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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 315)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 7)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Research Journal of Pharmacognosy
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-4458 - ISSN (Online) 2345-5977
Published by Iranian Society of Pharmacognosy Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Antiparasitic Effects and Cellular Mechanism of Astragalus maximus
           Chloroform Extract Against Clinical Isolates of Giardia lamblia

    • Abstract: Background and objectives:  Chemical drugs such as metronidazole, quinacrine and furazolidone are used to treat giardiasis. Although these drugs are useful in most cases, they are associated with some side effects. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antiparasitic effects and cellular mechanisms of Astragalus maximus chloroformic extract against both trophozoites and cysts of Giardia. Methods:  The extraction was done based on the maceration method with 70% methanol. The in vitro anti-Giardia effects of various concentrations of A. maximus extract (11.25, 22.5, and 450 mg/mL) were evaluated on cysts and trophozoites of G. lamblia for 15-360 min. In addition, the effects on the plasma membrane permeability and the induction of apoptosis in the trophozoites of G. lamblia were studied. Results: Astragalus maximus extract significantly (p<0.0001) declined the viability of cysts of G. lamblia; in both concentrations of 22.5 mg/mL and 45 mg/mL, the extract killed 100% of G. lamblia cysts after 240 and 360 min of incubation. The results also showed that the extract in both concentrations of 22.5 mg/mL and 45 mg/mL, killed 100% of G. lamblia trophozoites after 120 and 240 min incubation The findings revealed that treatment of G. lamblia trophozoites with A. maximus extract increased the permeability of the plasma membrane in a dose dependent response. The extract, especially at the concentration of 10 mg/mL, significantly (p<0.001) induced caspase-3 activation. Conclusion: The present study showed the promising in vitro antiparasitic effects of A. maximus extract against both trophozoites and cysts of G. lamblia by affecting the permeability of the plasma membrane and induction of apoptosis. Further investigations especially in animal models and clinical setting are required to clarify the accurate efficacy and mechanisms against G. lamblia infection.
  • Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on Sports
           Injuries: a Review of Patents

    • Abstract: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used for its therapeutic effects since a long time ago. Most of the healing properties of rosemary might be attributed to its antinociceptive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The present review covers the certified patents and discoveries on medicinal, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic properties of rosemary to disclose its brilliant value on athletes’ health. An extended literature review was carried out in Google Patent, US Patent, and Patentscope in the field of sports injuries, inflammation, and pain. Numerous patents uncovered the importance of rosemary to apply in various healing, pharmaceutical, and medicinal fields. These discoveries might also be used as complementary methods in sports medicine for sore muscle, muscle and ligament sprain, strain, bruise, spasm, tendinitis, tendon rupture, cartilage, and joint injuries. Due to a lack of clinical trials, the use of rosemary in the clinic has been limited to a few medicinal products. Considering the human trend to use phytocompounds rather than medications based on chemical compounds, precise attention must be devoted to linking the value of rosemary from basic science to clinical usage.  
  • Carvacrol Ameliorating Effects on Trimethyltin Chloride-Induced
           Neurotoxicity by Modulating the Interplay between Nrf2/Keap1/ARE Pathway
           and Sirt1

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a chemical with neurotoxic effects on central nervous system. Carvacrol is a phenolic monoterpenoid with antioxidative properties derived from oregano, thyme, and other plants. We aimed to explore carvacrol effects on TMT-induced oxidative damage focusing on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and Sirt1. Methods: Thirty- two male rats were divided into four equal groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (control) and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, sham) for 21 days, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were first treated with TMT (8 mg/kg) and then received normal saline and carvacrol (40 mg/kg) for 21 days, respectively. Finally, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) in serums and expressions of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), Keap1, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1) and Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) in the hippocampus of the rats were quantified. Results: TMT significantly decreased Nrf2, HO1, NQO1, Sirt1 expressions and TAC level, while markedly increased expression of Keap-1 and levels MDA and TOS compared with control groups. Carvacrol treatment significantly upregulated Nrf2, HO1, NQO1, and Sirt1 along with an increase in TAC level as compared with TMT-treated rats. On the other hand, carvacrol caused a significant decrease in the expression of Keap-1 and levels of MDA and TOS compared with controls. Conclusion: Our results suggested the potential neuroprotective effects of carvacrol on TMT-triggered neurotoxicity probably by reciprocal regulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway and Sirt1 activity.
  • Effect of Different Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum on Ochratoxin A
           Formation by Aspergillus ochraceus

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi contaminated agricultural products and have toxic effect in human and animals. Ochratoxin A is produced by many filamentous fungi species such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, and is classified as a possible carcinogen and nephrotoxic. Ganoderma lucidum is a famous mushroom with antifungal properties and probably preventive effect on toxin production. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitoxigenic properties of Iranian strain of G. lucidum as a natural antitoxigenic agent against harmful filamentous fungi in food industry. Methods: Different extracts of G. lucidum were prepared and the antifungal and antitoxigenic effects were studied on toxigenic Aspergillus ochraceus. Ethanolic, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were prepared by cold maceration method and compared with commercial extracts. Ochratoxin A was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detector in A. ochraceus culture media which was treated with the extracts. Results: The results expressed that the alcoholic extracts could inhibit fungal growth but the aqueous extracts were able to significantly prevent toxin production while the fungus totally grew. Conclusion: Ganoderma lucidum and its products, may be used as a pharmaceutical and nutraceutical mushroom and could be considered as safe and useful agents for prevention of fungal growth and mycotoxin formation in food and agricultural products.
  • Vaginal Honey as an Adjuvant Therapy for Standard Antibiotic Protocol of
           Cervicitis: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: More than half of the cervicitis cases are non-gonococcal and non-chlamydial. Therefore, the cure rate of the principal treatment protocol has reduced to less than 50%. Complementary therapy is an option for adjuvant therapy when standard medical treatment is not effective enough. Honey is used as a natural agent for wound healing and antibacterial effect. This study aimed to compare the effect of honey adjuvant therapy with the standard antibiotic therapy in improving the cure rate of cervicitis. Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 102 women diagnosed with cervicitis with standard criteria who referred to the gynecological clinic of Mousavi Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. They were randomly divided into two groups. The control group received the oral standard antibiotic treatment plus lubricant gel as placebo, and the intervention group received the oral standard treatment plus vaginal Ziziphus honey as adjuvant therapy. Both groups received the treatment once a day for two weeks. The symptoms and clinical findings of the patients were evaluated for three weeks following the initiation of the treatments. Results: All clinical symptoms of cervicitis significantly decreased after the treatment in both groups (p≤0.05), but the vaginal discharge of the intervention group reduced more (p≤0.05). In addition, the intervention group showed better results for the restoration of cervical erosion in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Vaginal honey adjuvant therapy can improve the efficiency of standard antibiotic treatment to reduce the clinical symptoms of cervicitis.  
  • The Effect of Boswellia Vaginal Gel on Oxidative Stress and Expression of
           Apoptotic Biomarkers in Vaginal Discharge of Women With Vaginitis

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Boswellia serrata is an important medicinal plant with strong antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Boswellia vaginal gel on apoptosis and oxidative damage in vaginal mucosal cells of women with vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Ninety-five women with vaginal candidiasis were enrolled in the clinical trial and received the gel for seven consecutive nights. The clinical symptoms of the disease including vaginal secretion, pain, itching, unpleasant odor, and dyspareunia were recorded. Vaginal discharges were collected before and after treatment for the assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using TBAR and FRAP methods, respectively. Expression of Bax, Bcl2, and Caspases-3 genes was surveyed by RT-PCR. Results: Gel therapy significantly decreased the frequency of pain, burning, itching, dyspareunia and secretion compared to the baseline (p<0.001). Boswellia vaginal gel treatment significantly improved TAC values (from 1.27 ± 0.41 μM/mL to 4.69 ± 0.53 μM/mL; p<0.001) and decreased MDA values (from 31.47 ± 6.69 nM/L to 13.85 ± 3.72 nM/L; p<0.001). The therapy caused a significant decrease in Bax and Casp3 expression, as well as Bax/Bcl2 ratio by 2.34-fold (p=0.018), 2.86-fold (p=0.002), and 12.72-fold (p<0.001), respectively. In contrast, BVG treatment significantly enhanced the expression of Bcl2 expression by 5.42- fold (p<0.001).  Conclusion: Vaginal candidiasis is remarkably linked to oxidative stress, reduction of the antioxidants and vaginal mucosal cells apoptosis. Boswellia vaginal gel has potential role to improve vaginitis symptoms by elevating antioxidants capacity, mitigating oxidative stress, as well as down-regulating of apoptotic factors.
  • Chemical Composition of the Lumpy Bracket Mushroom (Trametes gibbosa)

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Trametes species have been used for centuries in traditional medicine of Asian countries. Recently, some of the bioactive compound have been isolated and evaluated for therapeutic purposes from these species. The aim of this study was to report the isolation and structure elucidation of major sterols from fruiting bodies of Trametes gibbosa. Volatile compounds and antioxidant activities of the different mushroom extracts of mushroom were also examined. Methods: The fruiting bodies of T. gibbosa were extracted with n-hexane, methanol, and hot water, respectively. For isolation of sterols, the n-hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography and fractionated by step gradient of n-hexane: ethyl acetate. The volatile oil was prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. For evaluation of the antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were used. Moreover, the phenolic and carbohydrate contents were assessed using spectrophotometry methods. Results: The column chromatography of the n-hexane extract led to the isolation of three sterols. These compounds were identified for the first time in T. gibbosa as follows: ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (ergosterol); 5,8-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol; 5,9-epidioxy-8,14-epoxy-ergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol. The most abundant volatile compounds were identified as aldehydes (29.01%), fatty acids (21.2%) and alcohols (12.07%). Based on antioxidant results, methanol and hot water extracts showed the highest activities in DPPH (EC50=588.56±36.37 µg/mL) and FRAP (432±6.6 mmol Fe2+/g DW) methods, respectively. Conclusion: Trametes gibbosa is a valuable source of mycochemicals such as sterols, carbohydrate and phenolics. Further investigations are required for evaluation of the therapeutic potentials of the isolated compounds.
  • In Vitro Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Geum Species from

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Medicinal plants have been considered as important sources of potent free radical scavengers as well as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Several plants are used in traditional and modern medicine for their biological properties such as anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant activities of roots and aerial parts from three of five native Iranian herbaceaous Geum species, including G. iranicum, G. kokanicum and G. urbanum. The Geum species and their bio-active substances are getting a lot of attention due to their various biological effects, such as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor and anti-microbial activities. Methods: The anti-diabetic activity of the Geum species was evaluated via α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. The anti-oxidant effect was analyzed using the free radical scavenging method and the total phenolics content was determined via a colorimetric assay. Results: Based on our study, all the examined species revealed moderate to high anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects. Geum kokanicum roots showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity (91.0%±1.7) at the concentration of 500 µg/mL and DPPH radical scavenging potential (IC50: 11.6±0.5 μg/mL). Conclusion: The results demonstrated in-vitro anti-diabetic property of G. kokanicum, so detailed investigation to isolate the active compounds is suggested.  
  • Evaluating the Healing Effects of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella, on
           Second Grade Burn Wounds, a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Nowadays, the use of medicinal plants is on the rise mainly due to the fewer side effects and lower costs. Despite the traditional reports about the healing properties of Ajuga species, no clinical studies have been conducted. In this study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract cream (3%) of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella, one of the exclusive species of Ajuga in Iran, was compared with nitrofurazone cream (0.2%) on the second-degree burn wound healing. Methods: This clinical trial was performed at Motahhari Burns Hospital in Tehran. Fifty-two cases of second-degree burn patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 members, including nitrofurazone and Ajuga. We evaluated the wounds based on the onset of epithelialization, healing time, post-drug irritation, primary irritation, decreased irritation, post-drug pain, primary pain, decreased pain, allergy, infection parameters, and the Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool. Results: Ajuga cream was more effective than nitrofurazone in terms of the mean day of epithelialization onset (p = 0.007), healing time (p = 0.001), post-drug irritation (p = 0.007), decreased irritation (p <0.001), post-drug pain (p = 0.018) and decreased pain (p = 0.001). Conclusion: According to the results, the Ajuga cream (3%) can be a useful remedy for burn wounds due to the reduction in the onset of epithelialization, healing time, post-drug irritation, irritation reduction, post-drug pain, and pain reduction. However, further large clinical trials are needed to confirm these results.
  • Design and Optimization of PLGA-Based Tribulus terrestris Loaded

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: Novel drug delivery systems improve bioavailability of standardized plant extracts which enables them to cross the biological membranes. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle systems are an approach to circumvent problems in drug delivery. Tribulus terrestris growing in subtropical areas has exhibited some biological and pharmacological activities; it contains compounds like flavonoids and steroids. To improve bioavailability of active compounds of the plant, its extract was subjected to prepare nanoparticles. Methods: Aqueous ethanol 80% extract of the whole plant was used for preparation of encapsulated nanoparticles using poly DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer. Mean particle size, polydispersity, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles systems were evaluated in various ratios of T. terrestris extract. Results: All the applied concentrations of the extract provided particles in nano-scale size (163-214 nm). By increasing the extract ratio encapsulation efficacy also increased ranging between 40.3-78.5%. Above 50% of the loaded extract released in the first 3 h and it continued for 10 days. Conclusion: the plant extract has been successfully encapsulated into PLGA polymer. The quantification of encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release also showed that application of the plant in pharmaceutical field can be improved using nanoparticles.
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