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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Pharmacological Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1734-1140 - ISSN (Online) 2299-5684
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Platelets in COVID-19 disease: friend, foe, or both'

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      Abstract: Abstract Immuno-thrombosis of COVID-19 results in the activation of platelets and coagulopathy. Antiplatelet therapy has been widely used in COVID-19 patients to prevent thrombotic events. However, recent analysis of clinical trials does not support the major effects of antiplatelet therapy on mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, despite the indisputable evidence for an increased risk of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 disease. This apparent paradox calls for an explanation. Platelets have an important role in sensing and orchestrating host response to infection, and several platelet functions related to host defense response not directly related to their well-known hemostatic function are emerging. In this paper, we aim to review the evidence supporting the notion that platelets have protective properties in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity in the course of an inflammatory response, and this role seems to be of particular importance in the lung. It might, thus, well be that the inhibition of platelet function, if affecting the protective aspect of platelet activity, might diminish clinical benefits resulting from the inhibition of the pro-thrombotic phenotype of platelets in immuno-thrombosis of COVID-19. A better understanding of the platelet-dependent mechanisms involved in the preservation of the endothelial barrier is necessary to design the antiplatelet therapeutic strategies that inhibit the pro-thrombotic activity of platelets without effects on the vaso-protective function of platelets safeguarding the pulmonary endothelial barrier during multicellular host defense in pulmonary circulation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
       
  • Introduction to the special issue on “The Post-COVID Era: Advances and
           Challenges in Pharmacology”

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      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Note from editors

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      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Novel neurosteroid pregnanolone pyroglutamate suppresses neurotoxicity
           syndrome induced by tetramethylenedisulfotetramine but is ineffective in a
           rodent model of infantile spasms

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      Abstract: Background Neurosteroids are investigated as effective antidotes for the poisoning induced by tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) as well as treatments for epileptic spasms during infancy. Both these conditions are quite resistant to pharmacotherapy; thus, a search for new treatments is warranted. Methods In this study, we determined the efficacy of two novel neurosteroids, pregnanolone glutamate (PAG) and pregnanolone pyroglutamate (PPG), and tested these drugs in doses of 1–10 mg/kg (ip) against the TMDT syndrome and in our rodent model of infantile spasms. Results Only PPG in doses 5 and 10 mg/kg suppressed the severity of the TMDT syndrome and TMDT-induced lethality, while the 1 mg/kg dose was without an effect. Interestingly, the 1 mg/kg dose of PPG in combination with 1 mg/kg of diazepam was also effective against TMDT poisoning. Neither PAG nor PPG were effective against experimental spasms in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-triggered model of infantile spasms. Conclusions While evidence suggests that PAG can act through multiple actions which include allosteric inhibition of NMDA-induced and glycine receptor-evoked currents as well as augmentation of ɣ-aminobutyric acid subtype A (GABAA) receptor-induced currents, the agent appears to neither have the appropriate mechanistic signature for activity in the infantile spasm model, nor the adequate potency, relative to PPG, for ameliorating the TMDT syndrome. The full mechanisms of action of PPG, which may become a potent TMDT antidote either alone or in combination with diazepam are yet unknown and thus require further investigation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • KM-408, a novel phenoxyalkyl derivative as a potential anticonvulsant and
           analgesic compound for the treatment of neuropathic pain

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      Abstract: Background Epilepsy frequently coexists with neuropathic pain. Our approach is based on the search for active compounds with multitarget profiles beneficial in terms of potential side effects and on the implementation of screening for potential multidirectional central activity. Methods Compounds were synthesized by means of chemical synthesis. After antiseizure and neurotoxicity screening in vivo, KM-408 and its enantiomers were chosen for analgesic activity evaluations. Further safety studies included acute toxicity in mice, the effect on normal electrocardiogram and on blood pressure in rats, whole body plethysmography in rats, and in vitro and biochemical assays. Pharmacokinetics has been studied in rats after iv and po administration. Metabolism has been studied in vivo in rat serum and urine. Radioligand binding studies were performed as part of the mechanism of action investigation. Results Selected results for KM-408: Ki sigma = 7.2*10–8; Ki 5-HT1A = 8.0*10–7; ED50 MES (mice, ip) = 13.3 mg/kg; formalin test (I phase, mice, ip)—active at 30 mg/kg; SNL (rats, ip)—active at 6 mg/kg; STZ-induced pain (mice, ip)—active at 1 mg/kg (von Frey) and 10 mg/kg (hot plate); hot plate test (mice, ip)—active at 30 mg/kg; ED50 capsaicin test (mice, ip) = 18.99 mg/kg; tail immersion test (mice)—active at 0.5%; corneal anesthesia (guinea pigs)—active at 0.125%; infiltration anesthesia (guinea pigs)—active at 0.125%. Conclusions Within the presented study a novel compound, R,S-2-((2-(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethyl)amino)butan-1-ol hydrochloride (KM-408) with dual antiseizure and analgesic activity has been developed for potential use in neuropathic pain treatment. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Antiviral peptides against SARS-CoV-2: therapeutic targets, mechanistic
           antiviral activity, and efficient delivery

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      Abstract: Abstract The global pandemic of COVID-19 is a serious public health concern. Over 625 million confirmed cases and more than 6 million deaths have been recorded worldwide. Although several vaccines and antiviral medications have been developed, their efficacy is limited by the emerging new SARS-CoV-2 strains. Peptide-based therapeutics is a fast-growing class of new drugs and have unique advantages over large proteins and small molecules. Antiviral peptides (AVPs) are short polycationic antivirals with broad-spectrum effects, which have been shown to exert both prophylactic and therapeutic actions against reported coronaviruses. The potential therapeutic targets of AVPs are located either on the virus (e.g., E-protein and S-protein) to prohibit viral binding or host cells, particularly, those present on the cell surface (e.g., ACE2 and TMPRSS2). Despite AVPs having promising antiviral effects, their efficacy is limited by low bioavailability. Thus, nanoformulation is a prerequisite for prolonged bioavailability and efficient delivery. This review aimed to present an insight into the therapeutic AVP targets on both virus and host cells by discussing their antiviral activities and associated molecular mechanisms. Besides, it described the technique for discovering and developing possible AVPs based on their targets, as well as the significance of using nanotechnology for their efficient delivery against SARS-CoV-2.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Impact of SARS CoV-2 /COVID-19 infection on the course of advanced chronic
           liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma

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      Abstract: Background About 20% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop COVID-19—the disease that has dominated health care in the last two years. The course of COVID-19 in patients with advanced liver disease tends to be severe, patients also suffer from a higher risk of complications and death. The primary object of this study was to assess the risk and causes of death in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods From a group of 4,314 patients hospitalized at Jerzy Gromkowski Regional Specialist Hospital in Wroclaw (Poland) due to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 infection between March 15, 2020, and January 31, 2022, we selected a cohort of 31 patients with liver cirrhosis (12 women and 19 men) and 7 patients with HCC developed on the cirrhotic liver (1 woman, 6 men). The control group included 123 patients without liver disease. In the entire cohort, we analyzed the course of COVID-19 infection, baseline oxygen demand, liver function (assessed using the CTP—Child-Turoctte-Pugh score and MELD—Model of End-Stage Liver Disease scales), length of hospitalization, development of acute-on-chronic liver failure, and deaths. Results The mean age of the patients was 56.6 years in the liver cirrhosis group, 63.3 years for patients with (HCC) hepatocellular carcinoma, and 64 years in the control group. Time of hospitalization averaged 15.52 days and 11.14 days for patients with liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, respectively. For the control group, the average duration of the hospital stay was 11.61 days. With respect to baseline liver function assessed using the CTP score, in the cirrhosis group 10 patients were CTP class A, 19 patients were class B and 9 patients were class C. The cancer group included 3 patients with class A, 2 patients with class B, and 2 patients with class C. In the studied cohort, 22 patients had a baseline MELD score < 12 points, and in 15 patients was > 12. In the HCC group, it was, respectively, CTP A:3, B: 2, C: 2, and MELD < 12: 3, ≥12: 4 people. Most of these patients presented with a progression of liver disease. Fifteen patients died, including 12 with cirrhosis and 3 with HCC, accounting for 39.47% in the entire cohort, 39% in the cirrhotic group and 43% in the HCC group, and 13 in the control group (10.6%), There was a clear statistical difference between the mortality rate in the group with liver disease and in the control group. Conclusions Infection with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in patients with cirrhosis and HCC tends to have a more severe course and leads to exacerbation of the liver disease. The most common cause of death in the analyzed cohort infected with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 was the progression of liver disease, complicated by liver failure.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • The effects of the recurrent social isolation stress on fear extinction
           and dopamine D2 receptors in the amygdala and the hippocampus

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      Abstract: Background The present study assessed the influence of recurrent social isolation stress on the aversive memory extinction and dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) expression in the amygdala and the hippocampus subnuclei. We also analyzed the expression of epigenetic factors potentially associated with fear extinction: miRNA-128 and miRNA-142 in the amygdala. Methods Male adult fear-conditioned rats had three episodes of 48 h social isolation stress before each fear extinction session in weeks intervals. Ninety minutes after the last extinction session, the D2R expression in the nuclei of the amygdala and the hippocampus (immunocytochemical technique), and mRNA levels for D2R in the amygdala were assessed (PCR). Moreover, we evaluated the levels of miRNA-128 and miRNA-142 in the amygdala. Results It was found that recurrent social isolation stress decreased the fear extinction rate. The extinguished isolated rats were characterized by higher expression of D2R in the CA1 area of the hippocampus compared to the extinguished and the control rats. In turn, the isolated group presented higher D2R immunoreactivity in the CA1 area compared to the extinguished, the control, and the extinguished isolated animals. Moreover, the extinguished animals had higher expression of D2R in the central amygdala than the control and the extinguished isolated rats. These changes were accompanied by the increase in miRNA-128 level in the amygdala in the extinguished isolated rats compared to the control, the extinguished, and the isolated rats. Moreover, the extinguished rats had lower expression of miRNA-128 compared to the control and the isolated animals. Conclusions Our results suggest that social isolation stress impairs aversive memory extinction and coexists with changes in the D2R expression in the amygdala and hippocampus and increased expression of miRNA-128 in the amygdala.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • Evaluation of the 5-HT2C receptor drugs RO 60-0175, WAY 161503 and
           mirtazepine in a preclinical model of comorbidity of depression and
           cocaine addiction

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      Abstract: Background Epidemiological data indicate a high rate of comorbidity of depression and cocaine use disorder (CUD). The role of serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptors in the mechanisms responsible for the coexistence of depression and CUD was not investigated. Methods We combined bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), an animal model of depression, with intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement in male rats to investigate two 5-HT2C receptor agonists (Ro 60-0175 (RO) and WAY 161503 (WAY)) and the 5-HT2C-receptor preferring antagonist mirtazapine (MIR; an antidepressant), with the goal of determining whether these drugs alter cocaine-induced reinforcement and seeking behaviors. Additionally, neurochemical analyses were performed following cocaine self-administration and its abstinence period in the brain structures in OBX rats and SHAM-operated controls. Results Acute administration of RO reduced, while WAY non-significantly attenuated cocaine reinforcement in both rat phenotypes. Moreover, RO or WAY protected against cocaine-seeking behavior after acute or after repeated drug administration during extinction training in OBX and SHAM rats. By contrast, acutely administered MIR did not alter cocaine reinforcement in both rat phenotypes, while it’s acute (but not repeated) pretreatment reduced cocaine-seeking in OBX and SHAM rats. In neurochemical analyses, cocaine reinforcement increased 5-HT2C receptor levels in the ventral hippocampus; a preexisting depression-like phenotype enhanced this effect. The 10-daily cocaine abstinence reduced 5-HT2C receptor expression in the dorsolateral striatum, while the coexistence of depression and CUD enhanced local receptor expression. Conclusion The results support a key role of 5-HT2C receptors for treating CUD and comorbid depression and CUD. They may be backs the further research of pharmacological strategies with drug targeting receptors. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
       
  • Health-related quality of life in survivors of severe COVID-19 infection

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      Abstract: Background Long-term effects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized as having a significant impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Understanding HRQoL status for each patient affected by long COVID-19 and its determinants may have a key role to prevent and treat this condition. Methods In this prospective observational study conducted in a large academic COVID-19 hospital in Rome, participants were contacted 2 years after hospital admission for severe COVID-19. To assess HRQoL, EQ-5D-5L and Visual analog scale (EQ VAS) standard questionnaires were administered by interview. Logistic regression model was used to the five health dimensions as dependent variables (0 = no problem, 1 = some/extreme problem). Key results In 137 enrolled patients, the mean pre-COVID and post-COVID EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS score were 0.97 (SD 0.06), 0.79 (SD 0.26) and 72.38 (SD 15.18), respectively. After subdivision of the participants for clinical and social variables, the EQ-5D-5L index resulted significantly lower than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Female gender, unemployed status, and chronic comorbidities were the most common predictors for having any problems in each EQ-5D-5L domain, while also older age and higher Body Mass Index (BMI) showed to be related to a lower EQ-VAS score. Conclusion HRQoL showed to be still low in patients 2 years after acute severe COVID-19. Given the significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 on long-term chronic symptoms, predictors of poor outcomes must be considered during the acute phase of illness to plan a tailored follow-up path for each patient.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
       
  • Efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines: a systematic review and network
           meta-analysis of phase 3 randomized controlled trials

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      Abstract: Abstract Several vaccines have been approved for the prevention of COVID-19. However, no head-to-head trials comparing their clinical efficacy have been performed. This network meta-analysis aims to identify those, among the competing existing vaccines, conferring the maximum protection against COVID-19. A literature search was done in Medline (via PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Library databases for phase 3 randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of different COVID-19 vaccines. Search results were screened and eligible studies were included to perform a network meta-analysis in software ‘R’ version 4.1.2 using a random effect model. Cochrane’s ‘Risk of Bias tool (RoB2)’ was used for quality assessment. Raw data from the included studies was used for network meta-analysis. Assessment of inconsistency was not possible as no study compared two or more vaccines directly. A forest plot for indirect comparison of various COVID-19 vaccines was obtained. Rankogram and ‘P’ scores were obtained to rank the vaccines based on the indirect evidence of their comparative efficacy. A total of 17 randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of 16 COVID-19 vaccines, were included in the network meta-analysis. A total of 361,386 participants was included in this network meta-analysis. Overall risk of bias among included studies was of ‘some concern’. All the COVID-19 vaccines had a statistically significant reduction of risk for contracting symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to the placebo, however, the maximum protection (RR 0.05) was with BNT126b2. The indirect comparison also revealed BNT126b2 vaccine confers the highest protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to all others included, with a ‘P’ score of 0.9771 followed by mRNA-1273, rAD26 & rAD5 and NVX-CoV2373. The evidence generated from this network meta-analysis indicates the good efficacy of all the included vaccines in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 as compared to placebo. The BNT126b2 vaccine was found to provide the highest protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 among all included followed by mRNA-1273, rAD26 & rAD5, NVX-CoV2373 and others.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Effect of metformin on the long non-coding RNA expression levels in type 2
           diabetes: an in vitro and clinical trial study

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      Abstract: Background It has been suggested that the anti-hyperglycemic effect of metformin could be associated with its impact on long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression levels. Accordingly, in the current study, we evaluated the effect of metformin on the expression of H19, MEG3, MALAT1, and GAS5 in in vitro and in vivo situations. Methods The effect of hyperglycemia and metformin treatment on the lncRNAs expression level was evaluated in HepG2 cells. A total of 179 age- and sex-matched subjects, including 88 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 91 healthy volunteers, were included in the case–control phase of the study. Moreover, 40 newly diagnosed patients participated in the study’s open-labeled non-controlled clinical trial phase. The expression levels of lncRNA in HepG2 cells and whole blood samples were determined using QRT-PCR. Results In vitro results showed that hyperglycemia induced H19 and MALAT1 and decreased GAS5 expression levels. Moreover, metformin decreased H19 and increased GAS5 expression in high glucose-treated cells. Case–control study findings revealed that the circulating levels of H19, MALAT1, and MEG3 were significantly elevated in T2D patients compared to the control subjects. Finally, results showed that the level of circulating H19 levels decreased while GAS5 increased in T2D patients after taking metformin for 2 months. Conclusion The results of the current study provided evidence that metformin could exert its effect in the treatment of T2D by altering the expression levels of H19 and GAS5.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
       
  • Alcohol and breast cancer

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      Abstract: Abstract Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death in women worldwide. In women, breast cancer includes over half of all tumours caused by alcohol. This paper discusses both ethanol metabolism and the mechanisms of mammary tumourigenesis caused by alcohol. Numerous signalling pathways in neoplastic transformation following alcohol consumption in women have been presented. In addition, primary and secondary prevention, phytochemicals, synthetic chemicals, specific inhibitors of enzymes and selective receptor modulators have been described.
      PubDate: 2022-10-30
       
  • Recent review of COVID-19 management: diagnosis, treatment and vaccination

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      Abstract: Abstract The idiopathic Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached global proportions; the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a public health emergency during the month of January 30, 2020. The major causes of the rise of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are genetic mutations and recombination. Some of the variants with high infection and transmission rates are termed as variants of concern (VOCs) like currently Omicron variants. Pregnant women, aged people, and immunosuppressed and compromised patients constitute the most susceptible human population to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially to the new evolving VOCs. To effectively manage the pathological condition of infection, the focus should be directed towards prevention and prophylactic approach. In this narrative review, we aimed to analyze the current scenario of COVID-19 management and discuss the treatment and prevention strategies. We also focused on the complications prevalent during the COVID-19 and post-COVID period and to discuss the novel approaches developed for mitigation of the global pandemic. We have also emphasized on the COVID-19 management approaches for the special population including children, pregnant women, aged groups, and immunocompromised patients. We conclude that the advancements in therapeutic and pharmacological domains have provided opportunities to develop and design novel diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. New advanced techniques such as RT-LAMP, RT-qPCR, High-Resolution Computed Tomography, etc., efficiently diagnose patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the case of treatment options, new drugs like paxlovid, combinations of β-lactum drugs and molnupiravir are found to be effective against even the new emerging variants. In addition, vaccination is an essential approach to prevent the infection or to reduce its severity. Vaccines for against COVID-19 from Comirnaty by Pfizer-BioNTech, SpikeVax by Moderna, and Vaxzevria by Oxford-AstraZeneca are approved and used widely. Similarly, numerous vaccines have been developed with different percentages of effectiveness against VOCs. New developments like nanotechnology and AI can be beneficial in providing an efficient and reliable solution for the suppression of SARS-CoV-2. Public health concerns can be efficiently treated by a unified scientific approach, public engagement, and better diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • Cannabidiol attenuates generalized tonic–clonic and suppresses limbic
           seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-3) strain

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      Abstract: Background Cannabidiol (CBD) has been of rapidly growing interest in the epilepsy research field due to its antiseizure properties in preclinical models and patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, little is known about CBD effects in genetic models of epilepsies. Here we assessed CBD dose–response effects in the Genetically Epilepsy Prone Rats (GEPR-3) strain, which exhibits two types of epileptic seizures, brainstem-dependent generalized tonic–clonic seizures and limbic seizures. Methods GEPR-3 s were submitted to the audiogenic seizure (AGS) protocol. Acute AGS are brainstem-dependent generalized tonic–clonic, while repeated AGS (or audiogenic kindling, AK), an epileptogenic process, leads to increased AGS severity and limbic seizure expression. Therefore, two different dose–response studies were performed, one for generalized tonic–clonic seizures and the other for limbic seizures. CBD time-course effects were assessed 2, 4, and 6 h after drug injection. GEPR-3 s were submitted to within-subject tests, receiving intraperitoneal injections of CBD (1, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg/ml) and vehicle. Results CBD dose-dependently attenuated generalized tonic–clonic seizures in GEPR-3 s; CBD 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced brainstem-dependent seizure severity and duration. In fully kindled GEPR-3 s, CBD 10 mg/kg reduced limbic seizure severity and suppressed limbic seizure expression in 75% of animals. Conclusions CBD was effective against brainstem and limbic seizures in the GEPR-3 s. These results support the use of CBD treatment for epilepsies by adding new information about the pharmacological efficacy of CBD in suppressing inherited seizure susceptibility in the GEPR-3 s.
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • Correction: Real-world experience with molnupiravir during the period of
           SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant dominance

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      PubDate: 2022-10-03
       
  • Acknowledgments

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      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Correction to: Selective cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of
           5-(2-bromo-5- methoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione against NCI-H292
           human lung carcinoma cells

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      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Luteolin alleviates vascular dysfunctions in CLP-induced polymicrobial
           sepsis in mice

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      Abstract: Background Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is thought to have health-promoting properties as a part of human diet and has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of luteolin pre-treatment on vascular dysfunctions in sepsis induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in the mouse model. Methods Mice were divided into four groups: sham, luteolin plus sham, CLP, and luteolin plus CLP. Luteolin was administered (0.2 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally one hour (h) before CLP surgery in mice. 20 ± 2 h post CLP surgery, the isolated thoracic aorta of mice was assessed for its vascular reactivity to noradrenaline (NA) and acetylcholine (ACh). To explore the underlying mechanism, aortic mRNA expressions of α1D adrenoceptors, eNOS and iNOS were investigated. Results In mice with CLP-induced sepsis luteolin pre-treatment markedly increased the survival time and attenuated serum lactate level. The CLP group manifested the reduced vascular reactivity to NA and this deficit was restored by luteolin pre-treatment. However, luteolin pre-treatment did not improve α1D adrenoceptors down-regulation observed in septic mice aorta. In the presence of 1400 W, the NA contractile response was significantly restored in CLP mice aortic tissue in comparison with the respective control of septic mice and further enhanced in the presence of luteolin. Luteolin reduced the iNOS mRNA expression and iNOS-derived nitrite production. Pre-treatment with luteolin restored the endothelial dysfunction in septic mice aorta by improving eNOS mRNA expression and enhanced eNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) production in septic mice aorta and aortic iNOS gene expression and inducible NO production. Conclusion The present study suggests that the vasoplegic state to NA in aorta was restored through the iNOS pathway and endothelial dysfunction was reversed via eNOS and NO production pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Introduction to the Special Section on “Energy metabolism in the
           physiology and pathology of the central nervous system”

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      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s43440-022-00421-9
       
 
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