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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
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Folia Medica Indonesiana
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2355-8393 - ISSN (Online) 2599-056X
Published by Universitas Airlangga Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Maternal Deaths caused by COVID-19 Infection in the First Year of the
           Pandemic Wave

    • Authors: Muhammad Ilham Aldika Akbar, Pungky Mulawardhana, Manggala Pasca Wardhana, Khanisyah Erza Gumilar, Ecccita Raheestyningtyas, Muhammad Ardian Cahya Laksana, Jimmy Yanuar Anas, Ernawati, Hermanto Tri Joewono, Muhammad Adrianes Bachnas, Brahmana Askandar Tjokroprawiro
      Abstract: Highlights:
      1. These cases of maternal deaths caused by COVID-19 infections illustrated the significant risk factors for maternal mortality during the early phases of the pandemic, while studies had not extensively reported this.
      2. COVID-19 infections increase the risk of maternal and neonatal mortality, with infants having a lower chance of survival even if they are delivered.
      3. Respiratory support, antiviral medications, antibiotics, anticoagulants, and supportive care are the primary treatments for severe COVID-19 in pregnancy. Abstract
      This article presents seven cases of maternal deaths attributed to COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic wave. These cases provide insights into the natural progression of COVID-19 in pregnant women who were not vaccinated. This study showed that COVID-19 significantly increased maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. All of the patients exhibited symptoms of fever, cough, and dyspnea upon admission to the hospital. They were admitted with elevated respiratory rates (26–32 times/minute) and low oxygen saturation (<95%). Four patients had obesity, while one patient had pregestational diabetes. The COVID-19 diagnosis was established using a rapid antibody or antigen test and chest X-ray, which indicated pneumonia. Medical interventions administered to the patients included antiviral therapy (5 patients), antibiotics (6 patients), and anticoagulants (4 patients). From a total of five babies delivered, four babies were delivered via cesarean section. Two babies were not delivered due to previability and maternal deaths before delivery. The patients passed away within 3–10 days of hospital admission. In conclusion, adequate and early intervention and management of pregnant women infected with COVID-19 are crucial in preventing maternal and neonatal deaths, especially in unvaccinated women.
      PubDate: 2023-06-10
      DOI: 10.20473/fmi.v59i2.45226
  • Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children Aged 1–5 Years Provided by
           Doctors in Surabaya

    • Authors: Alpha Fardah Athiyyah, Insyira Rayhana Irsan, Nurmawati Fatimah
      Abstract: Highlights: 1. The focus of this study was on the treatment methods for acute diarrhea, which have not been extensively investigated in the region studied.
      2. This study can provide an overview of doctors' adherence to the available guidelines for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children aged 1–5 years in Surabaya, Indonesia. Abstract: Diarrhea ranks as the second-leading cause of death among children under five, following pneumonia. This could be attributed to insufficient knowledge regarding diarrhea and dehydration management. Implementing prompt and effective management and prevention strategies has the potential to decrease diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional research study was to investigate the treatment methods used by doctors for children between the ages of 1 and 5 suffering from acute diarrhea in Surabaya, Indonesia. This study utilized an online form containing case-based questionnaire, which was distributed to doctors in Surabaya to collect the necessary data. Microsoft Excel was utilized to process the binary data by calculating the frequency and percentage, with a point estimate at 95% confidence interval (CI). A descriptive method was used in the data analysis, and the findings were presented in tables. A total of 51 respondents participated in this study and revealed that 18 (35.29%) of them would administer solely oral rehydration therapy as the treatment approach. As many as 49 (96.08%) respondents would prescribe zinc supplementation for ten days, while 10 (19.61%) respondents would opt for antibiotics. Interestingly, 49 (96.08%) respondents would continue to recommend both breast milk and food for the patients, and nearly all respondents would provide guidance to the patient's mother or caregiver. The findings of this study suggested that the respondents treated children suffering from acute diarrhea with moderate dehydration by primarily utilizing rehydration therapy. However, many respondents did not solely rely on oral rehydration therapy. Antibiotics were still being used, despite recommendations. Nearly all respondents agreed on the administration of zinc therapy, the continuation of breast milk and food provision, and providing advice to the patient’s mother or caregiver. This indicates that while some management aspects are aligned with the recommended guidelines, there is room for improvement in promoting the exclusive use of oral rehydration therapy and reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.
      PubDate: 2023-06-10
      DOI: 10.20473/fmi.v59i2.44723
  • The Effects of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L.) Ethanol Extract on
           Bladder Urothelial Layer and Smooth Muscle Thicknesses in Menopausal
           Female Wistar Rats

    • Authors: Bismantara Aditya Putra, Kadek Budi Santosa, I Wayan Niryana, Nyoman Golden, Gede Wirya Kusuma Duarsa, Ida Bagus Made Suryawisesa
      Abstract: Highlights:
      1. Purple sweet potatoes cultivated in Bali, Indonesia, were found to be rich in phytoestrogen due to the high levels of anthocyanin-type flavonoids.
      2.The phytoestrogen in purple sweet potato ethanol extract demonstrated estrogenic activity and the potential to substitute hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Abstract Postmenopausal women experience estrogen hormone deficiency, which can cause thinning of the smooth muscle and urothelial layer of the bladder, leading to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been the primary choice for addressing these problems. However, long-term prescription of HRT can result in several adverse effects, including a higher risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogen, an estrogen-like compound derived from plants such as purple sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.), contains anthocyanin that could serve as a better alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of phytoestrogens in purple sweet potatoes on the histomorphology of the bladder in menopausal female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). This experimental study used a posttest-only control group design. A total of 36 Wistar rats undergoing ovariectomy were randomly assigned into two groups, with 18 samples in each group. The experimental group received the purple sweet potato ethanol extract orally, while the control group received a placebo. The structures of the smooth muscle and urothelial layer of the bladder were observed using a microscope. Data were analyzed using an independent t-test to compare bladder smooth muscle and urothelial layer thickness between groups, with a significance of p<0.05. A normality test was performed to determine the normal distribution of the data. Normally distributed data were assessed to find the mean and standard deviation (SD). Significant differences were found in the mean thickness of the smooth muscle and urothelial layer between both groups (p=0.00), with both being thicker in the experimental group. In conclusion, phytoestrogens in purple sweet potatoes can influence the histomorphology of the bladder. Ovariectomized female Wistar rats that received purple sweet potato ethanol extract exhibited thicker smooth muscle and urothelial layer of the bladder.
      PubDate: 2023-06-10
      DOI: 10.20473/fmi.v59i2.44621
  • Calciferol Status and Clinical Outcomes in Children with Congenital Heart
           Disease after Heart Surgery

    • Authors: Zulham Effendy, Tri Yanti Rahayuningsih, Fachrul Razi, Hendra Kurniawan, Azmi, Farhan Marzuki, Herdianta, Rovy Pratama
      Abstract: Abstract Calciferol is a micronutrient and a secosteroid hormone that plays a role in maintaining the health of bones and soft tissues in the body, such as the myocardium, as well as the immune system. Hypovitaminosis D has been reported to be associated with poor clinical outcomes and child mortality in pediatric intensive care units. Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are vulnerable to critical conditions and require early intervention due to heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the influence of calciferol status on the clinical outcomes of pediatric CHD patients who underwent heart surgery. A systematic literature review was conducted using the electronic databases from PubMed, Elsevier, and Cochrane. This study included observational and randomized control studies that assessed the calciferol status of pediatric CHD patients undergoing cardiac surgery. From a total of 168 studies, 8 studies were selected for review. The preoperative and postoperative calciferol status as well as clinical outcomes following pediatric cardiac surgery were reviewed. According to the findings, most pediatric CHD patients suffered from calciferol deficiency prior to corrective heart surgery, which further decreased postoperatively and was associated with clinical outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). Preoperative calciferol supplementation has been reported to enhance serum calciferol levels and is associated with good clinical outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
      PubDate: 2023-06-10
      DOI: 10.20473/fmi.v59i2.44534
  • Clinical Profiles and Il-6 Level Analysis of Critical Covid-19 Patients
           Receiving Lopinavir-Ritonavir

    • Authors: Erwin Astha Triyono, Nancy Margarita Rehatta, Nabilah, Feriawan Tan
      Abstract: Highlights:
      1. Lymphocyte, procalcitonin, D-dimer and high IL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients are associated with a poor prognosis.
      2. IL-6 serial measurement for COVID-19 patients may be a potential indicator for evaluating the severity and patient outcome. Abstract COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 760 million patients, with more than 6.8 million deaths reported globally. Early detection of a patient's worsening condition can provide information for predictors and determine the priority of health services based on evidence-based indicators. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that plays a role in the inflammatory process, so the detection of IL-6 levels has the potential to be used as a parameter that represents a patient's inflammatory state. This study aimed to analyze COVID-19 patients' characteristics, laboratory profiles, and IL-6 levels. A cohort-retrospective study design was used in this investigation, which utilised medical record data. The patients' characteristic (n=68) and IL-6 profiles (n=52) on the first, third, and sixth days of treatment were recorded consecutively. The patients had a mean age of 49 years, were mostly men (72%), had the most comorbid hypertension (29%), and were hospitalized for an average of 10.94 days. Shortness of breath was the most frequently reported manifestation (45.6%). The median neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, and D-dimer were higher than the normal range. There were significant differences in lymphocytes (p=0.046), procalcitonin (p=0.023), and D-dimer (p=0.000) among the survivor and nonsurvivor patients. The dynamic changes in IL-6 were significant from day 1 to day 6 (p=0.014) and from day 3 to day 6 (p=0.041). In conclusion, risk stratification, laboratory profiles, and IL-6 levels are important in assessing COVID-19 patients' severity and outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.20473/fmi.v59i2.44715
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