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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Research Journal of Pharmacognosy
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-4458 - ISSN (Online) 2345-5977
Published by Iranian Society of Pharmacognosy Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Antibacterial Activity, Phytochemical and Molecular Docking Analysis of
           Croton macrostachyus Root Extracts Growing in Wolaita, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Croton macrostachyus Hochst ex. Delile (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine for treating infectious diseases in Ethiopia. This study was aimed for investigating the phytochemicals, in vitro antibacterial and molecular docking of the Croton macrostachyus roots extract. Methods: Silica gel column chromatographic separations afforded four known compounds. In vitro antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds, (1-4), and extracts of C. macrostachyus were evaluated against four human reference pathogens. Insilco molecular docking was performed for isolated compounds against two target proteins of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase B (PDB: 6F86) and Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A (PDB: 1T2P). Results: From the root extract of C. macrostachyus, four known compounds of lupeol (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), and linoleic acid (4) were isolated and characterized. The extracts and isolated compounds exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity. Molecular docking results revealed that the isolated compounds interacted with the target proteins with the minimum binding energy ranging from -7.38 kCal/mol to -5.57 kCal/mol against DNA gyrase B and -7.40 kCal/mol to -5.54 kCal/mol against Sortase A. Conclusion: Our study proved that extracts and isolated compounds possess potential antibacterial activity, and the findings support the use of C. macrostachyus as a traditional medicine for treating skin infections, cough, respiratory tract problems, stomachache, and influenza virus by local people in Ethiopia.
       
  • Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Andrographolide in Combination
           with Antimicrobial drugs

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The resistance of infectious pathogens to antimicrobial drugs is an underestimated threat to public health. This rapidly developing phenomenon necessitates the discovery of new treatment strategies. Combining natural compounds with first-line antimicrobials is one treatment strategy to mitigate the emergence of resistant pathogens. Andrographolide, a diterpene lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been reported to possess potent anti-infective activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the combination effect of andrographolide with first-line antimicrobial drugs to fight emerging resistance. Method: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), fold increase in antimicrobial efficacy and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) of andrographolide and ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, amikacin, clindamycin and fluconazole were determined using the high throughput spot culture growth inhibition (HT-SPOTi) assay against ten isolated clinical strains; Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi B and Candida albicans. Results: Combination of andrographolide and the first-line antimicrobials showed various degrees of susceptibility and efficacy against the tested microorganisms with the highest MIC, 0.85 μg/mL recorded. The FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices) for synergy ranged between 0.00 to 0.28 depending on the microorganism and antimicrobial drug. Conclusion: Use of andrographolide with first-line antimicrobials could aid in combating the menace of resistance pathogens. However, this should be done with caution as some of the antimicrobials tested exhibited antagonistic effects.
       
  • Curcumin Nanoformulation for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    • Abstract: Curcumin has various beneficial effects on human health, but its efficacy is yet to be proven in clinical trials. Curcumin has poor bioavailability, low solubility, and rapid metabolism which become the principal reasons behind the lack of curcumin efficiency in clinical trials. This review aimed to focus on nanotechnologies to improve the bioavailability of curcumin inhalation formulations. Many studies were done to improve curcumin's bioavailability by administering through nanoparticle drug carriers. Pulmonary drug delivery has some advantages such as giving a rapid onset of action and bypassing the first hepatic metabolism. Lungs also have a large area for absorption. So far, there are various methods to produce curcumin nanoformulations that are proper, stable, and effective, and are suitable to enhance curcumin pulmonary delivery in the form of liposomes, polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles, nano suspensions, and cyclodextrin formulations. Therefore, analysis of the various methods, to conclude the best method for curcumin pulmonary delivery is needed. In conclusion, the best method to make nanocurcumin formulation is the one that gives the most advantage and lowest toxicity. Therefore the best choices for curcumin nanoformulations are curcumin nanosuspension and cyclodextrin formulated nanocurcumin/proliposomes.
       
  • Efficacy of Valerian Root Extract on Anxiety via Bioinformatics

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Treatment with root extract of valerian can reduce anxiety neurosis symptoms. To investigate the related therapeutic impacts, bioinformatics analysis of proteome profile of rat’s hippocampus tissue was carried out. Methods: Cytoscape V.3.9.1, and its plug-ins were applied for the construction of protein-protein interaction network of the treated subjects. NetworkAnalyzer and ClueGO+CuePedia were used to study centrality and gene ontology of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Results: Results indicated that seven central proteins Actb, Alb, Akt1, Egfr, Tp53 as hub-bottlenecks and Th and H2afx as hub and bottleneck differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) are present in the PPI network and four corresponding biological processes. Among these seven proteins, two including tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (Th) and Histone H2A (H2afx) are differentially expressed proteins in the exposure of valerian. Conclusion: It was found that the histone H2A and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase as central nodes are the main targets of valerian which are associated with anti-anxiety effects of the herb.   
       
  • Ethnopharmacological Properties of African Medicinal Plants for the
           Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    • Abstract: Agriculture is considered the primary source of income and livelihood in Africa. It is rational for people to look around their environment for food and medicine. The African legacy regarding the traditional use of medicinal plants is vast and diverse, due to cultural myths and economic logic. This review briefly defines the neglected tropical diseases and surveys African medicinal plants used for neglected tropical diseases. In Africa, people may share several plants for similar diseases, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum L. and Ricinus comminus L. are used for treating Buruli ulcer infection. Folkloric African plants for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, and viral neglected tropical diseases are listed and reported in the first parts. Medicinal plants for curing parasitic neglected tropical diseases are tabulated. A plethora of medicinal plants and bioactive compounds and their preparation methods, such as macerations and boiling are reported. This report reflects the richness of Africa with medicinal plants and herbal preparations being used for the treatment of various diseases, including neglected tropical diseases. Scientific investigation of these plants has yet to be conducted to isolate the active components and determine any toxic activities. Besides, knowledge of the mechanism of action behind these beneficial effects is highly required. This review will draw the attention of pharmaceutical companies and research institutions to examine the plants presented here for further laboratory analysis and experiments. 
       
  • Synergistic Activity of Three Iranian Medicinal Plants in Combination with
           Ceftazidime and Neomycin against Bacterial Strains Causing Nosocomial
           Infections

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Salvia limbata, Centella asiatica, and Bacopa Monnieri extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We also examined the synergistic effect of these extracts with ceftazidime and neomycin. The antimicrobial effects of these plants had been reported before but synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics such as ceftazidime and neomycin was an important issue that we tried to determine. Methods: Methanol extracts were prepared by percolation method and phenolics content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. Checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the synergistic effect of the extracts with ceftazidime and neomycin. Results: Salvia limbata methanolic extract with MIC of 25, 100, and 150 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and MRSA, respectively. Bacopa monnieri with MIC of 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL inhibited the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Centella asiatica did not affect the studied strains. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) results showed partial synergistic activity between S. limbata with ceftazidime and neomycin against P. aeruginosa and MRSA. The MIC of ceftazidime and neomycin in combination with S. limbata was reduced fourfold for each antibiotic. Conclusion: Salvia limbata is a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used with ceftazidime and neomycin to provide a synergistic effect.
       
  • Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Flavonoids and a Geraniol Derivative
           from Artemisia kermanensis on Normal and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The aim of this study was extraction, isolation, and identification of potent metabolites from aerial parts of Artemisia kermanensis Podl.“Dermaneh kermani’, the Iranian endemic species of Asteraceae family, and finally evaluation the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects against normal and breast cancer cell lines. Methods: Air-dried aerial parts of A. kermanensis Podl. were extracted by maceration method with acetone/dichloromethane and then fractionated with MPLC apparatus using a gradient solvent system. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on analysis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Anti-proliferative effects of the three compounds were determined by MTT assay against HUVEC, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The apoptotic effects of compounds 2 and 3 were determined by flow cytometry on MCF-7 cells. Results: Compound 1 (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone, eupatilin), compound 2 (5,7,3'-Trihydroxy-6,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone) and compound 3 (1-acetoxy-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octa-2E,5E-dien-4-one) were isolated from the plant extract. Compound 3 was identified for the first time from A. kermanensis. Statistical studies revealed that this compound showed the most anti-proliferative properties on all three cell lines. In MCF-7 cells treated with concentration of 10 µg/mL of compound 3, 36% apoptosis was observed. Furthermore, compound 2 (5,7,3'-Trihydroxy-6,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone) showed 33% apoptosis at 650 µg/mL. Conclusion: In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-6,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone and Compound 3 (1-acetoxy-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octa-2E,5E-dien-4-one) were determined for the first time. On the other hand, since Compound 3 showed the most cytotoxic effects on the cancer cell lines, investigation of its biological effects is recommended.
       
  • Cuscuta chinensis Antidepressant-Like Effect, the Role of 5-HT and the
           Impact on Behavioral Response in Mice

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Depression is a chronic mental disorder that influences people’s lives and functionality.  The available medications do not give full guaranty of effectiveness and are not devoid of unwanted side effects.  Cuscuta chinensis has been recommended for the treatment of depression in traditional medicine. In this study, the antidepressant-like activity of C. chinensis has been evaluated by using forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Methods: Cuscuta chinensis extract was provided by boiling in water. The antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swimming test (FST) in mice with daily gavage of 270, 360 and 430 mg/kg of the treatments for four weeks. The immobility time and behavioral activity and also the blood levels of 5-HT and norepinephrine were measured. Results: The FST confirmed antidepressant effect of the extract with decreased time of immobility and increased swimming time alongside increase in serum 5-HT in all groups (p<0.01compared to the control) except for the extract at the dose of 270 mg/kg (MA270).  This effect was not statistically significant with fluoxetine group. Conclusion: Cuscuta chinensis demonstrated antidepressant effects in mice model which is a confirmation for its traditional use in depression.
       
  • Network Analysis of 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 Effect on Human Colorectal
           Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 is a pharmacological active compound of ginseng. Evidences indicate that S20-Rg3 as an anti-cancer factor plays role in prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, proteomic data of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 effect on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 was analyzed via network analysis to understand more details about the molecular events. Methods: The differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) related to the effect of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 were extracted from literature and analyzed via protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The central nodes of the network were determined based on degree value and betweenness centrality. Results: Eight DEPS plus 100 added first neighbors were included in the PPI network. Five central nodes as hub-bottlenecks including ACTB, GAPDH, TP53, AKT1, and ALB among the added first neighbors and ANXA5 as hub-bottleneck and GSTP1 and PCNA as bottlenecks among the queried DEPs were introduced. Conclusion: PCNA, GSTP1, and ANxA5 as cell protective proteins are the crucial targeted proteins by 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 in the treated cell line HT-29. Up-regulation of GSTP1 and ANXA5 is correspondent to the cell protective property of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3, and down-regulation of PCNA refers to the opposite effect. It seems that cell protective roles of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 are accompanied with the possible side effects.
       
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Effects of Pistacia atlantica Desf.
           Oleoresin Essential Oil

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The oleoresin of Pistacia atlantica Desf. (known as “Baneh” in Iran) has been frequently used in traditional medicine for its medicinal properties. Herein, P. atlantica essential oil was investigated for its antimicrobial and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities since α-pinene which has been identified as the most abundant component in Pistacia genus oil, has demonstrated antimicrobial and anti-α-glucosidase properties. Methods: Fresh oleoresin was collected from Javanroud, Kermanshah, Iran and the essential oil was obtained by Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of essential oil was identified with GC/MS analysis and compared with those reported from various regions. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against various strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli spp.) through MIC method. Also, its anti-α-glucosidase property and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay were investigated. Results: GC/MS analysis of the essential oil confirmed the presence of nineteen compounds and among them, α-pinene (64.8%) was identified as the major constituent. Also, β-pinene (5.7%) and cis-limonene oxide (4.5%) were relatively abundant. Our results revealed antimicrobial properties of the “Baneh” essential oil against various bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, it demonstrated inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 41.5 ± 2.5 mg/mL compared with acarbose (IC50=0.5±0.2 mg/mL). DPPH free-radical scavenging activity assay showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 155.2 ± 1.4 mg/mL compared with quercetin (IC50=250.0±0.0 μg/mL). Conclusion: Pistacia atlantica oleoresin essential oil depicted satisfactory antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. However, it demonstrated low antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.
       
  • Significance of Pharmacognosy: Students’ Perspective

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The use of herbal medicine dates back to ancient times when humans used to consume natural substances such as medicinal plants to treat various diseases. Advancement in technology increases the importance of natural medicines in health care. Numerous drugs have been derived from natural sources and the alternative system of medicine mainly utilizes herbs and other natural sources or their extracts to treat different diseases. These herbs also possess herb-drug, food-drug interactions and other side effects; therefore, the knowledge of pharmacognosy is mandatory for pharmacists in order to work efficiently in their field. The present study was conducted to evaluate the significance of pharmacognosy from the viewpoint of pharmacy students. Methods:  An online survey was conducted in which students from all the recognized institutes of pharmacy located in Karachi, Pakistan were given a questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge about the significance of pharmacognosy. Results: Majority of students were satisfied with the curriculum of pharmacognosy in the Pharm-D curriculum and they believed that one can’t be a good pharmacist without studying pharmacognosy. They have the concept of herb-drug and food-drug interactions. They have studied the doses and side effects of herbal drugs in their undergrad curriculum, and they will consider studying pharmacognosy in their postgrad program. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that pharmacy students of various institutes of Karachi, Pakistan are well aware of the importance of pharmacognosy.
       
  • Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. (Meadowsweet): a Review of Traditional
           Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    • Abstract: Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. commonly known as "meadowsweet", is a perennial herb native to Iran, Europe, and Western Asia. Several medicinal properties of the plant have been reported in Persian medicine. Filipendula ulmaria is traditionally used for fever, pain, inflammatory diseases (arthrosis, rheumatism, and arthritis), gastric disorders, liver dysfunction, and gout. The phytochemical studies indicate the presence of several active compounds, mainly phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. Salicylic acid and its derivatives are the most important compounds found in essential oil and extracts of different parts of the plant. Pharmacological evaluations have shown the anti-arthritis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-coagulant, anti-microbial, immunomodulatory, gastro-protective, and hepato-protective activity of F. ulmaria. Despite pharmacological activities, traditional uses and herbal supplements, there is no complete review article on this herb's properties. In this paper, we have provided a review on traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological properties and medical information of this valuable medicinal plant.
       
  • Potential Cytotoxic Activity of Galegine on Human Melanoma Cells

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Melanoma, the most lethal type of skin cancer, has a high recurrence rate within one year in melanoma patients following treatment by chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In an effort toward reducing this event, the present study aimed to investigate whether galegine has inhibitory effects on human melanoma cell lines. Galegine is a natural active compound found in Galega officinalis which was known and used in Europe for medicinal purposes for centuries.  Methods: Cell viability by MTT assay was conducted to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of galegine on DFW and SK-MEL-5 cells. Also, apoptosis level was determined using Annexin V/FITC-propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for Bax, Bcl2, and p53 genes was performed with specific primers to evaluate their expression pattern in each group. Results: The experimental results indicated that galegine induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 of 630 µM and 3300 µM in DFW and SK-MEL-5 cells, respectively. Also, apoptosis induction occurred in both melanoma cell lines, in a way that 12.4% of the DFW cells and 41.8% of SK-MEL-5 were detected in the apoptotic phase. Furthermore, it was found that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was upregulated in both melanoma cells. An upregulation in p53 gene expression was observed in SK-MEL-5 cells, as well. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that galegine induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human melanoma cells with the potential toward more research as a novel therapeutic candidate for melanoma treatment.
       
  • Antiparasitic Effects and Cellular Mechanism of Astragalus maximus
           Chloroform Extract Against Clinical Isolates of Giardia lamblia

    • Abstract: Background and objectives:  Chemical drugs such as metronidazole, quinacrine and furazolidone are used to treat giardiasis. Although these drugs are useful in most cases, they are associated with some side effects. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antiparasitic effects and cellular mechanisms of Astragalus maximus chloroformic extract against both trophozoites and cysts of Giardia. Methods:  The extraction was done based on the maceration method with 70% methanol. The in vitro anti-Giardia effects of various concentrations of A. maximus extract (11.25, 22.5, and 450 mg/mL) were evaluated on cysts and trophozoites of G. lamblia for 15-360 min. In addition, the effects on the plasma membrane permeability and the induction of apoptosis in the trophozoites of G. lamblia were studied. Results: Astragalus maximus extract significantly (p<0.0001) declined the viability of cysts of G. lamblia; in both concentrations of 22.5 mg/mL and 45 mg/mL, the extract killed 100% of G. lamblia cysts after 240 and 360 min of incubation. The results also showed that the extract in both concentrations of 22.5 mg/mL and 45 mg/mL, killed 100% of G. lamblia trophozoites after 120 and 240 min incubation The findings revealed that treatment of G. lamblia trophozoites with A. maximus extract increased the permeability of the plasma membrane in a dose dependent response. The extract, especially at the concentration of 10 mg/mL, significantly (p<0.001) induced caspase-3 activation. Conclusion: The present study showed the promising in vitro antiparasitic effects of A. maximus extract against both trophozoites and cysts of G. lamblia by affecting the permeability of the plasma membrane and induction of apoptosis. Further investigations especially in animal models and clinical setting are required to clarify the accurate efficacy and mechanisms against G. lamblia infection.
       
  • Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on Sports
           Injuries: a Review of Patents

    • Abstract: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used for its therapeutic effects since a long time ago. Most of the healing properties of rosemary might be attributed to its antinociceptive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The present review covers the certified patents and discoveries on medicinal, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic properties of rosemary to disclose its brilliant value on athletes’ health. An extended literature review was carried out in Google Patent, US Patent, and Patentscope in the field of sports injuries, inflammation, and pain. Numerous patents uncovered the importance of rosemary to apply in various healing, pharmaceutical, and medicinal fields. These discoveries might also be used as complementary methods in sports medicine for sore muscle, muscle and ligament sprain, strain, bruise, spasm, tendinitis, tendon rupture, cartilage, and joint injuries. Due to a lack of clinical trials, the use of rosemary in the clinic has been limited to a few medicinal products. Considering the human trend to use phytocompounds rather than medications based on chemical compounds, precise attention must be devoted to linking the value of rosemary from basic science to clinical usage.  
       
 
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