A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Razi Institute
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.182
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0365-3439 - ISSN (Online) 2008-9872
Published by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The Influence of Rumen-Protected Choline and α-tocopherol Supplementation
           on Early Lactating Dairy Cows Metabolism

    • Abstract: It is well documented that choline is known as one of the essential ingredients of phospholipids. Choline acts as a determinative element for appropriate cell membrane functions. On the other hand α-tocopherol (Vit E) is a fat-soluble vitamin. This vitamin acts as a strong antioxidant in the living body's defense system against oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation in peripartum and early lactating cows is significantly increased while the level of serum Vit E is decreases dramatically. These concomitant physiological changes demonstrate a higher level of oxidative stress subsequently leads to serious health issues in dairy cows. Therefore, the present research was designed to investigate the following items in dairy cattle: 1) evaluation of the possible changes in serum protein fractions, and 2) comparing the oxidative status of orally RPC and vitamin E supplementation in dairy cows in early lactation period. In the current study 30 early lactating primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (body condition score (BCS)=2.51 ± 0.10) were used beginning five weeks postpartum. All the animals were randomly divided in to three groups (n=10) (number of lactation=2.61). The animals were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments. Group 1 served as control group were not received any supplement. The second group was supplemented with 90 g/d of RPC (Reashre Choline, Balchem, USA). The third group was administrated 4400 IU/d vitamin E (Roche, Vitamins Ltd; Switzerland). In the current study, serum protein electrophoresis showed four main fractions as follows: albumin, α-globulin, β-globulin, and γ-globulin.  The recorded data showed that the percentages of albumin and γ-globulin fractions were higher in treated groups compared to the control group. In the animals supplementing with RPC and vitamin E the percentages of serum albumin increased to the value of 37. 70±1.63 and 38.21±1.28 respectively compare to the control group (34.69±1.21), which were significant (P<0.05).
       
  • The prognostic value of intracellular transcription factors HIF-1α
           and p53 and their relation to estradiol and TNM parameters of breast
           cancer tissue in women's with invasive ductual carcinoma in Thi- Qar
           province /Iraq

    • Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women's health, with increasing incidence worldwide. This study was aimed to measured the intracellular concentration of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha, tumor suppression protein p53 and estradiol in tumor tissue in adult female with breast cancer and its relation to tumor grade, tumor size and lymph node metastases (LNM). The study was conducted on 65 adult female participants with breast mass admitted to the operating theater at Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital and Al-Habboby Teaching Hospital in Nasiriyah city, from January to November 2021. Fresh tumor tissue of breast tumor were collated and homogenized for intracellular biochemical analysis by ELISA method. Out of 65 patients 44 (58%) were with fibroadenoma aged 18-42 (32.55 ± 6.40) and others 21 (42%) cases with breast cancer type invasive ductual carcinoma (IDC) aged 32-80 (56± 14.4). Intracellular levels of HIF-1α, p53 and E2 were elevated significantly (p<0.001) in IDC cases as compared to benign group, there were significant difference (p<0.001) between benign and IDC patients. The most malignant tumor of IDC cases were in grade III and size T2 and T3. Tissue concentration of HIF-1α, P53 and E2 were significantly elevated in the patients with tumor stage T3 compared with T2 and T1. A significant elevation were found in the subgroup of positive LNM in the levels of HIF-1α, p53 and E2 compared to negative LNM patients group. The prognostic value of intracellular HIF-1α is considered to be a useful prognostic factor in invasive ductual carcinoma of Iraqi woman, and the combination of a HIF-1α protein with nonfunctional p53 and E2 tends to indicate the proliferation, invasive and metastases of breast tumor.
       
  • The association of serum calcium and vitamin D with insulin resistance and
           beta-cell dysfunction among people with type 2 diabetes

    • Abstract: Cross-sectional studies have linked vitamin D deficiency and alteration of calcium levels to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlation between blood vitamin D and calcium levels with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, and healthy individuals. This cross-sectional study involved 300 participants. Participants were divided into three groups (n=100), type 2diabetic,prediabetic, and healthy subjects. In order to measure insulin resistance and β –cell function the HOMA IR and HOMA B were assessed respectively. Also the other parameters such as serum 25(OH)D, blood insulin (FPI), glucose (FBS), HbA1c, and calcium were assessd in this study. In simple regression analysis, high level of vitamin D is linked to lower levels of FBS, HbA1c, Insulin, and HOMA IR, and higher levels of HOMA B. Calcium has positive connection with FBS and HbA1c and negative connection with insulin level and HOMAB. Hypovitaminosis D may substantially influence diabetes patients' glycemic dysregulation. "An increased incidence of type 2 diabetes has been related to a disruption in calcium homeostasis. All in all an increament in calcium levels may have a role in developing type 2 diabetes".
       
  • Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Klebsiella oxytoca and its
           Resistance to Antibiotics among Clinical Specimens from Kirkuk, Iraq

    • Abstract: Klebsiella spp. are gram-negative bacteria which considered as serious public health problem causing urinary tract infections (UTI), bloodstream infections, pneumonia and soft tissue infections. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Klebsiella oxytoca among clinical samples and determined their resistance against various antimicrobial drugs with molecular identification of K. oxytoca by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using specific sequence of pehX gene. A total of 250 clinical samples including throat, wound, and vaginal swabs were obtained. Participants in this study were from both sexes and in different ages. The samples were streaked on blood and MacConkey agar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was made by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Molecular identification of K. oxytoca was performed for all isolates. Out of 250 clinical samples, Klebsiella oxytoca was reported in 32 (12.8%) cases. Highest prevalence was observed in 18(18%) cases of throat swabs, followed by wound swabs in 16 (16%) cases and vagina in 6 (6%) cases. Females were more affected 22 (14.5%) with Klebsiella oxytoca than males 10 (10.10%). Infected participants with 15-40 years age old were more affected with Klebsiella oxytoca 23 (12.73%) than patients with 41-65 years age old 9 (9.67% ). The highest resistance pattern of Klebsiella oxytoca was 100% against Augmentin, Ampicillin, Cephalothin ,Pipracillin and Refampin followed by Ceftazidime, Cefixime , Cefotaxime, Trimethoprim and Aztreonam, with 62.50% , 59.37% , 53.12% , 53.12% and 50% respectively. Highest sensitivity was observed against amikacin and imipenem (9.37%) followed by Meropenem Chloramphenicol Nalidixic acid Ciprofloxacin Tobramycin Gentamycin and Doxycycline with 21.87%, 21.87%, 25%, 25%, 28.12%, 28.12%, and 28.12% respectively. Molecular identification of K. oxytoca was revealed that all isolates showed PCR product with 344 bp specific primer (pehX), that performed K. oxytoca.
       
  • Role of IL-23 Receptor gene polymorphism (rs1884444) on the prevalence of
           oral fungal infection with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A case-control study
           in Iraqi patients

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder linked with several genetic diorders. Over the last decade, advancements in genetic association studies have resulted in identifying at least 75 distinct genetic loci associated with T2DM, allowing for a better understanding of the disease's genetic architecture. Recently, there was a positive association between the prevalence of oral fungal infection and T2DM. The current study was aimed to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism in IL23R(rs1884444) on oral infection and distributed the genotype and alleles in patients and compared with healthy control. 150 specimens were collected from the Endocrinology and Diabetes Center in Baghdad, including oral swabs and whole blood samples. Oral swabs were collected via AIMS transport media. Fungal identification depended on routine tests and Vitek2 system and molecular detection used T-ARMS-PCR. The current finding was revelated that the O blood groups were positively associated with the T2DM and oral fungal infection. Moreover, the TT genotype for IL23R SNP (rs1884444G/T) increased significantly in the patient compared with the healthy control. T allele was increased in patients suffered from T2DM (p<0.001). GT and TT were more frequent in oral fungal infection in patients suffered from T2DM. TT and T alleles were positively associated with patients suffered from T2DM. GT and TT were risks associated with oral fungal infection and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
       
  • Prevalence of Enterohemorragic and Enteroaggregative E. coli among
           Children with Diarrhea in Najaf, Iraq

    • Abstract: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years in the developing countries. Classification of diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) strains among children with diarrhea is still take low attention. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Enterohaemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) among children under 5 years old suffering from acute diarrhea. Stool samples (100 samples) have been collected from children under 5 years old suffering from acute diarrhea for molecular detection of EHEC (using stx1 and stx2) and EAEC using (aat) by PCR technique. The results showed a high percentage of isolation of EHEC from stool samples in compression with EAEC where 15.9% of 75 identified DEC isolates were belonging to EHEC while 5.3% were belong to EAEC. Among EHEC, stx1 was high prevalence among isolates (9.3%) compared with stx2 which showed low percentage (6.6%). A high frequency of EHEC detected in male at age group 7-12 months while EAEC detected in female with age group 13-19 months. In conclusion EHEC and EAEC were associated with bloody and watery diarrhea among children under 5 years old. Gene associated with virulence factors (stx1, stx2, and aat)could be used as genetic marker for detection of EHAE and EAEC.
       
  • The influence of oral administration of fish oil on the haematological,
           biochemical and performance in local male rabbits

    • Abstract: In some developing countries, including Africa, Asia and Latin America, the increasing trend in the population is considered as the complicated problem, which led to the need to raise the efficiency of production of foodstuffs to preserve human life Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the male rabbits productivity, biochemical and physiological characteristics. This experiment was conducted in the Animal House of the College of Veterinary Medicine/the University of Baghdad for 8 weeks. 24 local male rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, each group containing 8 rabbits, as follows: Control group that fed basil diet only, treated animals (T1) that administrated orally fish oil dose at 0.75 ml/ animal/ day, while treated group (T2) had received orally fish oil dose at 1.5 ml/ animal/ day for 60 days. Blood samples were collected from cardiac veins by cardiac puncture at the beginning of the experiment (Zero time). On day 60 of the experiment, samples were collected again to analyze the changes in the blood characteristics, including WBCs, Hb and RBCs. These blood samples recorded a significant decrease in cholesterol in the two treatment groups compared to the control. In conclusion, according to the current findings, daily oral administration of fish oil at 0.75 mg/ml or 1.5 mg/ml to rabbits 60 days before conception is recommended to improve performance trials as well as biochemical and haematological results. These alterations, however, have a small impact on these features when compared to the high doses employed on the rabbits.
       
  • Effect of culture media on in Vitro fertilization in local Iraqi ewes

    • Abstract: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is regarded as the most important reproductive biotechnological approach having great potential to accelerate genetic improvement in ruminant animals and also for the research of embryonic development. The study aimed to show the effect of culture media and the addition of natural and synthetic oxidants on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF), and in vitro embryo culture (IVC) in of Local ewes (Iraq). 304 genital systems of locals ewes were collected from Fallujah slaughterhouse/Fallujah/AL-Anbar province during the period from 3, January to 1, July 2021. The study was conducted on Reproductive Biotechnology Lab. Department of Surgery and Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Fallujah. From 608 ovaries, 1368 Oocytes were recovered which is surrounded with cumulus Cells. Aspiration was the method of collection Oocytes were divided into eight treatments, The first treatment (T1) was MEM + Capparis Spinosa extract 50µmol. The 2nd treatment (T2) was MEM + Silymarin extract 100µmol. The 3rd treatment (T3) was MEM + Coenzyme Q10 5 µmol. The fourth treatment (T4) was MEM only serve as a control. The 5th treatment (T5) Was DMEM + Capparis Spinosa extract 50 µmol. The 6th treatment (T6) was DMEM + silymarin extract 100µmol.The seventh treatment (T7) was DMEM + Coenzyme Q10 5µmol. The 8eth treatment (T8) was DMEM Only and Serve as a control. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05) between T5 (DMEM + Capparis Spinosa extract) and others Control or treated treatments. in the Morula stage and blastocyst stage. It was concluded from this study that cultural media DMEM with Capparis spinosa (as antioxidant) give the best results.
       
  • Synthesis of bio-active silver nanoparticles against human lung cancer
           cell line (A549) with little toxicity to normal cell line (WRL68)

    • Abstract: Nanomaterials are characterized by mechanical, thermal, chemical, biological and other properties different from the basic materials that make them up due to their large surface area to size ratio and quantum effect. There are multiple ways to produce nanomaterials mechanically, chemically and physically, but they are not safe for the environment. Researchers have sought to find safe methods for the production of nanomaterials, such as green manufacturing, that is, manufacturing nanomaterials from plants, and there are other sources such as bacteria or fungi that are used in the production of nanomaterials. The aim of this study was to try to find an alternative to chemically manufactured drugs, such as those used in the treatment of human cancers, through nanotechnology manufactured from plant sources (green-biosynthesis), which is characterized by abundance and low economic cost. Silver nanoparticles were green-synthesized using aqueous extract of licorice plant, their properties were diagnosed and the differences were compared with the crude aqueous extract. The nanoparticles size ranged between 60.27 - 89.80 nm, while the sizes of the crude aqueous extract particles ranged between 53.96 - 113.1 nm. Atomic force microscopy was used to find out the shapes, topography, roughness and protrusions of the surfaces of biosynthesized AgNPs and aqueous extract particles, where the roughness rate of the nanoparticles was 75.54 nm, while it appeared. In vitro, AgNPs showed a higher anti-lung cancer activity against A549 cell line than that of the extract at an inhibitory concentration for half of the cells used in the experiment (IC50) 58.78 µg/ml, and the IC50 of the extract was 67.44 µg/ml, as well as the results showed that the toxicity of AgNPs on the normal hepatocyte line (WRL68) were less than the toxicity of the aqueous extract, with IC50 concentrations 244.2 and 147.0 µg/ml respectively, and it is worth mentioning that the lower the inhibitory concentration for half of the cells used in the experiment (IC50) was with higher toxicity.
       
  • Immunological evaluation of individuals infected with Acinetobacter
           baumannii

    • Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is Gram negative bacteria that are non-lactose fermenting, characterized by a spherical rod shape (Coccobacilli, Aerobic bacteria), belonging to the family of Moraxellacea. A. baumannii is a pathogenic, opportunistic organism that infects humans in society and hospitals. Patients with immune system defects, in particular, are at risk, especially those with burn infections and patients hospitalized in intensive care (ICU). It plays an important role in many illnesses, including septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, soft tissues, skin infection, endocarditis, and urinary tract infection (UTI). The current study included immunological evaluation of infection with A. baumannii. In the current study 150 blood samples were obtained as follows: 100 blood samples were collected from infected individuals with A. baumannii admitted to hospitals in Baghdad. 50 blood samples were obtained from healthy individuals and considered as the control. 10 ml of blood samples collected from the venous blood from the participants. A. baumannii was collected and isolated from infected patients and diagnosed by traditional methods, using different culture media (MacConkey agar, blood agar and Chromogenetic agar) and by biochemical assays, then the bacteria diagnosis was confirmed using the VITEK 2 ID-GN cards. Microscopic examination and culture diagnosis of bacteria were conducted, and the diagnosis was confirmed by complete biochemical examinations using VITEK2 Compact System. Assessments included the serum level of IL-17A and TNF-α for patients infected with A. baumannii who were hospitalized.The study recorded a significant increase in the serum level of IL-17A for patients infected with A.baumannii (479.83 ± 26.21 pg/ml) compared to control subjects (69.32 ± 4.53 pg/ml). The recorded data showed a significant increase in the serum level of TNF-α for patients infected with A .baumannii (98.05 ± 28.89 pg/ml) compared to control (1.40 ± 25.12 pg/ml).
       
  • Evaluation of the biological activity of laboratory prepared Chitosan from
           shrimp shells against pathogenic bacterial isolates

    • Abstract: After cellulose, chitin is the most important natural polysaccharide found in the shells of crab, shrimp, and other crustaceans. There have been several medical and environmental motive applications recognized for Chitosan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of laboratory prepared Chitosan from shrimp shells against pathogenic bacterial isolates. In the current study, Chitosan was extracted from chitin acetate of shrimp shells at different temperatures (room temperature, 65 degrees Celsius, 100 degrees Celsius) for equal amounts of shells at specific time intervals. The degree of acetylation of the different treatments (RT1, RT2, RT3) reached (71%, 70%, 65%) respectively. The laboratory-prepared Chitosan extract was examined and showed antibacterial properties against clinical isolates of causative bacterial agents of UTI ( E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas spp, Citrobacter freundii. Enterobacter spp).The inhibitory activity of all types of treatments ranged between (12-25 mm) for all isolates. The highest inhibition capacity was 25 mm in Enterobacter spp, while the lowest effective inhibition zone was pseudomonas isolate. The results also showed a large relative discrepancy between the inhibitory activity of laboratory-prepared Chitosan and antibiotics. These results were within the S-R range of the isolates. The similarity of laboratory production conditions and treatments is due to the different proportions of chitin formed in shrimp due to different environmental conditions, nutrition factors, pH, the extent of heavy metals in the water, and the organism's age.
       
  • Effects of Avena sativa and Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves extracts on immune
           responses in serum cytokine and liver enzyme levels in NIH mice

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants are well-known not just for their high concentrations of active ingredients, but also for their pharmacological properties, which include immune system regulation. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate effects of Avena sativa and Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves extracts on immuneresponses in serum cytokine and liver enzyme degrees. The phytochemical screening of crude leaf extracts from Avena sativa found out that: alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic and saponins had been present in ethanolic extract, while resines and violet oils had been absent. On the other hand violet oils, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides presented at a high level in Glycyrrhiza glabra ethanolic extract, while resins and phenolic compound were not found in Glycyrrhiza glabra ethanolic extract. 50 healthy male NIH mice were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: Except for control group all the animals were pre-treated with extracts (50 mg/kg) subcutaneously and orally for 14 days before the LPS-induced (1 mg/kg body weight) damage liver. On day 15 (14 days after extracts administration), liver damage was induced by LPS and the mice then fasted. Group 1: control group injected subcutaneously with normal saline. Group 2: injected subcutaneously with 100 μl of crude Oat extract. Group 3: orally received 100 μl (50 mg/kg) of crude Oat extract. Group 4: injected subcutaneously with 100 μl (50 mg/kg) of crude Licorice extract. Group 5: orally received 100 μl (50 mg/kg) of crude Licorice extract. The level of IL-4 showed significant elevation (P≥ 0.05) in subcutaneous and orally treated groups (75.6 ± 2.8 and 83.3 ± 1.7; 61.0 ± 0.4 and55.8 ± 2.8) pg/ml for Avena sativa and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracted respectively as compared with control (12.3 ± 0.23) pg/ml. The amount of IL-6 showed significant elevation (P≥0.05) in subcutaneous and orally treated mice (128.5 ± 4.6 and135.6 ± 2.7; 119.6 ± 5.1 and115.2 ± 1.9) pg/ml for Avena sativa and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracted respectively compared with control (44 ± 0.57) pg/ml.
       
  • Molecular Detection of Some Virulence Genes in Salmonella spp. Isolated
           from Clinical Samples in Iraq

    • Abstract: Salmonella spp. are considerable source of diarrheal diseases everywhere and considered as one of the greatest dangerous foodborne bacteria. The objectives of the current study was to detect the occurrence of the most important virulence genes in Salmonella enterica among bacteria which isolated from stool in Baghdad's hospitals, Iraq. A total of 50 swab stool samples were collected from patients suffered from food poisoning attended to different hospitals in Baghdad city. The isolates were identified using morphological tests and confirmed by Vitek-2 system. To extract DNA from the isolates, a genomic DNA kit was used. Molecular detection of five virulence genes: invA, papC, spvC, stn, and fimH were performed by using PCR. Out of 50 swab samples, 40% (20 samples) of them confirmable as Salmonella enterica. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes by PCR demonstrated that all 20 S. enterica isolates carried at least one gene from the genes that associated to biofilm formation. The invA, stn and fimH were the most predominant genes, due to being existent in (100%) of the all 20 S. enterica isolates. The prevalence of the virulence genes papC and spvC was 75% (15/20), and 65% (13/20), respectively. The current data support the occurrence of Salmonella spp. exhibiting a broad range of virulence genes in stool samples from patients who had food poisoning which indeed make these bacteria provide such a significant threat to public health.
       
  • Ovine pasteurellosis vaccine: Assessment of the protective antibody titer
           and recognition of the prevailing serotypes

    • Abstract: Sheep husbandry is considered one of the most important activities in the socio-economic development in the Middle East region, especially in Iraq and Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI). Therefore this study was designed to evaluate the level of ovine pasteurellosis vaccine protective antibody titer and identification of the prevailing serotypes in Iraq (Basrah, Baghdad, Tikrit, Mosul, Erbil). The vaccine was made from pasteurella multosida Bio-type A and the serotypes of Mannheimia haemolytica. This investigation was performed from September 2021 to January 2022, in Iraq. Sheep blood sera samples were obtained from control unvaccinated and vaccinated sheep after 14, 21 and 28 days post vaccination. The results showed that out of 319 sheep blood sera samples which were evaluated using indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test to detect Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes, the high prevalence (100 %) of M. haemolytica A2 was found in all the five study regions area, while 96.5 % was M. haemolytica A7 and 88.1 % was M. haemolytica A1. The level of antibody titer was measured by specific serum antibody titer of pasteurella multosida Bio-type A. The results revealed that out of 268 vaccinated blood sera samples the overall antibody titer were 12 (3.8 %), 16 (5%) and 17 (5.3 %) for protective antibody titer of 1:160, 1:80 and 1:40 respectively and for antibody titer of 1:20 were 15 (4.7%) and for antibody titer of 1:10 were 17 (5.3 %), whereas the antibody titer in the control group was 4 (7.8 %). The result of this study indicated that the vaccine administered has limited protective power against pasteurella multocida Bio-type A which lead to researchers for further study on identification of specific strain of pasteurella multosida and development of multivalent vaccine including the most prevalent pasteurella serotypes.
       
  • Serum level of heat shock protein 70 in patients with type 2 diabetes
           mellitus in Basrah, Iraq

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with an increasing prevalence, which is caused by a defect in insulin production, insulin action or both, and can increase the risk for the development of microvascular as well as macrovascular complications. Heat shock protein70 is considered as a family of a larger group of proteins known as heat shock proteins, which their expression is induced when the cells are subjected to environmental stress. They are believed to keep the native folding of proteins in cells under stressful conditions, in addition to its therapeutic role. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate about the serum level of HSP70 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to assess if there is an association of HSP70 with T2DM, and to evaluate the effect of age and duration of disease on the serum level of HSP70. Ninety one patients with T2DM were recruited and 85 individuals with the same age range and sex as healthy controls. Serum HSP70, fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were measured. The results revealed that the level of HSP70 was significantly higher in diabetic group compared to control group (P value < 0.05). The level of HSP70 showed a significant positive correlation with age and duration of disease as well as with fasting blood sugar and HbA1c. The study suggested that HSP70 may have the potential to be used as an indicator of metabolic derangement and a prognostic biomarker in diabetes.
       
  • Effects of adding different levels of hydroponic barley fodder on the
           productive performance and economic value of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to disclose the impact of adding different levels of hydroponic barley fodder (HBF) on some productive features on the economic value of broilers chickens. 144 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were used in this study. Birds were randomly distributed into four treatments, three replicates per each treatment (12 birds per replicate): The first treatment had no addition (T1:control). As for T2 and T3 treatments, 10% and 20% of HBF were added respectively within the feed pellet. Whereas, in T4, fresh HBF was chopped and fed as an additional free fodder. Results reflected an increase in the weekly live body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of T2 birds; as along with an improvement in the cumulative BWG, FI and FCR of T2 and T4 during the 3rd to 5th weeks compared with the other treatments. Bacteriology and gut morphology demonstrated a decrease in total fungi, total bacteria, and E. coli count with an increase in Lactobacillus count, in conjunction with an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of the jejunum of T2 birds. Economic value measures showed an increase in the production index and economic marker for broilers treated with T2 and T4. It can be concluded that there is an opportunity to include HBF by 10% or present it as freshly chopped HBF to ameliorate production performance, improve economic indicators and reduce broilers production costs by 9%.
       
  • Effect of adding different levels of Maca root Lepidium meyenii to the
           diet on the productive performance of broilers exposed to oxidative stress
           

    • Abstract: This experiment was conducted in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University for the period 1/10/ 2021 to 4/11/ 2021.This study was aimed to use different levels of maca roots to reduce the effect of oxidative stress-induced experimentally by using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in broiler chickens. In this experiment, 225 unsexed broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used, distributed randomly to 15 cages , with 5 experimental treatments for each treatment 45 birds, and each treatment included three replicates for each replicate of 15 birds. The experimental treatments were as follows: the first treatment considered as control group (basic diet + drinking water free of H2O2). The second group: basic diet and water supplemented with 0.5% H2O2 at a concentration of 0.5%, the third group: adding 1 g of maca roots / kg of the basic diet + drinking water containing 0.5% H2O2. The fourth group: add 1.5 g of maca roots/kg of the basic diet + drinking water containing 0.5% H2O2. The fifth group: add 2 g of maca roots/kg of the basic diet + drinking water containing 0.5% H2O2. The most important results of the study can be summarized as follows: the recorded data showed that significant superiority (p≤0.05) for the first, third, fourth and fifth treatments in the average live body weight in the fifth week and the total weight gain compared to the second treatment. The first, fourth and fifth treatments also recorded the best cumulative food conversion ratio and the best productivity index measure, with a significant difference (p≤0.05)) compared to the second treatment.
       
  • Effect of supplementation of different levels of Urtica Dioica seeds to
           the diet on the immune response and microbial content of the gut for
           broiler chickens

    • Abstract: This experiment was conducted in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University in order to study the effect of adding different levels of Urtica Dioica seeds to the diet on the immune response and microbial content of the gut for broiler chickens. In the experiment 180 unsexed broiler chickens (Ross 380), with one-day age were used, where they were randomly divided into four treatments, with a rate of 45 birds per treatment and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatments of experiment were as follows: First treatment (control) without adding Urtica Dioica seeds to the diet, second treatment: Adding Urtica Dioica seeds with amount of (5 g / kg feed), third treatment: Adding Urtica Dioica seeds with amount of (10 g / kg feed) and treatment Fourth: Adding Urtica Dioica seeds with amount of (15 g / kg feed). The experiment included the following traits: antibody titer against Newcastle disease, investigating sensitivity against Newcastle disease, the relative weight of bursa of fabricia, bursa of fabricia index, estimating the total number of bacterial, estimating the total number of Coliform bacteria and estimating the total number of Lactobacillus bacteria. The results indicated that adding the Urtica Dioica seeds led to significant improvement in cellular immunity (DHT) and antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ELISA) as well as significant improvement in the relative weight of bursa of fabricia and bursa of fabricia index and occurring a significant decrease in the logarithmic numbers for the total aerobic bacteria and Coliform bacteria with a significant increase in the logarithmic numbers for Lactobacillus bacteria in the Duodenum contents for the small intestine as well as in the Ceca compared to the control treatment. It is concluded from the current experiment that the addition of Urtica Dioica seeds to the diet can improve the immune traits and microbial content for the digestive tract for broiler chickens.
       
  • Investigation on the effect of Rhubarb stalks extracts on mice exposed to
           oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Normal blood lipid levels have a crucial role in lowering cardiovascular mortality. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous rhubarb extract on serum glucose, cholesterol, total lipids, peroxynitrate, malondialdehyde, glutathione, and ceroluplasmine levels, as well as glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in liver, kidney, and heart tissue in mice exposed to oxidative stress. 40 Balb/c mice were randomly allocated into 8 groups (n=5). Group 1: The control group was left eating feed and water without treatment for (15) days. Group 2: A group exposed to oxidative stress by giving it hydrogen peroxide at a rate of (0.5%) with drinking water for a period of (15) days. Group 3: A group exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide at a rate of (0.5%) for a period of (15) days with injecting it on the seventh day, daily for a week, with insulin subcutaneously (15) units/kg. Group (4-8): the Groups were exposed to the oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.5%) for a period of 15 days with injecting them on the seventh day into the peritoneal cavity with both the cold aqueous and non-protein extract, the extract of flavonoids at a dose of 400, 400, 0. 4,8. 8, 1.96 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All of the animals were anesthetized in the last day of the experiment, blood samples were obtained for biochemical testing, and tissue samples from the livers were collected for research. The results revealed that the cold crude aqueous, non proteinous extracts, flavonoids , proteinous precipitate and proteinous compound caused a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in serum glucose, cholesterol, total lipids, peroxynitrate, malonaldialdehyde levels in kidney, liver, and heart. The recorded data showed a significant increase (p<0.05 ) in serum glutathione and ceroluplasmine in serum and glutathione levels in liver, kidney, and heart tissues in male mice exposed to oxidative stress. The results showed that all Rhubarb extract have an antioxidant effect in mice exposed to oxidative stress.
       
  • Study the effects of Cordiamyxa fruit extract on induced animal model of
           depression in male rats

    • Abstract: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses. Herbal medications such as ginseng, peony have recently gained a lot of interest in the treatment of depression due to their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate actions of C. Myxafruit extract on the model of chronic mild stress (CUMS) and antioxidant enzymes system in male rats' brains. Sixty male rats were divided into six groups (n=10). Group1 (control) was neither exposed to CUMS nor received any treatment while group 2 was exposed to CUMS for 24 days with normal saline treatment for 14 days, group 3 was exposed to CUMS for 24 days and received 10 mg/kg fluoxetine daily on day 10 for 14 days, and group 4, 5 and 6 were exposed to CUMS for 24 days and received C.Myxaextract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively) on day 10 for 14 days. The antidepressant effect of fluoxetine and C. Myxa extract were evaluated by using forced swim test. At the end of the experiments, animals were sacrificed by decapitation, and antioxidant enzyme levels; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays kits (Elisa) in rats brain tissues. All groups that subject to CUMS show significant rise in duration of immobility on tenth day by comparsion with day zero. Groups treated with cordiamyxa fruit extract gives results on forced swim test comparable with that of fluoxetine group and reversed the increases on duration of immobility. CUMS produces decline in antioxidants enzymes levels and groups treated with extract show significant rise on enzymes levels (SOD and CAT) by comparsion to group 2. According to this recent study c.myxa may have the antidepressant-like action.
       
  • Phylogenetic Diversity of Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae) based on
           Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase-1 Gene Sequence Collected from Different
           Bird Species in Iran

    • Abstract: A wide range of hosts, especially birds, can be infested with Dermanyssus gallinae (D. gallinae), as an obligate hematophagous mite. In this study, cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene sequences were employed to perform molecular and phylogenetic analyses of D. gallinae collected from different bird species in Iran. Adult mites were collected from the body surface and cage material of ornamental and wild birds in industrial farms located in the Western and Northwestern regions of Iran. The infestation was identified in layer poultry farming by inspecting the eggs and the whole surfaces of the birds' bodies. The holding area and body surface of the ornamental and wild birds were also thoroughly examined. The D. gallinae samples were assigned to two subgroups of haplogroup A (i.e., A1 and A2). The phylogenetic tree suggested that the D. gallinae samples collected from wild birds in the A1 sub-haplogroup should be placed beside Japanese, Norwegian, Italian, and French samples isolated from wild birds in the A2 sub-haplogroup. Additionally, the highest phylogenetic similarity in the A2 sub-group was observed between mites isolated from ornamental and industrial birds in Australia. The findings of the present study suggest that crows and sparrows may play an important role in the transmission of D. gallinae infestation to other species of wild birds due to their high population, as well as their presence in most areas.
       
  • Explanation of COVID-19 Mortality Using Artificial Neural Network Based on
           Underlying and Laboratory Risk Factors in Ilam, Iran

    • Abstract: The spread of new waves of coronavirus outbreaks, high mortality rates, and time-consuming and numerous challenges in achieving collective safety through vaccination and the need to prioritize the allocation of vaccines to the general population have led to the continued identification of risk factors associated with mortality in patients through innovative strategies and new statistical models. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to predict morbidity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data of 2,206 patients were extracted from the registry program of Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Ilam, Iran, and were randomly analyzed in two training (1,544) and testing (662) groups. By fitting different models of a three-layer neural network, 12 variables could explain more than 77% of the mortality variance in COVID-19 patients. These findings could be used to better mortality management, vaccination prioritization, public education, and quarantine, and allocation of intensive care beds to reduce COVID-19 mortality. The results also confirmed the power of a better explanation of ANN models to predict the mortality of patients.
       
  • Concurrent Occurrence of Infectious Bursal Disease and Multicausal
           Respiratory Infections Caused by Newcastle Disease and Avian
           Metapneumovirus in Broilers

    • Abstract: Control strategy of respiratory complex infections should address precipitating and predisposing causative agents in general and immunosuppressive agents in particular. In both clinical and subclinical forms, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is one of the most immunosuppressive diseases of young chickens. This study aimed to investigate the concurrent occurrence of subclinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) and multicausal respiratory complex infections caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in broilers. In this study, 800 tissue samples (e.g., trachea, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen) and 400 sera samples were collected from broilers with confirmed respiratory signs selected from 20 broiler farms in west Azerbaijan province, Iran, from October 2018 to February 2019. Pathogens in the tissue samples were detected using RT-PCR for the VP2 gene of IBDV, F gen of NDV, and N gene of aMPV. The amplified products were sequenced afterward. At the end of the husbandry period, sera samples were used to detect antibodies against IBDV, aMPV, and NDV using ELISA and HI tests. Molecular results showed that the 45% (9/20), 30% (6/20), and 15% (3/20) of tissue samples were positive for IBDV, NDV, and aMPV, respectively. Regarding co-infection, 5% (1/20) of farm isolates were positive for IBD and ND, while 10% (2/20) of farms isolates were positive for IBD and aMPV. Co-infection of IBD, ND, and aMPV was not detected in farm isolates. Serological results indicated that the IBD co-infected flocks had almost higher (P<0.05) antibody titers against IBD; however, IBDV-NDV co-infected flocks and IBDV-aMPV co-infected flocks had lower antibody titer against NDVand aMPV, respectively. It can be concluded that lower antibody titer against ND and aMPV in IBD-ND and IBD-aMPV co-infections indicated suppressive effects of IBD on these diseases. Therefore, vaccination against IBD even in regions without clinical form of IBD is inevitable for the reduction of immunosuppressive effects of subclinical IBD on immune responses against these diseases.
       
  • Screening of exons 4-9 polymorphisms of FTO gene in endometrial and
           ovarian cancers

    • Abstract: Endometrial and ovarian tumors are almost mechanistically affected by reproductive hormones. Ovarian cancer may be explained as metastatic disease or as synchronous primary ovarian cancer, and the distinctive diagnosis is a challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutations in fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene and investigated the association of these mutations with the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers as well as with cancer grade and stage. Blood samples from 48 endometrial and ovarian cancers cases and 48 healthy women were collected. genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was done for amplification of FTO exons 4-9. Sanger sequencing resulted in identification of 6 different novel mutations submitted to DDBJ: p.W278G and p.G284G in exon 4, p.S318I and p.A324G in exon 5 and two mutations in intron 4. Other mutations also detected in FTO gene sequencing results, rs112997407 in intron 3, rs62033438, rs62033439, rs8048254 and rs8046502 in intron 4. The novel p.W278G, p.S318I and p.A324G mutations were predicted to be damaging. We didn’t find significant association for all variables with cancer risk or clinical stage and grade except for rs62033438 variants which showed significant association with cancer grade especially AA genotype (OR= 15, 95% CI:1.32 -169.88, P= 0.03). In conclusion, the statistical analysis did not clarify whether FTO mutations are indeed implicated in cancer. Further studies with more samples are recommended to provide a more accurate picture of the correlation between FTO mutations and endometrial and ovarian cancer susceptibility.
       
  • Osteoprotegerin, Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D as Effective Factors on
           Serum- Urine Calcium Levels in Breast Cancer Patients

    • Abstract: Breast cancer represents one of the most popular kinds of cancer worldwide. During the early stages of the disease, the level of Osteoprotegerin remained within normal limits, showing that the bone was not being damaged to get calcium as a result of an increase in parathyroid hormone. The aim of the current study was focused on assessing a number of biochemical variables in a group of women with malignant breast cancer who had reached menopause (less than 45 years old). 130 women were randomly divided into three groups as follows. The first group (G1) is made up of women who have never had breast cancer or any other disease, and their number (40) corresponds to the same age range (below menopause) as the control group.The second group (G2) consists of women who were diagnosed with breast cancer at an early stage and whose numbers were relatively low (45). The third group (G3) included women of the same age who received one or two doses of chemotherapy and whose total number was (45) over the same time period. The variables studied include Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, Osteoprotegerin, blood-calcium and urine-calcium, all of that are thought to play a role in the progress of the disease. Vitamin D levels were extremely low in the second group (G2), while they were slightly higher in the third group (G3) but remained extremely low. The first group (G1) maintained parameters within acceptable limits. There was a significant difference between the two breast cancer groups (9.38 1.43) and (4.98 1.67) when compared to the control group (20.04 2.80). (G1). The two breast cancer groups (G2) and (G3) had higher parathyroid hormone levels than the control group (G1), and there was a significant difference between the two breast cancer groups (136.52 58.56) (G3) and (G2) (167.79 35.21) compared to the control group (68.52 20.44) (G1).
       
  • Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioid Lam.
           (Lamiaceae) esessential oil

    • Abstract: The genus Ziziphora is belong to medicinal plants. It’s often used as a stomach tonic, carminative, antimicrobial, and expectorant, in addition the extracted essential oils can be utilized as a second line of defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of essential oils of Z. clinopodioides as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens (Bacillussp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp.). The antibacterial activity of Z. clinopodioides essential oil was determined using the microdilution (MD) method in nutritional broth medium and the agar disk diffusion assay. The result demonstrated that essential oil exhibit strong antibacterial properties against both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Sequentially regarding to MIC and MBC values Escherichia coli was a higher level of resistance to the essential oil compared to Bacillus sp. Our findings suggested that the essential oil of Z. clinopodioides could be used as an antibacterial agent. Total antioxidant capacity of Z. clinopodioides leaves were assessed as ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of the leaves’ essential oil extract. The total antioxidant capacity was determined using ascorbic acid (y = 0.1185x + 49.508, R² = 0.3877). While the result of Z. clinopodioideswas (y = 0.1372x + 40.032, R² = 0.4503).
       
  • Physiological and histological effects of Ginseng oil on reproductive
           efficiency in adult male rats

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a collection of metabolic illnesses known by chronic hyperglycaemia. It is one of the most common chronic diseases, which is caused by in insulin functions or secretions deficiency, or both and may cause carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism to be disrupted. The pituitary gonadal axis malfunctions, testicular tissue dysfunctions and poor quality of sperms are all symptoms of DM, which is one of the most common causes of reproductive abnormalities. The current study has been designed to demonstrate the impacts of treatment with Ginseng oil oxidative stress-induced physiological and histological alterations in the male reproductive system of rats with subcutaneous(s/c) injection alloxan . The study done on 30 mature male Wistar rats, were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=10). The first group, which served as the negative control, second group (positive control) injection with (s/c) a single alloxan dosage (120 milligrams per kilogram of body weight ) third group given alloxan and treated with ginseng oil (0.5cc at dosage (5 g /kg body weight daily) for 30 days. The percentage of live sperms increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the group that was given Ginseng oil orally, when compared to the alloxan group, the percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities were dropped, and the total number of sperm count was decreased. In the rat testis, (s/c) given alloxan (120 mgs/kg), aberrant spermatids were present with a decrease in the sperm numbers in the lumens of seminiferous tubules, as well as a division in the irregular germ cells. The current study concluded that Ginseng oil exerted an antioxidant effect on male reproductive system of rats injection with subcutaneous(s/c) alloxan.
       
  • Study of some Resistance genes in Clinical Proteus mirabilis

    • Abstract: Proteus mirabilis belong to family Enterobacteriacea and capable to transform in shape from rod to elongated and swarming motility by flagella. It is opportunity bacteria and can cause different clinical diseases. Therefore, firstly this study aimed to assay and detect sequence of genes that encode for antibiotic resistance in multidrug resistance clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis including blaTEM , aac(6’)-Ib ,qnrA, IntI2, IntI1 and secondly to investigate the relationship in phylogenetic tree among these genes in Iraq comparison with global strains in NCBI. The study included identification 500 clinical samples depending on morphological and biochemical tests and confirmation of Proteus mirabilis diagnosis by VITEK-2 Compact system. The confirmed isolates of Proteus mirabilis were 95 clinical isolates (19%). Antibiotic susceptibility test of all these isolates was done by using twelve antibiotics tested by using Amoxicillin, Aztreonam, Imipenem, Cefoxitin, Amikacin, Ceftazidem, Ciprofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamicin, Sulphamethazol-trimethoprim, Cefotaxim, Amoxicillin-calavulanic acid. The results showed that multidrug resistance Proteus mirabilis isolates contained the genes in different levels as follow blaTEM gene (90%), aac(6’)-Ib gene (80%) ,IntI1 gene (100%) ,IntI2 gene (80%). Sequencing of these genes carried out and detected phylogenetic relationship among these genes and global genes that documented in NCBI. The results showed that some Iraqi isolates contain genetic variation comparison with global strains, so, this variation detected and registered in NCBI of all five antibiotic resistance genes mention above and accepted under accession numbers of aacIb gene (LC613168.1), blaTEM gene (LC613166.1) , IntI1 gene (LC613169.1 ) , IntI2 gene ( LC613170.1) .
       
  • Molecular Study of ACE2 Gene Polymorphism of COVID-19 Infection Among the
           Kurdish Population in Kurdistan Region- Iraq

    • Abstract: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current pandemic infection of human respiratory system, which is caused by which caused by Sever Acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection was classified by World Health Organization (WHO) as a universal pandemic in February 2020, there have been 494.587.638 confirmed cases and 6.170.283 deaths. The present study was conducted to investigate molecular genetics of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene in correlation to COVID-19 patients in Kurdish population. Eighty-six individuals clinically diagnosis with COVID-19 and control groups. After the genomic DNA extraction these participants the target 1,2, and 8 exons of the ACE2 gene were amplified using PCR technique, then Sanger sequencing technique was performed to analyze genetic variants of ACE2 gene in 70 DNA samples of COVID-19 hospital patients at Emergency Hospital in Erbil city, Sarchnar Hospital in Sulaymaniyah city, Lalav Hospital in Duhok city and Wafa Hospital in Halabja city from Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The current study was designed in to two groups control group and patient group. The patient group was divided in to two sub groups severe and mild patients in different ages and genders. As a result, there was no any mutations at the positions 1, 2 and 8 exons sequences, while single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and identified three different types mutation at intron position: twenty-six of c.12405 del T, two of c.12407 T>G, and two of c.12406 G>A in a total 86 participants. This result show that genetic difference does not impact on the COVID-19 infection severity among the Kurdish population regarding to ACE2 gene polymorphism.
       
  • Effect of smoking on low-density lipoproteins level in human(iraq)

    • Abstract: Smoking has destructive effects on the vascular system, increases plaque deposits in atherosclerosis and increases inflammation. The present study was performed to determine the effect of smoking on the levels of low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein in smokers.A cross-control study was carried out on the outpatient clinic of Baghdad, Iraq. The study was carried out60 individuals from February 2021 to July 2021. Participants in this study included adult smokers and non-smokers of both gendersand the levels of LDL and VLDL were determined using an Automatic Chemistry Analyze. The results revealed that a total number of smokers was 60 individuals from both genders, there was a significant difference in mean low density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein levels. There is significant difference in LDL Values between non-smokers and smokers (129.853 ± 7.880; p< 0.05). Non-smokers were showing lower values of LDL (104.460±7.950; p< 0.05). Regarding VLDL values, results revealed that smokers were showing higher values thannon-smoker, (49.641 ± 4.02), (28.986±1.676) respectively, p< 0.05). LDL and VLDL levelsare more prevalent in current cigarette smokers than in non-smokers. Heavy smokers have higher LDL and VLDL values for a cigarette than non-smokers, which is consistent with observations in other populations.
       
  • Histopathological study to evaluate the effectof aqueous extract of
           Portunuspelagicusand mebendazole on hydatid cysts in mice

    • Abstract: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by a tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus sp.which has a global distribution. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the crustacean aqueousextract of Portunuspelagicusfor 2 weeks of treatment compared to mebendazole onhydatidcystinlaboratory mice male Balb / C strain.Micewere infected intraperitoneally with 2000 protoscolices. After 12 weeks of infection, each mice was treated with mebendazole (50mg/kg)and the hot aqueous extract of p.pelagicus (8, 16 g/kg).Samples of infected organs (liver, spleen, and lungs) were examined under a microscope to evaluate the morphological and histopathological changes of hydatid cysts and tissues.The study confirmed macroscopically that there were a number of hydatid cysts of different sizes in the liver, spleen, and lungs, splenomegaly, and congestion of the lungs of the positive control group. The histological changes in the organs of the group treated with the crustacean extract, they were represented by the presence ofvacuolation of hepatocytes in the centrilobular area, of the liver,while in the lungs show intensive peri-bronchiolar inflammation, pulmonary vascular congestion, and in the spleen,the deposition of amyloid-like material in the white pulp, extramedullary hematopoiesis,While the histopathological changes in the organs of mice treated with mebendazole,were represented by the presence in the liver mild vacuolation of the centrilobular area while in lungs show mild pulmonary vascular congestion, emphysema, and also in spleen shows normal white pulp, the normal red pulp of mice.It seems that the aqueous extract Portunuspelagicusandmebendazoleare effective in controlling the contamination in the intermediate hosts
       
  • A Review on Metabolic Paradoxes and their Impact on Metabolism

    • Abstract: The current review paper portrays the important link of different nutrients like trace elements, proteins, fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids with the immune system as well as information related to metabolic paradoxes. Optimum working of the metabolic system is essential because it gives various types of supplements to the human body and aid in chemical pathways. Here related data have been retrieved from two databases i.e., PubMed and Google scholar to grasp detailed knowledge about micronutrients and nutrients as well as their association in the metabolic system. Like protein play important role in the normal development of different immune components, amino acids including alanine, Arginine, and glutamic acid properly control the movement of neutrophils, macrophages, and cytokines. While fatty acids act as an anti-inflammatory agent because they possess the ability to inhibit the expression of the MHC class. Apart from these, many essential molecules like uric acid, proteins, calcium, lanolin are also obtained as end products after catabolic and anabolic reactions, and it was found that the uric acid paradox has a cancer inhibitory role. Additionally, TGF and IL-6 paradoxes have a role in the development of tumors, the onset of diabetes, and low-grade inflammatory disorders respectively. However, the entire functioning of metabolic processes depends upon daily diet because humans get the important nutrient from the diet which further vital role in the immune system. Moreover, it was also observed that calcium paradox is related to heart disorders because high calcium accumulation leads to cardiac disorders. Thus, the complete knowledge about these essential components as well as metabolic paradoxes is very important due to their antagonistic role to plan better and improved therapeutic strategies for various diseases.
       
  • Comparison of the effect of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Human
           Chorionic Go3nadotropin on Reproductive Performance of Romanov Ewes During
           the Natural Breeding Season

    • Abstract: Low pregnancy rate is an important issue in small ruminants. Superovulation protocols would serve as the possible techniques to increase the pregnancy rate in small ruminants due to the use of synthetic hormones. The present study aimed to assess the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after artificial insemination (AI) on the pregnancy rate of Romanov ewes breed. To this end, estrus was synchronized in 140 ewes using a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device. Following CIDR removal, all ewes received 400 IU Pregnant Mare's Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG). The ewes were assigned to three groups (control, n=20; experimental groups, each of them was divided into three subgroups, n=20). The first group in each experiment was assumed as control. The second and third groups received three levels of GnRH, (400, 500, and 600 µg, n=20) and hCG (200, 300, and 400 IU) administered by the intramuscular (IM) route. As soon as the signs of estrus were observed, the ewes were isolated from the others and artificially inseminated with fresh sperm using the transcervical method. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between experimental groups in ovulation and pregnancy rates on days 33 and 90 post-AI (P>0.05). The highest twin birth rate (20%) was recorded in the hCG group (300 IU), as compared to GnRH and control groups (P<0.05). The effect of GnRH and hCG on the plasma concentration of progesterone was significant (P<0.01). The groups significantly differed in fecundity rate (Single birth, twin birth, and triple birth) (P<0.05), all of these parameters were significantly higher in the hCG 300 IU group. It can be concluded that the injection of 300 IU of hCG hormone after insemination improves pregnancy rate in ewes.
       
  • A comparative study of the effect of oregano essential oil combined with
           live and killed Newcastle disease vaccines on immune response in broilers
           chicks in Erbil

    • Abstract: This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of oregano essential oil supplementation at concentration of 50 mL/1000L of drinking water on immune response in broiler chickens and performance. 390 day old Rose chickens were housed together in six experimental boxes 65 chickens for each box, including non-vaccinated group and non-vaccinated oregano treated group. Group A: vaccinated with (la Sota vaccine via eye drop) at 5 days, 15 days, 28-day old adding oregano essential oil in drinking water one-day post vaccination. Group B: vaccinated with (la Sota vaccine via eye drop) at 5 days, 15 days, 28-dayold only without oregano essential oil. Group C: vaccinated with (inactivated ND vaccine) at 5-day old via S/c injection one dose adding oregano essential oil in drinking water one-day post vaccination for three days. Group D vaccinated with (inactivated ND vaccine) at 5-day old via S/c injection one dose only without oregano essential oil. Group E: Non vaccinated as control group. The effect of oregano essential oil in drinking water combined with two forms of live and killed Newcastle disease virus vaccines on the immune responses and serum proteins was investigated in broiler chickens. Results showed a significant effect oregano on immune response of chicks in group D and C which were vaccinated with killed vaccine at 23 and 33 day-old and recorded a peak at 38 day with a significant difference (p < 0.05) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated group as well as in 38 day-old for group C significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with other groups regarding the oregano effects on immune response of groups A using live attenuated LaSota vaccine as booster dose was significantly increased compared with group B and control groups. In addition, increase in the serum protein significant differences (p > 0.05) of the vaccinated broiler chicks and serum globulin showed quantitative increase in the vaccinated broiler chicks compared with non-vaccinated groups in the other hand the result showed the effect of oregano non-significant difference (p > 0.05) had no beneficial effect on growth performance.
       
  • Aerobic bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus spp associated with
           Cytomegalovirus in abortion

    • Abstract: Abortion is a common complication in life cycle of pregnancy. Based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the spontaneous abortion is define as an expulsion of embryo or extraction of fetus at age of 20-22 weeks of pregnancy. The aim of study was to investigate the relation between socioeconomic factors with bacterial vaginosis in abortion women and detection of morecommon bacteria which causes vaginosis associated with miscarriage women and related with Cytomegalovirus and Lactobacillus spp. A total of 113 high vaginal swabs was taken from women experience abortion. Some variables have been investigated in this study as age, education and infection. Following the vaginal discharge collection the smear was prepared. Then 1 or 2 drops of normal saline solution was put on the prepared smear with cover slip and examined under microscope. Gram stain kits were provided by Hi-media, India used to differentiate shapes of bacterial isolates. Wet mount technique used for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis and Aerobic bacterial vaginosis. All the samples used for smear gram staining, culture on blood agar, chocolate agar, and MacConkey agar. Biochemical examination including Urease test, Oxidase test, coagulase test and catalase test were preformed for the suspicious cultures. In present study, different age group range from (14-45) years were reported. Miscarriage women in age group (24-34) year was reported a high rate of miscarriage 48 (42.5%) this rate was considered as a high incidence rate. The results showed that aerobic bacterial vaginosis lead to the rate of 28.6% abortion (once a time) and 71.4% abortion (twice a time) in the studied population (Table 5). The recorded data showed that 50% of the studied population who infected with cytomegalovirus or Trichomonas vaginalis experienced one time abortion and 50% of them experience twice abortion. From 102 samples infected with Lactobacillus spp 45.17% experience one time abortion and 42.2% experienced twice miscarriage.
       
  • The Effect of Palm Pollen and Pomegranate Peel Supplementation on Sperm
           Development in Male Rabbits

    • Abstract: The use of plants or plants' extracts, folk remedies, for treating human disorders has been known as traditional medicine. It is approved that the use of herbal medicine dates far back to 60,000 years ago in Iraq. This study was designed to investigate the possible effectiveness of pomegranate and palm pollen as two powerful herbal remedies with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects on the male rabbits fertility. Fifteen healthy New Zealand White rabbits male adult rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=5). Group A: 5 rabbits did not received herbal treatment (control group). Group B: 5 rabbits were treated with palm pollen at a dose of 2 g by oral gavage daily. Group C: 5 rabbits were treated with pomegranate peel (2 g) treated by oral gavage daily. After 90 days from the beginning of the experiment, all animals were euthanized. Following the euthanasia the testis were removed. For sperm recovery the epididymis were dissected from the testicles and the tail of the epididymis were mince in the sperm washing medium and incubated for 15 min in an atmosphere of humidified 5% CO2, 95% The samples were evaluated by using computerized semen analyzer apparatus (CASA). After 90 days, the treated groups with palm pollen and pomegranate peel (groups B and C) showed significant increase in the sperm concentration compared with group (A). On the other hand, the recorded data revealed that the sperms concentration in group C were higher significantly compare with group B. The study showed that the total sperm motility was increased significantly in groups B and C as compared with control group. While the values of total sperms motility in group C increased significantly compare with group B. The histological evolutions showed that in the control group, the epithelial of seminiferous tubules was at different stages of spermatogenesis, the spermatocytogenesis (primary and secondary ) with the spermogenesis ( spermatids) were found in a cluster at the cavity of the tubule in.
       
  • Molecular detection of blaSHV-la gene in Klebisella pneumonia isolated
           from urinary tract infections, Najaf, Iraq

    • Abstract: Klebsiella pneumoniae is gram-negative bacterium which causes serious illnesses including:"pneumonia, liver abscess, meningitis, bloodstream infections, and urinary tract infections (UTI)". The purpose of the current investigation was to isolate and diagnose Klebisella pneumoniae from clinical specimens of urine from patients with urinary tract infection, as well as to perform molecular detection of the blaSHV-la gene in Klebisella pneumonia in the Najaf governorate, Iraq. The study included 100 clinical specimens from October 2021 to March 2022. As an initial diagnosis, K. pneumoniae isolates were diagnosed based on culture and biochemical features. Apart from the usage of PCR technology to identify on the blaSHV-la gene, the Vitek-2 compact system's final diagnostic is automated. The biochemical findings revealed that 40 out of every 100 isolates tested positive for K. pneumoniae. These findings were validated by Vitek, which revealed that 40/100 of the samples tested positive for K. pneumoniae, and by PCR utilizing the blaSHV-la gene, which revealed that 13/40 of the samples tested positive for K. pneumoniae isolated from urine urinary tract patients. In conclusion the results showed that the use of the Vitek-2 technique is required to confirm the pathogen's accurate identification. K. pneumoniae clinical isolates show multidrug resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat urinary tract infections. The blaSHV gene that encoded for Extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic was found almost in K. pneumoniae isolates.
       
  • Evaluation of the Interaction of Menopause with Complications of
           Hyperthyroidism in Female Patients, Iraq

    • Abstract: Hyperthyroidism is a health problem characterized by an overactive thyroid gland, which results in extra T3 and T4 hormones production with the decrease of TSH. The oxidative stress indicators in patients with hyperthyroidism and the relationship with impaired metabolism of lipid remain contentious especially in menopausal women patients’ status suffer from a lack of ovulating hormones. In this study blood samples were evaluated from 60 healthy women 30 premenopausal (G1) and 30 postmenopausal women (G2) as control, 30 premenopausal, and 30 postmenopausal women which primary diagnosis with hyperthyroidism (G3, and G4). The levels of serum hormone-like T3, T4, and TSH, Blood pressure and lipid profiles like Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein, and Low Density Lipoprotein, superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products in the two healthy control groups and women patient groups with hyperthyroidism were measured. In addition, serum Progesterone levels measured by the Bio –Merieux kit France, depending on instructions by the producer of the company. Results revealed a significant decrease in SOD activity in the postmenopausal group related to premenopausal women and control groups. A significant increase in MDA and AOP levels in hyperthyroidism groups compared with control groups. Decreased level of progesterone in patient groups compared to their related control groups. Also, there was a significant increase in T3 and T4 in G3 and G4 groups compared with G1, and G2, there was a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of menopausal hyperthyroidism (G4) compared to other groups. The TC decreased significantly in G1 compared to G2 and G3 and G4 compared to both control groups (p < 0.05). The study suggested that hyperthyroidism cause an increase in oxidative stress, which negatively affects the antioxidant system and drops levels of an ovulation hormone progesterone in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women patients, therefore, low levels of progesterone are linked with hyperthyroidism and may affect each other and lead to aggravating symptoms of the disease.
       
  • Expression of IL-33 gene in chronic Toxoplasmosis patients undergoing
           Hemodialysis in Baghdad City

    • Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is one of protozoan parasite with high distribution that leads to different abnormalities in hosts. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the distribution of toxoplasmosis in hemodialysis patients and expression of IL-33 gene in chronic Toxoplasmosis. In this study, a total of (60) samples of patients who were undergoing dialysis, and (60) healthy samples as control groups during the 1st February to 1st November 2021 were evaluated. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG was detected by using ELISA technique and the real time-PCR was used to perform IL-33. The results showed that the highest anti TOXO IgG antibody rate was found in the age group (51-70) years who were undergoing dialysis in comparison with the control group (P<0.05).. The male patients who had TOXO IgG antibodies were higher compared to the healthy persons (P<0.05), while the female patients showed no significant difference compared to the healthy group. The chronic toxoplasmosis showed higher number according to residency (the urban and rural patients) compared to the healthy persons. The number of dialysis times per week in chronic Toxoplasmosis patients were shown to be significantly higher among the infected patients. The findings were shown to be positive in dialysis at 2 weeks (P<0.05), Expression of IL-33 gene was investigated in patients who were undergoing hemodialysis and in healthy controls by using the real-time PCR. The findings showed that there was high Ct value for patients and controls with high Ct value of templates, preoperational to the gene concentration. Given the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in dialysis patients and the role of interleukin 33 in cellular immunity in these patients, the need to investigate the mechanisms limiting infection with intracellular protozoa is necessary.
       
  • Serological findings and expression of IL-1βand IL-6 genes in
           patients infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Iraq

    • Abstract: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the serious bacterial infections that cause diseases and may lead to death. In this study, 178 individuals were examined for TB infection at Baghdad TB center during the period from 15th January to 1st October 2021. Out of 178 participants 73 were shown to be positive for TB infection, while 105 showed negative results. According to the results, there was no significant variation between infected males and females with TB in comparison with the control group (P>0.05). The results showed that the mean age of patients for both males and females were in a range of 2–65 years. Also there were significant differences in patients with TB compared to the control group in terms of weight loss 8.82 ± 6.75 Kg, RBC count (3.43 ± 0.56) × 106/μl, WBC count (3.12 ± 1.57) × 106/μl, Platelet count (1.03 ± 0.56) × 106/μl and Hemoglobin level(6.66 ± 1.34) g/dl. A total of 30 TB patients and 50 normal individuals were genotyped to detect the IL-1β rs 114534gene. PCR was used for exone amplification in region 5 of ILB1 gene in the TB patients by using specific primers. The finding showed that there was an amplified product of 249bp located in chromosome 2q13-14.A total of 30 TB patients and 50 normal individuals were also genotyped to detect the IL-6 rs 1800795 gene. PCR was used for amplification of IL-6 gene in TB patients by using specific primers. The finding showed that there was an amplified product of 431 bp located in chromosome 7p15-p2. Expression of ILB1 gene was investigated in TB patients and healthy controls by using qPT-PCR. Results showed that there was a high Ct value for patients and controls with a high Ct value of templates, preoperational to the total RNA concentration and gene expression. Expression of IL-6 gene was investigated in TB patients and healthy controls by using qPT-PCR. Results showed that there was a high Ct value for patients and controls with a high Ct value of templates, preoperational to the total RNA concentration and gene expression.
       
  • Detection of antibody against non-structural proteins (NSP) of Foot and
           Mouth Disease virus in cattle in Al-Najaf province

    • Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease caused by an Aphthovirussp. of the family Picornaviridae.The aim of this study was the serological approach (NSP analysis) of 3ABC-ELISA to diagnose FMD cattle in vaccinated and unvaccinated animals.A total 84 serum specimens including non-vaccination, single-vaccination, multi-vaccine, in four districts in Baghdad province to evaluat of antibodies to non-structural proteins of FMDV.ELISA assay was used to detect antibodies (NSP) of FMDV in the serum from cattle. The result showed that, the sero-occurrence assessed in farm animals was 34% (29/84). The seroprevalence of FMD in relation to the age of infected animal was 21%, 7% and 6% in 9-23, 24 -36 and ≥36 months respectively. The consequences of examination of the sera from naive, immunized and non-immunized infected farm animals applying 3ABC-ELISA are presented, theincidence of FMD infected in non-vaccinated animals and vaccinated were 18 (75%) and 11 (18%) respectively.Negative results were recorded in immunized group 49 (82%) higher than in non –immunized group 6 (25%). Evaluation of NSP antibodies for isolation between vaccinated and infected animals showed that using these assays is significantly useful for FMD prevention and control management programs in infected areas.
       
  • The association between Biofilm Inducer and blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM in
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates

    • Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is one of the ubiquitous opportunistic organisms, that hard-to-treat. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM prevalence and c-di-GMP in P. aeruginosa. Twenty-seven clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from different hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. Phenotypic detection of carbapenemand the biofilm assays were performed by M63 minimal medium supplemented with glucose, MgSO4, and CAA. Polymerase chain reaction used to detect carbapenems genes. The results showed that highly resistance isolates for Imipenem (37%) and Meropenem (63%). Imipenem (37%), Meropenem (63%) demonstrated a moderate sensitivity against pseudomonas aeruginosa of these very important clinically antibiotic. P. aeruginosa No.5 was shown high resistance to carbapenem by blaVIM+, blaIMP+, blaNDM+ followed by robust biofilm that confirmed with c-di-GMP level and ability to twitching motility. Upon these findings the using of antibiotics should be restricted to sever bacterial infection, to avoid rapid emerging of new resistant isolates lead to hard treatment of infection with p. aeruginosa. It is highly recommend that these findings be notified for infectious control. In the future studies we would like to see the linked between the transferable resistance genes and c-di-GMP values.
       
  • Biological activity of extract Solanum nigrum on some biological aspects
           of the blue fly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

    • Abstract: The current research included evaluating the efficiency of alcoholic and alkaloid extract of the leaves and fruits of the Solanum nigrum and testing its effectiveness against the immature stages of the blue fly with 24 hours at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/mL at 30 ±1°C and a relative humidity of 60 ± 5 %. The alcoholic extract of the plant's fruits had the highest effect on the killing of blue fly eggs at all concentrations used, where the death rates were 89.11 and 42.43% at concentrations of 5 and 20 mg/mL, respectively, compared to the control (9.27%). As for the alkaloid extract, the alkaloid extract of the leaves of the plant outperformed in recording the highest rates of killing blue fly eggs, with a death rate of 88.83 and 31.14% in concentrations 5 and 20 mg/mL compared with the control amounting to 10.40%. As for the larval stages, the first stage was more sensitive than the other larval stages to all extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant. The highest rates of mortality of the three larval stages were achieved by using the alcoholic extract of the fruits with the highest concentration of 20 mg /mL compared with the alcoholic extract of the leaves, where the death rates of the third larval stage reached the highest rates (57.11, 68.20, and 88.69%) (53.19, 68.64, and 89.11%) of the alcoholic extract of the fruits and leaves, respectively. The recorded data showed that the alkaloid extract of the leaves of S. nigrum lead to achieve the highest mortality rates compared with the alkaloid extract of the fruits for all larval instars and at all the concentrations used. The mortality rates of the third larval stage with highest concentration were (58.13 - 67.64), respectively. With regard to the results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the chemical compounds in the alcoholic and alkaloid extract of leaves and fruits, the result showed the presence of chemical compounds of varying numbers.
       
  • Analysis the nucleotide sequences similarity and protein prediction of
           some resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from Iraqi urinary
           tract infections patients.

    • Abstract: Antibiotics resistance lead to dramatic increase in the morbidity and mortality due to the infection disease, even though estimates vary widely, the economic cost of antibacterial to antibiotics resistance are increasing every year. The current was designed to identify and comprehend antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In fact this study focused on the recent deep-learning methods (sequencing), to investigate E. coli antibiotic resistance and their protein sequences.To evaluate antibiotic resistance the sequencing method could be considered as the method of choice. Identification of E. coli using either specific biochemical tests or Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection using the 16S rRNA gene was used in this study. The results of aadA1 gene sequences showed 10 nucleic acid substitutions throughout compared with reference NCBI database (MG385063), from the 10 nucleic acid substitutions 9 missense effects were observed. While the dfrA1 gene sequences showed 20 nucleic acid substitutions throughout compared with reference NCBI database (KY706080), from the 20 nucleic acid substitutions 8 missense effects were observed. Furthermore the sul1 gene sequences showed 20 nucleic acid substitutions throughout compared with reference NCBI database (CP069561), from the 20 nucleic acid substitutions 12 missense effects were observed. The cat1 gene sequences showed 14 nucleic acid substitutions throughout compared with reference NCBI database (NC017660), from the 14 nucleic acid substitutions 8 missense effects were observed. The precise point (Missense) mutation in the four genes aadA1, dfrA1, sul1 and cat1 in the expected sequence is interpreted to be the target site of a site-specific recombination mechanism that led to antibiotics resistance in E. coli isolates.
       
  • Hepatic Impact for Different Concentrations of hibiscus rosa zinc oxide
           Nanoparticles in Rats

    • Abstract: Nanomaterial, especially zincoxid nanoparticles, has entered the manufacture of many materials that use in daily lives. A Current study was designed to evaluate the impact of three concentrations of hibiscus rosa zinc oxide nanoparticles (HrZnONPs) and hibiscus rosa extract (Hre) on the liver tissue and DNA fragmentation of liver cell. Thirty five adult male Wistar rats were grouped as follows; First group is control (𝑁=7); it was not received any treatment. The remaining twenty eight animals were distributed randomly into four groups. The group 1 (𝑁=7) injected subcutaneously with 100mgkg BW of Hibiscus rosa extract for 60 days; group 2 rats injected subcutaneously with 25 mgkg BW of HrZnONPs for 60 days; group 3 rats injected subcutaneously with 75mgkg BW of HrZnONPs for 60 days; group 4 were injected subcutaneously with 100mgkg BW of HrZnONPs for 60 days. The liver biomarkers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have been assessed in serum at zero time, after one month and after two months of experiment. At the end f the experiment all the animals were euthanized and then the liver was dissected and specimen undergone the pathohistological investigation and the percentage DNA fragmentation was evaluated. The results showed that the rats that had remediated with HrZnONPs at concentrations of 75 and 100 mgkg B.W. registered salient elevation in activities values for AST, ALP and ALT, modulation in hepatic tissue architecture, elevated percentage of high DNA damage compared to those remediated with HrZnONPs in concentration of 25 mgkg B.W. On the other hand the recorded data showed that the administration of Hre has some ameliorative effects on AST, ALP and ALT levels, beterment in histology cross section and value of comet assay for liver cells due to the Hre antioxidant role. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated the high dose of HrZnONPs has more adverse impact compared to the low dose and confirmed the ameliorative impact of Hre on liver biomarkers, histology cross section of liver and DNA damage.
       
  • Effect of Betaine on Blood Parameter Related to Iron Status in Acrylamide
           Treated Rats

    • Abstract: It has been well documented that acrylamide (ACR) is a human carcinogen. Central and peripheral nervous system damage is considered as one of the consequences of ACR exposure which may lead to hallucinations, drowsiness and numbness in the hands and legs. Betaine (BET) plays an active role in methylation reactions especially in DNA methylation, the integrity of cell membranes, and memory development. It has been approved that BET protects the liver from oxidative stress-inducing substances such as ethanol, nonalcoholic fatty liver, brain, kidney, stomach, and ovaries in rats. Therefore this study was designed to investigate that how BET influenced iron-related blood parameters and biomarkers in acrylamide-treated rats. Twenty adult rats, weighing 180-200 g and aged 6-7 weeks, were randomly divided into four equal groups and given the following treatments every day for thirty days; the control was G1. The animals in the G2 group were intubated with betaine (250 mg/kg B.W.). The animals in group G3 were intubated with acrylamide (1 mg/kg B.W.) while the animals in group G4 were intubated with betaine plus acrylamide at the same dose as the animals in groups G2, G3. At the end of experiment, theblood samples were obtained using the cardiac puncture technique from anesthetized rats for measuring white blood cells count (WBCs) and their differential count, red blood cells count (RBCs) hemoglobin (Hb) and their related parameter mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and hematocrit (HCT %), and red cell distribution width (RDW). Besides, serum was taken for measuring serum iron concentration (SI), ferritin and total iron -binding capacity (TIBC),transferrin saturation percentage (T sat%). The results showed significant changesin some hematological parameter and iron status correlated to anemia in group G3 which received acrylamide. Such changes were accompanied with histopathological changes in spleen Oral intubation of betaine alone or concurrently with acrylamide caused alleviation of anemia through correction of previous parameters. On conclusion, the results showed that betaine has a beneficial influence on anemia created in rats given acrylamide.
       
  • Correlation between vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor
           (FokI-rs2228570) gene polymorphisms of Anemic Men in Babylon Province

    • Abstract: Vitamin D or calciferol, is a fat soluble vitamin that has a unique feature as it considered as the only vitamin that synthesizing in the body, primarily by exposition to UV-light from the sun and then is transformed to 25(OH)D by lever and finally to a vital form 1,25-dihydroxy D by the kidney. Gene polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (FokI-rs2228570) gene has been proposed as the major cause of anemia. The goal of this research was to discover the link between vitamin D insufficiency and the gene polymorphism for vitamin D receptor (FokI-rs2228570) in anemic patients. A case-control study including 120 men anemic patients without any kidney disorders have been compared with 60 healthy men as a control. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) FokI-rs2228570 was detected by "PCR and PCR-RFLP" techniques. Serum vitamin D, erythropoietin levels and some biochemical parameters were detected by ELISA. The mutant homozygous genotype ff were more frequent in anemic patients (45%) than control (15%), also the f allele frequency were the common allele in patients group (0.62%) with significant decrement of vitamin D and hemoglobin levels, this mean that the presence of mutant allele represent the risk factor for developing anemia compared with genetic patterns FF and Ff. Vitamin D insufficiency is It's common in anemic people, and it's often accompanied by low hemoglobin and high erythropoietin levels. Additionally, the genetic frequencies also affect vitamin D conditions as indicated by low levels in mutant patterns (Ff, ff) in which the patients suffer from severe anemia.
       
  • Role of Serum Leptin Level in Primary Sub-Fertile Women

    • Abstract: Subfertility has an important impact on the couples and their families and denotes a real challenge to gynecologist and obstetricians in terms of treatment that may take long time. Leptin has been widely studied in different types of infertility, however, the results of previous studies conflicting and the role of leptin in the process of fertility still under debate. The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin concentration in women with primary subfertility, and evaluation of the relationship between serum leptin and some reproductive hormones and endometrial thickness in subfertile women. A case-control study, conducted during the period from December 2020 to July 2021. 100 women with primary subfertility and 100 fertile women as control group participated in this study. Blood samples collected and ultrasonography examination performed in all patients. The recorded data showed that the mean leptin level was higher in subfertile women compared with control group, 26.8 ± 15.2 ng/mL and 6.4 ± 2.3 ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). Leptin level increased significantly with higher body mass index (P<0.001). High leptin level found to be significant predictor of subfertility at a level of 11 ng/ml or higher (odds ratio = 2.793). Leptin level showed a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 96%, 98% and 96.9%, respectively as predictor of subfertility. In conclusion higher leptin level was the stronger, excellent and valid predictor of subfertility.
       
  • Cytotoxic effect of the crude alcoholic extract of Citrullus Colocynthis
           fruits plant in the human hepatocyte carcinoma (Hep-G2)

    • Abstract: The Citrullus Colocynthis L is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Several pharmacological investigations have done based on the medicinal application of Citrullus colocynthis. The anticancer and antidiabetic activities of Citrullus colocynthis fruit and seeds extracts have been studied. It seems that newly developed anticancer/antitumor drugs have been developed based on the extracted chemicals from Citrullus colocynthis due to the high contents of cucurbitacins. The aim of this research was to identify the toxic effect of the citrullus colocynthis fruits alcohol extract on the growth of human hepatocyte carcinoma (Hep-G2). The results of the chemical (preliminary) examination of the extract showed that the fruits plant contained most of the secondary metabolites, which included Flavonoids, Tannins, Sapiens, Resins, Amino acids, Glycosides, Terpenes, Alkaloids, Flavonoids. The toxicological effect of the crude extract was investigated by using six half dilutions concentrations (20,10,5,2.5,1.25,0.625) (µg/ml) and for three exposure periods (24,48,72) hours using MTT testing. Thetoxic effect of the plant extract appeared for all the six concentrations in the Hep-G2 cell line. The highest concentration of 20 (µg/ml) gave the highest percentage inhibition ratewith a significant difference (P≤0.01 and it reached (93.36 ±1.61) after a period of (72) hours of exposure.While the lowest concentration (0.625) μg/ml was recorded rate of inhibition (23.36 ± 2.34) after 24 hours exposed. From these findings it can be concluded that the citrullus colocynthis plant is one of the most promising medicinal plants with an effective role in the treatment of cancer through its inhibitory effect and fatal toxicity in cancer cells.
       
  • Isolation and Molecular Detection of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus

    • Abstract: Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus that infects wild and domestic cats. Feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV) variants of FCoV cause fatal peritonitis where this affects approximately 5% of FCoV infected animals. The aim of this study was detection and isolation of feline infectious peritonitis virus for the first time in Iraq. In this study 50 samples (fecal swab and peritoneal fluid) were collected from suspected pet cats from different area of Baghdad city. The very suitable age under two years old. Real time RT-PCR was used to detect Feline infectious peritonitis in infected collected samples by amplification of spike protein (S) was done. The result of real time RT-PCR revealed that 10 samples out of 50 samples from suspected cats were positive with FIPV. Ten positive samples by real time RT-PCR were used for isolation of the virus in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture, then isolated virus was detected by real time RT-PCR and then was detected byconventional RT-PCR after that electrophoresis was done.
       
  • Evaluation of methylation panel in promoter region of p16INK4a, RASSF1A
           and MGMT as a biomarker for lung cancer from sputum

    • Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the world.Effective early detection and appropriate medications can help treat lung cancer. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is important, especially in screening high-risk populations (such as smokers) with an urgent need to identify new biomarkers. This study shows the potential of using panel of DNA methylation as a biomarker for early diagnosing of lung cancer from sputum samples. The methylated promoter of p16INK4a, RASSF1A and MGMT genes was estimated by methylation-specific PCR in the samples of 84 lung cancer patients, of which smokers 65 and 19individual’s non-smoker. In smoking and advanced lung cancer cases in term of histological grading and patient staging there was significant association with p16INK4a promoter methylation. The sensitivity and specificity of p16INK4a gene as a biomarker for lung cancer were 71% and 90%, respectively. The methylated promoter of RASSF1A was less sensitive (48%) as a biomarker for lung cancer with 83%. Result shows a strong association between promoter methylation of RASSF1A with late stage of lung cancer (p=0.0007). While, the sensitivity of MGMT gene as a biomarker for lung cancer were 61% with high specificity (92%) compared to other candidate genes in this study. The epigenetic alteration in promoter region of p16INK4a, RASSF1A and MGMT genes is highly associated with cancer cell development. It is suggested that the use of these candidate biomarkers can be used as an adjunct to computed tomography (CT) screening to diagnose patients at high risk for lung cancer after validation.
       
  • Clinical and histopathological study of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem
           Cells on corneal neovascularization after Alkali burn in rabbit model

    • Abstract: The cornea, the transparent part of the eye, performs a significant function in eyesight by refracting the light to focus a visual image. As the cornea is indispensable for vision, corneal inflammation may induce visual disturbance and blindness. Several investigations have reported that various corneal inflammatory diseases cause visual impairment and chronic inflammation of the cornea which can lead to blindness. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of Adipose-Derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on corneal healing after alkali injuries. Corneal alkali injuries were created in 20 rabbits' eyes. The MSC group (n=10) were treated with subconjunctival injections and control group (n=10) was left without treatment. Rabbits underwent slit-lamp examination, photography, and were evaluated for corneal neovascularization, and histological evaluation, results eyes treated with MSCs showed better recovery. A difference in the degree of corneal neovascularization and re-epithelialization was also observed, as well as elevated the neovascular tissue at 2 and 4 wks. post traumatic in control compare to MSC and groups.
       
  • Effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane on post- anesthesia cognitive
           dysfunction in normal and type II diabetic rats

    • Abstract: Both animals and human studies have documented cognitive and behavioral impairment after exposure to inhalational anesthetics. Therefore, the current study was designed to demonstrate if the anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane can result postoperative cognition dysfunction in normal and diabetic rats. 60 male Wister rats aged 12 weeks were divided into 6 groups (n=10); group C (normal control), group CD (diabetic control) group S (sevoflurane anesthesia) group I (isoflurane anesthesia) group SD (diabetic sevoflurane anesthesia) group ID (diabetic isoflurane anesthesia). Animals were anesthetized by either 2.5% sevoflurane or 1.5 % isoflurane respectively for 2h. 1 week later animals were undergone cognitive tests on (Morris water maze, T maze and open field arena), thereafter animal were sacrificed and hippocampus homogenates were studied for caspase 3 activity by western blot assay. Induction of type II diabetes in CD, SD and ID groups was carried out by feeding on high fat diet for 8 weeks before the start of experimental . During the fourth week Type II diabetes was induced in the experimental group by single IP injection of 30 mg/kg STZ. Control (normal and diabetic) rats showed no change in long-term/reference memory, non- spatial working memory, exploratory activity or caspase 3 expression in hippocampus homogenate. Anesthesia with isoflurane in normoglycemic rats resulted in significant decline in long-term/reference memory, and non-spatial working memory while exploratory activity and caspase 3 expression in hippocampus homogenate showed no change as compared to normal control rats. Both isoflurane and sevoflurane in diabetic rats demonstrated decline in long-term/reference memory, non-spatial working memory, exploratory activity and caspase 3 expression in hippocampus homogenate as compared with normal control rats. Diabetes revealed significant post-anesthesia cognitive dysfunction after anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane in all the studied domains as compared to either normal control or diabetic control.
       
  • Comparison between Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of
           Exopolysaccharides (EPS) Extracted from Lactobacillus reuteri and
           Streptococcus Mitis against Oral Bacteria

    • Abstract: Due to the increased resistance to antibiotics and chemical biocides, the use of bacterial exopolysaccharides has been considered. The objective of the current study was to investigate strength of the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of EPS extracted from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus miti because previous studies showed there was structural differences between EPS , during this study EPS extracted from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus Miti by ethanol precipitation method and estimated antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against several Oral Bacteria(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hominis , Acinetobacter baumannii, Raoultella ornithinolytica , Streptococcus thoraltensis in different concentration as (100,150,200,250,300 mg/ml ),the results showed carbohydrates rate in extracted EPS from L.reuteri and S. mitis were recorded was 85 , 80 % respectively. The concentration 100 and 150 mg/ml for EPS from L.reuteri and S. mitis, there was no inhibitory effect, except in S.aureus(1.1±0.10) and S.hominis (1.0±0.10) at 100 mg/ml ,3.1±2.01, 2.1±0.54 mg/ml respectively at 150 mg/ml concentration but no significant differences (p≤ 0.05). However the anti-bacterial effect of those EPSs started at the concentration of 200 and upwards, where different results were recorded between the concentrations of both EPSs against all bacteria isolated (p≤ 0.05 ), On the other hand, the effect EPS from L.reuteri and S. mitis was clear against the formation of biofilm compared with the control , worth mentioning that EPS from L.reuteri was more effective compared with EPS from S. mitis in all isolates (p≤ 0.05 ) except for S. thoraltensis where it was noted that the EPS from S. mitis is more effective than EPS from L.reuteri . Through the results obtained in this study, it was noted that the difference in the structural nature of EPS has an important role in its effectiveness as an anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm formation and, as it was found that the EPS from L.reuteri showed more effective than EPS from S. mitis and thus the mechanism of preventing and inhibiting bacteria depending of the structural natural of EPS.
       
  • Expression of IL1β gene in human and cow's placenta
           during Brucella infection

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is an important contagious disease affecting most domestic and especially mature animals. Since the impact of IL-1β in B. abortus invasion and survival remains elusive, the current study was designed to elucidate the actual roles of these potent cytokines in modulating the initial immune response to Brucella infection. Therefore, the current work was aimed to detect Brucella abortus in the placenta of aborted women and cows in addition to estimation the expression of interleukin 1β (IL1β) gene associated with immune response mechanisms to Brucella abortus infection. Detection of Brucella abortus was performed by Rose Bengal Test(RBT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction based AlkB gene (AlkB -PCR) in the sera and placentas samples of aborted women and cows respectively. The overall percentage of Brucella abortus infection was 13.1 % and 5% as determined by RBT and AlkB-PCR in aborted women sera and placentas, respectively. While the overall percentage of Brucella abortus infection in aborted cows sera and placentas were 30% and 11 % as estimated by RBT and AlkB-PCR respectively. Depending on RBT results, it was found that the association of Brucella abortus with cows' abortion was statistically significant. In contrast, it was found that the association of Brucella abortus with abortion in woman was not significant. Moreover, and according to results of AlkB based PCR, the association of Brucella abortus with abortion was statistically significant in aborted cows and was not significant in aborted women. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of RBT were calculated as 60.00, 53.85, and 54.55% respectively. Whereas 14.33%was reported as positive predictive value and the negative predictive value was reported as 91.28%. Regarding RBT for aborted cows, the sensitivity test was 81.82% and the specificity was 57.78% in addition to an accuracy of 62.49%. The positive predictive value was reported as 32.08% while the negative predictive value was reported as 92.88%. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was carried out for the evaluation of Interleukin 1 Beta (IL1β) gene expression. The qPCR result was presented as a fold change in gene expression.
       
  • Tracing of Some Salivary immune Elements in Iraqi SARS-2 patients

    • Abstract: Saliva is one of the most significant components in maintaining oral homeostasis and symbiosis; it contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides such as mucins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, Catherine, statins, and antibodies (secretory immunoglobin A, sIgA). Early defenses against respiratory infections rely heavily on mucosal immunity, especially secretory sIgA. It has several features and functions which make it suitable for mucosal defense. Salivary testing has been utilized to define mucosal immune responses to SARS-2 infection. lysozyme has muramidase, with antimicrobial activity, and of high concentrations in body fluids such as saliva, and tear. This research intends to offer an update on how saliva components suppress viral infection and sustain health. A total of 50 (30 SARS-2 patients and 20 non-infected) individuals whose ages ranged between 32 and 54 years were enrolled in this study. Saliva specimens were obtained from PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and non-infected participants. To collect saliva, they were advised to swirl water over their lips three times. 5.0 ml were collected. Samples were centrifuged for 10 minutes at 800 x g.Saliva was diluted at 1:2,000 with 1× Diluent N. The IgA titer in saliva was detected. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the solution's change in absorbance at 550 nm. Measurements (salivary IgA and lysozyme) were made after 7, 30, and 60 days of confirmatory PCR COVID-19 test. The mean salivary IgA levels in patients were 17.85, 15.26, and 10.73 mg/dl after the 7, 30, and 60 days period compared to its values in healthy individuals (9.53, 10.33, and 9.21mg/dl, respectively). Whereas, the salivary lysozyme activity level in SARS-2 patients compared to controls were (9.7, 7.3, and 4.2mg/dl) (2.9, 3.4, and 3.77mg/dl)respectively. The salivary IgA level was significantly higher in patients of a confirmatory test for COVID-19 compared to healthy individuals
       
  • Effect of Bacillus subtilis BSW as a probiotic on productive and
           physiological performance of broilers

    • Abstract: Broiler chickens are reared in relatively dense colonies or flocks under intensive production environments to reach opportunities for financial efficiency. Because of such a plethora of variables which including overcrowding, immunization, transportation, and so on, a serious stress can be produced. The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the productive, and physiological performance of broiler chicks (Rose 308) after adding the liquid probiotic (Bacillus Subtitles) in different concentrations to the diet. A total number of one hundred twenty birds of hatching age (Ross 308) were divided into four groups and each group (3 replicates). The experiment lasted 5 weeks after it commenced. With each repetition consisting of 10 birds, the following four diets were considered: a control group (a regular diet without probiotic) and the probiotic treated groups which were supplemented with different concentrations of B. subtilis BSW equal to (1×104, 1×106, and 1×108 cfu/gm diet) respectively. At the end of the trial, the results indicated a significant (numerically but insignificant) improvement in both live body weight and efficiency of feed conversion when adding different levels of probiotics to the broiler diets. On the other hand, the results showed a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in total serum protein, serum albumin and serum globulin for the treated groups compared to the control group at the age of 5 weeks. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis BSW to the diet of broiler chicken is significantly improved the growth performance compared to the control group. Instead, the treated groups exhibited a substantial increase in total serum protein, serum albumin, and serum globulin as compared to the control group.These finding suggests that the B. subtilis BSW strain possess probiotic properties, recommending it an encouraging candidate for use as a supplement in poultry diets.
       
  • Prevalence of biofilm virulence genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated
           from Urinary Tract Infections and Effect on some Antimicrobial Agents

    • Abstract: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K pneumoniae) is noteworthypathogens and agent to cause of a hospital-acquired infection. K pneumoniae is the first and common causative agent in the community acquired and urinary tract diseases. The aims of this work were to detect common genes i.e. fimA, mrkA, mrkD in isolates of K pneumoniae, which isolated from urine specimens using PCR method. K pneumoniae were isolated from urine specimens in health sectors in Wasit city/Iraq, and diagnosed using API 20E, and 16S rRNA techniques. Microtitre plate (MTP) used to detect biofilm formation. A PCR was used to found some virulence factor genes e.i. fimA, mrkA, and mrkD. A 56 isolates identified as K pneumoniae. The result to detect biofilm, all K pneumoniae isolates showed produce biofilm by MTP, but in different levels. To detect of biofilm genes, PCR method was used, and showed that 49 (87.5%), 26 (46.4%), and 30 (53.6%) of isolates carried fimH, mrkA and mrkD, respectively. Furthermore, susceptibility test for different antibiotics were appeared the following results: resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 11 (19.5), Ceftazidime 13 (22.4%), ofloxacin 16 (28.1%), and tobramycin 27 (48.4%). Also, all K pneumonia isolates were sensitive to Polymyxin B 52 (92.6%), but were 49 (88.3%), 44 (79.4%), 34 (60.5%) with imipenem, meropenem, and amikacin, respectively
       
  • Evaluation of pharmaceutical and microbial safety and reliability of some
           natural pharmaceutical products available in Iraqi markets

    • Abstract: Using of natural pharmaceutical products (NPPs) for treatment or prevention of diseases are continuously increased. The ease of obtaining with out of professional observation and the incorrect popular believe that natural products are completely safe increase the possibility of harmful and toxic effects of such products. In this study, some of widely sold NPPs in Iraqi markets were evaluated for their pharmaceutical and microbial legibility to be consumed by human. The evaluation includes organoleptic properties, foreign matters, loss on drying, water content, total ash, heavy metal tests, aflatoxins, and microbial limit tests. The results revealed that some of evaluated products were contaminated with heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium. Additionally, a pathogenic bacterial growth, Salmonella and E.coli, was detected. A high % of loss on drying and water content were detected in some of the tested products. All the tested samples showed negative results for aflatoxins. Some of the evaluated products were pharmaceutically and/or microbiologically inacceptable and not safe to be consumed by human. A serious and fast actions must be made by the Iraqi drug regulatory authority to issue a more rigorous standards for quality of NPPs with a continuous monitoring and control of marketed NPPs.
       
  • The Significance of Estrogen Hormone and SNPs in The Progression of Breast
           Cancer Among Females

    • Abstract: Breast cancer is one of the most frequent types of women’s malignancies that is internationally recognized as the main reason for cancer-caused mortality. Most breast tumors are heterogeneous and genetically complicated because of the involvement of several genes. Hence, it is clinically important to study the genetic variants that increase the risk of breast cancer. It is identified that the presence of polymorphisms in genes encoding regulatory hormones is linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. Besides, circulating estrogen levels are connected to aromatase genes, which is a recognized risk factor for breast cancer progression. In this paper, we present a review study on the effect of estrogen and its SNPs in the occurrence of breast cancer. The main aim of this review was to find out the connection between CYP19A1 gene variations and breast cancer risk, as well as clinical characteristics and prognosis. Due to the highly special activity of the aromatase enzyme in steroid production, targeted aromatase suppression is a focused medication for breast cancer patients that only has minor adverse effects. Numerous clinical trials over the last decade have shown that AIs not only outperform tamoxifen in terms of effectiveness but also have a lower adverse effect profile. AI is now widely accepted as a routine therapy option for postmenopausal females with ER receptor-positive breast cancer patients. Furthermore, not only dysregulation of gene expression in different genes related to distinguished pathways such as estrogen metabolism is essential in the progression of breast cancer, but also particular single nucleotide polymorphisms in particular genes such as CYP19A1 can play an essential role. Different studies have demonstrated that these SNPs can be located in the different sites of these genes which are collected in this review. In a nutshell, more specific clinical trials are required to demonstrate the precise meditative role of anti-estrogen drugs in the treatment of ER+ breast cancer patients. Besides that, another genotype analysis is needed to confirm the role of SNPs in the progression of breast cancer patients.
       
  • Influence of Serum Level of Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) and
           Interlukin-6(IL-6) as Biomarkers in Patients with Adnexal Mass

    • Abstract: Ovarian carcinoma is one of the most common types of neoplasms in women and the fifth leading cause of cancer death in among women worldwide. Adnexal masses are classified as simple or complicated and can be benign or malignant. There is no single biomarker has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for detecting early Ovarian Cancer. Therefore current study was designed to investigate the influence of using two biomarkers as a tool of diagnosis in patients with Adnexal mass. A prospective case control study was carried out on 50 women, their age ranged from 16 years - 80 years old, who had been attended the surgical room of Basrah Hospitals, through the period from January till July 2021. Fifty patients diagnosed by Ultrasound and MRI with Adnexal masses and scheduled for surgery and from 50 healthy women as a control group. The serum biomarkers levels were quantitatively assessed by using ELISA. The serum concentration of HE4 biomarker exhibited significant differences between women with Adnexal mass and healthy women. There is no significant association neither for the patient’s age nor the menopausal state with serum level of HE4 that had a sensitivity of 92% % and a specificity of 66 % as a serum marker for the presence of Adnexal mass with PPV of 73 % and NPV of 89%. In this study, serum IL6 has a sensitivity of 30% and specificity of 64% in determining patients with Adnexal mass pathology. It was found that the level of IL-6 was similar in all patients as compared to their level at the control group.The median levels of serum HE4 showed high value in patients with age groups (21-40), (41-50) and >50) than in control group but without any statistical difference (P value = 0.413). Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), was the top biomarker representing a higher concentration in Adnexal mass also it demonstrated the highest performance in all samples with Adnexal mass. Our study found that combining more than one marker measurement increased the sensitivity and the specificity of distinguishing patients with Adnexal mass pathology.
       
  • \Non-tuberculous mycobacteria hsp65 in relation to bovine subclinical
           mastitis and IL6 concentration in cow’s milk

    • Abstract: Mastitis is a condition in which the mammary tissue becomes inflamed. Changes in color and the appearance of clots, as well as increases in cell counts in the milk, are all indicators of inflammation. Mastitis is a common occurrence in cows as a result of inframammary (IMI) infections. The goals of this study were to find out how often NTM mastitis occurs and how HP65 affects IL6 concentrations.The findings of the Modified White Side Test (MWT) on 70 cows, 50 sheep, and 30 goats' milk samples revealed that 82.9, 76.7, and 46.7% of cows, sheep, and goats milk samples were positive, respectively. This test showed a range of positive milk samples MWT reactions, and the difference between the current positivity score results was statistically significant (P<0.05).The presence of NTM in analyzed milk samples of cows and sheep was confirmed by hsp65-based PCR and gen sequencing, with significant differences (P<0.05)in milk samples of cows and sheep 50(71.4%) and10 (20%)respectively . PCR detection of the NTM hsp65 gene in faecal samples from cows, sheep, and goats found that cows (80 percent) had the highest proportion of NTM hsp65 gene amplification, followed by goats (70 percent), and sheep faecal samples had the lowest amount (22 percent).The difference among the positive NTM hsp65 based PCR was statistically significant (P<0.05). The phylogenetic tree and sequence analysis of the hsp65 gene revealed two novel variant NTM hsp65 genes that were deposited in Gene Bank ( GenBank acc. LC636294 and LC636295).The current examined NTM Hsp65 Mycobacterium sequences were included into the Mycobacterium avium clade in the currently produced treeELISA detection of IL6 concentration in cow's milk revealed that IL-6 concentration in mastitis milk was varied. The mean of IL-6 concentration in cow's mastitis milk with MWT scores (+++ve) and mean of IL6 concentration in each MWT scores(++ve), MWT scores(+ve), and -ve MWT cow's milk had a high significant difference (P < 0.001).
       
  • A Non-structural Protein of SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavirus) with Potential
           Ability to Reduce Blood Glucose for use in Controlling Type 2 Diabetes
           Mellitus

    • Abstract: It is estimated that more than 400 million people worldwide have diabetes. There are two types of diabetes. In type 1, the cause of the disease is insufficient insulin secretion into the bloodstream, most often due to an autoimmune attack on the pancreas glands. In type 2 diabetes, the cause is the inability of the surface ligands to adsorb the insulin from the bloodstream. The conventional medication for diabetes mellitus includes: sulfonylureas, biguanide, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and meglitinide. By February of 2022, SARS-CoV2 (Coronavirus) has infected more than 391 million people worldwide, causing the deaths of 5.7 million patients and imposing heavy costs on the healthcare system. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of this non-structural SARS-CoV-2 protein in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The nsp10 was structurally aligned with GoDrugBank therapeutic agents and the most similar chemical structure achieved was lixisenatide. This drug is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonist used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Best molecular docking energy score for these two proteins was -301.47 and the ligand root mean square deviation (RMSD) was calculated to be 107.93 Å. The molecular dynamics for the stability of the nsp10 and GLP1R binding in triplicate for 150 ns showed that the nsp10-GLP1R remained bound for more than 80 ns. This study shows the nsp10 protein can be further studied to be used as antidiabetic medication.
       
  • Investigating the behavioral model of suppliers of raw materials for
           biological products with a system dynamics approach (Case study: Razi
           Vaccine and Serum Research Institute)

    • Abstract: The dynamic and variable environment of today's business has created a highly competitive atmosphere; In order for organizations to survive and succeed, they need to provide new and efficient methods in all aspects of their work. Therefore, supply chain management, as one of the effective factors in the quality of performance of the organization, has been an especial area of attention and since the quality of the final product is strongly dependent on the raw materials of the product and the efficiency of the supplier, the suppliers’ proper performance will guarantee the stability of the supply chain. One of the major challenges for managers in a dynamic and uncertain environment is identifying supplier evaluation indicators, and this article tries to provide a reliable approach to this important challenge. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate of behavioral model of suppliers of raw materials for biological products with a system dynamics approach. Accordingly, the reliability and accuracy of the proposed model has been evaluated by several statistical tests. Finally, the performance of this model is shown in the supply chain of Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. The results obtained both in the tests and in the case study, all indicate the ability, reliability and high accuracy of the model in suppliers’ evaluation.
       
  • Wound Healing Amplification by Propolis and Honey Ointment in Healthy and
           Diabetic Rat model; Histopathologic and Morphometric Findings

    • Abstract: Skin wound healing, especially in diabetic patients, has been a major medical challenge for decades. In the meantime, the use of traditional medicine has always been questioned. Propolis ) resins and wax (is one of the most likely solutions to this problem. The goal of the current study was established the animal model for skin wound and diabetic ulcer healing. To this aim, rats were randomly allocated into two healthy and diabetic groups (50mg/kg streptozotocin resulted in diabetes with high BSL to 300mg/dL), which were divided into four subgroups. The 7mm full-thickness skin wounds were created using paunch on abdomen region in 80 Wistar, male rats. In subgroups, the wounds were cleaned by normal 0.9% saline as control subgroup, and dressed with eucerit, 1.5% honey+eucerit, and 3% propolis +1.5% honey+eucerit, once-daily till 14 days on other subgroups, respectively. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after intervention, the wound and area contractions were calculated using digital photographs measurement. The histopathologic and semi-quantitative studies were performed at 7 and 14 days after wounds creation. The microscopic findings demonstrated that the granulation tissue, fibroblasts, re-epithelization, and angiogenesis were increased (p≤0.05) in the subgroups treated by propolis and honey combination in both healthy and diabetic rats, through 7, and 14 days post-injury. Also, lower inflammation and a significant decrease in wound contraction were revealed in the same subgroups on days 3, 5, and 7 in comparison with other subgroups (p≤0.05). The results showed that significant healing quality and acceleration were affected by propolis and honey in comparison with other subgroups on days 3 and 5 (p≤0.05).
       
  • First Report of Massive Myocardial Calcifications in Vervet Monkey
           (Chlorocebus Pygerythrus)

    • Abstract: A 13-years-old male vervet monkey that was kept in primates breeding and research facility at Razi vaccine and serum research institute, Karaj-Iran (RVSRI), suddenly died. Massively scattered grayish-yellow mottling on both ventricles were the most significant gross necropsy findings. There was a gritty feeling on palpation and sectioning of the yellow areas. Microscopically, the lesions demonstrated scattered myocardial cells degeneration and necrosis. Inside the affected areas, large plaques of deposit of calcium was detected by Von kossa staining. The possible justification for development of myocardial calcification (MC) in present case, could be associated with dystrophic calcification following spontaneous myocardial necrosis or resulted from an undetected infection/inflammatory processes. However, persistent anxiety might be a trigger of spontaneous biventricular necrosis and calcification in vervet monkeys. In conclusion, due to similarities in clinical and histological presentation of current case with sudden death syndrome associated with myocardial calcification in humans, it was suggested that vervet monkeys can be a relevant animal model for research on pathophysiological processes of this complication.
       
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpes virus-1 in dairy cattle
           herds in Fars province, Southern Iran: seroprevalence and evaluation of
           risk factors

    • Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) have been known as the major pathogens with significant economic consequences to the cattle industry worldwide, including Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the seroprevalences of BVDV and BHV-1 and their associated risk factors were investigated in dairy cattle farms of Fars province where with 0.4 million head of cattle, mainly crossbred, ranked in the first of cow population in southern Iran. A total number of 420 cattle in 18 herds were randomly selected from three geographical regions (140 samples from each of north, central, and south regions) and their serum samples were analyzed to detect antibodies to these viruses using a commercially available ELISA kit. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate associations between risk factors and the seroprevalence of viruses' risk. The overall seroprevalence for BVDV and BHV-1was 91.67% and 77.87% at herd-level and 55.48% and 39.76% at animal-level, respectively. The only significant factor associated with the seroprevalence of both viruses at the herd-level was the literacy level of farmers (p < 0.05). The significant risk factors for both viruses in cattle were identified as geographical region, age, and breeding method by the univariate analysis (P < 0.05), while sex and farming system were determined as risk factors only for BHV-1 (P < 0.001). A significant association of concurrent infection with BVDV and BHV-1 (φ=0.268, p < 0.001) was recorded and 28.6% of sera had antibodies to both viruses. The present study demonstrated that BVDV and BHV-1 have a wide distribution in dairy cattle herds in southern Iran and point to the need for intensive surveillance and control strategies to reduce the risk of the spread of these viruses.
       
  • Comparative genetic features of complete spike1 gene of six Massachusetts
           (Mass) and variant 2 infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from chicken
           flocks in Iran

    • Abstract: One of the leading causes of respiratory disease problems in chicken and economic loss in poultry industry even in developed countries with good biosecurity practices is infectious bronchitis (IB) disease. Since first isolation of the virus in 1931, a lot of serotype and genotypes of the virus have been reporting around the world. GI-1 lineage including Massachusetts serotype viruses is one of the most distributed types all over the world. GI-23 lineage was reported approximately 20years ago from Middle East with increasing incidence but no or little homologues vaccine use, until recently the genotype was restricted to this region but there is some evidence of its spread to the European countries rising concerns of emerging outbreaks. In the present study we tried to analyzed S1 gene of six Massachusetts and Variant2 genotypes phylogenically which were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder flocks in Iran. Variant 2 viruses were clustered with other reported variant 2 viruses in neighboring countries with more than 98% identity with last Iranian reported variant2 and 3 Mass type viruses were close to Mass type and vaccine viruses, emphasizing circulation of vaccine derived viruses in the field which increases risk of mutation and recombination with field isolates following the emergence of new variants that may not have cross protection with vaccine strains immunity. Considering variable nature of IBVs which few changes lead to important differences, continuous epidemiological surveillances with clinical experiments and full genome evaluation of new isolates are crucial to better understand of their pathogenicity thereafter control of the disease.
       
  • Identification of Burkholderia mallei isolates with PCR-Restriction
           Fragment Length Polymorphism

    • Abstract: The bacterium Burkholderia mallei (B. mallei) is the main cause of glanders as a dangerous contagious zoonosis disease that is mostly seen in monogamous animals, especially in horses. Modern molecular techniques and tools have been recently employed to improve epidemiology for identifying and searching for strains of this bacterium in different times and locations. Due to the unknown number of circulating strains and the lack of prevention of glanders, the disease is still observed in the form of short-term and point epidemics. The aim of this study was to evaluate six clinical isolates, one standard Borkolderia mallei strain and one Burkholderia pseudomallei strain using PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Standard isolates and strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei) were microbially cultured in the glycerol nutrient and glycerol agar media. The individually grown colonies of the bacterium were used in the biochemical tests. The DNA of isolates was extracted by boiling and the PCR-RFLP test was conducted on their genome. Eventually, the bacterium was injected to guinea pigs to induce the Straus reaction. The biochemical assays (or bioassays) confirmed the isolates as B. pseudomallei. The PCR-RFLP assay showed a product for B. mallei with a length of 650 base pairs. However, 250 and 400 base pairs were produced for B. pseudomallei. The swollen scrotum was suggestive of the occurrence of the Straus reaction and bacterial growth in scrotum membranes of guinea pigs. PCR-RFLP is a proper differential diagnosis technique for B. mallei. It is also a suitable method for differentiating B. mallei and B. pseudomallei. This technique detects B. mallei in a short time with high precision and sensitivity.
       
  • Studying the Risk factors of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients with
           diabetes in Al Najaf city /Iraq

    • Abstract: Preliminary findings show an increased risk of COVID-19 caused by acute coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory syndrome in diabetic patients. It has been associated with increased death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycaemia could affect human responses that include inflammatory and immune responses by which prompting patients to serious consequences with COVID-19. This study is aimed at risk factors determination of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus. Total 127 patients with laboratory-approved COVID-19 from Al-Hakeem hospital and Al-Sadar teaching hospital were evaluated. General characteristics, demographic symptoms and laboratory data were gathered to compare between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Chi-square (χ2) test followed by odds ratio calculations was used to determine risk factors related to the hospitalization including intensive care unit and respiratory care unit admitted for COVID-19 patients with diabetic or non-diabetic groups. The analysis of risk factors relationship indicated that increased in age above 65 years, the BMI, the blood pressure, respiratory rate > 24 times per minute, CVD, blood sugar > 180 mg/dl , D-dimer > 1000, ALT > 50 and AST > 40 U/L were the independent risk factors for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (p≤0.05). Exploring and checking these factors might help to detect the danger of COVID-19 patients with diabetes in advance. Risk factors should be given more attention by physicians to discover a targeted intervention to improve clinical effectiveness.
       
  • Pathological and Molecular detection of Mycoplasma ovipneumoneae in Sheep
           of Basrah Province

    • Abstract: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is regarded as the most important reproductive biotechnological approach having great potential to accelerate genetic improvement in ruminant animals and also for the research of embryonic development. The study aimed to show the effect of culture media and the addition of natural and synthetic oxidants on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF), and in vitro embryo culture (IVC) in of Local ewes (Iraq). 304 genital systems of locals ewes were collected from Fallujah slaughterhouse/Fallujah/AL-Anbar province during the period from 3, January to 1, July 2021. The study was conducted on Reproductive Biotechnology Lab. Department of Surgery and Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Fallujah. From 608 ovaries, 1368 Oocytes were recovered which is surrounded with cumulus Cells. Aspiration was the method of collection Oocytes were divided into eight treatments, The first treatment (T1) was MEM + Capparis Spinosa extract 50µmol. The 2nd treatment (T2) was MEM + Silymarin extract 100µmol. The 3rd treatment (T3) was MEM + Coenzyme Q10 5 µmol. The fourth treatment (T4) was MEM only serve as a control. The 5th treatment (T5) Was DMEM + Capparis Spinosa extract 50 µmol. The 6th treatment (T6) was DMEM + silymarin extract 100µmol.The seventh treatment (T7) was DMEM + Coenzyme Q10 5µmol. The 8eth treatment (T8) was DMEM Only and Serve as a control. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05) between T5 (DMEM + Capparis Spinosa extract) and others Control or treated treatments. in the Morula stage and blastocyst stage. It was concluded from this study that cultural media DMEM with Capparis spinosa (as antioxidant) give the best results.
       
  • Investigation of TNFα level and Metallothionein gene expression in
           livers of rats exposed to dietary aluminum

    • Abstract: Aluminum chloride is a chemical compound widely used in both the pharmaceutical and industrial sectors. The goal of this study was to see how aluminum chloride affected TNF levels and metallothionein gene expression in rat livers. Rats have been used as an experimental model in this study, with sixteen Wistar rats distributed into four groups (n=4). The treated groups were received aluminum chloride (Sigma/USA) at a dose of 25g/kg body weight via the stomach tube as follows: group 1: No treated rats as control group, group 2 were treated with aluminum chloride for a period of eight weeks, group 3 were treated with aluminum chloride for a period of twelve weeks, group 4 were treated with aluminum chloride for a period of sixteen weeks. TNF-α was measured in liver tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemistry and real-time (RT) PCR were used to analyze metallothionein gene expression in rat liver. To estimate TNF levels, the results revealed that levels were considerably higher (P˂0.01) in all work groups than in the control group, and also in group (4) of the 16-week treatment period (401± 22.1 ng/ml). For the immunohistochemistry assay, a gradient intensity of staining for liver tissue was observed, ranging from zero staining in the control group to moderate, medium, and high staining in the working groups after 8, 12, and 16 weeks of aluminum chloride treatment, respectively. The greatest amount of methylothionine expression was seen in the livers of group 4 treated with aluminum chloride for 16 weeks (15.5-fold), with a significant difference (P˂0.01) from the other working groups. In both immunohistochemical and RT-PCR experiments, aluminum administration had a substantial influence on TNFα levels and metallothionein expression in rat livers.
       
  • Antimicrobial activity assay of liposomal lipopolysaccharide extracted
           from E.coli

    • Abstract: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterial bacilli known to be negative for the gram dye, and it is part of the normal flora inside the human body. The current study was designed to investigate the possibility of using LPS as an antimicrobial agent. 30 isolates of E.coli were collected from100 specimens of urine isolated from recurrent –urinary tract infections (UTI) patients they came to Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital. The samples were cultured on identification media, then diagnosed according to the phenotypic form and biochemical tests, and finally by VITK-2. The results of the prevalence of E. coli isolates showed that from 30 isolates of E.coli which were collected from 100 urine specimens 14 (46.6%), 6 (20%) and 10 (33.3%) were belong to the urinary tract infections, kidney stones and urinary catheter samples, respectively. The isolates showed multiple drug resistance (MDR) to most of the antibiotics used in the study. So, the lipopolysaccharide extracted from E. coli was used as an antimicrobial agent. The recorded data obtained from the PCR for WaaA, WaaC, wamB and wabG gene showed that the isolates were possessed biosynthesis genes for LPS. The results showed LPS at concentrations of 150, 250, and 500 μg /ml has as an anti-growth agent for Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staph aureus and candida albicans. Highest inhibitory effect was observed on K. pneumonia, P.mirabilis, S. typhi, B. subtilis and C. albicans compared to the control antimicrobials agents (Amoxicillin , Nystatin). LPS loaded on liposome nanoparticle can open new horizons in medicine by including it in the manufacture of broad-spectrum of antibiotics.
       
  • Study of microbial infections and some immunological parameters among
           Covid-19 of ICU patients in Najaf Governorate, Iraq

    • Abstract: The current study was designed to investigate some microbial infections and immunological parameters associated with Covid-19 patients presenting in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Al-Amal Specialized Hospital in AL-Najaf Governorate from February and March of 2021.The study included 50 patients who were divided into two groups: 20 patients aged ≤ 70 years and 30 patients aged ≥70 years. The method of microbial culture was adopted to isolate bacteria and yeasts by collecting sputum specimens and oral swabs from patients and cultivating them on diagnostic media and then confirming the diagnosis with Vitek. Whereas, serum samples were collected from patients’ blood for the purpose of diagnosing fungal infections, and then studying some immunological criteria, which included diagnosing infection with the Corona virus by measuring IgM and IgG by FAIDs and studying the concentration of cytokines (IL-6 and IF ) using ELISA method. The results showed that bacterial species Streptococcus pneumonia 5 (25%), Haemophilus Influenzae 7 (35%), Moraxella catarrhalis 3 (15%) were isolated from the first age group of patients (≤ 70). The recorded data showed that Streptococcus pneumonia 10 (33.3%), Streptococcus pyogenes 5 (16.6%), Streptococcus viridians 1 (3.3%), Haemophilus Influenzae 6 (20%), Mycobacterium tuberclusis 2 (6.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2 (6.6%) were the isolated and identified microorganisms in the second age group (≥ 70). The results revealed that the isolated yeast from the first age group was Candida albicans 5 (25%) and Candida galbrata 3 (10%) while in the second age group 1 (3.3%) Candida albicans was isolated. The study proved that 30% and 10% of patients in the first and second age groups had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) co-infection by detecting Galactomanan (GM) in the blood serum (1.05 ±0.59, 1.25 ±0.38) respectively .The results of measuring some immunological parameters IgM and IgG indicated that (11.42±6.82, 14.84±9.21) and (0.47±6.82, 0.12±0.11) For the first and second age groups respectively .While the results of IL-6 were (146.12±46.35, 133.28±116.94) For the first and second age groups, respectively. The average of IFɤ (98.37±65.70, 110.69±47.60) for the first two age groups respectively. Elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are entered into the ICU
       
  • In vitro evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial activities of
           ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) root fractions and Phytochemical
           analysis by GC/MS

    • Abstract: Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) belongs to the Plantaginaceae family. It has been applied as an herbal plant in traditional medicine throughout the world. The present work was designed to investigate the biologically active substances of P. lanceolata root fractions as well as the cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of extracts. The cytotoxic activity of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n-butanol extracts of P. lanceolata root was evaluated by MTT assay. The P.lanceolata root extracts were also evaluated on gram-positive and negative bacteria by disc diffusion and microtiter broth dilution method. The phytochemical content was also examined by GC/MS. The P.lanceolata root extracts were cytotoxic; IC50 values against HCT-116 at 72 h were 168.553 μg/mL, 167.458 μg/mL, and 205.004 μg/mL for ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n-butanol root extracts, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata root had the highest inhibitory effect against S. paratyphi (14.00±1.0 mm) at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. The minimum MIC and MBC (5 and 15 mg/mL) were observed for dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata root against S. paratyphi. The main composition of ethyl acetate extract was 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (60.93%). The major compositions in dichloromethane and n-butanol extracts were 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid and mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (60.64%); and 1-Butanol, 2-methyl-, (.+/-.)- (17.85%). The findings of the present research showed that P. lanceolata extracts are a significant source of bioactive metabolites. Thus, they can play a prominent role in the production of pharmaceutical material.
       
  • Isolation and Identification of Candida tropicalis as a Cause of Cutaneous
           Candidiasis in Kalar District

    • Abstract: Fungal infections are currently causing health issues all over the world. Candida species are among them, and they cause cutaneous infection. Many dermatological studies concentrated on a single species. However, the virulence factors and spread of specific candidiasis in specific areas remain poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was designed to shed light on Candida tropicalis, which has been identified as the most prevalent yeast among Candida non-albicans species. Forty specimens were collected from patients with cutaneous fungal infection (25 females and 15 males) and examined. According to conventional identification based on macroscopic and microscopic examination, eight isolates were identified as Candida tropicalis from Candida non-albicans. Molecular diagnosis for internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS4) using conventional PCR yielded an amplicon of 520 bp for all isolates. Further investigation of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length (PCR-RFLP) using Mitochondrial sorting protein; Msp1 enzyme revealed two bands of 340 and 180 bp, respectively. The ITS gene sequence in one isolated species was found to be 98 percent identical to Candida tropicalis strain MYA-3404 chromosome R ATCC CP047875.1. Another isolate shared 98.02 percent identity with Candida tropicalis strain MA6 18S ribosomal RNA gene DQ666188.1, indicating C. tropical species identity, implying that non-Candida species should be considered when diagnosing candidiasis. This study demonstrated the significance of CAN, particularly C. tropicalis, in terms of 1) pathogenic potential. 2) The ability to cause potentially fatal systemic infections and candidiasis; and 3) Acquired flucozonal resistance with a high mortality rate.
       
  • Heavy metal resistance ability of pseudomonas sp. Isolated from sludge and
           sewage in Iraq

    • Abstract: It has been well documented that one of the best ways to remediate water and soil heavy metal polution would be the use of microorganisms with ability of heavy metal absorption. The ability of resistance to the toxic and heavy metals has been developed in some bacteria and microorganisms. This study involved testing the heavy metal resistance ability of pseudomonas sp. isolated from sludge and sewage in Iraq. The heavy metals investigated in this study were mercury, copper, nickel and cadmium with a minimal concentration of 50 μg/ml for each heavy metal. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in Iraq. One milliliter of each water sample and one gram of each soils ample were added to test tubes followed by the addition of 9 ml sterilized distilled water. The contents were mixed thoroughly, followed by serial dilutions for each test tube separately. An amount of 100μl aliquots from the appropriate dilution (10-2) were cultured on nutrient agar plates then incubated at 37oC for 18 hours. Different colonies from both water and soil samples were selected and grown on king A and king B media plates to confirm that these types of bacteria belong to the pseudomonas genus. The isolates were identified according to their staining ability, shape, color, size, production of pigments, transparency and mucoid properties of the colonies growing on nutrient agar plate. In addition, some other biochemical tests were done. From the cultured samples several colonies were obtained and selected consequently cultured and purified as a single colony. The preliminary observation and the biochemical identification of these isolates indicated that two of the selected isolates belong to pseudomonas species and they were named Ps-1(M9) and Ps-2(M19). Screening of the bacteria isolates for metal resistance against Cu (II), Hg (II), Cd (II) and Ni (II) was done by the use of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). During the experimant and screening different metal levels were evaluated to choose the best bacterial isolates with ability of normal growth and resistance against the heavy metal toxicity. The recorded data showed that two pseudomonas sp.
       
  • Histological changes in ovary treated with Dexamethasone and Cefotaxime
           sodium

    • Abstract: Dexamethasone (DEX) has been used to treat different conditions such as immune system disorders, certain skin and eye disorders, and breathing problems. The medication of DEX is a corticosteroid hormone (glucocorticoid). Cefotaxime sodium (Claforan) is synthesis from a naturally occurring material (semisynthetic), it is broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic that could be used for parenteral administration. The aim of the current study was to investigate the histological changes occur on tissues and cells in ovary (primordial, primary, secondary, antral and mature follicle) of rats treated with Claforan (Cefotaxime sodium) and dexamethasone, and evaluate the impacts of these drugs on animals’ fertility. 40 of female adult Wistar rats divided in to four groups (n=10). The control group received 0.5 ml/kg distilled water daily for 5 days as placebo. 2nd group has been injected with 0.5 mg/kg/ of dexamethasone daily for five days; same amount of Claforan (0.5 mg/kg) was injected for3rd group, daily for five days, and 4th group was injected with 0.5mg/kg of Claforan and Dexamethasone daily for 5 days. The ovaries were prepared for histological examination. ImageJ image analysis system was used to detect morphometric parameters. Morphometric parameters include area of these organ were calculated. Resultsof present study showed that the dexamethasone and claforan have induces changes in ovarian area and follicles number.The area was significantly (P<0.007) increased, (Mean±SEM 7.3±0.5 mm2) compared to control group (Mean±SEM 4.6±0.20 mm2) following DEX treatment. Furthermore, DEX decreases body weight. Compare to control and DEX treated samples, Claforan, increases area of ovaries (Mean±SEM 8.6±0.6 mm2) with highly significant (P<0.008) and decreasesbodyweight. A combination treatment was emphasizing the result and increase the area of ovaries even more compared to single treatment (Mean±SEM 9.6±0.4 mm2) wit highly significant (P<0.009). Both dexamethasone and claforan have induced histological changes on ovaries. The effect of dexamethasone on ovaries was less than claforan effcets on ovaries. However, using both of them concurrently leads to significant effects on rats' ovary.
       
  • Antimicrobial Effect of Moringa Oleifera L. and Red Pomegranate against
           clinically isolated Porphyromonas gingivalis: In Vitro Study

    • Abstract: Moringa oleifera L. and red pomegranate extracts have been reported to inhibit Gram positive facultative anaerobe growth and inhibit formation of biofilm on tooth surfaces. The aim of the current study was to assess the antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera L., red pomegranate extracts and their combinations against P. gingivalis. The antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) after treatment with the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera L., red pomegranate and their combination against clinically isolated P. gingivalis were determined using agar well diffusion and two-fold serial dilution. The anti - biofilm activity of the extracts and their combination was evaluated using the tube adhesion method. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). P. gingivalis was sensitive to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera L. seeds and red pomegranate albedo, while not to Moringa oleifera L. leaves and red pomegranate seeds. MIC of Moringa oleifera L. seeds, red pomegranate albedo, and their combination were 12.5 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml and 3.12 mg/ml against P. gingivalis respectively. The extract combination had the highest anti-biofilm effect than Moringa oleifera L. seeds and red pomegranate albedo aqueous extracts at minimum concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml respectively. The combination of red pomegranate albedo and Moringa oleifera L. seeds showed superior anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm effects against P. gingivalis, followed by red pomegranate albedo, then Moringa oleifera L. seeds. This may highlights a promising alternative to the traditional chemicals that used as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal diseases.
       
  • Gastroprotective Effect of Capparis Spinosa on Indomethacin induced
           Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    • Abstract: Peptic ulcer is acid induced lesion that is usually found in the stomach and duodenum. It’s usually a case of imbalance between the acid (and other injurious factors) and the mucosal defense mechanisms. Indomethacinisone of the most ulcerogenic drugs that is prescribed over the counter for the management of musculoskeletal problems. Capparisspinosa is one of the most important species in the Capparidaceae family which has a wide range of diversity, Caper (Capparisspinosa L.) is the common member of the genus Capparis (Capparidaceae family). The present study was designed to examine the extract of C. spinosa as gastroprotective agent compared with the indomethacin as induction agent and ranitidine as a standard drug. 40 adult Male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups randomly (n=10), In brief the animals grouping are as follows: Control +: indomatacin treated group; Control -: received physiological saline solution; C.S: treated with C. spinosa; Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as a standard agent for the treatment of the gastric ulcer. After the experimental periods all the animals were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose and their stomach were removed. The gastroprotective effect of C. spinosa had been investigated through studying PGE2, Gastrin, TNF-α and IL1-β along with histopathological examination. The results showed significant increase in PGE2 levels in the treated group with significant reduction in Gastrin, TNF-α and IL1-β. The recorded data obtained from histopathological study showed significant improvement in the treated group with the extract of C. spinosa. The study concluded that C. spinosa has gastroprotective properties possibly through enhancing PGE2 which is acting as anti-inflammatory that inhibited neutrophil infiltration.
       
  • EVALUATION OF IgM AND IgG IN COVID-19 RECOVERED PATIENTS IN IRAQ

    • Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 is a major threat to health care worldwide with high morbidity and mortality, so it is important to understand the immunity mechanism and role of the humoral response in this disease. In this study, follow up Immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG) in COVID-19 recovered patients and correlation antibodies with age, gender and severity. Also how long antibodies level remained and provided protection against re-infection in recovered COVID 19 patients included group 1: 0-14 days after recovery, group 2: 2 months after recovery, group 3: 3 months after recovery, group4: 4-6 months after recovery, group 5: Over 6 months. The nasopharyngeal swab that use to confirm recovery via Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique. IgM and IgG antibody levels were evaluated via Enzyme Linked Immuno Florescent Assay (ELIFA) immunoassay) technique. The results showed that, the IgM levels increased during the seven days after infection to 1 month and then reduced in most patients (p≤0.05). The increased in mean of IgG in group 1, compared with other studied group, significant decrease between groups 2 vs. group1, group 3 vs. group 1, 2. Also a significant differences between groups 4 vs. group 1, 2, 3. Finally significant differences between group 5 vs. group 1, 2, 3, 4 (p≤0.05). Non-significant differences in antibodies level between male, female COVID-19 recovered patients in group 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (p≤0.05). Finally, highly significant differences in IgG level between mild, moderate and severe subgroups in group1 and 2. The present study showed that IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 appeared in the early stages of the disease and the level of IgG antibodies decreased after 1 month and could not maintain high levels during the 6-month observation period.
       
  • The association between atherogenic index, and cholesterol to HDL ratio in
           COVID-19 patients during the initial phase of infection

    • Abstract: In this study, we were looking at pathologic alteration of the levels of Atherogenic index, Cholesterol to HDL ratio, HDL, Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HbA1c, Glucose in COVID-19 patients through the early infection stage. The study was carried out using a case-control model to investigate serum levels of Atherogenic index, Cholesterol to HDL ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Glucose, and HbA1c of 158 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Erbil international hospital between January and May 2020. A group of patients confirmed for SARS-CoV 2 illness at hospital admittance was chosen. The laboratory tests results were compared between this group and a group of healthy individuals (n=158). A statistically significant difference for studied factors with the exception of LDL-cholesterol (P=0.13) was found when comparing healthy controls with COVID-19 patients. In the case of COVID-19 patients, total levels of cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were significantly lower than controlled (P<0.003). triglyceride, VLDL Cholesterol, Atherogenic index, and Total cholesterol to HDL ratio were hound to be significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in control (P<0.005). Atherogenic index were found to be positively correlated with those of Triglyceride (r= 0.88, p=0.00), HbA1C (r= 0.6, p=0.05), Glucose (r= 0.62, p= 0.05), and Cholesterol to HDL ratio ( r=0.64, p= 0.04), In contrast no correlation was founded between Atherogenic index and Cholesterol to HDL ratio in control. The outcomes of current study apparently prove that the risk factor for cardiovascular disease was increased in patients with COV19, by increased atherogenic index, cholesterol to HDL ratio, the high association between atherogenic index, and cholesterol to HDL ratio, as well as to the organization of them in one cluster. So, lipids could perform a vital Physiological function in patients with COV19 infection.
       
  • Chromogenic in situ-hybridization of HPV16/18 DNA in relation to
           over-expressed protein of P73-gene in tissues from a group of thyroid
           carcinoma

    • Abstract: Thyroid cancer has been related to many environmental, genetic, and viral factors. Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) are epitheliotropic viruses infecting cutaneous and mucosal tissues leading to a variety of benign and malignant tumors. P73-gene expresses important 2 isoforms from the N-terminal end with 2 opposite activities in the regulation of cell fate. This study was designed to examine histopathological expression of tissues from thyroid cancers in relation to the over-expression of the p73 gene with HPV 16/18 infection. One hundred-sixteen thyroid tissues examined for HPV 16/18-DNA and P73-gene protein expression. The samples belonged to thirty-six patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma, forty thyroid adenoma tissues blocks, and forty apparently normal thyroid tissues. The detection of HPV 16/18-DNA was done by in situ hybridization (ISH) whereas P73 gene expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). HPV16/18 DNA-ISH reactions in thyroid cancers found in 72.2% tissues, 35% HPV16/18- positivity detected in thyroid adenoma tissues group, and 27.5% of healthy thyroid tissues revealed ISH reactions. Statistically, the difference of the HPV16/18 in thyroid cancers and control was highly significant. Detection of P73 in thyroid cancer tissues found in (66.7%) and in adenoma thyroid tissues group was (57.5%) while (45%) of the examined healthy thyroid tissues revealed IHC-reactions. The statistical difference between the P73-protein expression percentages detected in tissues of thyroid tumors and the control group was non-significant statistically. The presence of HPV16/18, as well as an over-expressed P73-gene, in thyroid cancer patients suggests that the virus, as well as this protein, may play an etiologic role in thyroid carcinogenesis.
       
  • A Prognostic Impact of Interleukin 17 (IL-17) as Immune-marker in Patients
           with Bladder Cancer

    • Abstract: Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide health issue. It is the ninth most prevalent cancer globally, accounting for almost two-thirds of all urinary malignancies. Interleukin 17 (IL17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with pivotal modulatory effects on antitumor immune responses and has been reported to play a particularly important role in the occurrence and development of bladder cancer. This study was designed to measure the quantitative serum and urine levels of IL-17 in the patients suffered from bladder cancer. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 50 diagnosed bladder cancers and from 96 healthy people as a control group. The serum and urine level of IL-17 was evaluated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It has been found that the level of IL-17 was higher in all patients as compared with their level at the control group.These results indicated that this interleukin as an indicator to predict the progression or recurrence of the disease.
       
  • Genetic analysis of alpha-thalassemia mutations in Thi-Gar province - Iraq

    • Abstract: Alpha-thalassemia is an important health problem in the south of Iraq, therefore it requires more investigation and screening of thalassemia patients. This aim of this study to characterize the spectrum of alpha-globin gene mutations in patients who were followed-up in genetic diseases center in Thi-Qar province. Thirty samples were collected from patients with Thalassemia disease 15 samples as control group. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing was performed for functionally regions of the gene (exon 1, and exon 2). The fragment size amplified was 442 bp in the Exon 1 region and 324 bp in the Exon 2 region of A-globin gene. By the molecular analysis of sequence of product of PCR, revealed 13 point mutation within α-thalassemia gene include deletion and substitution mutation, while the rest of mutations were in intron site of gene. These results indicate that mutations may constitute a risk of developing haemophilia B disease. Molecular mechanisms in the expression of globin genes are used to help manage patients with thalassemia.
       
  • Estimate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against the hepatotoxicity
           that induced by Bisphenol A

    • Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound with alterations in liver, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive hormones. The therapeutic potential of Moringa Olifera extract has recently been considered. The objective of current work is estimate the leaf extract of M. oleifera against the hepatotoxicity that induced by bisphenol. 44 adult male rats using in current work and the experience contain the following groups (4 in each group): Rats were administrated (orally) 5 and 10mg/kg BPA and treated (orally) with 100, 200, 300, 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract M. oleifera. After 28 days of challenge, liver enzymes included Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pathological study by using liver tissue sections were determined. The findings showed significant (P≤0.05) increased in aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups of Bisphenol A with different histological changes include sclerosis of bile duct that surrounded by fibrocytes and lymphocytes infiltration. After treatment with M. oleifera, liver enzymes and tissue back to normal state and non-significant (P≤0.05) differences compared with control group. According to the results, it can be concluded that aqueous extract of M. oleifera has a great potential to prevent and improve liver damage of BPA in the liver.
       
  • Assessment of some physiological biomarkers in COVID-19 patients in
           Thi-Qar city, Iraq

    • Abstract: It is believed that there are many biomarkers and factors could linked to the prognosis of COVID-19 disease, so this work aimed to evaluate LDH, D-dimer, vitamin D, and ferritin statuses are associated with prognosis in COVID-19 disease and to study its prevalence according to age, employed status, BMI status, and environment type in a population sample of hospitalized patients in Thi-Qar. In this study, 200 COVID-19 patients and 100 controls were evaluated. Body Mass Index (BMI) of all individuals was calculated. Some information was taken from all participants such as age, living place, and their job. Blood samples were collected and used to estimate D-Diemer, LDH, Vitamin D, Ferritin, O2, and plus rate. The mean age of patients approached the fourth decade, 72% of them were in ˃40 year’s age group, 60% of them were living in the countryside, and 52% of them were employed compared to only 8% students. BMI of patients was (31.44±10.2 kg/m2), 47% of them were obese and 40% were overweight compared to only 12% were normal weight (P˂0.05). While there was a significantly lower Vitamin D level in the patient, the concentrations of LDH, serum ferritin, and D-Dimer were significantly higher in the patients compared to control group (P˂0.05). At last, not only age and body weight but employment state and environment type may be also important risk factors for COVID-19 distribution. LDH, D-dimer, vitamin D, and ferritin statuses could use as good biomarker for this disease and its severity.
       
  • Alpha-Hemoglobin Stabilizing Protein (AHSP) gene polymorphism (rs4499252
           A/G) and association with β-Thalassemia major in Iraqi patients

    • Abstract: Abstract: β-thalassemia major is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin production that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains causing variable degrees of anemia. AHSP protein is a specific alpha globin factor that affects the severity of the disease in patients with beta thalassemia. A recent study was conducted to investigate the polymorphism in AHSP (rs4499252) gene and its association with β-thalassemia in Iraq. Blood samples were obtained from 90 β-thalassemia patients and 60 healthy as a control group in Wasit Center for Hereditary Anemia through the period from August 2020 to January 2021. After DNA extraction from whole blood, to determine the genotype of the AHSP gene, the High-Resolution Melt (HRM) Real-Time PCR were used. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in genotype GG (wild type) of the SNP (rs4499252) in β-thalassemia patients than in the control group, on the other hand, genotype AA was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in β-thalassemia patients than in the control group, while the genotype GA showed non-significant difference (P<0.01) between β-thalassemia patients and the healthy control. The results showed that alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) expression is a biomarker of hemoglobin H (HbH) disease severity and A allele was more frequency in β-thalassemia patient than G allele in β-Thalassemia major in Iraqi patients.
       
  • Serological and Histopathological investigation of Chlamydia abortus in
           aborted Ewes in Wasit, Iraq

    • Abstract: Chlamydia abortus is one of the most important pathogens, which causes a marked economic loss in small ruminants, in particular sheep, worldwide. This study was aimed to detect the prevalence of Chlamydia abortus in sera of aborted ewes in Wasit province using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with investigating the main histopathogical alterations occurred in some organs of dead newborns. Of 180 tested samples by ELISA, 32.22% of evaluated animals were showed positive reaction to IgG antibodies toward C. abortus. Concerning the titers of infection of seropositive ewes, there were significant increases in values of moderate level of antibody titer (55.17%) when compared to mild (32.76%) and severe (12.07%) levels of infection. History data showed that there was significant variation (P<0.05) in existence of seropositive ewes with other field animals. However, significant increases (P<0.05) were reported in seropositive ewes existed with goat 91.38% and cattle 84.48%; while, significant decreases (P<0.05) were observed in positive ewes found with donkey 8.62%, horse 3.45% and camels 0%.For histopathology, the findings of small intestine showed a marked necrosis of intestinal villous, hyperplastic tissues, and necrosis in some mucosal glands; while in liver, there were small ductal proliferation with mild portal fibrosis, necrotic debris and focal areas of hemorrhage in parenchyma. In conclusion, the findings of this study represent the first Iraqi data concerned chlamydial detection in aborted ewes; however, furthermore studies in other regions and animal species are necessary to know actual prevalence of organism and to initiate active measures for control and prevention.
       
  • Detection of aadA1 and aac(3)-1V resistance genes in Acinetobacter
           baumannii

    • Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is gram-negative aerobic bacteria that can be found in different environment such as food which is contain vegetables, meat, fish, also in soil and fresh water. Acinetobacter baumannii has globally considered as opportunistic nosocomial bacteria in the healthcare setting, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. The current study was aimed to detect the aminoglycoside genes in A. baumannii which isolated from different clinical causes. Twenty isolates of A. baumannii were obtained from different clinical cases. Bacterial isolates DNA was extracted by using DNA extraction kit. Quantus Florometer was used to detect the concentration of extracted DNA in order to detect the goodness of samples. 1 μl of DNA and 199 μl of diluted Quanty Flour Dye were mixed. After a period of 5 min incubation at room temperature, DNA concentration values were evaluated. After initial amplification of Acinetobactor baumannii aada1 gene, 20 μl of PCR product with F primer and R primer were sent to Sanger sequencing. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that A. baumannii isolates were resistance to gentamicin (95%), amikacin (90%) and tobramycin (60%). Molecular investigation of (aadA1) and aac (3)-IV genes exhibited that (aadA1) gene was detected in (15%) of isolates. While, aac (3)-IV gene was not detected in any of the isolates. The gel electrophoresis revealed that the molecular weight of (aadA1) gene was 490bp. The DNA sequence of aadA1 gene was done in this study, and the results exhibited that there were no mutations in all isolates.
       
  • Evaluation of the Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Laurus Nobilis Leaves on
           Blood Biochemical parameters and Histological changes in Liver and Kidney
           in Female Wistar Rats Treated with Depakene (Sodium Valproate)

    • Abstract: Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of Laurus nobilis (Bay leaves) alcoholic extract on glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea levels and to examine the histological changes induced in the liver and kidney in female albino rats terated with Depakene (Sodium Valproate). The Laurus Nobilis leaves were dried in the shade then grinded in a mechanical processing. The resulting substance (250 gm) was processed in 70 percent ethanol for 24 hours using a Soxhlet extractor at 45°C. Before being measured, the extract was concentrated in vacuo before being stored in a vacuum desiccatorto eliminate all of the solvent. Twenty female adult Wistar rats (230-250 g) bred in the Animal House Lab at the University of Kufa's Faculty of Education for Girls, Iraq. These animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5) and housed in a typical laboratory setting and given a standard diet and water. Each animal was recived the treatments intraperitonealy for 30 days. The experimental groups were designed as follows; Group 1) The control group which was given only physiologcal saline solution. Group 2) The second group was recived Alcoholic extract of Laurus Nobilis L. leaves at a a dose of 150 mg/kg BW. Group 3) The thierd group was recived Depakene (sodium valproate) at a dose of 500 mg/kg BW. Group 4) The fourth group was recived Alcoholic extract + Depakene at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW and 500 mg/kg BW, respectively. The animal were euthanized after anaesthesia in a period of 24 h after the last day of experiment. Heart blood samples were gathered in gel tubes, the serum was then centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm to extract serum for the measurement of biochemical parameter levels, which included (glucose, HbA1C, ALT, AST, creatinine and urea). The liver and kidney organs were removed and placed in a 10% formaldehyde solution instantly.Following fixation, they were processed as usual before being embedded in paraffin for histological analysis.
       
  • Serological and Histological Estimation of the Effect of Honeybee Venom on
           Pancreas and Liver in Diabetic Mice

    • Abstract: Natural toxins have been traditionally used to trigger several diseases and honeybee venom (HBV) is of great importance in this regard. The aim of the current study was to estimate therapeutic effects of honeybee venom (HBV) on alloxan and glucose fluid induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, a total 20 adult laboratory male mice (Mus musculus) were selected, acclimated, and divided into four equal groups (n=5). Initially, 15 mice were fasted for 12 hours, and injected with alloxan at a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The animals were exposed to drink the glucose fluid at morning for 4 days. Then, the blood glucose was measured. The study animals having blood glucose of 200 mg/dl were considered non-diabetic and re-subjected for injecting alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight), drinking glucose fluid for additional 4 days. Group 1: animals in the control group were neither diabetic nor treated with HBV, Group 2: the animals in this group were diabetic and they were not received HBV as the potential therapeutic agent. Group 3: the animals in this group were diabetic and they were received low-HBV at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg HBV. Group 4: the animals in this group were diabetic and they were received high-HBV at a dose of 1 mg/kg HBV. At the end of experiment period which were lasts for 35 days, the blood samples were tested to determine the levels of insulin, glucose and lipid profile [cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] using specific sandwich ELISA kits. The study finding showed a significant increased in blood glucose in diabetic group compared to control, whereas both concentrations of HBV significantly reduced the level of blood glucose compared to diabetic group. Furthermore, the level of insulin was significantly decreased in diabetic group compared to control, while HBV significantly elevated the level of insulin compared to diabetic group. Moreover, the diabetic mice exhibited significant elevation in the concentration of cholesterol and TG compared to control mice, and these elevations were significantly reversed in response to HBV treatment.
       
  • Dogs Limb Gait Score of Femurs Fracture Fixated by Intramedullary Pinning

    • Abstract: Animal’s attitude with Limb gait and body weight bearing in dogs can be evaluated by limb gait score. In this study 9 adults male dogs of local breed were used to induced a complete transverse femoral mid shift fracture and fixed internally by intramedullary pining under general anesthesia with high aseptic technique which followed for 60 day post operation (P.O.). The data were analyzed, which includes 5 degree levels that indicate the correlation between animal posture, limbs and body weight tolerance per day. The results showed thatgrade5the animals completely hold the affected limb during standing position 1st- 3rd day P.O. from 4th-10th day P.O. grade4in which the animals support the body weight on the affected limb in the standing position and hold it during waking, from 11th- 21th day P.O. grade 3, the operated animals support body weight on the affected limb in slowly waking and hold it in speed waking and running, from 22nd- 28th day P.O. grade2 the animal can used the limb in speed walking, from 29th-35th day P.O. grade1 the animals can use the limb in running, from 36th -42nd day P.O. grade 0 in which the animals use the limb normally in walking running jumping, which remain until the end of experimental periods( 60 day P.O.). The results indicate that, limb gait score can be used in dogs, for evaluation and study the relationships between animals' attitude, limb gait and body weight bearing per days during bone regeneration processing of femur fracture fixed by intramedullary pining.
       
  • Extra-gastroduodenal manifestation and Helicobacter pylori infection

    • Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is known as a Gram-negative bacteria. It preferred to selectively colonize in the gastric epithelium. The infiltration of neutrophilic and mononuclear cells in the antrum and corpus mucosa is one of the consequences of acute and chronic gastritis colonization with H. pylori. This chronic active gastritis is the primary condition related to H. pylori colonization, and other H. pylori-associated disorders in particular result from this chronic inflammatory process. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori infection and extra-gastroduodenal manifestations such as iron deficiency anemia, chronic spontaneous urticarial, diabetes mellitus, and celiac diseases with low ferritin levels. The number of the patient's group was 235. The patients were aged 3 to 75 years. Selected eligible patients subjected to examination by non-invasive methods using stool antigen test and urea breath test. The H. pylori antigen rapid test cassette (feces) used in this study for the qualitative detection of H. pylori antigens in human feces specimens. In the present study, 183 (71.8%) patients showed a positive result for H. pylori which had been detected by stool antigen test, 106 (57.9%) were female and 77 (42.1%) were male. The recorded data showed that the rate of Iron deficiency anemia was 92(50.3%), diabetes mellitus was 62 (33.9%), and 25 (13.7%) had celiac diseases with different gastric manifestation. Findings of the present study revealed that Helicobacter pylori are more prevalent in females than males. On the other hand the results revealed that the diagnostic potential of the 14C UBT method was higher and accurate than the stool antigen assay.
       
  • DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF CAMEL POXVIRUS IN WASIT PROVINCE, IRAQ

    • Abstract: Camels are susceptible to a variety of infectious diseases that affecting other farm animal species such as trypanosomiasis, anthrax, hemorrhagic septicemia, brucellosis, mange, and pox. Camelpox is one of the most infectious skin diseases, which caused by Camelpox virus, a member of Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) genus in the Poxviridae family. The main objective of this article was to detect and isolate camel poxvirus that affects camels in Wasit province, Iraq. Initially, the study was focused principally on the clinical manifestations of the disease on affected animals. Then, 110 skin samples were collected from the infected animals under strict aseptic conditions, to be subjected for inoculation into the local embryonated chicken eggs to isolate the virus from the chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. Finally, the isolates were confirmed using the molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. On corioallantoic membrane (CAM), the poxvirus isolates were appeared as several necrotic pock lesions with existence of cell clustering and sloughing or detachment from monolayer. Molecular testing demonstrated that all the investigated isolates were poxvirus positive using the PCR assay through targeting the ATIP gene at 881bp. In conclusion, the recorded data revealed that poxvirus disease is significantly endemic in Wasit province, and the virus is highly adaptable to replicate in CAM and cell culture through visualization of the characteristic features of the virus.
       
  • Vitamin D level and its Relation with Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Neuropathy
           in Women with Hypothyroidism

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy has an important role in the kidneys function to work of removing extra fluid and waste products from body. One of the important factors to avoid this disease is the treatment of some diseases such as diabetes, thyroid gland diseasesand high blood pressure in addition to the main factor is healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to find a direct relationship between thyroid hormone, blood biochemical parameter and anthropometric measurement withnewly diagnosed diabetic neuropathy women with hypothyroidism. 90 women in tow groups included: forty fife (45) Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Neuropathy in Women with Hypothyroidism and (45) healthy women as controlgroup, with age ranged (35- 55) years were compared and evaluated.Parameter such as Serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and 1, 25 -Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (DHVD3) activities also, Anthropometric measurement, FBS, HbA1C, urea, creatinine, lipidprofile were determined.The results showed a significant increasing compared with control group in BMI, blood pressure, TSH, FSB, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, TG in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Neuropathy in Women with Hypothyroidism(p≤ 0.05).It could also be observed a significant decrease compared with control group in HDL-c , 1, 25 -Dihydroxy vitamin D3 (DHVD3) ,TT3and TT4(p≤ 0.05).In correlation between vit D3 deficiency with thyroid dysfunction andnewly diagnosed diabetic neuropathy women which indicated vit D3 deficiency related withthyroid dysfunction, as an influencing factor onnewly diagnosed diabetic neuropathy in women.
       
  • Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iraqi hospitals

    • Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are often multi-drug resistant, resulting in a high rate of treatment failure. This study aims to identify the antibiotics resistance profile and molecular characteristics of MRSA strains isolated from patients' samples including skin, wound, and burns, which are the most common infections and acquired from hospitals. The samples included 34 MRSA isolates, were gathered in the period between January 2020 and September 2020. All isolates were tested using the Kirby-Bauer method to determine MRSA susceptibility against antibiotics using the MIC Protocol and the E-test. PCR was used for the detection antibiotic resistance genes, including; tetracycline, erythromycin, linezolid, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, clindamycin, and mecA.SCCmec was determined by MLST of all isolates, although the findings indicated that linezolid, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Rifampin, Daptomycin, and vancomycin sensitivity differed. Moreover, multidrug resistance of MRSA was shown to be more than 90% and 100% for penicillin and 91.1 percent for erythromycin. SCCmec III was discovered to be resistant to at least four to five different antibiotics. ST585 (2.9%), ST240 (8.8%), ST45 (14.7%), ST22 (17.6%), and ST239 (higher rate) were the five sequence types found in STs (55.8%). Finally, it is displayed that the emergence of MRSA in these Iraqi hospitals need further research to better understand how the infection may be effectively controlled.
       
  • Influence of Eggshell Nanoparticles on the Healing of the Bone Fracture

    • Abstract: Eggshell waste considers as the most abundant waste material originating from food processing technologies. Notwithstanding the freakish features that its components possess, it is very often discarded without further application. Nowadays most researchers are focusing their research on pollution-free environment, biodegradable character, and balanced ecological aspects while fabricating the composite materials rather than mechanical strengths, costs, processing methodologies, etc. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of the eggshell nanoparticles on the enhanced treatment of a bone fracture. Were the results worthy of attention' 10 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits with an average body weight of 3kg and 4 months old age were used in this study. The animals were kept in an open place. All these ten rabbits had a fracture by making a surgical operation includes opening and exclusion of the muscle and anther tissue follow by cutting the bone by a special small saw. After the operational step, the experimental animals were grouped into two groups (n=5). Meanwhile, they check the fracture by X-ray. The negative control group was left without treatment but was given 0.2 mL intraperitoneal saline injection weekly; experimental groups were treated with CaCO3-NPs 200 mg/kg, the treatment period lasted for 4 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at the end of the study period to collect organs for histological studies. Through the results of the radiographic examination before treatment with calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) and after treatment, the recorded data showed the speed of healing in the group treated with CaCO3-NPs compared to the control group. As for the histological study that was carried out on the vital organs like the liver, kidneys, heart, and lung, no side effects appeared when comparing the treatment group with the control group, except for some slight changes. In conclusion from the recorded in the current study it was approved that CaCO3-NPs has a beneficial effect on the speed of fracture recovery.
       
  • The Prognostic Value of Admission-To-Discharge Change in Integral
           Congestion Assessment for Predicting Adverse Outcomes in Patients with
           Decompensated Heart Failure

    • Abstract: Background: This study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of relative change from admission to discharge (Δ %) of integrated congestion assessment to predict adverse outcomes in patients with irreversible heart failure during one year of follow-up.Materials and methods: The study included 122 patients (60% males, median age of 69 years) with decompensated heart failure. Most of the patients (92%) had a history of arterial hypertension, 53.3% had coronary heart disease, and 40.2% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent the following assessments: NT-proBNP, lung ultrasound (B-line score), liver stiffness by transient elastography, resistance and reactance by bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA). The assessments were performed at admission and discharge, and a relative change from admission (delta percentage, Δ %) was calculated. Long-term clinical outcomes were assessed by a structured telephone interview 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. The endpoint combined all-cause mortality and readmission rate. The cut-offs for the occurrence of the endpoint events were Δ% NT-proBNP: ≥-25, Δ% liver stiffness: ≥-44, Δ% B-line score on lung ultrasound ≥-73, Δ% BIVA resistance ≤18, and Δ% BIVA reactance ≤40.Results: Fifty-five percent of endpoint events, including 22 (18%) deaths and 33 (27%) readmissions, occurred within a median of 74 days (IQR: 33-147). Patients with an endpoint event had significantly worse values of all studied parameters in contrast to patients without it. There was significant direct association of Δ% NT-proBNP with Δ% B-lines (r=0.18; p=0.04) and a highly reliable inverse association of Δ% liver stiffness with Δ% BIVA reactance (r=-0.4; p<0.001). No significant associations were found between the other parameters. Univariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated the independent prognostic value of all congestion markers under study (NT-proBNP, LUS B-lines, liver stiffness, and BIVA reactance) for predicting the combined endpoint. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed the independent prognostic value in predicting the risk of endpoint event for the following parameters: NT-proBNP (HR 2.5, p=0.001), liver stiffness (HR 2.3, p=0.012), Lung US B-line score (HR 2.2, p=0.008). However, it did not find any significant prognostic value of BIVA resistance and reactance.
       
  • Effect of Daily Rhythms of Cortisol Secretion on the Rate of Aging in Men

    • Abstract: The phenomenon of human aging is the result of a complex interaction between several factors in which our immune system plays a key role. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal gland that has a specific secretion pattern. The current study was aimed to identify the cause and pathogenesis of premature aging using biological markers. This study was performed based on the results of clinical and instrumental examination on 91 middle-aged men aged 45-59 years. VaseraVS-1500 sphygmomanometer based on standard methods was used to measure biological age. The relationship between biological age and circadian rhythms of cortisol secretion was calculated to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of aging development. The recorded data showed that the violation of the circadian rhythms of cortisol secretion characterized by a consistently high level of the hormone throughout the day is typical among individuals with accelerated types of aging. Based on the obtained data, a formula for determining the biological age of the studied groups of patients was prepared by considering the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion, which can be an additional tool for early detection of aging in men.
       
  • Prevention of cognitive frailty in patients of older age groups after open
           heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass

    • Abstract: Acute change in mental state is characterized by the impaired level of consciousness, decreased attention, and cognitive changes, and has a variable course throughout its period. Delirium is common in the elderly and hospitalized patients, especially after major surgery, and increases mortality and morbidity in patients. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of delirium after heart surgery and some intrusive factors during surgery. A total of 263 middle-aged, elderly, and chronic patients with functional class III-IV heart failure were classified based on NYHA and valvular heart disease. Cognitive impairment screening was performed using Mini-Cog test and clock drawing test in addition to standard general clinical examination on patients. In patients with coronary heart disease preparing for planned surgical treatment, regardless of age, we diagnosed cognitive impairment, while the results of both tests were significantly worse in elderly patients than in middle-aged patients. In the early postoperative period both among middle-aged and elderly patients there was a significant improvement in the results of the clock drawing test. Middle-age patients also showed improved results on the Mini-Cog test, while elderly patients showed an increase in cognitive dysfunction. On the third stage of the examination of cognitive function in the two studied groups of patients with valvular pathology at the first checkpoint, no statistically significant differences were found in the MMSE, Mini-Cog, and clock drawing test. The clock drawing test in the main, and control groups were recorded at 8.9±0.4 and 5.8±0.3 points, respectively (P<0.05). The MMSE was estimated in the main and control groups at the points of 27.1±0.1and 24.1±0.2, while the Mini Kong test was estimated 2.2±0.2 and 1.2±0.4 words in the main and control group, respectively (p<0.05). Using the algorithm for the prevention of cognitive frailty in patients of older age groups after open-heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass, it is possible to achieve a decrease in the number of early and late postoperative complications, which shows the necessity to use it in patients of older age groups in multimodal programs for preparation for surgical interventions.
       
  • Correlation between Serum Vitamin D and Calcium Levels in Missed
           Miscarriage

    • Abstract: Pregnancy considered as a physiological stress, whereby a woman’s normal static metabolism becomes dynamic anabolism and changes in biochemical factors during this period are significant. The aim of this study is to carry out an assessment of the relationship between serum vitamin D and calcium levels in a pregnant woman with missed miscarriage. A comparison done among 160 women included 80 of them had missed miscarriage and 80 pregnant women (as control group) in the first and second trimester of pregnancy (before the end of the 24th week of the pregnancy). In comparison normal pregnancy with the cases of missed miscarriage, there was insignificant alteration in serum calcium, while there was significant reduction in serum vitamin D (p≤ 0.05). The results also showed that, in comparison with normal controls, there was significant increase in the ratio of Serum Ca/Vitamin D ratio in cases of missed miscarriage (p≤ 0.05). Based on the results of the study, examine the health aspect it can concluded that the estimation of serum vitamin D and Ca/Vitamin D ratio is certain pregnancies can be considered as a valuable parameter in prediction of missed miscarriage.
       
  • Molecular study of urease ureR gene of Proteus mirabilis isolated from
           Urinary tract infections, in Najaf, Iraq

    • Abstract: Proteus mirabilis, considered as one of the causative pathogens which lead to the complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Proteus mirabilis produces urease. The urease plays a key role as a virulence factor for Proteus mirabilis. UreR, a member of the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators, positively activates expression of the ure gene cluster in the presence of urea. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the contribution of UreR to urease activity and virulence in the urinary tract infection. A total of 74 clinical samples were collected during the trial period, which ran from August to December 2020. The urine samples were taken from persons who had parasitic infections in their urinary tracts. After cultivating on MacConkey agar the initial identification was done based on traditional methods with the automated VITEK-2 compact method. By stabbing and streaking, bacterial isolates were inoculated into a slant of urease agar, which were then incubated at 37°C for 24-48 hours. PCR technique was used to detect the P.mirabilis ureR gene. The results of biochemical studies were utilized to confirm the identification of P. mirabilis isolates that had previously been made. The isolates all had the same oxidase-negative and catalase-positive properties. The isolates all had the same oxidase-negative and catalase-positive properties. They were motile, methyl red, and uric acid, catalase, citrate, and urease positive. The expression of the ureR gene in fifteen isolates of P. mirabilis was studied, with the results suggesting that only 14 (93.3%) of the isolates produced ureR gene products using unique primers.
       
  • Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid
           peroxidation level that associated with liver enzymes in patients with
           fascioliasis

    • Abstract: Fascioliasis is caused by infection with Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica which is a zoonotic disease with a global distribution. The purpose of this comparative study is to investigate into antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative status of chronic fascioliasis patients. In this study, 20 patients were compared to ten controls and the enzyme SOD [superoxide dismutase], MDA [malondialdehyde], GPX [glutathione peroxidase] and CAT [catalase] ALT and AST levels were evaluated. The results showed that MDA, CAT, AST, and ALT levels are higher than in patients than in controls, while SOD and GPX levels are higher in control group than in patients (p≤ 0.05). The positive correlation between the enzyme MDA and SOD, GPX in infected group. The enzyme SOD, had an indirect correlation with CAT and a direct correlation with GPX. The positive correlation between ALT and AST was shown to be extremely significant (p≤ 0.05). Significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes and increase in serum lipid peroxidation in the red blood cells of a patient with fascioliasis indicate the presence of oxidative stress, which indicates inflammation and oxidative stress, the pathogenesis of which then indicates the stage of infection.
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.200.74.241
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-