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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-4315 - ISSN (Online) 2090-9853
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [444 journals]
  • A review on Moroccan thyme species: ethnopharmacological, phytochemical,
           and biological aspects

    • Authors: Hamza Elbouny, Ibrahim Ouahzizi, Abdelmonaim H Bakali, Khalid Sellam, Chakib Alem
      Pages: 401 - 410
      Abstract: Hamza Elbouny, Ibrahim Ouahzizi, Abdelmonaim H Bakali, Khalid Sellam, Chakib Alem
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):401-410
      Morocco is characterized by a great richness and biodiversity in Thymus plants. This genus is represented in this country by 22 thyme species and subspecies, 13 of which are endemic. The present review aims to study the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and biological aspects of these thyme species. To carry out this study, the research studies on Moroccan Thymus plants were reviewed in the scientific literature. We found that the species of this genus have widespread uses and applications in Moroccan folk medicine. These plants possess potent pharmacological and biological properties. Moreover, the extracts and volatile oils of thyme plants are rich in a wide variety of phenolic and terpene compounds. These bioactive compounds exert countless biological and pharmacological properties. The present review concludes that there is an important biodiversity in thyme species in Morocco. These species are endowed with several biological properties and ethnopharmacological uses. However, several species of this genus are still not exploited and need more botanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):401-410
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_83_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Pharmacodynamic assessment of gliclazide multiparticulate system:
           single-dose and multiple-dose studies

    • Authors: Aya R Abdou, Nesrin F Taha, Ahmed A El-Ashmawy, Ebtesam W Elsayed, Khaled M Mahmoud, Laila H Emara
      Pages: 411 - 423
      Abstract: Aya R Abdou, Nesrin F Taha, Ahmed A El-Ashmawy, Ebtesam W Elsayed, Khaled M Mahmoud, Laila H Emara
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):411-423
      Background Conventional dosage forms of oral hypoglycemic drugs, including gliclazide (GLZ), may have a number of limitations, reducing their bioavailability. Thus, efforts are directed to design novel modified-release (MR) dosage forms for these drugs. The possible role of orally administered GLZ-MR multiparticulates in the treatment of hyperglycemia as well as improvement of impaired wound healing associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated.Objective This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacodynamics (PD) of GLZ-MR multiparticulate system against Diamicron MR tablets in nondiabetic (healthy) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, by measuring blood glucose levels. For the first time, the hypothetical wound-healing capabilities of multiple doses of both treatments in diabetic rats were also studied by evaluating the wound diameter and histology.Materials and methods Novel cross-linked freeze-dried GLZ-alginate-gelatin beads were prepared. Two GLZ treatments at 4 mg/kg [test (T, MR beads) and reference (R, Diamicron MR 30 mg)] were administered to rats. A single-dose PD study was carried out on both healthy and diabetic rats, whereas the multiple-dose study was evaluated in diabetic rats. A single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) study was conducted for assessment of the PK-PD relationship in healthy rats.Results and conclusion The single-dose study on nondiabetic rats showed that T beads exhibited a greater magnitude of blood glucose level reduction, with 1.5-fold increase in Cmax, compared with R. A direct linear relationship with high correlation was detected between GLZ glucose-lowering effect and its PK parameters, only for T beads. Multiple dosing of T beads was more efficient than R in managing hyperglycemia of wounded diabetic rats. T beads allowed almost complete wound closure, after multiple dosing for 17 days. The proposed GLZ beads could provide a promising therapeutic prospect for managing hyperglycemia as well as resolving impairment of wound healing associated with diabetes.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):411-423
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_46_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Development and validation of a novel bioanalytical method for the
           simultaneous determination of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in human plasma
           using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    • Authors: Bonagiri Pavani, Malothu Narender, Dintakurthi Sree Naga Bala Krishna Prasanth, Chakravarthi Guntupalli
      Pages: 424 - 431
      Abstract: Bonagiri Pavani, Malothu Narender, Dintakurthi Sree Naga Bala Krishna Prasanth, Chakravarthi Guntupalli
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):424-431
      Background and objective For the simultaneous determination of glecaprevir (GPR) and pibrentasvir (PTR) in human plasma, a novel, accurate, and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated.Materials and methods Owing to structural resemblance, bictegravir was selected as an internal standard. Anticoagulant used was K2-EDTA. The GPR-PTR was the first of its kind approved drug by FDA for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Precipitation technique with acetonitrile was employed for the extraction of analyte from human plasma. Kromasil C18 column (5 μ, 150×4.6 mm) with an isocratic mobile phase of 0.1% orthophosphoric acid buffer pH 4.3, adjusted with dilute hydrochloric acid: acetonitrile in the ratio of 70 : 30 v/v, was used for the resolution. At a flow rate of 1 ml/min, the mobile phase was pumped. Using a photodiode array detector, effluents were monitored at 250 nm.Results Over concentration ranges of 5–200 μg/ml and 6.650–266.000 μg/ml, the method was found to be linear for GPR and PTR, respectively, in human plasma, with the precision and accuracy ranging from 0.76 to 9.05% and 90.55 to 98.98% for GPR respectively, whereas for PTR ranged from 0.74 to 9.52% and 91.56 to 105.61%, respectively.Conclusion The stability of the analyte was evaluated in plasma under different stress conditions.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):424-431
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_47_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Antibacterial efficiency of natural products against
           multiple-drug-resistant clinical isolates

    • Authors: Dina E El-Ghwas, Heba Yehia
      Pages: 432 - 439
      Abstract: Dina E El-Ghwas, Heba Yehia
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):432-439
      Background Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that has aggravated recently to threaten humans, cattle, and crops. This has inspired scientists to examine various natural products, herbs, and plants that have been used since antiquity for their valuable medicinal potential. They have not only proven less likelihood to produce resistant strains but also exert a positive effect on beneficial probiotics boosting the general health status of the host.Objective To identify the major multiple-drug-resistant bacteria underlying diabetic foot ulcer infections and screen and select herbs and natural extracts, commonly available in local herbal stores, for their activity against the isolated bacteria.Material and methods Bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcers of hospitalized patients were identified according to their morphological and biochemical properties. The isolated strains were tested against extracts of bitter melon, honey, pomegranate peel, myrrh gum, and turmeric powder using the in vitro agar well-diffusion assay technique.Results and conclusion The bacterial isolates were resistant to all of the tested standard antibiotics and identified to belong to five different genera: Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the natural preparations exerted different levels of antibacterial activity except for bitter melon. These findings shed tremendous light on the up-till-now promising effect of the natural antibiotics arsenal and necessitate the importance of systemically studying their individual and synergistic mechanisms, interactions, and kinetics.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):432-439
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_48_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Enhancing antioxidant activity of olive pomace with reinforcing its
           phenolic compounds by fermentation

    • Authors: Amira T Mohammed, Abeer E Mahmoud, Mamdouh M Ali, Doaa M Ibrahim, Shadia A Fathy
      Pages: 440 - 446
      Abstract: Amira T Mohammed, Abeer E Mahmoud, Mamdouh M Ali, Doaa M Ibrahim, Shadia A Fathy
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):440-446
      Background and objective Valorization of olive pomace (OP) by solid-state fermentation of the generally regarded as safe yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus was reported to enhance its antioxidant activity. However, a detailed identification of bioactive compounds present in unfermented OP and fermented OP was not clarified. The aim of the present study was to identify the major classes of bioactive compounds, and alteration in the phenolic profile after fermentation to explain the enhanced therapeutic activity of OP after fermentation.Materials and methods Methanolic extracts of unfermented OP and fermented OP were subjected to qualitative preliminary phytochemical analysis. Moreover, both extracts were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis using different phenolic compounds’ standards. Also, total antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated.Results Simple phenols, tannin, phlobatannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, alkaloids, carbohydrates, sterols, and triterpenes are the major phytochemical classes present in both extracts. While both extracts lack saponin, anthraquinones, free amino acids, free cholesterol, and polyuronides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that fermentation of OP by K. marxianus led to a sharp increase in rutin, vanillin, and cinnamic acid contents by 69.22, 39.35, and 31.40%, respectively. This was accompanied with 22.78, 7.07, and 5.81% increase in quercetin, catechin, and syringic acid contents, respectively. While gallic, caffeic, and coumaric acid contents were decreased after fermentation by 59.24, 55.25, and 53.96%, respectively. Methanolic extracts of unfermented OP and fermented OP showed a maximum total antioxidant capacity of 144.81±1.47 and 187.57±4.00 mgVCE/l at a concentration of 10 and 6 mg/ml, respectively.Conclusion Solid-state fermentation of OP with K. marxianus strongly affected its total antioxidant capacity by increasing its content of several bioactive compounds.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):440-446
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_53_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Impact assessment of cadmium chloride on human cell lines and yeast
           knockout strains

    • Authors: Shimaa A.A Mousa, Abd El-Hamid A Haggran, Tahany M.A El-Kawokgy, Zakia A Abo El-Kheir, Shadia M.H Sabry, Shimaa E Rashad
      Pages: 447 - 455
      Abstract: Shimaa A.A Mousa, Abd El-Hamid A Haggran, Tahany M.A El-Kawokgy, Zakia A Abo El-Kheir, Shadia M.H Sabry, Shimaa E Rashad
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):447-455
      Background Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that contributes to pollution in the environment. Cd intoxication can lead to diseases in the liver, kidneys, and lungs, among other organs. The liver is the primary organ affected by Cd overdose.Objective To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on three different human cell lines and four different genotypes of yeast knockout strains.Materials and methods The effects of different concentrations of CdCl2 on cell viability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), lung cancer (A549), and normal lung cell carcinoma (Wi38) were investigated systematically using the MTT method. Moreover, flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle arrest using propidium iodide (PI) staining and to quantify apoptotic cell death using PI staining and Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. The gene expression of p53, casp3, and Bcl-2 was measured using qRT-PCR. The Comet methodology was used to indicate DNA damage of yeast knockout strains.Results and conclusion The MTT assay revealed that CdCl2 was highly potent against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), lung cancer (A549), and normal lung cell lines (Wi38) (IC50=3.12, 28.81, 191.14 μg/ml). These findings showed that CdCl2 reduced therapeutic efficacy in malignant cells at relatively low concentrations compared with nonmalignant cells, as well as confirmed the antitumor effect of the metal. CdCl2-damaged A549 cells revealed a significant increase in arrest of cell cycle in ‘S’ phases, and then apoptosis increased. Subsequently, when A549 cells were treated with a higher dosage of CdCl2, the gene expression of p53 and casp3 genes was upregulated, whereas Bcl-2 was downregulated. CdCl2 revealed its genotoxic activity at different concentrations of 10, 25, 50 μg/ml. MRE11, CLN1 and ZRC1 genes exhibited marked genotoxic effects, while MMT1 gene generated modret genotoxicity of yeast knockout strains. The Comet assay revealed that yeast cells were more responsive, which was indisputably demonstrated.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):447-455
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_59_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Therapeutic effects of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli-induced
           endometritis in rats

    • Authors: Amal M Aboelmaaty, Mohamed A Sayed, Mahmoud A Elgabry, Mohamed S Kotp, Ghadha I Fouad, Marwa E El-Shamarka, Ehab A Fouad, Ashraf H Soror, Shimaa T Omara
      Pages: 456 - 471
      Abstract: Amal M Aboelmaaty, Mohamed A Sayed, Mahmoud A Elgabry, Mohamed S Kotp, Ghadha I Fouad, Marwa E El-Shamarka, Ehab A Fouad, Ashraf H Soror, Shimaa T Omara
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):456-471
      Background Silver nanoparticles (AgO-NPs) have shown antimicrobial effects against a broad spectrum of microorganisms.Objectives To assess the antimicrobial effects of AgO-NPs prepared using an eco-friendly green method against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in vivo after inducing endometritis in rats.Materials and methods In female mice, LD50 of AgO-NPs was determined, followed by a chronic toxicity in female rats by oral administration of 0, 20, 30, and 40 mg of AgO-NPs daily for 4 weeks. The induced endometritis model in female rats was performed by inoculating two doses of E. coli (100 μl of 10×105 CFU) intravaginally. Seven days later, vaginal swabs were stained with Wright stain to confirm the development of endometritis and used to re-isolate the inoculated microorganism. Two doses of 100 μl containing 10 mg AgO-NPs were inoculated intravaginally. Estradiol, progesterone, liver and kidney functions, oxidants and antioxidants, and zinc were measured in collected blood samples of chronic toxicity and induced endometritis model.Results and conclusion LD50 of AgO-NPs was 800 mg/kg body weight (BW). The use of 40 (1 : 20 LD50), 30 (1 : 26.67 LD50), and 20 (1 : 40 LD50) mg/kg BW during the chronic toxicity experiment was safe as indicated by blood biochemical analyses. The chronic toxicity experiment resulted in normal liver and kidney functions, oxidant–antioxidant status, acute-phase proteins, and ovarian hormones. The green method-synthesized AgO-NPs showed efficacy against E. coli-induced endometritis, and rats responded to the treatment as indicated by the uterine cytology and the clinical analysis with mild adverse effects on both liver and kidney. In conclusion, AgO-NPs showed treatment of experimental uterine infections induced by E. coli in rats and were safe for longer administration in concentrations lower than 50 mg/kg BW.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):456-471
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_67_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Novel simple enzymatic potentiometric approach for toxicological
           assessment of anticholinesterase and Alzheimer’s drugs Enzymatic
           approach toxicological assessment

    • Authors: Safaa Omran, Eman M Shoukry, Eman F Mohamed, Elmorsy Khaled, Rehab O El-Attar
      Pages: 472 - 481
      Abstract: Safaa Omran, Eman M Shoukry, Eman F Mohamed, Elmorsy Khaled, Rehab O El-Attar
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):472-481
      Background and objectives A simple and sensitive enzymatic potentiometric biosensor has been developed for toxicological studies of anticholinesterase drugs based on their inhibitory effect on cholinesterase activity. To verify the applicability, eight pharmaceutical formulations for Alzheimer's treatment were assayed, namely rivastigmine, pyridostigmine, cyclopentolate, memantine, meclofenoxate, carbamazepine, oxfendazole, and methotrexate.Materials and methods Disposable screen-printed potentiometric sensors were utilized for monitoring the cholinesterase activity. The reaction conditions including the optimal enzyme substrate, incubation periods, and the linearity range for each drug were optimized for each drug.Results and conclusion Different sensitivities within subnanogram levels were reported based on the inhibitory effect of the aforementioned pharmaceutical compounds and their LD50 value. The proposed method showed improved sensitivity for the investigated compounds compared with their reported electroanalytical approaches. The introduced analysis protocol was successfully utilized for assaying the cited drugs in their pharmaceutical and environmental samples using a portable measuring system. Moreover, the toxicity of the pharmaceutical compounds against in-vitro cholinesterase enzymes studies can be performed with simple instrumentation requirements.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):472-481
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_80_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with
           energy-dispersive radiograph analysis of biodeteriorative metabolites
           produced by Aspergillus species

    • Authors: Marwa O Elnahas, Donia H Sheir, Osama Amer, Ali M El Hagrassi
      Pages: 482 - 495
      Abstract: Marwa O Elnahas, Donia H Sheir, Osama Amer, Ali M El Hagrassi
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):482-495
      Background and objectives Fungal deterioration of cultural heritage is a major problem that causes physical and chemical damage as well as esthetic alteration. In the current research, fungal species that exist on a brick sample obtained from Egyptian historical places were isolated and identified. Moreover, various metabolic products produced by the isolated fungal species were detected, which may play an important role in the deterioration of many historical buildings.Materials and methods Various fungi existing on brick samples collected from an Egyptian historical place were identified phenotypically and then confirmed molecularly based on the 18 S rDNA technique. The metabolites found in the chloroform extract of the isolated fungi were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitative mineralogical analysis of the deteriorated brick was studied by radiograph diffraction. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive radiograph was employed to identify the mineral compositions and surface structural morphology of the collected brick sample.Results and conclusion Three fungi showed the highest occurrence and were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus. The metabolites found in the chloroform extract of the three fungi were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which showed that 5­octadecene, (E) was common among A. niger, A. terreus, and A. flavus; nonadecane and E­15­heptadecenal were common between A. niger and A. flavus; α­cadinol, tetradecane, and hexadecane were common between A. niger and A. terreus; and trans­caryophyllene, α­humulene, tau­muurolol, and octadecane were common between A. terreus and A. flavus. In addition, there was a presence of other hydrocarbons and various organic acid esters that play a vital role in the brick deterioration. Moreover, radiograph diffraction and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive radiograph results showed that the brick sample contains Si, Fe, Ca, and Al, with small amounts of Na, Mg, and Cl. The fungal hyphae penetrating the brick sample were also detected. Our results demonstrate that fungi existence could result in physical deterioration by extending their hyphae through the brick pores resulting in stress. Fungi could also lead to chemical deterioration due to the production of different acids and acid derivatives that cause the brick demineralization via chelation of various metal. In addition, the production of various aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by the fungi could play an important role in the deterioration process.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):482-495
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_86_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A study on prescribing patterns in hemodialysis and renal transplantation
           patients

    • Authors: Abdul Nafih, Uday Venkat Mateti, Pradeep Shenoy, Sirimalla Shivaprasad, Jagadeesan Moorthy
      Pages: 496 - 501
      Abstract: Abdul Nafih, Uday Venkat Mateti, Pradeep Shenoy, Sirimalla Shivaprasad, Jagadeesan Moorthy
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):496-501
      Background Patients treated with hemodialysis and renal transplant require complex therapy regimens that manage comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and so on; as a result, they may develop drug-related issues. Inappropriate medication usage raises the risk of drug related problems, which can manifest as excessively extended hospital stays, higher expenses, and overuse of medical services. Prescribing pattern among the patients treated with hemodialysis and renal transplantation are not well characterized previously.Objectives The objective of the study is to investigate drug prescription trends in hemodialysis patients and to study the prescribing patterns of medications in kidney transplantation patients.Materials and methods The prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 8 months, i.e. from October 2021 to June 2022 in end stage CKD patients treating with maintenance hemodialysis and renal transplant. Different classes of drugs prescribed and percentage of drugs per prescription was estimated in this study. Data were analyzed descriptively.Results 105 patients recruited have been analyzed of which 76 (72.38%) were male and 29 (27.6%) were female. Polypharmacy (use of ≥5 medications) was observed in 91.5% in hemodialysis patients and 100% in renal transplant patients.The most prescribed drugs in hemodialysis patients were Cardiovascular Drugs 72 (100%), and in renal transplant patients, immunosuppressant were highly prescribed 33 (100%).Conclusion This study concludes that the cardiovascular agents and immunosuppressant were the most common drugs prescribed among the hemodialysis and renal transplant patients respectively. polypharmacy among overall patients were observed and it may initiate drug related problems.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):496-501
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_89_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Optimization of antibiotic production against Bacillus cereus by a mutant
           strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Egyptian Hamam Pharaon hot
           springs

    • Authors: Yasmin G Kortam, Wafaa M Abd El-Rahim, Olfat S Barakat, Usama M Segai, Mohamed Zakaria, Hassan Moawad
      Pages: 502 - 514
      Abstract: Yasmin G Kortam, Wafaa M Abd El-Rahim, Olfat S Barakat, Usama M Segai, Mohamed Zakaria, Hassan Moawad
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):502-514
      Background The growing threat of multidrug-resistant bacteria necessitates the development of new and effective antibiotics for pathogen control. Bacteria are widely distributed in nature and have a wide applied biotechnological potential for cleaning up the environment. They have been demonstrated by their ability to produce thousands of novel bioactive metabolites with many potential applications in agriculture, medical, pharmaceutical industries, and bioremediation. The nature and yield of the secondary metabolites produced by the bacteria are greatly influenced by nutrition factors and fermentation conditions. So, the bioactive metabolites can be increased by several folds by applying optimization studies of the factors affecting the production process.Objective To optimize antibiotic production against Bacillus cereus by a potent bacterial strain isolated from hot springs and identification of the antibiotic compounds produced by such a bacterial strain.Materials and methods Bacillus licheniformis mutant (M15/Amo) obtained by ethyl methane sulfonate treatment was optimized for antibiotic production. A Plackett–Burman Design was employed to determine the influence of independent variables on the antibiotic production by the B. licheniformis mutant strain. Response surface methodology was further used by applying a Box–Behnken Design to optimize the more effective variables. Supernatants were extracted using ethyl acetate as a solvent. The crude compounds were assayed to confirm the presence of antibacterial bioactive metabolites. The analysis of the target antimicrobial metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry.Results and conclusion The study is a trail to find microorganisms capable of producing antibiotics against B. cereus and optimize the conditions of antibiotic production by the isolated bacteria from hot springs. The highest antibiotic production was achieved in the presence of glucose and peptone as optimum carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The optimization of medium composition and fermentation conditions to produce antibiotics by the B. licheniformis mutant strain was studied. The effect of seven factors on antibiotic production was investigated. Optimization of antibiotic production by the B. licheniformis mutant strain using statistical modeling revealed that the mutant (M15/Amo) gave the highest antibiotic production using 3% glucose, 2.5% peptone, incubation time of 60 h at pH 7.5. The analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry showed the presence of seven compounds that have antipathogenic activity.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):502-514
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_91_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of metal organic framework as a new formulation for the
           treatment of main zoonotic foodborne pathogens

    • Authors: Ashraf M.A Barakat, Nawal A Hassanain, Marwa B Salman, Sabry A.S Sadek, Amal M Aboelmaaty, Nagwa S Rabie, Hassan A El fadaly, Reda M Abdelhameed
      Pages: 515 - 525
      Abstract: Ashraf M.A Barakat, Nawal A Hassanain, Marwa B Salman, Sabry A.S Sadek, Amal M Aboelmaaty, Nagwa S Rabie, Hassan A El fadaly, Reda M Abdelhameed
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):515-525
      Background Foodborne diseases pose serious threats to the health of people. Escherichia coli is the most important foodborne pathogen of public health interest.Objectives To assess metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity and incorporating the antibiotics onto MOFs for controlled release of antibiotics and also to solve the problem of antibiotic resistance, which is one of the most pressing issues in global public health.Materials and methods A total of 615 samples of animal and human origins were collected. Samples of poultry and poultry products (215), of meat and meat products (240), and of milk products (120), as well as stool samples from contact persons and food handlers (40) were collected from different localities in Cairo, Giza, and Qaluobya governorates during the period from October 2020 to September 2021. All samples were bacteriologically examined and morphologically characterized. The suspected isolates that have characteristics of E. coli species were identified to the serotype level. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of identified E. coli serotypes to the commonly used antibiotics in Egypt was carried out.Results and conclusion The results showed that the total percentage of E. coli spp. was 31.16%. E. coli spp. of 28, 35.7, 30, and 30% were isolated from sausage, beef, luncheon, and minced meat, respectively. E. coli spp. isolated from poultry liver, breast muscle, and wings were 35.33, 35.33, and 10%, respectively. The Karish cheese (55%) and yoghurt (35%) contained E. coli spp. Only 20% of human stool had E. coli. The total percentages of E. coli spp. in Cairo, Giza, and Qaluobya were 28.5, 39.33, and 36.66%, respectively. Serotypes identified from E. coli spp. were mainly O157 and non −O157 (O164, O26, O27, O53, O71, O95, O103, O111, O124, O125, O127, and O145). The isolated E. coli serotypes expressed high resistance to most of the used antibiotics (10/13, 76.9%) before adding nanoparticles. Three antibiotics showed the lowest resistance [imipenem (34.4%), cefotaxime (65.6%), and ceftriaxone (68.8%)] and after adding nanoparticles to the antibiotic discs, antibiotic resistance decreased to 29.5, 62.3, and 62.9%, respectively.Conclusion Regular epidemiological surveillance should be undertaken in monitoring the occurrence and distribution of E coli spp. Nanotechnology techniques can solve the problem of antibiotic resistance crisis in targeted organisms. Nanoparticles can penetrate the cell membrane of pathogenic microorganisms and interfere with important molecular pathways, formulating unique antimicrobial mechanisms. In combination with optimal antibiotics, nanoparticless have demonstrated synergy and may aid in limiting the global crisis of emerging bacterial resistance. MOF nanoparticles have antimicrobial activity, and incorporating the antibiotics onto MOFs to control the release of antibiotics helps to decrease the problem of antibiotic resistance.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):515-525
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_93_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Efficacy of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation versus oral
           midazolam-promethazine as sedative agents in pediatric patients: a
           comparative study

    • Authors: Karishma, Sonam Kohli, Mohammed P.K Rajeesh, Usha Balan, Basanta K Choudhury, Henston DSouza
      Pages: 526 - 530
      Abstract: Karishma , Sonam Kohli, Mohammed P.K Rajeesh, Usha Balan, Basanta K Choudhury, Henston DSouza
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):526-530
      Background Managing difficult and uncooperative pediatric dental patients is a challenging task. Conscious sedation has been propagated as a pharmacological means for handling such situations.Objective To evaluate the effects of sedation using nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation versus oral midazolam-promethazine in pediatric patients.Patients and methods A total of 100 pediatric patients were selected and divided into two equal categories: group 1 (midazolam-promethazine) and group 2 (N2O-O2). Ethical committee approval was obtained, and patients were assessed. Data collected were analyzed using an unpaired t test.Results Duration of sedation was found to be statistically significant, and a higher duration was found for group 1. No significant differences were noted in the behavior rating scale with either of the combinations and in pulse oximeter readings.Conclusion Midazolam/promethazine is better in inducing longer sedation than N2O/O2.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):526-530
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_78_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Theophylline and meloxicam-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS): rare
           case reports

    • Authors: Anjaly M Varghese, Naga V Kandra, Yakaiah Vangoori, Praveen K Uppala, Upendrarao Uttaravelli, Somarouthu V Saibaba, Butti Lavanya, Murali K Balijepalli
      Pages: 531 - 535
      Abstract: Anjaly M Varghese, Naga V Kandra, Yakaiah Vangoori, Praveen K Uppala, Upendrarao Uttaravelli, Somarouthu V Saibaba, Butti Lavanya, Murali K Balijepalli
      Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):531-535
      Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an infrequent, multisystemic, fatal, immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. SJS may be due to adverse effects of drug intake often characterized by mucocutaneous rash, bullae, and blisters spread over the skin and mucous membranes, hyperpigmentation, puffiness, erosive lesions on lips and face. The most common cause of drug-induced SJS is antimicrobials, followed by NSAIDs, allopurinol, antipsychotics, and antiepileptic drugs. Two cases of atypical SJS presentation associated with the use of theophylline and meloxicam are reported here. Early identification and appropriate corticosteroid therapy might improve the condition. The reason for publishing these case reports is to raise an alarm among our health care fraternity and common man regarding medication-induced SJS, which may be dreadful especially due to theophylline used in bronchial asthma and meloxicam used for osteoarthritis and thereby preventing the expected serious sequelae in SJS.
      Citation: Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2022 21(4):531-535
      PubDate: Wed,14 Dec 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_69_22
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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