (3H, s) indicated the presence of a proton in the H-C-C=O structure caused by the substitution of the acetyl group in the remdesivir structure, and the 13C NMR data indicated the presence of aromatic carbons, alkenes, C≡N, and carbon bonds with electronegative O. This remdesivir derivate chemical become a potential candidate for an anti-covid-19 drugs that has more potency because it has substitutions of acetyl groups at positions 2' and 3' in the structure of remdesivir.
  • Apoptosis induction by new coumarin derivatives in a mice model of breast

    • Abstract: Background: In recent decades, a large number of studies have focused on finding novel agents for the suppression of cancer cell growth. This study evaluated the effect of the two novel synthetic coumarin derivatives, including 2-amino-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxo-4H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]coumarin-3-carbonitrile and 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-4H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]coumarin-3-carbonitrile on induction of apoptosis in breast cancer in a mice model. Methods: The breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice, which were divided randomly into six groups, and the experiment was performed. The groups and treatments included A1/ coumarin A with a low-dose (10µm), A2/ coumarin A with a high-dose (1 mM), B1/ coumarin B with a low-dose (10µm), B2/ coumarin B with a high-dose (1 mM), D (Doxorubicin), and C (cancer control/treated by normal saline). The treatments were performed for five weeks. The animals were euthanized, and the tissue samples, including lung, liver, and tumor mass, were taken for histopathological examinations. Besides, qRT-PCR was conducted to evaluate some apoptotic markers, such as BCL-2, Caspase-9, COX-2, and c-Myc. Results: The qRT-PCR presented that both coumarin compounds could significantly alter the expression levels of BCL-2, Caspase-9, COX-2, and c-Myc. Also, consistent with these results, histopathological observations showed a notable reduction of pathological lesions and severity of malignancy in tumor mass and reduced microscopic metastases in the lung and liver. Conclusion: Here, it is concluded that the present new coumarin compounds can induce apoptosis in the breast cancer cells by altering some apoptosis-related genes that may have a chemotherapeutic role in breast cancer therapy in the future.
  • Analysis and identification of Some Putative Novel Peptides purified from
           Iranian endemic Echis carinatus sochureki snake venom by MALDI-TOF Mass

    • Abstract: Abstract The Iranian Echis Carinatus (IEC) venom is an exclusive natural source of bio-substances for a wide range of purposes in the blood coagulation cascade. The present study for the first time was aimed to assess novel pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and anti-platelet proteins, named EC1.5 (a), EC5.1 (b) and EC4 (a) from Iranian Echis Carinatus (IEC) venom. These peptides were purified by multi-step chromatography methods. Hematological properties were measured using activated clotting tests, platelet aggregation studies, and hemorrhage assessment. Subsequently, these proteins were identified through both their intact molecular mass and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Multiple sequence alignments were performed by ClustalW, Bioedit software. Molegro Data Modeller (MDM) 3.0 software was used to predict the putative tertiary structure of proteins. EC1.5 (a), a single-band protein with a molecular mass of 66 and 55 kDa, was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a reduced and non-reduced state, respectively. Based on the Mascot results, we considered that EC1.5 (a) is a metalloproteinase of group ΙΙ which exhibited potent pro-coagulant activity. It is predicted that the EC1.5 (a) with hemorrhagic activity, potentially is a metalloproteinase/disintegrin region that constitutes the disintegrin-like domains. Our findings demonstrate that the disintegrin domain of EC1.5 (a) lacks platelet aggregation inhibitory activity. On the contrary, this factor shows the property of a platelet aggregation inducer. Also, the EC5.1 (b) was observed as a single-band protein with a molecular mass of 7.5 kDa. EC5.1 (b) showed both anti-coagulant and anti-platelet properties. Additionally, the structure of the EC5.1 (b) fraction is expected to be similar to that of phospholipase A2, while EC4 (a) structure is potentially very similar to that of Echistatin with 5 kDa molecular mass. We introduce the predicted structure of P-II snake venom metalloproteinase/ disintegrin domains, phospholipase A2 and Echistatin-like fractions. Further research is therefore needed to determine the complete structure of these novel fractions and elucidate their mechanism of action and future therapeutic applications of cardiovascular and homeostasis disorders. Keywords: Hemorrhagic metalloproteinases, Platelet aggregation inducer, Disintegrin, Phospholipase A2, MALDI TOF/MS.
  • Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) among patients with oral squamous
           cell carcinoma from Ahvaz, Iran: a case-control study

    • Abstract: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), one of the most significant causes of lymphoid and epithelial cancers, has been linked to oral carcinogenesis, yet this etiological association remains controversial. To investigate this association, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of EBV in cancerous and non-cancerous oral tissues from Ahvaz, Iran. A total of 164 blocks of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), including 76 tongue squamous cell carcinomas and 88 non-cancerous tongue tissues, were collected from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, from December 2014 to March 2019, for this case-control study. The tissues were sectioned into 15-μm-thick sections, and DNA was extracted using a solution of Phenol, Chloroform, and Isoamyl Alcohol. EBV detection and typing were performed using nested-PCR. EBV was detected in 9 (5.48%) out of the 164 samples studied, including 4 (5.26%) of the 76 SCC cases and 5 (5.68%) of the 88 control group (P>0.05). EBV was positive in 2.40% of the 83 male samples and 8.6% of the 81 female samples (P>0.05). In terms of the histological grades of the case group, 3 (3/57) and 1 (1/13) of the EBV-positive samples were well and moderately differentiated, respectively (P>0.05). For EBV typing, the 9 EBV-positive samples were tested, where 2 and 7 of the cases were EBV type I and II, respectively. The current study demonstrated a low frequency of EBV in Iranian patients with OSCC, with EBV type II predominating. Further studies are required to clarify the association between EBV and OSCC.
  • Histopathological Evaluation of Eggshell and DBM Combination on the Repair
           of Critical Size Experimental Calvarial Bone Defects in Rats

    • Abstract: Fracture repair is a constant clinical challenge, and finding a method to promote and improve restoration is a primary goal for researchers. This is examined from various perspectives, such as fewer complications, increased speed, and cost-effectiveness. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of eggshell powder compared to the commercial form of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in critical size defects in rat calvarial bone. In this research, 40 adult male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 10. The first group was the control group (C), the second group was the eggshell powder group (E), the third group was the DBM group (D), and the fourth group was the group that simultaneously received eggshell powder and DBM (DE). In these groups, a 5mm diameter defect was created in the calvarial area using a trephine. All animals received the appropriate treatment for their group. Each group was then divided into two subgroups of five. At 30 and 60 days post-surgery, these subgroups were euthanized, followed by sampling and histopathology examinations. After evaluating the repair percentage using Quick Photo software, the DE group had the highest repair percentage on days 30 and 60. Groups E and D had similar recovery percentages, with group D being slightly higher. All three groups had a significant difference compared to the control group. In conclusion, eggshell powder may potentially serve as a suitable substitute for some transplants.

    • Abstract: Scabies is an infectious disease. Preliminary observations showed that many scabies sufferers were found in As'ad Islamic Boarding School, Jambi City students. Scabies disease develops in humans and can be influenced by human factors and the environment. This study aims to identify factors associated with scabies incidence at the As'ad Islamic Boarding School, Jambi City, Indonesia. This type of research is observational analytic research, using a cross-sectional study design. The variables measured were scabies symptoms, knowledge, personal hygiene, contact history, humidity, and room occupancy density. The research sample was 178 students at the As'ad Islamic Boarding School in Jambi City, Indonesia, which were taken randomly. Data were collected by questionnaire and processed by chi-square analysis and logistic regression. Most of the students had symptoms of scabies (60.7%), a low level of knowledge about scabies (70.8%), poor personal hygiene (66.3%), had contact with scabies sufferers (61.8%), crowded living conditions (94.4%) and poor room humidity (80.8%). Symptoms of scabies are related to knowledge (p-value = 0.000), personal hygiene (p-value = 0.000), contact history (p-value = 0.000), humidity (p-value = 0.000), and room occupancy density (p-value = 0.001). Incidence of scabies in students at the As'ad Islamic Boarding School, Jambi City, Indonesia, are influenced by low knowledge, poor personal hygiene, history of contact, bad humidity, and overcrowding
  • Study the profile of Foot-and-mouth disease virus protein by
           electrophoresis and identification the immunodominant proteins

    • Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and occasionally fatal viral disease with a rapid onset and a short course that affects cloven-hoofed animals and results in considerable financial losses. Today, Foot-and-mouth disease is controlled by traditional inactivated vaccine. Due to short duration of immunity, study was conducted for proteins of the virus as well as obtaining immunodominant proteins to design more efficient vaccines against Foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aim of this research is studying the profile of Foot-and-mouth disease virus protein by electrophoresis and identification the immunodominant proteins.The purified Foot-and-mouth disease virus was purchased then the protein concentration of that solution was measured by Lowry method. SDS-PAGE was done to achieve the protein profiles of the virus and immunization of 5 guinea pigs was done, then blood samples were taken for obtaining serum. Finally, serology tests ; double immunodiffusion, ELISA, and western blotting were used to evaluate antigen response to antibodies (antigenic immunization).Protein concentration was 3.5 mg/ml. In SDS-PAGE with 10% gel, the protein profile of the virus was observed. After immunization, by conducting double immunodiffusion test, the sediment lines between the serum antibody and the antigen of the virus were formed. Also, The ELISA test showed that the antibodies were formed against the antigens. In the western blot test, two immunodominant proteins of the FMD virus were obtained.According to the results, the immunodominant proteins of the FMD virus were determined. these proteins can be used in immunological diagnostic methods and also novel vaccines.
  • Campylobacter spp. at different stages of the poultry slaughtering line in
           Algeria: Evaluation of direct and indirect modified ISO 10272:2017
           detection methods and characterization of the isolates

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of direct and indirect modified ISO 10272-1:2017 methods for detecting Campylobacter spp. in 10 sites of a poultry slaughterhouse and investigate the relationship between poultry intestinal carriage and carcasses as well as surfaces contamination during different slaughter steps (scalding, defeathering, evisceration and rinsing steps). Antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were also determined against 12 antibiotics. 165 intestinal (feces and ceca) and non-intestinal (neck skins and surfaces) samples were collected from 10 different sampling sites before, during and after the slaughter of six flocks of broiler chickens. After isolation and phenotypic identification of the isolates, an antibiotic susceptibility study was performed using the agar diffusion method. Thermotolerant bacteria of the genus Campylobacter (TC) were isolated with a prevalence of 47.04% (127/270). 39.05% (82/210) of TC isolates were detected in non-intestinal samples. 76.19% (80/105) of these microorganisms were detected by direct isolation method for a sensitivity of 97.56%, while only 1.90% (2/105) of the samples contained TC by indirect isolation method for a sensitivity of 2.44%. Samples of intestinal origin were positive for TC with a rate of 75.00% (45/60). C. jejuni (76.38%; 97/127) was the most isolated bacterial species. 98.43% (125/127) of TC isolates were multidrug resistant and 69.29% (88/127) showed simultaneous resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. Direct isolation seems to be the best method for the detection of Campylobacter spp. A serious public health problem of multidrug resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates with critical resistance profiles can be transmitted to broiler carcasses before, during and after the evisceration step.
  • Restraint of VP1 Protein of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Using Specific
           Antiviral Peptides: an in Silico Investigation

    • Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is one of the important threats in the animal husbandry industry which leads to huge economic losses. The current project was designed to inhibit VP1 protein of Foot and mouth disease virus using specific peptides. To do so, a wide range of potential antiviral peptides were collected from database. Physicochemical properties, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and solubility properties of potential antiviral peptides were investigated using reliable servers. Then, tertiary structures of selected peptides along with VP1 protein were modeled by the I-TASSER server. Moreover, interactions between VP1 protein and selected antiviral peptides were investigated using the ClusPro 2.0 server. Finally, the outputs of molecular docking were assessed by LigPlot+ and visualized by PyMol software. The results revealed that, Dermaseptin-3, Ginkbilobin, Circulin-F, Maximin1, Cycloviolin-A, Cycloviolin-D, Circulin-C, Cycloviolin-C and Antihypertensive protein BDS-1 peptides with hydrophobicity >30 were soluble with positive instability index and positive net charge. Also, the results of the molecular docking process demonstrated that Dermaseptin-3 and Ginkbilobin peptides could strongly inhibit the VP1 protein using 10 hydrogen bonds. Therefore, these two peptides which had the most hydrogen bonds were introduced as the best anti- Foot and mouth disease virus peptides to apply.
  • First isolation of Bacillus licheniformis from bovine mastitis in Iran

    • Abstract: Bacillus licheniformis is a gram-positive, endospore-forming, saprophytic, and facultative anaerobe that is resistant to heat and environmental conditions. This study was the first to isolate and confirm B. licheniformis as a cause of bovine mastitis in Iran. In the summer of 2020, 105 samples of mastitic milk were collected from dairy farms around Tehran and were sent to the microbiology laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Tehran. The bacterial agents were identified using selective and differential culture media and were confirmed by PCR to contain toxin synthetase genes licA, licB, and licC in mastitic isolates of B. licheniformis. Antimicrobial resistance patterns for two isolates of B. licheniformis were determined for 19 antibacterials. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were identified as the major organisms in the samples. B. licheniformis was isolated from the two samples which contained all three genes. Both isolates were resistant to streptomycin, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, cefixime, ampicillin, bacitracin, clindamycin, and gentamicin. B. licheniformis has been reported for the first time in Iran as a cause of bovine mastitis with clinical symptoms. The initial isolation of toxin-producing strains of B. licheniformis from mastitic cows in Iran is of concern for the safety of dairy products. In principle, the selection of strains harbouring a toxigenic potential should not be used as feed additives and animal food. However, full genome sequencing is suggested to search for gene coding for toxins.
  • Epidemiological study of Intestinal protozoan Infections: A
           Cross-sectional study in Zakho City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq during

    • Abstract: Background and aims: Intestinal protozoan parasitic infections are considered one of the most frequent types of infection caused by these parasites and remain a major health problem for communities. This study aims to detect the frequency of intestinal protozoan infections infection among Zakho general population from October 2018 to June 2022. Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional study among 2118 patients referring to private medical diagnostic laboratories in Zakho City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Samples of faecal matter were collected and subjected to analysis using two different techniques: direct observation under the microscope (wet mount) and formalin-ether concentration methods. Morphological characteristics of trophozoites and cysts were used to identify E. histolytica using microscopical examination.Results: Out of 2118 recruited samples, 1155 (54.53%) were male and 963 (45.47%) were female. The mean age of participants was 20.41 (±19.12) with ages ranging from 1-63 years. The overall prevalence of protozoan infections was 395/2118 (18.65%). Out of these, Entamoeba histolytica was the predominant pathogenic protozoa infection 271 (68.61%), followed by Giardia lamblia 100 (25.31%). A significant association was seen between Entamoeba histolytica and age groups (p=0.003) and gender (p=0.004). The highest infection rate was reported among the age group <15 years (55.72%). We also found a higher rate of Giardia infection among age group <15 years (46%) with significant differences (p=0.002) and a higher rate of Giardia seen in females (55%) with significant association (p=0.014). Conclusion: The frequency of Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica infections in our study was higher than other studies reported in Iraq and other countries, and these infections continue to pose a difficult public health issue and necessitate the implementation of stronger and more effective preventative measures.
  • The effects of melatonin alone or in combination with zinc on gonadotropin
           and thyroid hormones in female rats

    • Abstract: Thyroid and gonadotropin hormones play an essential role in regulating various physiological functions. The effects of melatonin and zinc (Zn) on these hormones have already been investigated. The current research was aimed to examine the effect of melatonin with and without zinc on the gonadotropin hormones and thyroid hormones (tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) levels in female rats. In general, 35 mature female rats were randomly separated into five treatment groups, each group including 7 rats, in a completely randomized design (CRD) during the research. Rats were treated daily by gavage with Zn and melatonin as follows: T1 (control 1, basal diet), T2 (control 2, treated with normal saline), and other experimental groups, including T3, T4 and T5 were treated with doses of Zn (40 ppm), melatonin (5 mg/kg), and combination of Zn plus melatonin with the same level, respectively. The administration of drugs was continued for 20 days (daily) after which the plasma samples were obtained for determination of LH, FFH, LH/FSH, estrogen, progestron, T3, T4 and TSH levels. Results showed no significant variations between treatments in the FSH and LH amounts. Estrogen, progesterone, and TSH levels in rats that received 5 mg of melatonin per day were higher than other groups, but not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, concentration of T3 significantly decreased in the group that received 40 mg/kg of Zn in comparison with other experiments. (P<0.05). The results showed no meaningful deviation among the treatments in T4 level (P>0.05). In conclusion, except for T3, no remarkable changes were observed in other variables in female rats that received melatonin, Zn or a combination of melatonin and Zn.
  • Morphological study of Hemiscorpius Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones:
           Hemiscorpiidae) in Hormozgan province, Southern Iran

    • Abstract: Hemiscorpius species are distributed from northwest Africa to southweast Asia. Seven species of this genus have been identified in Iran. Members of this genus are the most dangerous scorpions in Iran. Scorpions were collected by moving stones during the day and searching at night using portable UV lights from 2011 to 2022 from different areas in Hormozgan province. Three species of Hemiscorpius were identified from Hormozgan province including Hemiscorpius acanthocercus, H.enischnocela and H. shahii which are endemic to Iran. These species have limited distribution and were reported only from the south of Iran. The number of trichobothria are 3, 10-12 and 15-17 in H. acanthocercus, H. enischnochela and H. shahii, respectively. The measured values showed that H. Shahii (10.4 mm in males and 85.9 mm in females on average) is larger than H. enischnochela (84.6 mm in males and 59.3 mm in females on average) and H. acanthocercus (58.1 mm in males and 42.9 mm in females on average). Specimens of H. acanthocercus are brown to dark brown samples with dark metasomal segment V. There have been reports of death from biting this species. Members of H. enischnochela are light brown to yellow samples. Members of H. Shahii are large brown samples. All three species have sexual dimorphism. Although these three species can be distinguished based on their morphological characters, the molecular investigation is needed to confirm the validity of all species of this genus. There have been reports of death from biting by H. acanthocercus. Therefore, identifying species and determining their distribution range is very useful in facilitating education and treatment management.
  • Genotyping of G. duodenalis in the people referred to health centers of
           Semnan City (north central Iran) in 2022

    • Abstract: Giardia duodenalis, is one of the main causes of gastrointestinal disorders worldwide, which infects the small intestine of humans and animals. Based on the genetic characteristics of the parasite, eight genotypes (A to H) have been identified in clinical samples. The main purpose of the present study was to find the genetic diversity of Giardia in people referred to health centers in Semnan city using PCR. Totally, 300 stool samples were collected from people who were referred to health centers in Semnan city. The stool samples were first examined using the microscopic method (direct method and Lugol staining) and the samples were checked with trichrome staining. After DNA extraction, the GDH gene of positive samples was amplified by semi-nested PCR method. The genotype of positive samples was determined by the sequencing method. Out of 300 samples, only 20 (6.66%) were positive in the microscopic examination of the stool. In the PCR test, only 13 (4.33%) of the samples were positive. According to the multiple alignment results, it was found that the isolates belong to AII, BIII, and BIV genotypes. Most of which are related to people without clinical symptoms of diarrhea. Identification of AII, BIV, and BIII genotypes indicates the anthroponotic and anthropozoonotic transmission cycle of Giardia infection in Semnan city.
  • The pathological and ultrasonographic evaluation of the chemical
           castration in dogs using calcium chloride injection

    • Abstract: Many researchers have been curious about the chemical sterilization method, which may be a choice of castration. The 20% calcium chloride ethanolic solution can prevent animals from some tumors and control the side effects of surgical castration. This experiment divided twelve male mixed-breed dogs into sham and chemical groups (n=6). In the sham, normal saline, and chemical group's testis, 20% calcium chloride (20 ml/testis) was injected. Ultrasonography and related scoring was operated at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post-injection to evaluate echogenicity and measure the left testes' dimensions. Blood samples were taken on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 of the experiment evaluating the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and testosterone levels. The semen in the left epididymis of the chemical group was aspirated on day 21 post-injection for counting the sperm numbers. The testes of all dogs were surgically removed at 21 days post-injection, and the left one was put in formaldehyde for tissue processing. The intertubular edema, necrosis of the seminiferous tubules, neutrophil infiltration, and calcification was scored. The average dimensions of the chemical groups' left testes significantly decreased 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. The echogenicity of the testes decreased in the chemical group. There was a significant echogenicity difference between the first day and the 7th and 14th day in ultrasonography. Calcium chloride injection failed to reduce the mean testosterone levels on all experimental days compared to day zero. Otherwise, the sperm number in the left testes of the chemical group decreased on day 21 post-injection. The degree of intertubular edema with neutrophil infiltration and severe tubular necrosis in the chemical group was significantly higher than in the sham group on the experimental days, including 7, 14, and 21. The mild calcification in the chemical group is likely the reason for higher echogenicity on day 21. The scrotum was swelled and ulcerated in the chemical group. Ultrasound is effective in demonstrating the castration ability of calcium chloride in the chemical method. Due to the inflammatory clinical effects, the chemical method is recommended in dogs only when surgical methods are unavailable.
  • The Effect of Salep Aqueous Extract High Doses on Serum Level of Urea
           Nitrogen, Creatinine, Uric acid and Kidney Histopathological Changes in
           Adult Male Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: Kidney has a critical role in clearance and maintenance of active metabolites. One of the medical properties of Salep is treatment of bladder and kidney inflammation. Due to the widespread use of Salep in traditional medicine, food industry and as the effects of Salep on kidney function has not been studied, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Salep on kidney function. In this experimental study, 48 male rats were divided randomly into 6 groups as control, sham, and 4 experimental groups receiving different doses of Salep intraperitoneally (80, 160, 320 and 640mg/kg). On day twenty-nine, after weighing the animals, blood samples were taken from the heart and serum Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), uric acid and creatinine were analyzed and compared in different groups. All animal’s kidneys were isolated and tissue sections were collected for histopathological evaluation. Furthermore, from day 28 to 29 rats were kept in metabolic cages in order to collect urine specimens and measure water intake and urine volume. The serum concentration of BUN and uric acid in the groups receiving Salep at all doses decreased insignificantly compared to control group. Furthermore, a significant reduction in creatinine serum level has been seen in groups receiving 320 and 640mg/kg of Salep extract. No evidence of damage to renal tissue was observed in this study. In Conclusion, Salep could decrease serum BUN, uric acid and creatinine levels due to its antioxidant properties and has no devastating effect on kidney.
  • Genetic diversity within Scorpio genus (Scorpion: Scorpionidae) from Iran:
           preliminary evidence based on 16srRNA sequence

    • Abstract: The yellow digger scorpion, Scorpio maurus, is a medically important scorpion for which little is known about its genetic diversity. PCR products of 16srRNA gene fragments were generated from scorpion specimens, which were named as SmKh1 and SmKh2. These sequences showed high similarity with the only partial sequence of S. maurus isolate SCA1 large subunit ribosomal RNA gene available in the Genbank data base. The drawing of the phylogeny tree showed two clusters A and B. The two specimens from Behbahan (SmKh1 and SmKh2), which were place in cluster A2, have the closest relationship with the only sequence of S. maurus (MW281771) which is also collected from Behbahan. It is noteworthy that the two sequences obtained from S. maurus scorpions recorded from Miandoab (MK170444) and Mahabad (KU705354) which are in sub-cluster A1, are more similar to the scorpions isolated from the Mediterranean basin than those collected from Behbahan. This issue is probably due to the fact that patterns of genetic diversity are a reflection of variation in gene flow, which is also influenced by factors such as territorial barriers and geographical distances. We conclude that the scorpions of this study accompanied with similar scorpions in the Mediterranean basin belong to the same species despite the insignificant differences.
  • A novel herbal medicine formulation with potential anti-scabies properties
           to treat Demodex and Sarcoptes parasites

    • Abstract: This study has introduced a medicine to treat dogs infested with scabies (variants of Demodex, Sarcoptes, Psoroptes, Otodectes, etc.). The present study offers a no-side-effect herbal formulation to treat dogs infested with scabies. To carry out the experiment, 25 sick dogs with various breeds and ages suspected of scabies were gathered. Following accurate morphological examinations of all the samples, a deep skin chip of the lesion site was provided, which was examined by a microscope. Then, 13 dogs (Mix, Terrier, Pug, Husky, Spitz) were infested with Demodex scabies and 12 dogs (Pittbull, Mix, Shih Tzu, Terrier, Boxer, Setter) with Sarcoptic scabies. The prepared product was topically administered at a constant 2% dosage to the bodies of all the samples. To prepare the ointment, 1 g of Borax (Na₂B₄O₇•10H₂O) was first dissolved in 35 g deionized water and heated to 70°C. Then, 45 g of liquid paraffin (CnH2n+2) was mixed with 1 g of Carvacrol (C10H14O) and 1 g of geranium (C10H18O) and stirred well to become a phase. Later, 17 g of the melted beeswax (C15H31COOC30H61) was added to the liquid paraffin compound. In the end, the aqueous phase was added to the oil phase, and the mixture process immediately began in one direction with a glass stirrer and continued until the product cooled down. Essential oils (EO) was obtained by steam distillation of fresh Thyme and Rose-Acented Geranium in a stainless steel distillation apparatus (alembic) for 3 h. The main components of the essential oils used in the formulation were performed using a Hewlett-Packard GC system interfaced with a mass spectrometer equipped with an HP5-MS capillary column (30 m, 0.32 mm, 0.25 µm film thicknesses). For GC–MS detection, electron ionization with ionization energy of 70 eV was used. To examine the presence of scabies, weekly skin sampling was performed, and the treatment continued until 30 days, when no skin chip of the scabies was noted. The findings revealed that the formulation developed no side effects and removed the daily use, as it could be administered once or twice a week.
  • Addition of Dietary Zinc on Antioxidant Activity, Blood Profile, Mineral
           Availability, and Abdominal Fat of Sikumbang Janti Duck

    • Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the addition of zinc (Zn) on antioxidant activity, blood profile, mineral availability, and abdominal fat of Sikumbang Janti duck. A total of 96 female Sikumbang Janti ducks aged 8 weeks were used in this research. This study used a completely random design with 4 treatments and 4 replications (6 duck/replications). The treatments were as follows: control diet (Z0), addition n 30 mg Zn/kg (Z1), 60 mg Zn/kg (Z2), and 90 mg Zn/kg(Z3). Variables observed were antioxidant activity, blood profile, mineral content in tibia, and abdominal fat. The results showed that Zn addition on feed significantly increased (P<0.01) antioxidant activity (DPPH), Zn concentration in thigh, leukocytes, mineral availability (Ca, P, and Zn), and decreased (P <0.01) weight of abdominal fat in Sikumbang Janti duck. Blood profile (except leukocytes) were not affected (P>0.05) by addition of Zn in the diet. The conclusion is that the Z2 (60 mg Zn/kg) addition improves antioxidant activity, blood leukocytes, zinc content in thigh meat, mineral availability, and decreased abdominal fat weight of Sikumbang Janti duck.
  • Broiler heart muscle monoaminergic receptors alteration in response to
           chronic heat stress: based on transcription analysis

    • Abstract: Chronic heat stress condition affected many physiological and behavioral mechanisms. Epigenetic alteration after a long time cyclic heat stress exposure, opens new avenues for molecular and biological researchers.one of these changes is monoamines such as serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine , dopamine and their transmission. Broilers are very susceptible to heat stress as well as their heart become insufficient during peak of growth period and consequently developed to left heart hypertrophy. RNA-seq Data were obtained from NCBI’s with accession number SRP082125. The expression level of genes was determined by DESeq2 packages. Gene ontology qualification including biological processes (BP), cellular component (CC), and molecular role (MF) was achieved from Gene Ontology Resource. Broiler cyclic heat stress exposure led to significant alteration in monoamine receptors expression. 29 genes of monoamines pathway changed their expression in left heart. Significant down regulation expression statistically was related to ADRB1, HTR2A, PNMT genes and up regulation of MAOA gene (P<0.01). STRING database was used to construct the protein–protein interaction network, based on network analysis, HTR2C, HTR2A and HTR5A genes were figured out the most important hub genes in the network, after that MAOA, DRD2, DRD5, HTR1B, DRD1, DRD3 and HTR2B genes take second important place in network module. In conclusion heat stress treatment prevented heart hypertrophy and altered monoamines genes expression. That would be told monoamines transmission had significant role in heart hypertrophy development and cyclic-chronic heat treatment modulated heart monoaminergic system. These molecular biomarkers may be suitable for screening, diagnosis and treatment heart hypertrophy
  • Molecular epidemiology of IAPV in apiaries of three provinces of Iran

    • Abstract: In this research, Israeli paralysis virus (IAPV), a single stranded RNA virus, was investigated in honey bee colonies which had a history of mortality, population decline and parasitic diseases. Samples (adult honey bees) were collected from 328 apiaries from three provinces (Tehran, Alborz and Mazandaran) of Iran for detecting IAPV. After preparation of samples, RNA was extracted and cDNA then was synthesized for performing RT-PCR method using a pair of PCR primer and a 185 bp fragment was amplified. Results showed that out of 328 samples, 103 samples (31.4%) were positive which resulted from Tehran (8.84%), Alborz (8.23%) and Mazandaran (14.33%) provinces. Then, some of positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic tree was drawn. The phylogenetic tree showed that virus isolates were divided into two different groups including a group which had high similarity to European Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and a group which had high similarity with Kashmir bee virus (KBV). Also, sequences of samples in three regions were separated in one node from strains of ABPV from eastern Europe. Given that the length of the branch between the Iranian sequences and different strains of ABPV from eastern Europe was short, it can be resulted that sequences of Iran have a common ancestor with the mentioned strains in ABPV from eastern Europe.
  • Molecular docking, MM-GBSA and Molecular dynamics Approach: 5-MeO-DMT
           Analogues as Potential Antidepressants

    • Abstract: Since depression is a common mental illness that affects an estimated 5% of people worldwide, investigators are encouraged to develop effective antidepressants. Depletion of the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the central nervous system is one of the pathophysiologies of depression. The neurotransmitter serotonin has drawn the most attention in relation to depression. As per research 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) when administered as a single inhalation of vapour from dried toad secretion, is found to have higher life satisfaction and convergent thinking, higher ratings of mindfulness, and lower ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress. It lowers stress biomarkers (such cortisol). The current study aims to look at 5-MeO-DMT analogues as possible antidepressants. We used 70,000 5-MeO-DMT analogues that were sketched using Marvin to conduct a high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) method in hopes of finding potential 5-MeO-DMT analogues against the 5-HT1AR (7E2Y.pdb) as an agonist. The prediction of the analogue-protein interaction and the evaluation of the binding affinity are accomplished employing molecular docking. The Glide XP docking data indicated that a total of 21 compounds had Glide gscores ranging from -11.41 to -6.53 kcal/mol. When compared to the standard 5-MeO-DMT with binding affinity of -7.75 kcal/mol, 14 compounds showed better binding affinity. Further MM-GBSA indicated a binding free energy range of -63.55 to -35.37 kcal/mol. Through ligand binding interactions with Asp116, Phe361, Phe362, Ser190, Ser199, Val117, Trp358, Ala365, Pro369, Ile189, Tyr195, Ala203, Ile167, Tyr390, Cys120, Trp358, Val364, Ala365, and Leu368 these complexes were stabilized, according to the molecular dynamics simulation of 20453/7E2Y in 100ns.
  • Assessment of stn, sipB and sopB virulence genes in various Salmonella

    • Abstract: salmonella is a zoonotic bacteria which is considered to be one of the most common causes of foodborne infections throughout the world. Bearing in mind the genes involved in its virulence, identifying these genes can enable experts to better understand bacterial pathogenicity, which could subsequently help develop more efficient means to control and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to analyse stn, sipB and sopB genes in various salmonella serovars. In order to carry out this study, 103 salmonella serovars were extracted from livestock, poultry and humans from existing samples at the Department of Microbiology of the Razi Serum and Vaccine Research Institute in Karaj. These samples were cultured in selection and differential media and their serovars were identified using specific antibodies based on Kaufman-White Tables. Utilizing PCR and specific primers, stn, sopB and sipB genes were detected among these serovars. In this investigation, the most common human serovars were salmonella paratyphi A, salmonella paratyphi B and salmonella enteritidis; the most common serovars among livestock consisted of salmonella dublin and salmonella typhimurium and the most common salmonella serovars among poultry consisted of salmonella infantis and salmonella enteritidis. The results of PCR on stn, sipB and sopB genes demonstrated segments with 617bp, 875 bp and 220 bp on agar gel, respectively. Based on this study's findings, stn, sipB and sopB genes were detected in 96.11 %, 99.02% and 98.05% of salmonella serovars, respectively. considering the fact that the aforementioned genes have significant roles to play in bacterial virulence, they can be used to develop diagnostic ELISA kits and recombinant vaccines.
  • Isolation and Screening of Antibacterial Activity of Actinomycetota from
           the medicinal plant, Anthemis pseudocotula Boiss.

    • Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is rising dramatically worldwide. Thus, the production of new antibiotics is indispensable. Recent scientific initiatives have focused on the bioprospecting of microorganisms' secondary metabolites, with a particular focus on the look for natural products with antimicrobial properties derived from endophytes. All plant species, regardless of type, are thought to anchor endophytic bacteria (EB). There are many potential uses for the natural therapeutic compounds made by EB including in medicine, agriculture and pharmaceutical industry. To investigate antibacterial properties, in this study, Actinomycetota (formerly, Actinobacteria) were isolated from Anthemis pseudocotula Boiss., identified and bioprospected by morphological and molecular methods. Samples were collected from Ilam and then divided into roots, leaves, stems and flowers. After disinfection, they were cut into 2 mm pieces and cultured on casein agar culture medium and incubated at 28 ºC for up to four weeks. Using PCR method targeting 16S rRNA gene, identification of Actinomycetota was carried out. To evaluate the antibacterial properties of the isolated Actinomycetota, the agar diffusion method was used. In parallel, the frequencies of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) including polyketide synthase (PKS-I, PKS-II), nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes were determined in isolated Actinomycetota. Ninety bacteria were isolated from different parts of Anthemis flowers. It was determined that 38 bacteria (42.2%) of these bacteria belong to the phylum Actinomycetota. and out of 38 bacteria, 15 isolates (39.5%) had antibacterial properties. Of these, 11 isolates (73.3%) exhibited antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, two isolates (13.3%) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three isolates (20%) against Escherichia coli and two isolates (13.3%) against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The results of molecular analysis of PKS-I, PKS-II and NRPS genes showed that out of 38 isolated Actinomycetota strains, 23 isolates (60.5%) carried PKS-I gene, six isolates (15.8%) harbored PKS-II gene and 20 isolates (52.6%) had NRPS gene. This study indicates that Anthemis pseudocotula Boiss. has a number of active Actinomycetota that produce secondary metabolites with antibacterial properties.
  • Effect of diet supplemented with different levels of moringa powder on
           growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, hematological
           parameters, serum lipids, and economic efficiency of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of supplementation graded levels of moringa powder on growth performance. A total of 192 one-day-old broiler chicks were individually weighted and randomly distributed into four dietary treatments. Each treatment comprised of four replicates with 12 chicks in each. Moringa powder was supplemented by 0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%. The diet and water were offered ad libitum during the feeding trial, which lasted 42 days. One chicken was selected from each replicate at the end of the experiment to measure the carcass characteristics and meat quality as well as serum biochemical parameters of broiler. Regarding the overall growth performance, body weight gain was substantially improved (P<0.05), and feed conversion ratio was improved (P<0.05) in broiler fed diet supplemented with moringa powder compared to the control group. The carcass yield was considerably increased (P<0.05) for those birds fed diet supplemented with 0.5% and 0.75% moringa powder, respectively in comparison to the control group. In addition, the birds fed diet supplemented with moringa powder showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (P<0.05). Moreover, the findings showed that diets supplemented with moringa powder led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P<0.05), low density lipoprotein (P<0.05) and increased total protein, globulin and lowed A/G ratio (P<0.05) compared to the control group. It conclusion, the supplementation of 0.75% moringa powder in the diet as a growth promoter leads to reduce the cost of production through improving growth performance and enhancing the health status of birds.
  • Involvement of the orexin 1 and 2 receptors in nucleus incertus (NI) on
           modulation of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze

    • Abstract: The nucleus incertus (NI) is a distinct area within the brainstem near the posterior part of the tegmentum. This part of the brain consists of some heterogeneous neurons that play roles in different functions, including response to stress, arousal, learning, and modulating hippocampal theta rhythm. Orexin neuropeptides also have widespread distributions and overlapping actions within the NI. However, the actions of the orexin receptors in the NI are not well characterized. In the present study, the effect of post-training and pre-probe of trial intra-NI administration of SB-33486-A (OX1R antagonist) (12 μg/0.5μl) and TCS-OX2-29 (OX2R antagonist) (10 μg/0.5 μl) on consolidation and retrieval in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task was examined. In the experiment 1, rats were trained in MWM and immediately after every training received injections of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (control group), SB-334867-A, and TCS-OX2-29 into NI. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except rats received DMSO, SB-33486-A, and TCS-OX2-29, 15 minutes before the probe test. In subsequent experiments, probe and visible tests were performed after the last training and distance moved, escape latency, and velocity were recorded. In experiment 3, rats trained in experiments 1 and 2 immediately after the probe test were given trials for visuomotor coordination assessment on the visible platform. The results showed that the spatial reference memory consolidation phase was significantly impaired by SB-334867-A or TCS-OX2-29 (P < 0.05), while the retrieval phase was not affected (P > 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the orexinergic system in the NI has a key role in consolidation in rats through both OX1 and OX2 receptors.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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