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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 315)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 7)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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ISSN (Print) 2088-4559 - ISSN (Online) 2477-0256
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  • Molecular docking study and molecular dynamics simulation of spice

    • Authors: Purwaniati Purwaniati, Asep Roni
      First page: 1
      Abstract: COVID-19 is still a global pandemic. The transmission is very fast and wide. Its prevalence continues to increase. There is no specific antiviral drug for SARS CoV 2 yet. This study aims to find lead compounds from compounds derived from spices that can work as multitarget SARS CoV-2 antivirals. The target of drug action chosen in this study is the main protease enzyme and non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) macrodomain. Antiviral compounds that work on both targets are expected to be more potent. This antivirus will work to inhibit virus replication through main protease inhibition and increase innate immunity through NSP3 macrodomain inhibition. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation were chosen as the methods in this study. Based on the results of molecular docking, it was found that the compound of dauricine, tomentin A, daurisoline, xhantoangelol, rutin and myricetin gave good affinity to both targets. These compounds provide an inhibition constant below 10000 nM or 10 micromolar. Meanwhile, in the molecular dynamics simulation test, it was found that dauricine, rutin, myricetin, and xhantoangelol have good interaction stability with both targets. So from this study, it can be concluded that dauricine, rutin, myricetin and xhantoangelol are potential compounds as lead compounds for SARS CoV-2 antivirals that act on the main protease and the NSP3 macrodomain.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21501
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • In vitro study of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of
           Phyllanthaceae and Rubiaceae plant families from Simeuleu Island, Aceh,

    • Authors: Marlin Megalestin Raunsai, Ahmad Fathoni, Andria Agusta
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Plants are still the preferred solution to solve several of the main problems the world is facing today, such as antibiotic resistance and free radicals. The plant chemical compounds have the potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. Therefore, four plants representing Phyllantaceae family (Glochidion varians Miq., Glochidion zeylanicum (Gaertn.) A.Juss) and two plants from Rubiaceae family (Uncaria lanosa var. glabrata, and Uncaria cordata (Lour.) Merr.)  were collected from Simeulue island, Aceh. We obtained 32 extracts from several plants with various solvents, such as hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The methods applied to investigate antibacterial activities were Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Meanwhile, TLC and Microdilution Assay were utilized to analyze antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The result of antibacterial activity shows 32 extracts displayed very strong to weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Among all extracts, methanol extracts of G. varians (stem and leaf), methanol extracts of G. zeylanicum (stem and leaf), methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of U. cordata (leaf), and ethyl acetate extract of G. varians (leaf) indicate potent antioxidant activity with the range of antioxidant activity index (AAI) values of 2.16 -11.73. Furthermore, all extracts exhibit moderate to weak antibacterial evaluation. The methanol extract of G. varians stem has the highest MIC value of 128 µg/ml against S. aureus. The methanol extracts of G. varians stem and leaf and methanol extract of G. zeylanicum leaf against E. coli have MIC value of 256 µg/ml, whereas other extracts have >256 µg/ml MIC value. To sum up, four plants from Phylantaceae and Rubiaceae families have the potential to be expanded as antioxidant agents rather than antibacterial agents.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21572
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inulin determination of yam bean tuber (Pacyrrhizus erosus l.) water
           extract from different altitude areas using TLC- Densitometry

    • Authors: Yuni Retnaningtyas, Lestyo Wulandari, Mariska Wimala
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Inulin is a polysaccharide with a lot of potential in the field of food and pharmaceuticals. Inulin can be found in yam bean tuber. Chemical constituents of yam bean tuber are inulin, pachyrion, and rotenone. The levels of inulin could be influenced by differences in the altitude of the cultivation area. The objective of this study was to determine the inulin of yam bean tuber extract from several areas in East Java based on the altitude difference, they are low (Gresik), middle (Kediri), and high (Malang), using validated TLC Densitometry method. The samples were extracted by the infusion method. The samples were put to silica gel TLC plates and developed using ascending chromatography with a mobile phase of 0.5:7:2 glacial acetic acid: methanol:  deionized water.  Densitometry at 380 nm was used to assess the intensity of inulin spots dipped in Aniline: diphenylamine: phosphoric acid (5:5:1), and winCATS software version 1.3.0 was used to quantify the results. A standard curve  meets the requirement of linearity (r=0.997; Vxo=3.847%), sensitivity (LOD=71.030 ng/spot, and LOQ=236.766 ng/spot), selectivity and specificity, Precision (RSD≤2.754 %), and accurate (% recovery ± RSD = 100.161 ± 1.839%). The results showed that the inulin content in yam tubers produced by areas with different altitudes had different inulin levels. The levels of inulin derived from the low altitude (Gresik) was 9.066 ± 1.218 %, middle (Kediri) was 7.776 ± 0.420 %, and high (Malang) was 6.796 ± 2.045 %. One-Way ANOVA test showed the significant difference between the levels of inulin from different altitude areas (p < 0.01), the highest inulin level comes from yam bean tuber from low altitude. 
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21830
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The cholesterol-lowering activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. leaves ethyl
           acetate fraction in hypercholesterolemic model

    • Authors: Rahmad Abdillah, Fitra Fauziah, Putri Putri Lestari, Fitri Rachmaini
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Averrhoa bilimbi L. is used widely as spices and traditional medicine, which contained several chemical compounds such as alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin. The aim of this study is to discover the best dose of ethyl acetate fraction from A.bilimbi leaves, which have pharmacology activity on total cholesterol and triglycerides in the hypercholesterolemic model. Thirty adult male white mice were divided into six groups; each group was containing five animals. Five groups were given high-fat diet foods and PTU induced the animals to obtain hypercholesterolemia with a frequency of 1 time a day orally for 14 days, while the normal group was given vehicle (Na CMC 5%) and standard feed. On the 15th day the normal group was given vehicle (Na CMC 5%), negative control group was given high-fat feed, positive control group was given atorvastatin dose 0.26 mg/kg BW, and another group was given ethyl acetate fraction of A.bilimbi leaves dose 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg BW orally. All animal were treated until the 28th day. On day 29, the bloods were taken to determine the total cholesterol and trygliceride levels using clinical photometer 5010 v5+. The data was statistically analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by the Duncan Multiple Range Test.. This study indicates that administration of ethyl acetate fraction from A.bilimbi leaves can affect the total cholesterol levels and triglycerides in hypercholesterolemic mice (P<0.05). Ethyl acetate fraction dose 200 mg/kg BW shows the best activity in decreasing total cholesterol levels and triglycerides on mice hypercholesterolemic model (P<0.05).
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.19667
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anredera cordifolia leaves extract accelerates the wound healing of normal
           and hyperglycemic rats

    • Authors: Gembira Arkemo Situmorang, Zulham Yamamoto, M. Ichwan, Bambang Prayugo
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Anredera cordifolia ((Madeira vein (English) or Binahong (Indonesia language)) leaves contain ingredients that promote wound healing. This study aims to determine the effect of Madeira vein leaves ethanolic extract (MLE) on normal and hyperglycemic rat wounds. This is an experimental study using male Wistar rats aged 2-3 months, body weight between 250-300 grams induced by a single injection of streptozotocin dose 60 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Rats were divided into 8 groups namely normal without MLE, normal with MLE 2.5% w/v, normal with MLE 5% w/v, normal with MLE 10% w/v, hyperglycemia without MLE, hyperglycemia with MLE 2.5% w/v, hyperglycemia with MLE 5% w/v and hyperglycemia with MLE 10% w/v. Punch biopsy was used to create wounds on the skin of rats with a diameter of 8 mm after the blood glucose level measurement was higher than 200 mg/dL. MLE is applied 3 times a day for 14 days on the wounds. Wound contractions occurred in line with the length of treatment days. In normal skin, the area of the wound had decreased by 22% within three days and to 76% at 14 days after wound creation. On the 14th day of treatment, the wound area of hyperglycemic rats decreased > 60%. The largest wound contraction was found when using MLE 10% w/v. Increasing the MLE dose stimulated better wound contraction/healing than control wounds. Wound healing involves many types and products of cells. Starting with hemostasis, wound healing is followed by inflammatory and proliferative phases to form new tissue, angiogenesis, and matrix formation. The MLE content is beneficial for wound healing in normal and hyperglycemic rats. MLE plays a role in accelerating wound healing in normal and hyperglycemic rats. The MLE dose of 10% w/v provides faster wound healing than the 2.5% and 5% w/v doses.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21218
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Description of antibiotic therapy of hospitalized-community-acquired
           pneumonia in PKU Muhammadiyah Gamping hospital

    • Authors: Joko Sudibyo, Akrom Akrom
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Background and Purpose: Long-term administration of IV antibiotics risks increasing treatment costs and patient morbidity, but until now, intravenous (IV) antibiotics are still the most comprehensive choice in treating community pneumonia inpatients in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of antibiotics and duration of AB replacement from IV administration to oral administration (P.O) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients at PKU Muhammadiyah Gamping Hospital (PMGH). Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected prospectively by purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria were hospitalized patients with CAP who received AB IV therapy for 24-72 hours. Patients with lung cancer or sepsis were excluded. Data were collected from medical records, laboratory examination records, and drug administration. Data were analyzed univariately. Results: 38 patients according to the criteria with a mean age of 59.8 ± 12.7 years; most were male (55.3%) and comorbid with heart failure (13.2%). The mean length of hospitalization was 4.9 ± 1.6 days. Most of the patients received Cephalosporins antibiotic group, either given IV (89.5%) or P.O. (78.1%); the rest received the quinolone group. The mean time of changing AB from IV to oral administration was 134.25 ± 15.98 hours. Conclusion: Most inpatient CAP patients at PMGH received a cephalosporins group, either IV or orally.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.17034
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Implementation of pharmacy delivery services in the era of digital and
           pandemic Covid-19

    • Authors: Dewi Gulyla Hari, Yasinda Oktariza, Ayu Rahmawati
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on changes in people's behavior which currently prefer online ordering in order to implement social distancing and physical distancing. This study aims to see the behavior of pharmacy customers in using delivery services during the pandemic and strategies that can be used to attract customers to return to using delivery service. This study is an observational analytic study conducted at CV. Apotek Keluarga in the period October-December 2020. A total of 149 respondents were involved in this study. Customer behavior was observed by collecting information from customers as well as profiles of requests for delivery services from January to August 2020. Analysis of strategies to attract customer interest in shopping again at the pharmacy was carried out by looking at the correlation of the factors that influence the intention to return through distributing questionnaires. The demand profile for delivery services shows an increase in demand during pandemic in March 2020 from 22.92% to 94.35%. The results of the bivariate analysis show that there is a significant correlation on each variable score for trust, checkout satisfaction, after-delivery satisfaction, and price perception on the intention to return. The results of the multivariate analysis show that the variables, independently correlated with intention to return were trust variables with a weak positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.210), after-delivery satisfaction with sufficient positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.306), and price perception with sufficient positive correlation coefficient (0.434). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the application of delivery services at pharmacies has the opportunity to be applied during the Covid-19 pandemic period as well as after the pandemic. Pharmacies need to build trust, satisfaction, and good price perceptions for customers to attract customers to return to using home delivery at pharmacies.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.20127
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Models for predicting the quality of life domains on the general
           population through the orange data mining approach

    • Authors: Bustanul Arifin, Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Zulkarnain Zulkarnain, M Rifqi Rohman
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been predicted to increase until 2045 in the world. Furthermore, long-term treatment and lifestyle factors affect the quality of life. This study aims to determine the models that can be used to predict the quality-of-life domains in prediabetes patients by using Artificial Intelligent (AI) devices. This is a cross-sectional design in which the inclusion criteria were individuals of age above 18 years and has never been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (both type 1 DM and type 2 DM), fasted for at least 8 hours, and are willing to sign an informed consent after having received an explanation. Participants were asked to fill out two questionnaires, namely the Indonesian version of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions-5 Level (EQ-5D-5L). The AI application uses Orange® machine learning with three models used in predictive analysis, such as Logistic Regression, Neural Network, and SVM. In addition, the model was evaluated using the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of the AU-ROC parameters. The results showed that the neural network model based on the AUC value, precision, accuracy, and also the ROC analysis, was the best for predicting the utility index of domains in the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, based on demographic data and the FINDRISC questionnaire.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.20827
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of empiric antibiotics in hospitalized
           community-acquired Pneumonia

    • Authors: Yeni Farida, Qisty Aulia Khoiry, Muchtar Hanafi, Maryani Maryani
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains an important infectious disease due to its impact on patient outcomes.  This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcome and especially costs of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) concerning empirical antibiotics. This research was conducted to estimate the cost-effectiveness of levofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and a combination of ceftriaxone and azithromycin aiming to improve the clinical outcome of CAP. A retrospective observational study was conducted in secondary care, University Hospital in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. The study enrolled all CAP patients hospitalized in the period January until December 2018, with ages≥ 18 years old, and at least used antibiotic for three days. We compared cost-effectiveness, as measured by total cost and proportion of patients successfully treated, of 3 empirical antibiotics for inpatient CAP, involving ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, or combination ceftriaxone + azithromycin. Our analyses were conducted based on a healthcare perspective. In all groups were analyzed based on severity classification (Pneumonia Severity Index score). The use of levofloxacin instead of ceftriaxone improved clinical response, but it is more expensive. Levofloxacin was the most cost-effective based on ACER value. Treatment using a combination of ceftriaxone + azithromycin was more expensive without added benefit. Based on this study, the use of levofloxacin as the first-line therapy for CAP could be maintained because it was more cost-effective than other alternatives. Since the limitations, a study on a broader population is needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21376
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Diffusion rate of quercetin from chitosan-TPP nanoparticles dispersion of
           onion (Allium cepa L.) ethanol extract in medium phosphate buffer pH 7.4

    • Authors: Anisa Amalia, Rahmah Elfiyani, Putri Ulan Sari
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Onion extract contains quercetin, which has anti-inflammatory properties. The absorption of quercetin in the extract can be improved by using the ionic gelation method to composition the extract into a nanoparticle system. Chitosan is a polymer that is used to make nanoparticles that impact medicinal drug absorption. Although many studies of nanoparticle coatings with chitosan have been performed, the effect of the chitosan concentration used remains an intriguing research issue, especially as a natural compound carrier.  The goal of this study was to examine how varying chitosan polymer concentrations affected the rate of quercetin diffusion from onion (Allium cepa L.) ethanol extract nanoparticles. With 0.1% tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a crosslinker, the concentrations of chitosan used were 0.1% (F1), 0.2% (F2), 0.3% (F3), and 0.4% (F4). Organoleptic test, particle size measurement, zeta potential, polydisperse index, entrapment efficiency, density, and determination of quercetin diffusion rate using a phosphate buffer medium pH 7.4 were all used to analyze each composition. Transparent yellow nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 199.89 nm to 514.97 nm, a zeta potential of 47.73 mV to 51.36 mV, a polydispersity index of 0.57, an entrapment efficiency of 54.78 % to 59.06 %, and a density of 1.012 g/mL to 1.042 g/mL are the result of this system. In each composition, the rate of diffusion follows the Higuchi reaction kinetics. Increased chitosan concentration decreases the diffusion rate of onion ethanol extract nanoparticles (Allium cepa L). The fastest diffusion rate value with requirements-meeting physical properties was obtained in nanoparticle systems containing a 0.1 % chitosan solution. 
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21585
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Chemical qualitative analysis and spf value stability of nutmeg seed oil
           in microemulsions with tween 80 and PEG 400 as surfactants and

    • Authors: Ayu Shabrina, Erika Indah Safitri, Risha Fillah Fithria, Misbahul Munir, Sumantri Sumantri
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Nutmeg oil contains α-pinene, which can be used as sunscreen. The combination of Tween 80 and PEG 400 can maintain the stability of nutmeg oil microemulsion. This research was a follow-up study that aims to determine the stability of the SPF value and qualitative chemical content of nutmeg seed oil microemulsions (NSM). NSM was made with a nutmeg seed oil concentration of 6.4% and tween 80 and PEG 400 as surfactants and cosurfactants with variations in the ratio of F1 (5: 4), F2 (6: 4), and F3 (7: 4). Nutmeg seed oil and NSM content was analyzed using GC-MS. NSM formula were tested for in vitro SPF value stability by storing NSM in a climatic chamber at 30 °C ± 2 °C with RH 65 % ± 5 % for 4 weeks. The SPF values were calculated every week. GC-MS data were analyzed descriptively and data of SPF value stability were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA. The GC-MS results of nutmeg seed oil showed 35 components, including significant compounds, namely α-pinene, sabinene, β-phellandrene and also α-terpinolene. GC-MS results of NSM showed those significant compounds were still detected after being formulated in microemulsion. The results of the sunscreen activity test of NSM before storage were 10.31 ± 0.03 (F1); 10.47 ± 0.07 (F2); 10.45 ± 0.03 (F3) and did not show significant change after storage for 4 weeks (p > 0.05). The SPF values of NSM were categorized in maximum activity. 
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.21997
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Development and optimization of Curcuma longa Linn. oleoresin non-aqueous
           gel for transdermal delivery

    • Authors: Dewa Ayu Arimurni, Made Dwi Pradipta Wahyudi S, Erika Yuda Colatama
      First page: 115
      Abstract: A long-term oral administration of NSAID and DMARD on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment may cause gastritis, kidney, and cardiovascular disorder. One of the alternative therapies that have been investigated is by using herbal medicine such as Curcuma longa Linn. which contains curcumin and essential oils. Even though both compounds are quite effective in treating RA, poor aqueous solubility and low intestinal absorption limit their oral bioavailability. To overcome these drawbacks, transdermal delivery was chosen as an alternative route of administration. This study was aimed to formulate the Curcuma longa Linn. oleoresin into a transdermal non-aqueous gel system using Carbopol 934 and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (4.25:0.75 %) as the gelling agent. In this study, multiple solvents (PEG 400, PG, glycerin, ethanol, and tween 20) were used in the system. The solvents were chosen based on their ability to dissolve the gelling agents. Optimization was done using a simplex lattice design based on the physical characteristics (viscosity, pH, spreadability, and adhesivity) of the prepared gel. The system with the optimum concentration of PEG 400 and PG was then observed for its stability and in vitro transport through snakeskin membrane using Franz diffusion cell with PBS pH 7.4 as acceptor medium. The optimal formula was comprised of 75% PEG and 25% PG which has a viscosity of 6.34+0.19 dPa.s, adhesivity of 6.05+0.11 seconds, pH of 5.16+0.09, spreadability of 6.94+0.06 cm, and quite stable after freeze-thaw cycling test, whilst around 26.85% curcumin was diffused through the membrane (flux = 0.084 mg.cm-2) after 2 hours. It can be concluded that the Curcuma longa Linn. oleoresin can be formulated into a non-aqueous gel system, which showed a fair gel physical characteristic with good stability and ability to permeate across the skin membrane, and is promising to be further developed as an alternative for RA treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.22285
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Antibacterial activity of mexican sunflower leaf Tithonia diversifolia
           (Hemsl.) A.Gray Aqueous extract against methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Misrahanum Misrahanum, Zahratul Safarah, Yulia Sari Ismail
      First page: 128
      Abstract: The research of antibacterial activity of Mexican sunflower leaf Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray aqueous extract against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was carried out. The research aimed to observe the antibacterial activity of Mexican sunflower leaves aqueous extract to inhibit the growth of MRSA with concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. The extracts were obtained by the maceration method, and the antibacterial activity was tested using the agar well diffusion method. Characterization of Mexican sunflower leaves simplicia were obtained with water level 9%, water-soluble level 21,6%, ethanol-soluble level 10,3%, and total ash level 14,36%. Characterization of Mexican sunflower leaves aqueous extracts were obtained with water level 26,36%, water-soluble level 53,13%, ethanol-soluble level 26,36%, and total ash level 19,98%. Phytochemical screening revealed that aqueous extract of Mexican sunflower leaves contained secondary metabolites of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The largest inhibitory zone was shown at a 50% extract concentration with a diameter of 12,40 mm. The aqueous extract of Mexican sunflower leaves was capable to form the inhibition zone on the MRSA growth.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.20469
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and
           Caesalpinia sappan combination

    • Authors: Ari Hasna Widyapuspa, Elizabeth Betty Elok Kristiani, Yohanes Martono
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used in traditional treatment since a long time ago by local people in Indonesia. Nowadays, the trend in the consumption of medicinal plants, especially herbal drinks, is increasing. Zingiber officinale, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Caesalpinia sappan are their main materials of medicinal plants. They were chosen because of their high antioxidant contents. Nevertheless, there is no scientific research on the antioxidant activity of the combination of the three extracts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, as well as to compare the antioxidant enhancement pattern of the combination. Samples were extracted by successive maceration with hexane and ethyl acetate as solvents. Total flavonoids contents were determined through colorimetric analysis and antioxidant activity was determined based on the DPPH method with the IC50 value as a parameter. Total flavonoids of ethyl acetate extract from Z. officinale, H. sabdariffa, and C. sappan were 30.28±0.04; 24.81±0.03; and 24.01±0.04 mg QE/ gram extract, and the IC50 value were 51.36±0.05; 83.37±0.06; and 35±0.04 ppm. Total flavonoid contents of their combination were 22.48±0.05 (0:1:1); 23.88±0.05 (1:1:1); 23.68±0.05 (1:4:1); 22.81±0.05; 28.81±0.04 (4:1:1); 27.55±0.03 (1:1:0); 24.41±0.04 mg QE/ gram extract (1:0:1). Antioxidant activities obtained from the combination were 57.50±0.05 (0:1:1); 52.25±0.06 (1:1:1); 71.50±0.06 (1:4:1); 45.74±0.05 (1:1:4); 54.36±0.05 (4:1:1); 68.97±0.06 (1:1:0); 40.52±0.05 ppm (1:0:1). The strongest antioxidant activity was C. sappan. 
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v12i1.20903
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
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