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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmakoèkonomika : Modern Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Farmasains : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kefarmasian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Open Access  
Future Drug Discovery     Open Access  
IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Developmental Research     Open Access  
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Medicine in Drug Discovery     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal  
AboutOpen     Open Access  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Isan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJPS)     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)     Open Access  
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X     Open Access  
Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
SynOpen     Open Access  
Matrix Science Pharma     Open Access  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
High-Throughput     Open Access  
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Praktis     Open Access  
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
FarmaJournal     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Manufacturing Chemist     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacovigilance     Open Access  
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  

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Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2055-0294
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Pharmacist perceptions of a “good death” and differences in perception
           between patients with cancer, oncologists, and oncology nurses: a
           questionnaire survey

    • Abstract: Background For pharmacists expected to encounter the deaths of many of their patients in the near future, it is important to understand the perception of a “good death” for patients with cancer who are likely to be aware of the circumstances of their poor prognosis. In this study, we clarified pharmacists’ perceptions of a “good death” and considered the differences in perception among patients with cancer, oncologists, and oncology nurses. Methods From April to June 2022, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted on pharmacists working in hospitals and pharmacies and on members of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences. The questionnaire consisted of 57 questions, called attributes, developed by Miyashita et al. to investigate the perception of “good death” in Japanese cancer medicine. The importance of those attributes was investigated using a 7-point Likert scale. Results Three thousand four hundred thirty-two pharmacists were made aware of this survey, and 207 participated in the survey. The responses of pharmacists to the 57 questions were very similar to those of the oncologists. Among them, “Fighting against disease until one’s last moment” and “Not making trouble for others” had very low importance, which was the most significantly different from the responses of patients with cancer. “Fighting against disease until one’s last moment” tended to be significantly underestimated by pharmacists engaged in patient guidance and interview compared to that by pharmacists not engaged in the duty (p = 0.02). Also, when we compared pharmacists with or without qualifications related to cancer and palliative care, there was no significant difference in the importance of “Fighting against disease until one’s last moment.” However, the importance of “Not making trouble for others” for qualified pharmacists was significantly underestimated (p = 0.04). Conclusion Since pharmacists understand the limits of chemotherapy, they may want to be close to the patient but may not strongly agree with the “Fighting against cancer” component that patients with cancer prefer. It may be necessary to reconsider better ways of approaching the wishes and satisfaction of patients with cancer under the care of medical professionals in the field of oncology.
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
       
  • Is higher lymphocyte count a potential strategy for preventing chronic
           kidney disease in patients receiving long-term dasatinib treatment'

    • Abstract: Background Dasatinib, which is used to treat treating chronic myeloid leukemia, induces increases in blood lymphocytes during the treatment. In addition, neutrophil–lymphocyte count ratio (NLR) is associated with the related to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it has not been reported whether development of CKD during long-term dasatinib treatment is related to lymphocyte count or NLR. This study aimed to reveal the relationship between CKD and lymphocyte count or NLR during long-term dasatinib treatment. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in patients treated with dasatinib for 6 months or longer. Risk factors for CKD development were explored using multivariate analysis. Changes in maximal lymphocyte count and NLR over time were examined separately. Results A total of 33 patients in CKD group (n = 8) and No CKD group (n = 25) who received dasatinib were enrolled. In univariate analysis, significant differences between the groups were observed in maximal lymphocyte count, lymphocytosis, age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline. As the factor independently associated with the development of CKD, maximal lymphocyte count (odds ratio 0.999, 95% confidence interval: 0.999–1.000, p = 0.033) was identified. In this analysis, age had borderline significance (odds ratio 1.073, 95% CI: 0.999–1.153, p = 0.054)]. After 6 months of dasatinib therapy, lymphocyte count was significantly lower in CKD group [median (range), 2184 (878‒3444)/μL] than in the No CKD group [3501 (966‒7888)/μL] (p = 0.020). However, no significant difference in lymphocyte count was observed between the groups at the last follow-up. During the study period, the median NLR in the No CKD group fluctuated between 1.11 and 1.42, and median NLR in CKD group was increased from 1.13 to 2.24 between after 6 months of dasatinib therapy and the last follow-up. Conclusions The development of CKD during dasatinib therapy was associated with lower maximal lymphocyte counts. In contrast, the higher levels of lymphocytes induced during dasatinib treatment may prevent CKD progression.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
       
  • Higher incidence of pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain in younger patients
           receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy: a real-world experience

    • Abstract: Background Pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for various types of cancer. However, pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain (PIBP) is a relevant adverse event occurring during cancer treatment. Thus, we aimed to determine the risk factors for PIBP in real-world clinical practice. Main body We retrospectively collected the clinical records of patients who received pegfilgrastim to support myelosuppressive chemotherapy with at least a 10% risk of FN between 2015 and 2018 at our center. Patients received pegfilgrastim 3.6 mg between days 2 and 7 after chemotherapy administration (day 1) for primary or secondary prophylaxis against FN. All adverse events were recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients who experienced intermittent bone pain in the back, femur, or other anatomic sites after the pegfilgrastim administration were considered to have PIBP. To evaluate the relationship between PIBP incidence and patient characteristics, we performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of possible risk factors for PIBP. We analyzed the data of 305 patients (median age: 63 years), who underwent 1220 chemotherapy cycles with pegfilgrastim per cycle. Univariate analysis revealed that female sex (vs. male sex), younger age (< 55 years vs. ≥ 55 years), and solid cancers (vs. hematologic cancers) had significantly higher ORs (p < 0.05). However, only younger age (< 55 years) was an independent risk factor for PIBP on multivariate analysis (OR 3.62, 95% confidence interval 1.51–8.69, p = 0.004). Conclusions Younger age (< 55 years) was significantly associated with a higher risk of PIBP among patients receiving chemotherapy with a ≥ 10% risk of FN. Therefore, oncologists should meticulously formulate management plan for PIBP in younger patients after administering pegfilgrastim.
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
       
  • Population pharmacokinetics and limited sampling strategy for therapeutic
           drug monitoring of mycophenolate mofetil in Japanese patients with lupus
           nephritis

    • Abstract: Background Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of the immunosuppressive agent mycophenolic acid (MPA), is difficult to administer because of the pharmacokinetic complexity of MPA. Although dosage adjustment according to the 12-h area under the concentration–time curve (AUC0-12) is thought to be desirable, multiple blood samplings for AUC calculation may pose a clinical challenge. A limited sampling strategy (LSS) would provide a solution; however, little is known about MPA pharmacokinetics in lupus nephritis patients, especially in those with Asian backgrounds, or few, if any, LSSs are reported for them. Methods Thirty-four adult Japanese patients receiving MMF for lupus nephritis were examined retrospectively. MPA pharmacokinetics were investigated, and a PPK model was developed using Phoenix® NLME™ software. Single and double blood sampling strategies from Bayesian estimation using the PPK model and from multiple linear regression were compared. Tolerability was also evaluated. Results In the pharmacokinetic analysis, renal function and serum albumin had significant effects on dose-normalized AUC0-12; and serum albumin, concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and iron/magnesium oxide did on dose-normalized maximum concentration. As a PPK model, a two-compartment model was developed with a transit absorption model and first-order elimination, in which creatinine clearance and serum albumin were covariates for MPA clearance. The double sampling strategy at 1 and 4 h by multiple linear regression showed the best agreement with the observed AUC0-12 (r2 = 0.885). Of the single sampling strategies, the one at 6 h by Bayesian estimation performed best (r2 = 0.769). The tolerability evaluation showed that correlations were suggested for gastrointestinal involvement. Conclusions The present study developed the first PPK model of MPA for Japanese lupus nephritis patients. As for LSSs, a double sampling strategy at 1 and 4 h by multiple linear regression would work best; when only a single blood sampling is allowed, a strategy at 6 h by Bayesian estimation using the PPK model developed in this study would be best. The LSSs good enough for clinical use may facilitate safer, more effective, and individualized therapy.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
       
  • Monitoring of serum magnesium levels during long-term use of proton pump
           inhibitors in elderly japanese patients: is it really necessary or
           not'

    • Abstract: Background Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to significantly lower serum magnesium levels in patients in the USA and Europe. The package inserts of PPIs in these countries clearly state that healthcare professionals should consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically thereafter. However, the package inserts of PPIs in Japan do not clearly mention the monitoring of magnesium levels. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term use of PPIs and the lower serum magnesium concentrations in elderly Japanese patients. Methods Using a retrospective observational approach, a total of 264 Japanese outpatients were included in the study. Patients over the age of 75 years were considered elderly. Serum magnesium levels of the patients were measured in units of 0.1 mg/dL between January 2016 and June 2022 at the Higo Internal Medicine Clinic and Ai Pharmacy in Kyoto, Japan. Results Four of the 264 eligible patients were diagnosed with hypomagnesemia. Three were PPI non-users, and one was a PPI user. Serum magnesium concentrations were significantly lower in PPI users (n = 47) than in non-users (n = 85; 2.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.2 ± 0.3 mg/dL, p < 0.05) in the 132 elderly patients. Comorbidity included diabetes mellitus in both PPI users (23.4%) and non-users (57.6%) and hyperlipidemia in both PPI users (61.7%) and non-users (41.2%). Conclusion PPIs are commonly used oral drugs for elderly patients. There was an association between the long-term use of PPIs and lower serum magnesium concentrations in elderly patients. Although the difference in the decrease in serum magnesium concentrations was within the normal range of serum magnesium levels, health care professionals should consider monitoring serum magnesium levels periodically in elderly patients receiving long-term PPIs.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
       
  • Prognostic factors in patients with septic disseminated intravascular
           coagulation treated with thrombomodulin: the effect of reduced
           thrombomodulin dose; a single-center, retrospective, observational study

    • Abstract: Background Human soluble recombinant thrombomodulin (TM alfa), a treatment for septic Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), is recommended for patients with severe renal dysfunction in reduced doses. However, no studies have examined yet how dose reduction affects clinical efficacy. In this study, we investigated the significance of the TM alfa dose as a prognostic factor in clarifying the clinical background factors related to the clinical effect of TM alfa in patients with septic DIC. Methods This study involved 102 patients with septic DIC admitted to a single-center intensive care unit between April 2013 and March 2020, receiving TM alfa. The following factors were retrospectively collected from the medical records of the target patients: (1) patient background, (2) sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, (3) Japanese Association for Acute Medicine DIC diagnostic criteria score, (4) DIC treatment information, (5) TM alfa dose per bodyweight (normal dose: 0.06 mg/kg or reduced dose: 0.02 mg/kg), (6) DIC resolution within 7 days after the start of TM alfa administration (DIC resolution), (7) all deaths within 30 days after the start of TM alfa administration (30-days-all-cause mortality), (8) presence or absence of new hemorrhagic side effects after the start of TM alfa administration. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with DIC resolution and 30-days-all-cause mortality. Results The SOFA score (odds ratio: 95% confidence interval, 0.76: 0.66–0.89), pneumonia (0.24: 0.08–0.75), and reduced dose administration of TM alfa (0.23: 0.08–0.66) were independent of and negatively related to the DIC resolution. For the 30-days-all-cause mortality, the SOFA score (1.66: 1.31–2.09), pneumonia (9.50: 2.49–36.25), and TM alfa dose reduction (3.52: 1.06–11.69) were independent, poor prognostic factors. We found no association between the hemorrhagic side effects and the TM alfa dose per bodyweight. Conclusions The reduced dose of TM alfa for patients with severe renal dysfunction was observed to be an influential factor for DIC resolution and 30-day all-cause mortality, as were SOFA scores and pneumonia. Further studies are required in the future to verify this finding.
      PubDate: 2022-12-12
       
  • Pharmacist’s interventions in factors contributing to medication errors
           reduces medication errors in self-management of patients in the
           rehabilitation ward

    • Abstract: Background The number of medications, number of administrations per day, dosing frequency on indicated day, and medication from multiple prescriptions are the medication factors prone to medication errors in self-management that have been previously reported. However, whether pharmacists actually intervene in medication factors that affect medication error occurrences in self-management is unclear. Therefore, we conducted this study to clarify these issues. Method This study included patients who underwent self-management in the rehabilitation ward of Higashinagoya National Hospital. From April 2019 to March 2020, a one-pharmacist period existed, and from April 2020 to March 2021, a two-pharmacist period existed. The number of patient instructions and interventions were expected to increase with an increase in the number of pharmacists. Considering this to be an environment of differential interventions by pharmacists, a pre-post-test design was conducted with all self-managed patients in both the time periods. The primary and secondary endpoints were the proportion of medication error occurrences and proportion of pharmacist’s interventions in medication factors, respectively. Result The proportions of medication error occurrences during the one-pharmacist and two-pharmacist periods were 41% (71/173) and 28% (51/180) (relative risk 0.690, 95% confidential interval 0.515–0.925), respectively. The proportion of pharmacist’s interventions in medication factors in the one-pharmacist period was 13% (22/173) and 22% (40/180) in the two-pharmacist period; there was an increase in the proportion of pharmacist’s interventions in medication factors in the two-pharmacist period. Conclusion The proportion of medication error occurrences was significantly lower in the two-pharmacist period than that in the one-pharmacist period. This can be attributed to the increase in the proportion of pharmacist’s interventions in medication factors. Therefore, an environment in which pharmacists could intervene in the medication factors to prevent medication errors in advance is necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-12-12
       
  • Potentially inappropriate medication use in the elderly: physicians’ and
           hospital pharmacists knowledge, practice, confidence, and barriers

    • Abstract: Background Inappropriate medication prescribing and dispensing by physicians and pharmacists is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Signifying the importance of healthcare professionals’ knowledge of potentially inappropriate prescribing tools/ guidelines which would improve overall health outcomes. Beers Criteria is one of the most used guidelines that list specific potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). This study aimed to investigate physicians’ and hospital pharmacists’ awareness, knowledge, practice, confidence, and barriers to the use of Beers criteria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 66 hospital pharmacists and 31 family medicine physicians working in a teaching hospital in Nigeria, between May and September 2021 using a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge of PIMs was assessed using 11 clinical vignettes based on the 2019 Beers Criteria. Practice behavior towards elderly patients was assessed using a 5-item statement with a 5-point Likert scale. Perceived barriers to the appropriate use of Beers Criteria were assessed using a 15-item statement. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 66 hospital pharmacists and 31 family medicine physicians participated in the study. Only (24; 36.4%) pharmacists and (4; 12.9%) physicians knew guidelines that listed specific PIMs. In all (21; 31.8%) pharmacists and (11; 35.4%) physicians demonstrated good knowledge of Beers Criteria, while most pharmacists (55; 83.3%) and physicians (29; 93.5%) reported good practice when dealing with elderly patients in terms of asking relevant questions and considering their ages while dispensing medications. Knowledge scores were not significantly associated with hospital pharmacists’ socio-demographics. Most of the physicians and pharmacists were confident in the care provided for geriatric patients. The majority (66; 100.0%) pharmacists and (28; 93.5%) physicians suggested training through seminar presentations as a measure to improve the use of Beers’ criteria. Lack of time to counsel patients was a major barrier recounted by both physicians and pharmacists. Conclusion Healthcare professionals that participated in this study had satisfactory practice, although a gap in the knowledge of hospital pharmacists and family medicine physicians was noted. In addition to creating awareness among healthcare professionals and training on PIMs and Beers’ criteria, a multidisciplinary approach to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing and dispensing would greatly help reduce the incidence of potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly patients.
      PubDate: 2022-12-09
       
  • Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase contribute to allopurinol metabolism
           in rats

    • Abstract: Background Allopurinol is used to treat hyperuricemia and gout. It is metabolized to oxypurinol by xanthine oxidase (XO), and aldehyde oxidase (AO). Allopurinol and oxypurinol are potent XO inhibitors that reduce the plasma uric acid levels. Although oxypurinol levels show large inter-individual variations, high concentrations of oxypurinol can cause various adverse effects. Therefore, it is important to understand allopurinol metabolism by XO and AO. In this study we aimed to estimate the role of AO and XO in allopurinol metabolism by pre-administering Crl:CD and Jcl:SD rats, which have known strain differences in AO activity, with XO inhibitor febuxostat. Methods Allopurinol (30 or 100 mg/kg) was administered to Crl:CD and Jcl:SD rats with low and high AO activity, respectively, after pretreatment with or without febuxostat. The serum concentrations of allopurinol and oxypurinol were measured, and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was calculated from the 48 h serum concentration-time profile. In vivo metabolic activity was measured as the ratio AUCoxypurinol /AUCallopurinol. Results Although no strain-specific differences were observed in the AUCoxypurinol/AUCallopurinol ratio in the allopurinol (30 mg/kg)-treated group, the ratio in Jcl:SD rats was higher than that in Crl:CD rats after febuxostat pretreatment. Contrastingly, the AUC ratio of allopurinol (100 mg/kg) was approximately 2-fold higher in Jcl:SD rats than that in Crl:CD rats. These findings showed that Jcl:SD rats had higher intrinsic AO activity than Crl:CD rats did. However, febuxostat pretreatment substantially decreased the activity, as measured by the AUC ratio using allopurinol (100 mg/kg), to 46 and 63% in Crl:CD rats and Jcl:SD rats, respectively, compared to the control group without febuxostat pretreatment. Conclusions We elucidated the role of XO and AO in allopurinol metabolism in Crl:CD and Jcl:SD rats. Notably, AO can exert a proportionately greater impact on allopurinol metabolism at high allopurinol concentrations. AO’s impact on allopurinol metabolism is meaningful enough that individual differences in AO may explain allopurinol toxicity events. Considering the inter-individual differences in AO activity, these findings can aid to dose adjustment of allopurinol to avoid potential adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2022-12-08
       
  • Utilizing questionnaires for medication counselling of patients taking
           antipsychotics during the COVID-19 pandemic: a single site, community
           pharmacy-based survey study

    • Abstract: Background During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, general strategies for preventing infectious diseases, such as social distancing and the use of protective equipment have resulted in communication barriers between pharmacists and patients in community pharmacies. Methods To resolve these communication challenges to medication counselling during the COVID-19 pandemic, during their waiting time at our community pharmacy, we administered two questionnaires to patients receiving at least one antipsychotic drug. The first questionnaire, Questionnaire (A), included questions about any problems with wearing a mask and face shield, forgetting to take medication and adverse effects of their medication. The second questionnaire, Questionnaire (B), included questions regarding the evaluation of medication counselling and the ease of using the first questionnaire. Results Questionnaire (A) showed that 26.8% of participants had communication problems due to the mask and face shield and 33.8% sometimes forgot to take their medication. The most common adverse effects of the medications were weight gain (43.7%), dry mouth (39.4%) and sexual dysfunction (31%). In the case of Questionnaire (B), more than 80% responded that it was either very easy or easy to fill out Questionnaire (A). Additionally, 93% participants responded that they felt either very good or good about the pharmacist’s medication counselling using Questionnaire (A). Conclusions These results strongly suggest that the utilization of questionnaires in medication counselling may be a useful strategy for preventing communication problems between pharmacists and patients receiving antipsychotics in community pharmacies during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-12-07
       
  • A case report involving suppressed nuclear receptor transcription factors
           4a1 and Stevens-Johnson syndrome induced by a single dose of pembrolizumab
           and successfully treated with early steroid administration, resulting in
           complete remission of stage III lung cancer

    • Abstract: Background Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs). A positive correlation between treatment efficacy and irAEs has been reported. Clinical indicators are required for appropriate interventions, such as steroid administration, to prevent fatal outcomes. Nuclear receptor transcription factor 4a (Nr4a), which is involved in T-cell anergy, exhaustion, and regulatory T cells, were observed not only in thymocytes but in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We describe a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) that was induced by a single dose of pembrolizumab and successfully treated with steroids, leading to complete remission of lung cancer during the monitoring of immune response indices, including Nr4a1 mRNA. Case presentation A 68-year-old male with squamous cell lung cancer (cT2aN3M0, stage IIIb) received a single dose of pembrolizumab (200 mg). On Day 21 of treatment, SJS appeared, and the patient was treated with prednisolone 60 mg/day, which was gradually tapered off. After the disappearance of the SJS symptoms, complete remission of cancer was achieved and was maintained for more than 1 year. Acute increases in the plasma IFN-γ and IL-17 concentrations and a decrease in IL-10 concentrations were observed at the onset of SJS. Simple regression analysis showed that these changes in IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 were significantly influenced by the decreased expression of Nr4a1 mRNA. The pembrolizumab levels and prednisolone doses significantly influenced the suppression of Nr4a1 mRNA levels. Although Nr4a1 mRNA levels in the current case fluctuated during the observation period, they were significantly lower than those in a nonresponding progressive-disease case, as well as a pembrolizumab-responding case with non-SJS but similar background. The suppression of Nr4a1 in current case, might result in upregulation of cytotoxic T cells and a reduction in functional regulatory T cells, promoting favorable antitumor immunity. Conclusion The immune responses involving Nr4a1 suppression might relate to complete remission of lung cancer in this case, despite causing SJS, which may be attributed to synergistic effects from pembrolizumab treatment and intervention with steroids. The current case indicates the preliminarily clinical benefit of evaluating Nr4a expression-related indices as the possible clinical covariates and may serve as a milestone for appropriate future chemotherapy interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Evaluation of factors affecting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine
           kinase inhibitor-induced hepatotoxicity in Japanese patients with
           non-small cell lung cancer: a two-center retrospective study

    • Abstract: Background Gefitinib and erlotinib, are epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and are currently recommended for non-small cell lung cancer stage IV in the elderly and in patients with decreased performance status in the Japanese Lung Cancer Society Guideline, but they occasionally caused severe hepatotoxicity requiring postponement or modification of treatment. However, little is known about the risk factors for hepatotoxicity in patients receiving gefitinib and erlotinib. In this study, we investigated the factors influencing hepatotoxicity in Japanese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with gefitinib or erlotinib monotherapy. Methods Japanese patients with NSCLC who started gefitinib or erlotinib monotherapy from January 2005 to December 2017 at Kanazawa University Hospital or Kanazawa Medical University Hospital were included in this study. Factors affecting hepatotoxicity were retrospectively investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 102 patients who received gefitinib and 95 patients who received erlotinib were included in the analysis. In the gefitinib group, a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 was associated with an increased risk of hepatotoxicity (OR = 4.571, 95% CI = 1.486–14.056, P = 0.008). In the erlotinib group, concomitant use of acid-suppressing medications (AS), namely proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2 receptor antagonists, was associated with a reduced risk of hepatotoxicity (OR = 0.341, 95% CI = 0.129–0.900, P = 0.030). Conclusions BMI ≥ 25 in patients treated with gefitinib increased the risk of hepatotoxicity. In contrast, AS combination with erlotinib reduced the risk of hepatotoxicity. Thus, because different factors influence the risk of hepatotoxicity, monitoring for adverse events should take into account patient background factors and concomitant medications.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Association between cumulative cisplatin dose and reproductive and sexual
           functions in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors treated with
           bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin therapy: a case series study

    • Abstract: Background The impact of cumulative dose of cisplatin on gonadal function has not been clarified. We evaluated whether the cumulative cisplatin dose affects the resumption of menses in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). Main body A case series study of women < 40 years with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors receiving BEP was conducted at Mie University Hospital. Using linear regression analysis, the correlation between the cumulative dose and resumption of menses was determined. Additionally, we compared the resumption of menses stratified by age (age < 20 years or ≥ 20 years). Ten women (median age: 20 [interquartile range: 15–26] years) have received a median of 4 cycles of BEP. The median period of resumption of menses was 5 months, which had no correlation with cumulative doses of bleomycin (143 mg/m2 [71–220], y = -0.0069 x + 6.15, r = 0.19, P = 0.60), etoposide (1,533 mg/m2 [900–2,000], y = 0.0004 x + 4.56, r = 0.08, P = 0.82), and cisplatin (363 mg/m2 [225–400], y = 0.01 x + 1.67, r = 0.35, P = 0.32). Although the resumption of menses was comparable across ages, the cumulative doses of cisplatin were higher in patients aged < 20 years than in those aged ≥ 20 years (400 mg/m2 [363–450] vs. 225 mg/m2 [225–350], P = 0.02). Similarly, patients aged < 20 years had a higher cumulative etoposide dose than those aged ≥ 20 years (2,000 mg/m2 [1,533–2,250] vs. 900 mg/m2[900–1,600], P = 0.03). Moreover, patients aged < 20 years received more cycles of BEP than those aged ≥ 20 years (4 cycles vs. 3 cycles, P = 0.03). Short conclusion All patients can recover menses after BEP, and the resumption of menses appeared at the median period of 5 months after BEP. The timing of menses resumption did not correlate with the cumulative doses of cisplatin.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • Actual status of patient information sharing among healthcare delivery
           facilities: a survey by the third subcommittee, committee on academic
           research, the Japanese society of hospital pharmacists

    • Abstract: Background Information sharing among medical professionals is important for providing quality medical care. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the actual status of information sharing between hospitals and other healthcare delivery facilities by surveying information sharing among the pharmaceutical departments of Japanese hospitals in 2020 conducted by the Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Methods Responses were received from 3612 (43.6%) of the 8278 target medical institutions between May 2020 and August 2020. Results The proportions of hospitals that shared information with community pharmacies, other hospitals, and long-term nursing homes were 40.6%, 36.4%, and 27.3%, respectively. While tracing reports were the most common tool used by hospitals for information sharing with community pharmacies (54.3%), drug summaries were used for sharing information with other hospitals and long-term nursing homes (77.4% and 78.0%, respectively). The proportion of hospitals sharing information with community pharmacies and other hospitals showed a tendency to increase as the number of hospital beds increased. No relationship could be established between the number of hospital beds and the proportion of hospitals sharing information with long-term nursing homes. Conclusion Information between hospitals and community pharmacies was shared primarily using tracing reports, whereas information between hospitals and other hospitals and long-term nursing homes was primarily shared via drug summaries.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00260-z
       
  • Metallothionein synthesis increased by Ninjin-yoei-to, a Kampo medicine
           protects neuronal death and memory loss after exposure to amyloid β1-42

    • Abstract: Background It is possible that increased synthesis of metallothioneins (MTs), Zn2+-binding proteins is linked with the protective effect of Ninjin-yoei-to (NYT) on Zn2+ toxicity ferried by amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42). Methods Judging from the biological half-life (18-20 h) of MTs, the effective period of newly synthesized MT on capturing Zn2+ is estimated to be approximately 2 days. In the present paper, a diet containing 3% NYT was administered to mice for 2 days and then Aβ1-42 was injected into the lateral ventricle of mice. Results MT level in the dentate granule cell layer was elevated 2 days after administration of NYT diet, while the administration reduced intracellular Zn2+ level increased 1 h after Aβ1-42 injection, resulting in rescuing neuronal death in the dentate granule cell layer, which was observed 14 days after Aβ1-42 injection. Furthermore, Pre-administration of NYT diet rescued object recognition memory loss via affected perforant pathway long-term potentiation after local injection of Aβ1-42 into the dentate granule cell layer of rats. Conclusion The present study indicates that pre-administration of NYT diet for 2 days increases synthesis of MTs, which reduces intracellular Zn2+ toxicity ferried by extracellular Aβ1-42, resulting in protecting neuronal death in the dentate gyrus and memory loss after exposure to Aβ1-42.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00257-8
       
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and elevated levels of C-reactive
           

    • Abstract: Background COVID-19 has become a significant health threat and a primary healthcare concern among the most vulnerable patients with cancer. Patients with COVID-19 who have lung cancer are at great risk and need careful monitoring if they are affected. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-positive patients with lung cancer and the risks associated with anticancer medication. Methods This study was a single-center, retrospective cohort study. Patients with lung cancer who presented with COVID-19 during hospitalization were divided into two groups: those who presented with respiratory failure and those who did not. The patient's background, clinical laboratory values, and anticancer drugs used for therapy were investigated to identify risk factors for respiratory failure. Results Thirty-one patients were included in the study; 18 (58.1%) were in the respiratory failure group and 13 (41.9%) were in the group without respiratory failure. In the respiratory failure group, there was a significant difference in using immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use within 90 days (p = 0.025) and the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) level (p = 0.017). The analysis of the operating characteristic of the receiver revealed a cutoff value of 2.75 mg/dL for CRP (area under the curve = 0.744, sensitivity 0.611, specificity 0.923). Conclusions A history of ICI within 90 days and elevated CRP (≥ 2.75 mg/dL) levels are potential factors leading to respiratory failure in COVID-19-affected patients undergoing chemotherapy for lung cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00259-6
       
  • Evaluating the safety and efficiency of robotic dispensing systems

    • Abstract: Background Although automated dispensing robots have been implemented for medication dispensing in Japan, their effect is yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of automated dispensing robots and collaborative work with pharmacy support staff on medication dispensing. Methods A robotic dispensing system integrating the following three components was established: (1) automated dispensing robot (Drug Station®), which is operated by pharmacy support staff, (2) automated dispensing robot for powdered medicine (Mini DimeRo®), and (3) bar-coded medication dispensing support system with personal digital assistance (Hp-PORIMS®). Subsequently, we evaluated the incidences of dispensing errors and dispensing times before and after introducing the robotic dispensing system. Dispensing errors were classified into two categories, namely prevented dispensing errors and unprevented dispensing errors. The incidence of dispensing errors was calculated as follows: incidence of dispensing errors = total number of dispensing errors/total number of medication orders in each prescription. Results After introducing the robotic dispensing system, the total incidence of prevented dispensing errors was significantly reduced (0.204% [324/158,548] to 0.044% [50/114,111], p < 0.001). The total incidence of unprevented dispensing errors was significantly reduced (0.015% [24/158,548] to 0.002% [2/114,111], p < 0.001). The number of cases of wrong strength and wrong drug, which can seriously impact a patient’s health, reduced to almost zero. The median dispensing time of pharmacists per prescription was significantly reduced (from 60 to 23 s, p < 0.001). Conclusions The robotic dispensing system enabled the process of medication dispensing by pharmacist to be partially and safely shared with automated dispensing robots and pharmacy support staff. Therefore, clinical care for patients by pharmacists could be enhanced by ensuring quality and safety of medication.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00255-w
       
  • Association between time in therapeutic range of tacrolimus blood
           concentration and acute rejection within the first three months after lung
           transplantation

    • Abstract: Background Tacrolimus is a key drug in immunosuppressive therapy following lung transplantation. The blood tacrolimus levels are likely to fluctuate in the early postoperative period, and failure to maintain the tacrolimus trough level in target ranges is a risk factor for rejection. However, there is little information about the relationship between the time in therapeutic range (TTR) of the tacrolimus trough level (tacrolimus TTR) and clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the association between tacrolimus TTR and acute rejection (AR) within the first three months after lung transplantation. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent lung transplantation at a single center. The target tacrolimus trough levels were 10–15 ng/mL, and tacrolimus TTR was calculated using the Rosendaal method. The cut-off value of the tacrolimus TTR was estimated by receiver operating characteristic analysis based on AR. Results The study included 90 patients. AR was observed in 26 patients. In this study, ‘‘early-AR’’ was defined as any AR within 2 weeks post-transplant (n = 22) and ‘‘late-AR’’ was defined as any AR after 1-month post-transplant (n = 4). For early AR, the relationship between tacrolimus TTR and the onset of AR was examined. There were no differences in the tacrolimus TTR between the early-AR group and non-AR group (35.7 ± 22.4 vs 31.5 ± 19.9%, P = 0.416). For late-AR, the relationship with tacrolimus TTR was examined every 10 d. The tacrolimus TTR during postoperative days (POD) 21–30 and POD 31–onset was significantly lower in the late-AR group than the no-AR group (50.0 ± 7.1 vs. 71.8 ± 18.0% and 37.0 ± 26.6 vs. 68.9 ± 31.5%, P < 0.05, respectively). The cutoff value of the tacrolimus TTR during POD 21–30 was estimated as 55.0%. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a lower tacrolimus TTR is a predictor of late AR. A tacrolimus TTR of 55% or higher is necessary to reduce the risk of AR during this period after lung transplantation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00256-9
       
  • Effect of risk factors for acneiform rash induced by anti-epidermal growth
           factor receptor antibody drugs on survival: a retrospective observational
           study

    • Abstract: Background We previously reported that high body weight was a risk factor affecting the onset of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody drug-induced acneiform rash. The current study investigated the relationship between risk factors for anti-EGFR antibody drug-induced acneiform rash and survival probability in colorectal cancer patients, as well as effects of drug withdrawal, dose reduction, or treatment discontinuation on treatment continuation. Methods This retrospective study included 67 patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR antibody drugs for the first time. Results The survival time and acneiform rash grade of patients with high body weight (≥ 67.2 kg) were significantly longer and higher than those of patients with low body weight (< 67.2 kg). Moreover, the treatment continuation time of patients with drug withdrawal or dose reduction was significantly longer than that of patients without drug withdrawal or dose reduction or with/without treatment discontinuation. Meanwhile, the treatment continuation time of patients with treatment discontinuation was significantly shorter than that of patients with drug withdrawal or dose reduction or those without drug withdrawal, dose reduction, or treatment discontinuation. Conclusions High body weight is a novel prognostic factor for patients receiving cancer drugs with anti-EGFR antibody drugs. Hence, the results of this study suggest that patients with high body weight should be carefully monitored for the development of acneiform rash when receiving anti-EGFR antibody drugs as cancer drug therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00253-y
       
  • Analysis of the thinking process of pharmacists in response to changes in
           the dispensing environment using the eye-tracking method

    • Abstract: Background Pharmacists must understand the mechanisms by which dispensing errors occur and take appropriate preventive measures. In this study, the gaze movements of pharmacists were analyzed using an eye-tracking method, to elucidate the thinking process of pharmacists when identifying target drugs and avoiding dispensing errors. Methods We prepared verification slides and projected them on a large screen. Each slide comprised a drug rack area and a prescription area; the former consisted of a grid-like layout with 55 drugs and the latter displayed dispensing information (drug name, drug usage, location number, and total amount). Twelve pharmacists participated in the study, and three single-type drugs and six double-type drugs were used as target drugs. We analyzed the pharmacists’ method of identifying the target drugs, the mechanisms by which errors occurred, and the usefulness of drug photographs using the error-induction (−) /photo (+), error-induction (+) / (+), and error-induction (+) /photo (−) models. Results Visual invasion by non-target drugs was found to have an effect on the subsequent occurrence of dispensing errors. In addition, when using error-induction models, the rate of dispensing error was 2.8 and 11.1% for the photo (+) and photo (−) models, respectively. Furthermore, based on the analysis of eight pharmacists who dispensed drugs without errors, it was clear that additional confirmation of “drug name” was required to accurately identify the target drug in the photo (+) model; additionally, that of “location number” was required to pinpoint directly the position of target drug in the photo (−) model. Conclusions By analyzing the gaze movements of pharmacists using the eye-tracking method, we clarified pharmacists’ thinking process which was required to avoid dispensing errors in a complicated environment and proved the usefulness of drug photographs in terms of both reducing the complexity of the dispensing process and the risk of dispensing errors. Effective measures to prevent dispensing errors include ensuring non-adjacent placement of double-type drugs and utilization of their image information.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1186/s40780-022-00254-x
       
 
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