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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
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Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1029-5933
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Metabolic Profiling, and In Vitro
           and In Silico Antioxidant Studies of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of
           Acalypha fimbriata Schum. & Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae)

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      Authors: Chinwe S. Alaribe, Akolade R. Oladipupo, Idris A. Ariyo
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: In this study, phenolic and flavonoid contents of various extracts of Acalypha fimbriata Schum. & Thonn. leaf and stem were determined. The metabolic profile of one extract was studied using GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using in vitro and in silico studies. Four extracts each of leaf and stem of A. fimbriata have phenolic contents of 0.17 - 0.29 and 0.15 - 0.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The leaf extracts have flavonoid content of 0.13 - 0.40 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract, which was slightly higher than that of the stem (0.18 - 0.33 mg QE/g extract). Extracts of the stem (IC50 range 50.82 - 62.94 μg/ml) showed greater DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of the leaves (IC50 range 61.03 - 82.24 μg/ml). All the extracts (except the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of the leaf) demonstrated significant NO• radical scavenging activities, which were comparable (p > 0.05) to that of ascorbic acid. The extracts of the leaf and stem displayed lower reducing powers (0.07 - 0.56 and 0.09 - 0.50, respectively) compared to ascorbic acid (0.16 - 0.63) and showed considerable total antioxidant capacity values of 0.27 - 0.55 and 0.36 - 0.54 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. Some metabolites, including preg-4-en-3-one-17α-hydroxyl-17β-cyano, salirepin hexaacetate, eugenol and squalene were identified in one of the extracts. These metabolites gave good binding affinities against cytochrome P450, lipoxygenase, myeloperoxidase, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase, indicating good antioxidant potentials. This study reveals that extracts of A. fimbriata possess broad spectrum of antioxidant activity and could be exploited as sources of antioxidant constituents to manage oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Wound Healing, Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of 80%
           Methanol Leaf Extract of Vernonia leopoldi (Sch. Bip. Ex Walp.) Vatke in
           Mice

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      Authors: Aklilu Asmelash, Workineh Shibeshi, Haile Alemayehu, Ephrem Engidawork
      Pages: 15 - 32
      Abstract: The leaf of Vernonia leopoldi (Sch. Bip. Ex Walp.) Vatke has been used traditionally for the treatment of wounds. However, literature is scanty on experimental wound healing activity of the plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the wound healing activity of the 80% methanol extract of V. leopoldi leaves in mice. Wound healing activity was investigated using excision and incision wound models. The extract was studied for wound healing activity by formulating a topical ointment using two concentrations (5% and 10% w/w). Simple ointment base (negative control) and 0.2% nitrofurazone (w/v) ointment (positive control) were used for comparison of wound healing activity. The wound contraction, period of epithelialization and tensile strength were evaluated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was tested at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg using carrageenan hind paw oedema model. In vitro antibacterial activity was also assessed using agar well diffusion technique at concentrations of 50 - 500 µg/µl against both Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria that are associated with wound infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined. Treatment of wound with ointment containing 5% and 10% (w/w) methanol extract exhibited significantly increased (p < 0.05) wound contraction rate, shorter epithelialization time, and higher skin breaking strength as well as increased collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation and vascularization as evidenced by histopathological analysis. The 10% (w/w) extract ointment showed better wound healing activity than the 5% ointment and its effect was comparable to that of nitrofurazone. The extract also produced dose-dependent significant reductions (p < 0.01 - 0.001) of inflammation as compared to the control. The extract also displayed better antibacterial activity on Gram-positive than Gram-negative organisms. From the results, it can be concluded that the 80% methanol extract of V. leopoldi is endowed with wound healing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. 
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Protective Activity of a Polyherbal Formulation in
           Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression

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      Authors: Nura Kaoje Abubakar, Kabir Magaji Hamid, Mohammed Haruna Yeldu, Musa Ismail Abdullahi, Abubakar Babangida Usman, Isah Sulaiman Yahaya, Mansur Aliyu
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: A previous study reported on the immunostimulatory activity of a polyherbal formulation (PHF). However, its potential in immunosuppression is unknown. This murine study evaluates the protective activity of aqueous extract of the PHF in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppression. The PHF consists of Acacia polyacantha, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Allium sativum and Bauhinia rufescens. The study was conducted on 20 rats in four groups: normal saline group, negative control, treatment control group, and experiment group. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)-IgG, serum IFN-γ, and IL-4 were measured using digital Vernier calliper and sandwich ELISA, respectively. Histology of liver, thymus, and bone marrow was examined. No significant difference was observed between treatment control and experimental groups in DTH response (p > 0.05). No significant difference prevailed in the mean concentration of KLH-IgG from PHF treatment group to CP treatment group in the experiment (p = 0.48). Also, the serum IFN-γ level in the PHF-treatment group was not statistically different from the CP-treatment group (p = 0.293). The serum level of IL-4 in the PHF-treatment group was also not significantly different from that of the CP-treatment group (p = 0.139). The histology of PHF treated group showed similar features to that of normal and treatment controls. The formulation has demonstrated good protective ability in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed rats.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Standardization of the Leaves of Ajuga remota Benth

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      Authors: Yokabd Dechassa, Mariamawit Yonathan Yeshak
      Pages: 45 - 64
      Abstract: Herbal medicines are extensively utilized across the world. In Ethiopia, people use Ajuga remota Benth to treat high blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, malaria, fever, ascariasis, stomach pain, diarrhoea, evil eye, and retained placenta. However, work has not been done on standardizing the herb. Thus, the aim of this study was to standardize the leaves of A. remota. Fresh leaves, powdered leaves, 80% methanol, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaves of A. remota were evaluated using macroscopic and microscopic characterization, fluorescence analysis, physicochemical characterization, phytochemical analysis and residual analysis. Macroscopically, fresh leaves of A. remota were 17 - 62 mm (length) × 7.5 - 23 mm (width); 1 - 2 mm thick and dark sea green coloured, soft, fibrous, had a very bitter taste and a fruity odour. Microscopic characterization showed turgid guard cells, anisocytic stomata, epidermal cells (stratum spinosum), parenchymatous (aerenchyma) cells, pointed trichomes, spiral tracheids, and xylem fibre in powdered leaves of A. remota. The powder of the plant gave characteristic colours in fluorescence analysis under visible and 366 nm UV light. The powder was also studied for swelling index (2.392), foaming index (100), bitterness value (8400), extractive value (aqueous: 34.33% and methanol: 21.16%), moisture content (6.43%), total ash value (27.10%), water-soluble ash (11.43%), acid-insoluble ash (7.38%), tannin content (0.016%), and powder fineness (moderately fine). TLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, and FT-IR fingerprinting were produced. Ajugarin I, dodecyl acrylate, and hexacosane were identified as analytical marker compounds. In the residual analysis of the leaves of A. remota, soil took the highest percent (0.83%) among foreign matters. Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and aerobic bacterial count, mould, yeast, coliform, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella species were quantified. 228Ac (7 ± 1.8 Bq kg-1) and 40K (530 ± 34 Bq kg-1) radionuclides with a low dose were detected. The findings provide the standards for identification and authentication of the plant.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Compliance of Pre-Packed Juice to Labelling Requirements and Use of Food
           Labelling Information for Purchasing Decision Among Consumers in Addis
           Ababa, Ethiopia

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      Authors: Tsega Kokobe, Tesfa Marew, Teferi Gedif Fenta
      Pages: 65 - 76
      Abstract: With the changing in consumers’ lifestyles and industrialization, pre-packaged food products have become standard. Information on food labels on pre-packaged food products is considered a means to help consumers make informed food choices. In Ethiopia, there has been a limited information on food labels' compliance with food labeling requirements and customers' use of labeling information for purchasing decision making. This study was designed to fill this information gap. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2019. Thirty-one juice products and 403 consumers from 15 supermarkets were included in the study. Compliance was assessed using the 17 standard requirements for food labeling information. On the other hand, the use of food labeling information by consumers was measured by considering the ten essential food labeling information, and frequent use of labeling information was considered as a "good practice". Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and a checklist. Data were entered into Epi data entry and analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were performed. From the consumers included in the study, 204 (50.6%) were males, 248 (61.5%) attended college, and 105 (26.1%) reported frequently using food labeling information. Sex, marital status, monthly income, and level of awareness were associated (p < 0.05) with the use of food labeling information. Only 6 (19.4%) pre-packed juice products fulfilled all standard labeling requirements, while 1 (3.2%) fulfilled only 50% of the requirements.  In consideration of the increasing use of pre-packed food products and associated public health risks, the study demonstrated the need for improving public awareness about the use of food labeling information, and strengthening regulatory enforcement practices.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Selected Ethiopian Plant Extracts on
           HeLa and PC3 Cell Lines

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      Authors: Jibrel Abdulkadir Emam, Estifanos Ele Yaya, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Sammer Yousuf , Tetemke Mehari Gebremedhin
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: In vitro anticancer activity of the 80% ethanolic extracts of 23 traditionally used Ethiopian medicinal plants was studied using cervical (HeLa) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colourimetric assay. Mouse embryonic fibroblast normal cells(3T3) were used for evaluation of safety of extracts. Among the tested plants, Dovyalis abyssinica, Scadoxus multiflorus, Rumex abyssinicus, and Euphorbia abyssinica exhibited significant anticancer activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 6.2, 14.6, 18.6, and 22.8 µg/ml, respectively. Similarly, S. multiflorus and D. abyssinica significantly inhibited PC3 cell growth with IC50 values of 9.8 and 17.4 µg/ml, respectively. Extracts of S. multiflorus, R. abyssinicus, and E. abyssinica demonstrated high selectivity index. D. abyssinica showed selective toxicity against HeLa (SI = 2.51) cancer cells, but not against PC3 (SI = 0.98) cancer cells. Evaluation for safety indicated that about 83.3% of the extracts under this study were nontoxic at 30 µg/ml. The findings of this study suggest that further bioactivity guided fractionation and phytochemical studies may lead to the discovery of novel anticancer compounds.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Twenty-two
           Ethiopian Medicinal Plants

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      Authors: Yonatan Alebachew, Daniel Bisrat, Kaleab Asres, Solomon Tadesse
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: The present study isolated and characterized knipholone from the active 80% methanol rhizome extract of a traditionally used endemic antimalarial plant of Ethiopia, Kniphofia insignis Rendle, using preparative thin-layer chromatography for the first time. The chemical structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis spectroscopic data and in comparison with previously reported results. The standard 4-day suppressive test against Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice was used for the in vivo antimalarial assay of the extract. At all tested doses, the extract showed significant inhibition of parasitaemia. In particular, the extract demonstrated  chemosuppression values of 24.35 and 43.87% at 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Results of the current study revealed that the extract of the plant has moderate in vivo antimalarial effect against P. berghei in mice.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Twenty-two
           Ethiopian Medicinal Plants

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      Authors: Jibrel Abdulkadir Emam, Estifanos Ele Yaya, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Sammer Yousuf, Tetemke Mehari Gebremedhin
      Pages: 89 - 94
      Abstract: The current study has been carried out to assess the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the 80% ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Ethiopian medicinal plants. Among the tested plants, Dodonaea angustifolia, Rumex nervosus, Carrisa spinarum, Pentas schimperiana, and Clerodendrum myricoides displayed good DPPH radical scavenging potential with IC50 values of 15.0, 26.9, 58.3, 62.5, and 78.8 µg/ml, respectively. Similarly, Dovyalis abyssinica, D. angustifolia, Rumex abyssinicus, and R. nervosus showed strong oxidative burst inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 10.2, 19.4, 24.8, 35.8 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, D. angustifolia and R. nervosus showed strong reactive oxygen species inhibitory activities.  The results of this study showed the potential use of herbal products as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents and provided scientific backing for utilizing these herbal preparations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.4314/epj.v37i1.8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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