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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Drugs & Aging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.072
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1170-229X - ISSN (Online) 1179-1969
Published by Adis Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Hallucinations, Antipsychotic Use, and Mortality in Older Adults with
           Dementia: Retrospective Cohort Study of Two Medicare-Linked National
           Health Surveys

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      Abstract: Background Hallucinations are associated with earlier death in older adults with dementia, but antipsychotic medications are also associated with mortality, and comparisons of their relative harms are lacking. Objective To determine the individual and combined association between hallucinations, antipsychotic use, and mortality. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using Medicare-linked survey data from two nationally representative studies (the National Health and Aging Trends Study and the Health and Retirement Study) containing validated dementia identification algorithms and a screening question for hallucinations. Using Medicare claims, we identified participants with dementia who had no history of antipsychotic use during the year of or prior to entry. We used extended Cox regression with time-varying covariates to analyze the association between hallucinations, antipsychotic use, and mortality adjusting for confounders. Results We identified 1703 eligible subjects who contributed 4,819 person-years of follow-up. 555 (32.6%) had hallucinations at baseline, 705 (41.4%) reported hallucinations at least once during follow-up, and 284 (16.7%) received antipsychotics. Hallucinations were associated with an increased risk of death in unadjusted models (hazard ratio (HR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–1.5), but antipsychotic use was not (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.85–1.2). After adjusting for age, race, gender, dementia severity, and comorbidities, the HR for hallucinations attenuated and was no longer statistically significant (1.15, 95% CI 0.98–1.34). There was no significant interaction between hallucinations and antipsychotic use. Conclusion Hallucinations are associated with an increased risk of death that is greater than the risk associated with antipsychotic use, though this is partially confounded by dementia severity and comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Considerations for Choosing First-Line Urate-Lowering Treatment in Older
           Patients with Comorbid Conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in adults. The prevalence of gout increases with age. Urate-lowering treatment (ULT) among older patients is often challenging in that patients frequently suffer insufficient effectiveness or adverse events due to comorbidities, concurrent medications, and altered pharmacokinetics. The large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) directly investigating gout patients regarding cardiovascular (CV) safety have only recently been introduced; CARES and FAST compared the CV safety of the two xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOis), febuxostat versus allopurinol, in patients with gout. Based on the CARES trial that showed CV concerns with febuxostat, the current international guidelines recommend allopurinol as first-line ULT in gout, while preserving other agents as a second-line treatment, despite a higher potency of febuxostat. XOis would be more suitable than uricosurics to treat older patients with gout due to the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in older patients. However, allopurinol alone might not achieve the target serum uric acid levels below 6 mg/dL and CKD might confer an increased risk of allopurinol induced cutaneous adverse reactions in older patients. Furthermore, as well as the later analysis of CARES participants who were lost to follow-up, data from the FAST trial and real-world studies suggest non-inferior CV safety for febuxostat compared to allopurinol even in the presence of CV diseases. Thus, febuxostat use in older patients with renal impairment may be more positively considered. The combination therapy of a novel uricosuric, verinurad, plus febuxostat reduced albuminuria in hyperuricemic patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD in a phase 2a trial, and further RCTs are awaited. Finally, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor class of oral hypoglycemic agents, known to exert beneficial CV and renal effects independent of glycemic control, have shown a uricosuric effect and could be used as adjunctive therapy in older patients with cardiorenal comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Risk factors predictive of adverse drug events and drug-related falls in
           aged care residents: secondary analysis from the ReMInDAR trial

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      Abstract: Background Residents of aged-care facilities have high rates of adverse drug events. This study aimed to identify risk factors for adverse drug events in aged-care residents. Method This was a secondary study using data from a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Data from 224 residents for whom there was 6 months of baseline information were analysed. We assessed the risk of adverse drug events and falls (post hoc) in the subsequent 6 months. Adverse events were identified via a key word search of the resident care record and adjudicated by a multidisciplinary panel using a modified version of the Naranjo criteria. Covariates identified through univariable logistic regression, including age, sex, medicines, physical activity, cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), previous adverse events and health service use were included in multivariable models. Results Overall, 224 residents were included, with a mean age of 86 years; 70% were female. 107 (48%) residents had an adverse drug event during the 6-month follow-up. Falls and bleeding were experienced by 73 (33%) and 28 (13%) residents, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10), weight (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.002–1.04), previous fall (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.34–4.98) and sedative or hypnotic medicine use (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.52–2.60) were associated with increased risk of adverse drug events. Increased cognition (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.95) was protective. Risk factors for falls were previous fall (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.68–6.35) and sedative or hypnotic medicines (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.14–8.16). Increased cognition (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83–0.95) was protective. Conclusion Our results suggest residents with a previous fall, reduced cognition, and prescription of sedative or hypnotic medicines were at higher risk of adverse drug events and should be considered for proactive prevention.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Estimating the Time to Benefit for Therapies in Heart Failure with Reduced
           Ejection Fraction: A Case Study of Sacubitril-Valsartan Using
           Reconstructed Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial

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      Abstract: Background Foundational therapies in heart failure improve clinical outcomes in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Underuse of these life-prolonging heart failure therapies, such as sacubitril-valsartan, is common in older adults and has been associated with worse clinical outcomes. Characterizing the early benefits seen with these therapies might help increase their uptake in older adults. Objective We applied several methods to estimate the time to benefit of an HFrEF therapy, using sacubitril-valsartan as a case study. Methods PARADIGM-HF was a randomized controlled study on sacubitril-valsartan versus enalapril in stable, ambulatory HFrEF patients (n = 8399). The primary endpoint, a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or a first hospitalization for heart failure, was significantly reduced (sacubitril-valsartan (21.8%) versus enalapril (26.5%), hazard ratio (HR) 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–0.87). We extracted and tabulated the Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves of the primary endpoint. An individual patient dataset was then reconstructed. The following methods were applied to explore the time to benefit of sacubitril-valsartan versus enalapril: visual estimation of the point of divergence of the KM curves, statistical process control (SPC), unadjusted landmark analyses using Cox proportional hazards analysis with 30-day increments until significance was persistently achieved, and comparing the survival probabilities of the extracted life tables. Results Six raters visually estimated the time to benefit at a median of 60 days (interquartile range 38–10 days). Using SPC we found an early benefit from 28 days on, using the longest predefined control period of 28 days. An absolute risk reduction of 1 and 2% was found after 59 and 250 days, respectively. The reconstructed dataset provided a similar HR of 0.8004 (95% CI 0.7331–0.8739). Landmark analyses persistently showed statistical significance from 390 days and later. Survival probabilities differed from 35 days onward. Conclusion Using multiple approaches, the earliest benefit of sacubitril-valsartan compared to enalapril in stable HFrEF was found at about 1 month after initiation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • Deprescribing Medications that Increase the Risk of Falls in Older People:
           Exploring Doctors' Perspectives Using the Theoretical Domains Framework
           (TDF)

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      Abstract: Background Falls can lead to hospitalisation and death in older people. Polypharmacy is a major risk factor, and deprescribing fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs) is one of several possible important preventive measures. The objective of this study was to explore the factors that influence doctors when deprescribing FRIDs in a hospital setting. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with consultant geriatricians and hospital doctors experienced in dealing with patients aged 65 years or older, at a large academic teaching hospital (~ 1000 beds), Dublin, Ireland. The interviews were directed by an interview guide and audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, with subsequent thematic analysis in NVivo 12 software. Results A total of 18 participants were interviewed. Barriers to deprescribing included: insufficient time, incomplete patient records, changing medications initiated by other specialists and difficulties following up patients after discharge. Facilitators included: enhanced documentation through electronic patient records, the support of other healthcare professionals such as clinical pharmacists, and patients’ engagement, which is considered essential for the success of the deprescribing process’s outcome. Conclusion Deprescribing FRIDs in older adults in the hospital setting is challenging. Implementation of the process in practice requires combined effort from stakeholders to tackle everyday work environment challenges. Future studies are required examining the clinical effect of the suggested interventions and exploring patients' involvement in deprescribing decisions.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • Treating Hypertension in Older Adults in Light of the Recent STEP Trial:
           Can We Implement the Findings in Geriatric Practice'

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      Abstract: Abstract Recently, major trials have explored blood pressure targets that would provide greater benefit and fewer adverse events in older adult population on antihypertensive treatment. The last study was the STEP study conducted in China, which included 8511 older people aged 60–80 years. When systolic blood pressure below 130 mmHg was targeted in older individuals, there was a 26% risk reduction in cardiovascular outcomes compared with higher (< 150 mmHg) blood pressure values. At this point, it is necessary to evaluate how much the study group represents the older population because this population group is very heterogeneous, and it is not possible to apply a single treatment strategy to all older people. In this context, when we examined the baseline characteristics of the study group, we saw that the individuals included in the study consisted mostly of young–older people with less accompanying comorbidities. In addition, vulnerable groups, such as those with dementia and nursing home residents who are susceptible to treatment adverse effects, appeared to be excluded from the study. Therefore, this trial is very important as it concludes that the goal of strict blood pressure control is beneficial in fit older individuals, but does not guide treatment strategy for other groups. When planning treatments in older adults, it is essential to consider the biological age of individuals and to determine a strategy by evaluating frailty, functionality and cognitive status. As stated in the STEP study protocol, additional analyses considering frailty and cognitive performance will aid in a healthier interpretation of the study in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Acknowledgement to Referees

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      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Association of Psychotropic Education with Quality of Life: A Before-After
           Study in Residential Aged Care Facilities

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      Abstract: Background Improving or maintaining quality of life (QoL) is an important aim for caring for people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific intervention, the Medication Management Consultancy (MMC), on the QoL of residents of RACFs in Western Australia, and to examine the association between psychotropic medications and QoL. Methods A before-after study was conducted. Staff from four RACFs participated in the MMC, and 56 residents with dementia from these RACFs were included. The MMC consisted of an online interactive staff education training course comprising educational videos, and a case study encompassing non-pharmacological strategies, person-centred care for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and strategies to reduce the use of antipsychotics. Following the training, posters, reference cards, reminder stickers, administration of the Older Age Psychotropic Quiz (OAPQ), and 30-min video conferences with action groups in RACFs were utilised. At baseline (T0), QoL, neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and staff distress, cognition, and activities of daily living were assessed by QoL in Alzheimer’s Disease (QoL-AD), Neuropsychiatric Inventory–Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) and Bristol Activity of Daily Living Scale (BADLS), respectively, and repeated at 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2). Medication data were obtained from residents’ medication charts. Results At baseline, of the 56 participants, 33 completed the study. Compared with baseline (31.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.9–33.6), QoL significantly improved at 6 months (33.5, 95% CI 30.9–36.0; p < 0.001) but not from baseline to 12 months (31.09, 95% CI 28.5–33.7; p = 0.58). The NPI-Q severity (residents) significantly improved from 9 (interquartile range [IQR] 11) at T0 to 6 (IQR 9.5) at T1 (p = 0.014) and to 7 (IQR 11) at T2 (p = 0.026). The medians of NPI-Q distress (staff) significantly improved from 12 (IQR 13.5) at T0 to 8 (IQR 9) at T1 (p = 0.013) and to 6 (IQR 11.5) at T2 (p = 0.018). Monthly doses of antipsychotics declined significantly by 51.8% at 6 months (p = 0.003) and by 43.5% at 12 months (p = 0.003); antidepressant doses declined significantly by 25.4% at 6 months (p = 0.013) and by 39.4% at 12 months (p = 0.016); benzodiazepines doses remained stable. QoL and use of psychotropics, age, sex, NPI-severity, and BADLS were not correlated. Conclusion The MMC was associated with improvement in QoL, NPS, staff distress, and reduction in monthly use of antipsychotics and antidepressants among RACF residents. There was no correlation between improved QoL and reduction in use of psychotropic medications, but due to the limitations of our study, this should be confirmed in additional studies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
       
  • A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence from Randomised Controlled
           Trials on the Impact of Medication Optimisation or Pharmacological
           Interventions on Quantitative Measures of Cognitive Function in Geriatric
           Patients

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      Abstract: Background Cognitive decline is common in older people. Numerous studies point to the detrimental impact of polypharmacy and inappropriate medication on older people’s cognitive function. Here we aim to systematically review evidence on the impact of medication optimisation and drug interventions on cognitive function in older adults. Methods A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE and Web of Science on May 2021. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the impact of medication optimisation or pharmacological interventions on quantitative measures of cognitive function in older adults (aged > 65 years) were included. Single-drug interventions (e.g., on drugs for dementia) were excluded. The quality of the studies was assessed by using the Jadad score. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. In five studies a positive impact of the intervention on metric measures of cognitive function was observed. Only one study showed a significant improvement of cognitive function by medication optimisation. The remaining four positive studies tested methylphenidate, selective oestrogen receptor modulators, folic acid and antipsychotics. The mean Jadad score was low (2.7). Conclusion This systematic review identified a small number of heterogenous RCTs investigating the impact of medication optimisation or pharmacological interventions on cognitive function. Five trials showed a positive impact on at least one aspect of cognitive function, with comprehensive medication optimisation not being more successful than focused drug interventions. More prospective trials are needed to specifically assess ways of limiting the negative impact of certain medication in particular and polypharmacy in general on cognitive function in older patients.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • Antihypertensive Use and the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related
           Dementias among Older Adults in the USA

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      Abstract: Background Epidemiological evidence on different classes of antihypertensives and risks of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) is inconclusive and limited. This study examined the association between antihypertensive use (including therapy type and antihypertensive class) and ADRD diagnoses among older adults with hypertension. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 539 individuals aged ≥ 65 years who used antihypertensives and had ADRD diagnosis selected from 2013 to 2018 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data. The predictors were therapy type (monotherapy or polytherapy) and class of antihypertensives defined using Multum Lexicon therapeutic classification (with calcium channel blockers [CCBs] as the reference group). Weighted logistic regression was used to assess the relationships of therapy type and class of antihypertensives use with ADRD diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status. Results We found no significant difference between monotherapy and polytherapy on the odds of ADRD diagnosis. As to monotherapy, those who used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) had significantly lower odds of developing AD compared to those who used CCBs (OR 0.36, 95 % CI 0.13–0.99). Conclusions Findings of the study suggest the need for evidence-based drug therapy to manage hypertension in later adulthood and warrant further investigation into the mechanism underlying the protective effect of antihypertensives, particularly ACEIs, against the development of AD among older adults with hypertension.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
       
  • Medication Complexity Among Older Adults with HF: How Can We Assess
           Better'

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      Abstract: Abstract Medical management of heart failure (HF) has evolved and has achieved significant survival benefits, resulting in highly complex medication regimens. Complex medication regimens create challenges for older adults, including nonadherence and increased adverse drug events, especially associated with cognitive impairment, physical limitations, or lack of social support. However, the association between medication complexity and patients’ health outcomes among older adults with HF is unclear. The purpose of this review is to address how the complexity of HF medications has been assessed in the literature and what clinical outcomes are associated with medication regimen complexity in HF. Further, we aimed to explore how older adults were represented in those studies. The Medication Regimen Complexity Index was the most commonly used tool for assessment of medication regimen complexity. Rehospitalization was most frequently assessed as the clinical outcome, and other studies used medication adherence, quality of life, healthcare utilization, healthcare cost, or side effect. However, the studies showed inconsistent results in the association between the medication regimen complexity and clinical outcomes. We also identified an extremely small number of studies that focused on older adults. Notably, current medication regimen complexity tools did not consider a complicated clinical condition of an older adult with multimorbidity, therapeutic competition, drug interactions, or altered tolerance to the usual dose strength of the medications. Furthermore, the outcomes that studies assessed were rarely comprehensive or patient centered. More studies are required to fill the knowledge gap identifying more comprehensive and accurate medication regimen complexity tools and more patient-centered outcome assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
       
  • Interprofessional Interventions Involving Pharmacists and Targeting the
           Medicines Management Process Provided to Older People Residing in Nursing
           Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled
           Trials

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      Abstract: Background Nursing home residents are often prescribed multiple medications, which increases their susceptibility to drug-related problems. The medicines management process involves multiple stages, for example, assessing, prescribing, dispensing, delivering and storing, administering, reviewing and monitoring. The medicine management process aims to optimise medicine use and associated patient outcomes. Interprofessional interventions of healthcare professionals from different disciplines in many clinical settings, including the nursing home setting, have shown success in improving patients’ clinical outcomes. However, reporting of the pharmacist’s role and the impact of these interventions has been unclear. Objectives We aimed to systematically identify and describe interprofessional interventions involving pharmacists that target the medicine management process in nursing homes by (a) describing interprofessional interventions and the role of pharmacists within, (b) describing the impact of these interventions, (c) exploring which of the medicine management process stages were targeted and (d) identifying any reported theoretical underpinning. Methods EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, PsycInfo, Cochrane library, Web of Science and clinical trial registers were searched from the inception date until August 2021. Randomised controlled trials reporting interprofessional interventions involving pharmacists, targeting at least one stage of the medicine management process and provided to nursing home residents with a mean age ≥ 65 years, were included. The search had no restriction on outcomes measured. Included randomised controlled trials were assessed for quality and risk of bias using the Jadad scale and Cochrane Collaboration tool, respectively. The overall certainty of outcomes was assessed using GRADEpro. If present, details about theoretical underpinning were extracted using the theory coding scheme. Fixed and random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled effect estimates to compare outcomes between intervention and control groups, where feasible, or a narrative description was reported. Results Eighteen manuscripts describing interprofessional interventions involving pharmacists were identified: medication review (n = 14), education (n = 3) and medication simplification (n = 1) based interventions. The pharmacists’ most frequent role was the provision of medicine-related recommendations, and they worked mostly with general practitioners and nurses. Residents/family members contributed in 44% of included interventions. A meta-analysis identified that interventions were significantly associated with significant improvements in prescribing appropriateness (standard mean difference − 0.20; 95% confidence interval − 0.33 to − 0.77; I2 = 27%) but not with hospitalisation and mortality. None of the included studies reported a theoretical underpinning to intervention development. Conclusions This systematic review provides a detailed description of the impact of interprofessional practice, involving pharmacists, which targets at least one stage of the medicine management process in the nursing home setting. The findings suggest that future research should prioritise improving prescribing inappropriateness rather than the number of long-term medications prescribed. It remains unknown if interventions are designed using theory and, therefore, it is not clear whether theory-derived interventions are more effective than those without a theoretical element. Clinical Trial Registration The protocol was published in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) [Ref: CRD42020181744].
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • Management of Hypertension in the Elderly and Frail Patient

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      Abstract: Abstract Hypertension is a frequent finding in elderly patients. Hypertension in older age can be both associated with frailty and represent a risk factor for frailty. Hypertension is recognized as a main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke and the occurrence of these diseases may provoke a decline in health status and/or worsen the degree of frailty. Blood pressure targets in hypertensive older and frail patients are not completely defined. However, specific evaluations of individual patients and their co-morbidities and assessment of domains and components of frailty, together with weighted consideration of drug use, may help in finding the appropriate therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Impact of Pharmaceutical Interventions with STOPP/START and PIM-Check in
           Older Hospitalized Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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      Abstract: Introduction Pharmaceutical interventions can reduce negative outcomes related to potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs). Objective The objective of this study was to compare the impact of interventions on the reduction of PIPs and on different clinical outcomes using two electronic explicit tools. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted in patients hospitalized between 2018 and 2019 at the Acute Care for Elders unit at Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland. A medication review was conducted using PIM-Check in the first arm and STOPP/START in the second arm. Proposed interventions were communicated to the physicians. Clinical outcomes evaluated were incidence of falls, delirium, activities of daily living (ADL), length of stay, number of drugs at discharge and hospital readmission. Results The 123 included patients (60 in the first arm and 63 in the second arm) were 86.3 ± 6.6 years old, had 3.5 ± 1.7 diseases and were treated by 6.2 ± 2.7 drugs at admission. There was a significant decrease in PIPs in each arm, but no significant difference between arms. The deprescription of nervous system drugs was significantly higher with STOPP/START than with PIM-Check (Chi-square p = 0.025). ADL scores between home and discharge were significantly higher in the STOPP/START arm than in the PIM-Check arm (4.42 vs 3.77; p = 0.040). The predictors of ADL score improvement were the deprescription of nervous system drugs (β = 0.423; 95% CI 0.034–0.812; p = 0.033), the use of STOPP/START (β = 0.798, 95% CI 0.305–1.290; p = 0.002) and a shorter length of hospital stay (β = −0.033, 95% CI − 0.056 to − 0.010; p = 0.005). Conclusions Although PIM-Check was non-inferior to STOPP/START in reducing the number of PIPs, STOPP/START had a significantly higher impact on ADL. The use of STOPP/START or the deprescription of two nervous system drugs would allow the patient to acquire almost one more basic function of living. On the other hand, a loss of one point on the ADL score was observed per month of hospitalization. Clinical Trials Registration Number NCT04028583.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
       
  • Exploring Transplant Medication-Taking Behaviours in Older Adult Kidney
           Transplant Recipients: A Qualitative Study of Semi-Structured Interviews

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      Abstract: Background Today, older adult patients routinely undergo kidney transplantation. To support graft survival, patients must take immunosuppressant medicines for the rest of their lives. The post-transplant medication regimen is complex, and barriers to medication taking are likely confounded by both functional and intrinsic changes associated with advancing age. To develop diverse and innovative approaches to support best health outcomes in this vulnerable age group, it is imperative that the degree to which patients’ needs are currently being met, be identified. Aim The aim of this study was to examine medication-taking behaviours of kidney transplant recipients transplanted at 60 years of age or older. Methods This qualitative study used semi-structured patient interviews to explore how kidney transplant recipients currently manage their immunosuppressant regimen and how they cope after transplantation with the complex routine. Data were themed using the principles of Grounded Theory methodology; with interviews conducted until data saturation was reached. Results Quantitative information was collected from 14 participants who ranged in age from 66 to 77 years (at time of interview), and were prescribed a median of 13 (min: 10, max: 26) medicines. The main themes that emerged from the interview were variability in health literacy toward medicines, the importance of support networks, the need to adjust health expectations, factors that were motivators for self-care, different approaches to medication management, and different approaches to medication taking. Overall, it was found that patients prioritised medication taking above all else, and gratitude to their donor was a powerful motivator to adhere. However, strategies to support medication taking were sometimes ineffective when patients’ routine changed. Conclusions Future interventions should consider approaches to foster adaptable medication taking behaviours that stand up to changes in the day-to-day routine.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
       
  • ThinkCascades: A Tool for Identifying Clinically Important Prescribing
           Cascades Affecting Older People

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      Abstract: Background and Objective Prescribing cascades occur when a drug is prescribed to manage side effects of another drug, typically when a side effect is misinterpreted as a new condition. A consensus list of clinically important prescribing cascades that adversely affect older persons’ health (i.e., where risks of the prescribing cascade usually exceed benefits) was developed to help identify, prevent, and manage prescribing cascades. Methods Three rounds of a modified Delphi process were conducted with a multidisciplinary panel of 38 clinicians from six countries with expertise in geriatric pharmacotherapy. The clinical importance of 139 prescribing cascades was assessed in Round 1. Cascades highly rated by ≥ 70% of panelists were included in subsequent rounds. Factors influencing ratings in Rounds 1 and 3 were categorized. After three Delphi rounds, highly rated prescribing cascades were reviewed by the study team to determine the final list of clinically important cascades consistent with potentially inappropriate prescribing. Results After three rounds, 13 prescribing cascades were highly rated by panelists. Following a study team review, the final tool includes nine clinically important prescribing cascades consistent with potentially inappropriate prescribing. Panelists reported that their ratings were influenced by many factors (e.g., how commonly they encountered the medications involved and the cascade itself, the severity of side effects, availability of alternatives). The relative importance of these factors in determining clinical importance varied by panelist. Conclusions A nine-item consensus-based list of clinically important prescribing cascades, representing potentially inappropriate prescribing, was developed. Panelists’ decisions about what constituted a clinically important prescribing cascade were multi-factorial. This tool not only raises awareness about these cascades but will also help clinicians recognize these and other important prescribing cascades. This list contributes to the prevention and management of polypharmacy and medication-related harm in older people.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Difficult-to-Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis in Older Adults: Implications of
           Ageing for Managing Patients

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      Abstract: Abstract Difficult-to-treat rheumatoid arthritis is a heterogeneous term in which patients may present with difficulties in their management for different reasons. This can ultimately lead to patients being exposed to multiple treatments because of inefficacy (resulting from mechanisms intrinsic to rheumatoid arthritis or from non-inflammatory causes such as chronic pain syndrome or structural damage, among others), toxicity or adverse effects that may be linked to comorbidities. One particular group in which such characteristics may be more patent is older patients. Increasing life expectancy, an ageing population and the late onset of rheumatoid arthritis have led to an increased interest in the particularities of treating older patients. This may pose a challenge for physicians, as ageing has implications for optimal patient treatment owing to the potential presence of comorbidities, the risk of adverse events and perceptions of disease status by both physicians and patients. All of these factors may have implications for classifying and managing patients aged > 65 years as difficult-to-treat rheumatoid arthritis, as these patients could be misclassified. This can occur when a significant proportion may still exhibit signs of active disease but not necessarily be difficult to treat because the treatment criterion has not been fulfilled. Alternatively, patients may be exposed to multiple biologic/targeted disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs because of contraindications and/or comorbid conditions. Treatment-to-target strategies and an adequate assessment of inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis activity in older patients should be undertaken, taking special care with associated comorbidities, polypharmacy and risk profiles. Such an approach can help to ensure appropriate treatment for older adults and avoid the misclassification of difficult-to-treat patients.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Daridorexant in Older and Younger Adults with
           Insomnia Disorder: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Placebo-Controlled
           Trial

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      Abstract: Background and Objective The dual orexin receptor antagonist daridorexant, studied in two phase III trials, dose-dependently improved objective and subjective sleep variables and daytime functioning in adults with insomnia. Because treatment of insomnia in older adults is challenging and has limited options, the purpose of the current analysis was to further analyse the phase III trial studying the higher doses of daridorexant, those that showed efficacy (daridorexant 50 mg, daridorexant 25 mg and placebo, nightly for 3 months), and compare the safety and efficacy of daridorexant in patients aged ≥ 65 (‘older adults’) to those aged < 65 years (‘younger adults’). Methods Analyses by age (≥ 65 years, n = 364; < 65 years, n = 566) were performed on data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Trial 1 in adult patients with insomnia (NCT03545191). Efficacy endpoints included a change from baseline at month 1 and month 3 in polysomnography-measured wake after sleep onset (WASO) and latency to persistent sleep (LPS), self-reported total sleep time (sTST) and daytime functioning assessed using the validated Insomnia Daytime Symptoms and Impacts Questionnaire (IDSIQ). Safety endpoints included adverse events and the Visual Analog Scale for morning sleepiness. Results At baseline, mean [standard deviation] WASO was numerically greater (110 [39] vs 92 [38] min) in older than younger adults, while LPS was comparable (~ 65 min). Mean baseline IDSIQ total and all domain scores were numerically lower (i.e. better) in older adults. Daridorexant caused similar reductions in WASO and LPS, and similar increases in sTST, from baseline, in both age groups; improvements were numerically greater with daridorexant 50 mg than 25 mg. At month 3, daridorexant 50 mg, compared with placebo, decreased WASO by a least-squares mean of 19.6 (95% confidence interval 9.7, 29.5) in older patients versus 17.4 min (10.7, 24.0) in younger patients and decreased LPS by a least-squares mean of 14.9 (7.5, 22.3) in older patients versus 9.7 min (3.7, 15.7) in younger patients. Daridorexant 50 mg increased sTST from baseline to month 3 by a least-squares mean of 59.9 (49.6, 70.3) in older patients versus 57.1 min (48.9, 65.3) in younger patients. Daridorexant 50 mg progressively improved IDSIQ total and domain scores from week 1 onwards similarly in both groups; daridorexant 25 mg improved IDSIQ scores, but only in younger adults. In both age groups, in comparison with placebo, the overall incidence of adverse events was comparable, and there were fewer falls on daridorexant. Daridorexant improved Visual Analog Scale morning sleepiness in both groups; daridorexant 50 mg increased the mean (standard deviation) Visual Analog Scale morning sleepiness score by 15.9 (20.7) in older adults and by 14.9 (18.7) in younger adults from baseline to month 3. In older adults, there was one case of sleep paralysis, and no cases of narcolepsy, cataplexy, or complex sleep behaviour. Conclusions In older patients with insomnia, as in younger patients, the efficacy of daridorexant is maximal on night-time and daytime variables at the higher dose of 50 mg. Older patients particularly require this dose to improve daytime functioning. Older patients are not at an increased risk of adverse events or residual effects the next morning after night-time administration of daridorexant, even at 50 mg. The dose of daridorexant does not need to be decreased for older patients. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03545191) [first posted: 4 June, 4 2018], https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03545191.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Correlates of Opioid Use Among Ontario Long-Term Care Residents and
           Variation by Pain Frequency and Intensity: A Cross-sectional Analysis

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      Abstract: Background Chronic non-cancer pain is common among older residents of long-term care (LTC) homes and often poorly recognized and treated. With heightened concerns regarding opioid prescribing in recent years, it is important to examine the current prevalence of opioid use and its association with resident characteristics to help identify those potentially at risk of medication harms as well as suboptimal pain management. Objectives The aims were to estimate the prevalence and correlates of opioid use among non-palliative LTC residents and explore variation in opioid prevalence and correlates across strata defined by pain frequency and intensity. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of all older (aged > 65 years) LTC residents (excluding those with cancer or receiving palliative care) in Ontario, Canada during 2018–2019. Health administrative databases were linked with standardized clinical assessment data to ascertain residents’ health and pain characteristics and their opioid and other medication use. Modified Poisson regression models estimated unadjusted and adjusted associations between residents’ characteristics and opioid use, overall and across strata capturing pain frequency and intensity. Results Among 75,020 eligible residents (mean age 85.1 years; 70% female), the prevalence of opioid use was 18.5% and pain was 29.4%. Opioid use ranged from 12.2% for residents with no current pain to 55.7% for those with severe pain. In adjusted models, residents newly admitted to LTC (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.62) and with moderate to severe cognitive impairment (aRR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.66–0.72) or dementia (aRR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.74–0.79) were significantly less likely to receive an opioid, whereas residents with select conditions (e.g., arthritis, aRR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.32–1.41) and concurrently using gabapentinoids (aRR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.74–1.86), benzodiazepines (aRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.28–1.38), or antidepressants (aRR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.27–1.35) were significantly more likely to receive an opioid. The associations observed for residents newly admitted, with dementia, and concurrently using gabapentinoids, benzodiazepines, or antidepressants were largely consistent across all pain strata. Conclusions Our findings describe resident sub-groups at potentially higher risk of adverse health outcomes in relation to both opioid use and non-use. LTC clinical and policy changes informed by research are required to ensure the appropriate recognition and management of non-cancer pain in this setting.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
       
  • Optimizing Reversal of Neuromuscular Block in Older Adults: Sugammadex or
           Neostigmine

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      Abstract: Abstract Residual neuromuscular paralysis, the presence of clinically significant weakness after administration of pharmacologic neuromuscular blockade reversal, is associated with postoperative pulmonary complications and is more common in older patients. In contemporary anesthesia practice, reversal of neuromuscular blockade is accomplished with neostigmine or sugammadex. Neostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, increases the concentration of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, providing competitive antagonism of neuromuscular blocking drug and facilitating muscle contraction. Sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, antagonizes neuromuscular blockade by encapsulating rocuronium and vecuronium in a one-to-one ratio for renal clearance, a pharmacokinetic property that led to the recommendation that sugammadex not be administered to those with end-stage renal disease. While data are limited, reports suggest sugammadex is efficacious and well tolerated in individuals with reduced renal function. Sugammadex provides a more rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade than neostigmine. There is also accumulating evidence that sugammadex may provide a protective effect against the development of postoperative pulmonary complications, nausea, and vomiting, and that it may have beneficial effects on the rate of bowel and bladder recovery after surgery. Accordingly, sugammadex administration is beneficial for most older patients undergoing surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
       
 
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