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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Drug Metabolism and Disposition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.433
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1521-009X
Published by ASPET Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Identification of 5-Hydroxycotinine in the Plasma of Nicotine-Treated
           Mice: Implications for Cotinine Metabolism and Disposition in Vivo
           [Articles]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kanamori, K; Ahmad, S. M, Shin, C. S, Hamid, A, Lutfy, K.
      Pages: 1454 - 1463
      Abstract: Two oxidation products of cotinine, 5-hydroxycotinine (5-HC) and cotinine N-oxide (CNO), were identified for the first time in vivo in the plasma of C57BL/6 mice after injection of nicotine (1 mg/kg) or exposure to an e-cigarette (e-cig) containing 2.4% nicotine. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to separate 3-hydroxycotinine (3-HC), 5-HC, and CNO and to quantify each by the sensitive direct detection of their parent ion with m/z of 193.097. In nicotine-injected mice, 5-HC was as abundant as 3-HC 15 minutes postinjection, and CNO was readily detectable. In e-cig–exposed mice with plasma nicotine levels resembling that of human smokers, plasma 5-HC and CNO, as well as 3-HC, were readily quantifiable at the end of the 4-hour exposure time. In nicotine-injected mice, the combined concentration of 3-HC plus 5-HC plus CNO, all formed from cotinine by CYP2A5, was higher (P < 0.01) in females than in males, although the male-female difference in cotinine plasma level did not reach statistical significance. The result highlights the importance of considering these three oxidation products of cotinine in examining cotinine metabolism and disposition. Coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity, a specific marker of CYP2A5, measured in the hepatic microsomes of untreated mice showed that females have higher activity (P < 0.001) than males (N = 8 per sex). The abundance of plasma 5-hydroxycotinine in nicotine-treated mice raises intriguing questions about the site of its origin (hepatic or possibly kidney CYP2A5) and the routes of its disposition because urinary excretion of 5-HC has not been detected by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in mice and is controversial in human smokers.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNicotine is the active ingredient of tobacco, but its elimination route through its biomarker cotinine is not fully understood. By liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, this study has identified and quantified for the first time 5-hydroxycotinine and cotinine N-oxide, which are oxidation products of cotinine, in the plasma of mice treated with nicotine or exposed to e-cigarettes. The results raise intriguing questions about nicotine disposition in vivo in this well established preclinical model of human smokers.
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T08:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1124/dmd.122.001059
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Chronic Treatment With WY-14643 Induces Tumorigenesis and Triglyceride
           Accumulation in Mouse Livers [Articles]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yang, J; Fan, S, Zhang, Y, Huang, M, Gao, Y, Bi, H.
      Pages: 1464 - 1471
      Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is closely related to lipid metabolism and various liver diseases. Previous study has shown that chronic treatment with PPARα agonist WY-14643 can induce liver tumors in rodents, but the implications of this process on lipid metabolism in the liver remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore the influences of chronic treatment with WY-14643 on the liver and hepatic lipid metabolism. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were treated with WY-14643 (100 mg/kg/week, i.p.) or corn oil, and liver and serum samples were collected for testing after 42 weeks of WY-14643 treatment. The results showed that hepatomegaly, liver tumors with mild liver injury, and hepatocyte proliferation were induced in mice treated with WY-14643. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARα downstream targets acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and cytochrome P450 4A were significantly upregulated in the WY-14643–treated group. Lipidomic analysis revealed that chronic treatment with WY-14643 disturbed lipid homeostasis, especially triglycerides (TGs), which were significantly elevated after WY-14643 treatment. Moreover, TG homeostasis-related genes were significantly increased in the WY-14643–treated group. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that hepatomegaly and liver tumors induced by chronic treatment with WY-14643 in mice are accompanied by hepatocyte proliferation and TG accumulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe present study clearly demonstrated that sustained peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation by chronic treatment with WY-14643 induces hepatomegaly and liver tumors with triglyceride accumulation by regulating lipid homeostasis-related genes in mice. These findings may help to clarify the influences of sustained PPARα activation on liver lipid homeostasis and provide data for the clinically rational use of drugs that can activate PPARα.
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T08:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1124/dmd.122.000908
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Human Pharmacokinetics of LYS006, an Oral Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase
           Inhibitor Displaying Target-Mediated Drug Disposition [Articles]

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      Authors: Poller, B; Pearson, D, Leuthold, L. A, Fink, M, Jullion, A, Schweigler, P, Tor Carreras, E, Marvalin, C, Loesche, C, Weiss, H. M.
      Pages: 1472 - 1482
      Abstract: LYS006 is a potent leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor currently in clinical development for long-term treatment of various neutrophil-driven inflammatory conditions. Here, we present pharmacokinetics from the first-in-human study with complementary metabolism and transporter profiling data. The randomized first-in-human study included nine cohorts receiving 5–2*100 mg of LYS006 or placebo, a crossover food-effect part, and a multiple-dose part consisting of two fasted (5 mg and 15 mg once daily) and three fed cohorts (20–80 mg twice a day) of LYS006 or placebo. LYS006 and metabolites were assessed in plasma and urine, and transporters involved in LYS006 disposition were analyzed in vitro. Systemic plasma exposure increased with dose; steady-state exposure was dose proportional up to 40 mg twice a day. Steady state was achieved after ~3 days, with mean accumulation of 2.1-fold for 5 mg once daily and ≤1.4-fold for all higher doses. Despite limited accumulation, a long terminal half-life (T1/2) was observed. The long T1/2 and saturable binding to blood cells, which causes a highly nonlinear blood-to-plasma distribution, reflect a strong impact of target binding on drug distribution at lower concentrations. Skin biopsy and blister fluid concentration data indicated saturable binding in the former but not the latter, suggesting saturable binding in tissues beyond blood. Major excretion of LYS006 (~90% of dose) through urine at steady state triggered renal transporter investigations that identified LYS006 as a substrate of organic anion transporter (OAT)3, OAT4, breast cancer resistance protein, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4. Seven metabolites were identified in human plasma and urine, comprising only 4% of the dose recovered in urine at steady state.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTPharmacokinetic data from a first-in-human study combined with in vitro work support dose and regimen selection for patient studies with LYS006 and provide guidance on drug interaction investigations and other clinical pharmacology work needed for further development. Mass balance information at steady state without the use of a radiolabel, skin concentrations, and identification of the major clearance pathway, as well as the transporters driving elimination, make this a particularly conclusive early study despite nonlinear pharmacokinetics impacted by target binding.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T07:16:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1124/dmd.121.000803
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Activity and Expression of Carboxylesterases and Arylacetamide Deacetylase
           in Human Ocular Tissues [Articles]

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      Authors: Hammid, A; Fallon, J. K, Lassila, T, Vieiro, P, Balla, A, Gonzalez, F, Urtti, A, Smith, P. C, Tolonen, A, Honkakoski, P.
      Pages: 1483 - 1492
      Abstract: As a multitissue organ, the eye possesses unique anatomy and physiology, including differential expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Several hydrolytic enzymes that play a major role in drug metabolism and bioactivation of prodrugs have been detected in ocular tissues, but data on their quantitative expression is scarce. Also, many ophthalmic drugs are prone to hydrolysis. Metabolic characterization of individual ocular tissues is useful for the drug development process, and therefore, seven individual ocular tissues from human eyes were analyzed for the activity and expression of carboxylesterases (CESs) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC). Generic and selective human esterase substrates 4-nitrophenyl acetate (most esterases), D-luciferin methyl ester (CES1), fluorescein diacetate and procaine (CES2), and phenacetin (AADAC) were applied to determine the enzymes’ specific activities. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition studies were performed with isoform-selective inhibitors digitonin (CES1) and verapamil and diltiazem (CES2). Enzyme contents were determined using quantitative targeted proteomics, and CES2 expression was confirmed by western blotting. The expression and activity of human CES1 among ocular tissues varied by>10-fold, with the highest levels found in the retina and iris-ciliary body. In contrast, human CES2 expression appeared lower and more similar between tissues, whereas AADAC could not be detected. Inhibition studies showed that hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate is also catalyzed by enzymes other than CES2. This study provides, for the first time, quantitative information on the tissue-dependent expression of human ocular esterases, which can be useful for the development of ocular drugs, prodrugs, and in pharmacokinetic modeling of the eye.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNovel and comprehensive data on the protein expression and activities of carboxylesterases from individual human eye tissues are generated. In combination with previous reports on preclinical species, this study will improve the understanding of interspecies differences in ocular drug metabolism and aid the development of ocular pharmacokinetics models.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T07:16:28-08:00
      DOI: 10.1124/dmd.122.000993
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Dimethandrolone, a Potential Male Contraceptive Pill, is Primarily
           Metabolized by the Highly Polymorphic UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B17
           Enzyme in Human Intestine and Liver [Articles]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sharma, S; Ahire, D, Basit, A, Lajoie, M, Wang, C, Lee, M. S, Blithe, D. L, Amory, J. K, Singh, D. K, Heyward, S, Prasad, B.
      Pages: 1493 - 1500
      Abstract: Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU), an oral investigational male hormonal contraceptive, is a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite, dimethandrolone (DMA). Poor and variable oral bioavailability of DMA after DMAU dosing is a critical challenge to develop it as an oral drug. The objective of our study was to elucidate the mechanisms of variable pharmacokinetics of DMA. We first identified DMA metabolites formed in vitro and in vivo in human hepatocyte incubation and serum samples following oral DMAU administration in men, respectively. The metabolite identification study revealed two metabolites, DMA-glucuronide (DMA-G; major) and the androstenedione analog of DMA (minor), in the hepatocyte incubations. After oral DMAU administration, only DMA-G was detected in serum, which was>100-fold compared with DMA levels, supporting glucuronidation as the major elimination mechanism for DMA. Next, 13 clinically relevant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes were tested for their involvement in DMA-G formation, which revealed a major role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) isoform with a smaller contribution of UGT1A9 in DMA-G formation. These data were confirmed by dramatically higher DMA glucuronidation rates (>200- and sevenfold) in the high versus the null UGT2B17-expressing human intestinal and liver microsomes, respectively. Since human UGT2B17 is a highly variable enzyme with a 20%–80% gene deletion frequency, the in vitro data suggest a major role of UGT2B17 polymorphism on the first-pass metabolism of DMA. Further, considering DMA is a selective and sensitive UGT2B17 substrate, it could be used as a clinical probe of UGT2B17 activity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTDimethandrolone (DMA) is an active metabolite of dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU), an investigational male hormonal contraceptive. Previous studies have indicated poor and inconsistent bioavailability of DMAU following oral administration. This study found that UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17–mediated high intestinal first-pass metabolism is the key mechanism of variable DMA bioavailability.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T13:01:41-08:00
      DOI: 10.1124/dmd.122.001041
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Assessing Liver-to-Plasma Partition Coefficients and In Silico Calculation
           Methods: When Does the Hepatic Model Matter in PBPK' [Article]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Li, X; Jusko, W. J.
      Pages: 1501 - 1512
      Abstract: The primary models used in pharmacokinetics to assess hepatic clearance (CLh) are the well-stirred model (WSM), the parallel tube model (PTM), and the dispersion model (DM) that differ in their internal flow patterns and assumed unbound liver concentrations. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models require a hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint) and tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp). Given measured systemic and liver concentration-time profiles, these hepatic models perform similarly but yield model-specific CLint and Kp estimates. This work provides mathematical relationships for the three basic hepatic models and assesses their corresponding PBPK-relevant Kp values with literature-reported single-dose blood and liver concentration-time data of 14 compounds. Model fittings were performed with an open-loop approach where the CLh and extraction ratio (ER) were first estimated from fitting the blood data yielding CLint values for the three hepatic models. The prefitted blood data served as forcing input functions to obtain PBPK-operative Kp estimates that were compared with those obtained by the tissue/plasma area ratio (AR), the Chen and Gross (C&G) method, and published in silico methods. The CLint and Kp values for the hepatic models increased with the ER and both showed a rank order being WSM> DM> PTM. Drugs with low ER showed no differences as expected. With model-specific CLint and Kp values, all hepatic models predict the same steady-state Kp that is comparable to those from the AR and C&G methods and reported by direct measurement. All in silico methods performed poorly for most compounds. Hepatic model selection requires cautious application and interpretation in PBPK modeling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe three hepatic models generate different single-dose (nonsteady-state) values of hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint) and tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient in physiologically based pharmacokinetic models especially for drugs with a high extraction ratio; however, all steady-state tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient values expected from constant rate infusion studies were the same. These findings are relevant when using these models for in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation where a model-dependent CLint is used to correct measured drug concentrations for depletion of the tissue by metabolism. This model dependency may also have an impact when assessing pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships when effects relate to assumed hepatic concentrations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05T10:13:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1124/dmd.122.000994
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 12 (2022)
       
 
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