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Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.256
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1596-5996
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Prok1 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells
           in polycystic ovary syndrome via Pi3k/Akt/nf-κ B signaling route

    • Authors: Yanxi Li, Jun Peng, Yong Huang, Yicun Man, Xin Wen, Xi Yang
      Pages: 1535 - 1540
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the regulatory influence of Prok1 on apoptotic and proliferative changes in PCOS, and the implication of Pi3k/Akt/nf-κ B signaling pathway in the process.
      Methods: Ovarian granulosa cells from a rat model of PCOS were assigned to control and si-Prok1 groups, after cell culture. Then, control lentivirus and Prok1 siRNA lentivirus (50 μL each) were added to the cells to the groups, respectively. Cell cycle ratio and apoptosis in the two groups were determined using flow cytometry, while Pi3k/Akt signal route-linked protein levels were assayed by immunoblot method.
      Results: The proportions of cells at G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle in si-Prok1 group were significantly lower than those in the control group, but G2/M phase cell population was significantly higher, relative to the control (p < 0.01). There was significant down-regulation of protein expressions of cyclin A2 and cycline1 in si-Prok1 group, relative to control group, but p21 protein level was significantly higher in si-Prok1 group (p < 0.05). There was a significantly higher apoptosis in si-Prok1 group. In the si-Prok1 cells, there were significant increases in protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3, relative to control group, while protein expression levels of Bax, p-Pi3k and p-Akt in si-Prok1 group were significantly lower than the corresponding control values (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: si-Prok1 arrests cell cycle, induces apoptotic changes, and inhibits the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells through a mechanism related to the regulation of Pi3k/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, it might play a potential role in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Cardamonin suppresses glycolysis and induces oxidative stress by
           inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in bladder cancer cells

    • Authors: Ping Li, Chaopeng Tang, Dian Fu, Xiaofeng Xu, Jingping Ge, Ruipeng Jia
      Pages: 1541 - 1546
      Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect and underlying mechanisms of action of cardamine on the progression of bladder cancer (BC).
      Methods: Human bladder epithelium immortalized cell line (SV-HUC-1) and human bladder cancer (BC) cell lines (T24 and UM-UC-3) were used in this investigation. They were treated with cardamine at concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 μmol/L. Cell viability was determined using cell counting kit 8
      (CCK-8) assay while 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (Edu) assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were determined by flow cytometry whereas glucose uptake, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and lactate production were determined using their respective assay kits. Furthermore, the expression levels of nuclear factor level (erythroidderived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H, quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), protein kinase B (AKT), phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-PI3K, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) and p-mTOR were evaluated by western blot analysis.
      Results: Cardamine significantly reduced cell viability and inhibited cell proliferation in BC cells in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect human normal cells. In addition, treatment with the compound induced apoptosis in BC cells; the higher the concentration, the higher the apoptosis level. Besides, cardamine administration suppressed aerobic glycolysis, and decreased the nuclear factor level (Nrf2) level, thereby increasing ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner.
      Furthermore, it blocked the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal cascade.
      Conclusion: Cardamine inhibits glycolysis and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and also promotes apoptosis as well as oxidative stress in BC cells. Thus, the compound is a potential therapeutic reagent for BC.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Atractylenolide promotes trophoblast cell proliferation and migration in
           recurrent spontaneous abortion via ERK pathway

    • Authors: Beili Lv, Haiyan Wang, Xinrong Li
      Pages: 1547 - 1551
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of atractylenolide on recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).
      Methods: The HTR-8/SVneo was established as an in vitro cell model of RSA. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using CCK8 and BrdU staining, while cell migration and invasion were determined by cell scratch and transwell assays.
      Results: Atractylenolide significantly increased cell viability, and enhanced the number of BrdU-positive cells of HTR-8/SVneo (p < 0.01). Atractylenolide also significantly promoted cell migration and invasion (p < 0.01), and increased protein expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and N-cadherin, but reduced Ecadherin. Atractylenolide also increased the phosphorylation of ERK (p < 0.01).
      Conclusion: Atractylenolide enhances cell proliferation and migration of HTR-8/SVneo through activation of ERK signaling. Further studies using animal models are recommended to determine the protective role of atractylenolide against RSA, in vivo.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sanggenon C inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells and reduces
           HIF-1α/VEGF pathway activity under hypoxia conditions

    • Authors: Junyuan Qu, Jing Li, Yongqiang Ma, Zhihui Wang
      Pages: 1553 - 1559
      Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the function and mechanism of sanggenon C (SC) on breast cancer (BC) cells.
      Methods: The effect of SC on malignant processes of BC was studied through cell counting kit-8, colony formation, flow cytometry, Transwell, wound-healing and western blot experiments. Besides, the related mechanism of action was explored using western blot assay.
      Results: SC reduced the cell viability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells with half-maximal concentration of (IC50) value of 17.09 and 17.32 μM, respectively. SC also decreased the area ratio of colonies in the plate, but increased the apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in both cell lines. Furthermore, SC decreased the number of invasion cells, but elevated the relative wound width of both cells. Moreover, SC treatment neutralized the hypoxia-induced level of HIF-1α/VEGF signaling.
      Conclusion: SC suppresses proliferation, mobility and invasion, but induces apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in BC cells, as well as deceased HIF-1α/VEGF pathway activity under hypoxia conditions. The findings of this study reveal that SC is a potential agent for BC management.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Embelin enhances the osteogenic potential of LPS-induced periodontal
           ligament stem cells by activating AMPK and SIRT1

    • Authors: Lijian Wang, Weidong Wu, Xiaoying Wei
      Pages: 1561 - 1566
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the role of embelin in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in an in vitro model of periodontitis.
      Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PDLSCs was used to construct a periodontitis cell model. PDLSCs in the treatment group were pretreated with different concentrations of Embelin, and CCK-8 and TUNEL staining were used to analyze cell viability and apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to evaluate the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1) while reactive oxygen species levels were assessed by 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Subsequently, osteogenic marker, ALP activity and protein expression levels of Runx2, OCN and BMP-2 in PDLSCs were evaluated by western-blot assay; AMPK and SIRT1 levels were also determined using Western blot assay.
      Results: Embelin pretreatment inhibited PDLSCs apoptosis, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress, but up-regulated ALP, Runx2, OCN, and BMP-2 levels (p < 0.05). In addition, AMPK phosphorylation and SIRT1 protein levels were regulated by embelin (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Embelin exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and osteogenic differentiation effects in LPS-induced PDLSCs cells in vitro by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling. Therefore, the compound has potentials for use in the management of periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • MiR-208a reduces inflammatory responses in heart failure rats through
           β-catenin pathway

    • Authors: Yanrong Song, Yu Guo, Jie Qin, Xiaojing Jia, Chentao Yang
      Pages: 1567 - 1572
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of micro-ribonucleic acid (miR)-208a on heart failure (HF) in rats through β-catenin pathway.
      Methods: A total of 24 specific pathogen-free female Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 equal groups, namely, control (normal group), model, and study group (miR-208a), with 8 rats each. Echocardiography was utilized to evaluate cardiac function, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was applied to examine cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Finally, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were determined using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined via immunohistochemistry assay, while western blotting was used to measure expression of β-catenin.
      Results: The mRNA expression level of miR-208a was significantly lower in model group than control and study group (p < 0.05). Cardiac function of rats in model group was significantly better than other groups (p < 0.05). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly increased in model group than in other groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, expression levels of MMPs, IL-6 and IL-10 in model group were elevated in comparison with those in study and control groups (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: MiR-208a reduces inflammatory response and deposition of extracellular matrix in rats with HF through inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathway, thereby restoring cardiac function.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Abietic acid ameliorates pancreatic injury in acute pancreatitis by
           modulating MAPK pathway

    • Authors: Hailin Ye, Jun Wang, Jiaodan Mao, Debiao Pan
      Pages: 1573 - 1578
      Abstract: Purpose: To examine the effect of abietic acid (AA) in the treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice.
      Methods: C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sham, AP, AP + 20 mg/kg AA, and AP + 40 mg/kg AA groups. To induce AP mouse model, the mice received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of cerulein. The extent of pancreatic tissue damage was evaluated by histological examination. Serum ALT, lipase, and amylase levels were determined by commercial kits while TUNEL assay was used to assess the apoptosis of pancreatic cells. The contents of Bax, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, p-ERK/ERK, p-JNK/JNK, and p-P38/P38 in pancreatic tissues were evaluated by western blot while the contents of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, MDA, and GSH in the tissues were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.
      Results: AA relieved pancreatic damage and reduced ALT, lipase, and amylase levels in ceruleintreated AP mouse (p < 0.001). AA repressed apoptosis of pancreatic cells in cerulein-induced AP mouse, and inhibited oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the mice by reducing IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, and MDA contents; it also enhanced the levels of GSH in the tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, AA inhibited MAPK pathway activity in the mice (p < 0.001).
      Conclusion: AA ameliorates pancreatic damage, pancreatic cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in cerulein-induced AP mouse by inhibiting MAPK pathway. This study offers a new potential drug for the management of AP and expands the relevant molecular regulatory mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor is a potential
           therapeutic target in LPS-induced human trophoblast cell injury

    • Authors: Zuoman Zhang, Lijun Tang, Meifang Huang, Guangliang Bi, Weimin Huang
      Pages: 1579 - 1585
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced damage in trophoblastic HTR-8/SVneo cells (HTR8 cells), with the aim of ultimately providing new therapeutic targets of preeclampsia (PE).
      Methods: Trophoblastic HTR-8/SVneo was cultured and treated with LPS to mimic PE in vitro, while FK866, an antagonist of NAMPT, was used to establish an inflammatory model of HTR8 cells. Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to evaluate inflammatory response in HTR8 cells, and cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and oxidative stress kits were performed to quantify cell activity in HTR cells.
      Results: Compared with the control group, the administration of LPS significantly increased the expression levels of NAMPT in HTR8 cells. FK866 suppressed the expression levels of proinflammatory factors IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, and alleviated inflammation by inhibiting NAMPT-mediated NF-κB pathway. The antioxidant effect of FK866 was achieved via activation of antioxidant proteins,
      catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH).
      Conclusion: FK866 protects HTR8 cells from LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress through the inhibition of NAMPT-NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, NAMPT is a potential therapeutic target for preeclampsia (PE).
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Qibai Pingfei capsule induces apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle
           cells in hypoxic rats by regulating PI3K/AKT/mitochondrial signaling

    • Authors: Xiangli Tong, Lu Zhang, Jie Zhu, Zegeng Li
      Pages: 1587 - 1595
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of Qibai Pingfei capsules (QBPF) medicated serum on the apoptosis of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) in hypoxic rats, and to determine the relationship between that effect and PI3K/Akt/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
      Methods: Rat PASMCs were isolated, cultured, and the optimal hypoxic time and concentration of QBPF were determined by CCK-8 method. Hypoxic rats were treated with QBPF, QBPF + LY294002, or QBPF + SC79. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed using Annexin VFITC/ PI, Hoechst 33258, and Rho123 staining. The protein expression levels of AKT, P-AKT, and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated via western blot.
      Results: CCK-8 studies showed that the optimal hypoxic time was 24 h, while the optimal concentration of QBPF was 20 %. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and Hoechst 33258 assay revealed that QBPF significantly promoted the apoptosis of PASMCs in hypoxic rats (p < 0.05). Rho123 test results showed that QBPF inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential level in hypoxic rats' PASMCs, which was enhanced by PI3K inhibitor LY29002 and inhibited by AKT agonist SC79 (p < 0.05). Western blot showed that QBPF reduced the protein level of P-AKT and Bcl-2, and raised the protein levels of Bad, Bax, CytC, casepase-9 and casepase-3, which was enhanced by LY29002 and blocked by SC79 (p < 0.05). No major changes in AKT protein expression were seen between the groups.
      Conclusion: In hypoxic rats, QBPF blocks PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and regulates the activation of downstream Bcl-2 family members, thus activating mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and triggering PASMC death.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sevoflurane improves renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through
           RISK signaling pathway

    • Authors: Bo Wang, Xin Yan, Xin Zou
      Pages: 1597 - 1604
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of sevoflurane on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats and its regulatory effect on reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) signaling pathway.
      Methods: A total of thirty (30) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, model and sevoflurane groups with 10 animals per group. Renal IRI models were created in model and sevoflurane groups, while sham group had no ligation. Renal injury was determined using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) levels were assayed while apoptosis was determined via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess malonaldehyde (MDA) content and inflammatory factors in kidney tissues and peripheral blood, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined using 2,7-dichlorodi-hydro fluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) while Western blotting was used to determine the expression of apoptosis- and RISK signaling pathway-related proteins in kidney tissues.
      Results: Compared to model group, renal injury in sevoflurane group rats was significantly alleviated (p < 0.01). The levels of BUN and Scr in peripheral blood, apoptosis level in kidney tissues, MDA content and ROS level in kidney tissues, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 content, and content of caspase-3 protein in kidney tissues were significantly reduced (p < 0.01), whereas IL-10 content, Bcl-2/Bax ratio and expression levels of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK-3β) were significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the sevoflurane group.
      Conclusion: Sevoflurane represses the release of inflammatory factors, lowers ROS level and apoptosis of renal cells and improves renal function through activation of RISK signaling pathway in kidney tissues of rats with renal IRI. Thus, sevoflurane is a potential agent for the treatment of IRI.

      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.10
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Dexmedetomidine pre-conditioning induces inhibition of ROS in myocardial
           ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through AMPK pathway

    • Authors: Shanhu Wu, Wanping Hong, Xue'e Su, Jinwei Liang
      Pages: 1605 - 1611
      Abstract: Purpose: To elucidate the basis for the cardioprotective effect of dexmedetomidine pre-treatment on ROS-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats.
      Methods: Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to sham, model and dexmedetomidine intervention groups, each having 20 rats. Myocardial IRI was induced in the model and dexmedetomidine intervention groups using modified suture method. In sham group, chests of rats were opened, but without ligation, while dexmedetomidine intervention group was pre-treated with dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) before establishment of the IRI model. Protein expressions of adenosine 5‘-
      monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was determined by Western blot assay. Mean fluorescence intensity of ROS was measured using flow cytometry.
      Results: AMPK protein was significantly down-regulated in model rats, relative to sham rats, but significantly higher in dexmedetomidine intervention rats (p < 0.05). In model rats, mean ROS fluorescence intensity and degree of apoptosis of cardiomyocytes were higher than the corresponding values in sham rats (p < 0.05), but lower in dexmedetomidine intervention group.
      Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine reduces oxidative stress in myocardial tissue and exerts a protective role by activating AMPK pathway and inhibiting mitochondrial generation of ROS. Therefore, this compound might have a potential clinical role in the management of IRI.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.11
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of trichostatin A on biological characteristics of side population
           cells of cervical cancer cell line (HeLa)

    • Authors: Fan Yang, Juan Zhang, Biao Xian, Yanping Zhang, Liangxin Zhai, Tong Yan, Lunhua Chen
      Pages: 1613 - 1617
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on biological characteristics of side population (SP) cells of cervical cancer cell line (HeLa)
      Methods: Side population (SP) and NSP cells were obtained from 6th generation of primary cervical cancer cells and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Cell surface markers (ATP-binding membrane transporter superfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), CD133, CD43, p63, Ki67, multidrug resistance (MDR) as well as cell cycle phase distribution and apoptosis, were determined. SP cells in HeLa were divided into 3 groups that received TSA at doses of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.2 μM. Untreated cells served as control. Cell growth inhibition rates of different dose groups were compared. SP cells in HeLa were divided into simple irradiation group and combined irradiation group TSA (10 % inhibition concentration (IC10) + irradiation, and values of SP cell survival fraction (SF) of the two groups under different irradiation conditions were compared.
      Results: The content of SP in HeLa cell line was significantly higher than in cervical cancer tissue (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in expression levels of ABCG2, CD133, CD43, p63, Ki67, and MDR, as well as G0/G1, S, and G2/M phase distributions and apoptosis rate between HeLa cell line and cervical cancer tissue (p > 0.05). On the 3rd, 5th, and 7th day, SF value of SP cells was significantly higher in NSP cells (p > 0.05). With increasing concentration of TSA, SF value of NSP cells gradually decreased, while that of SP cells did not change significantly.
      Conclusion: Cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) contains SP cells which have biological characteristics of tumor stem cells. Moreover, TSA exerts good cytotoxicity and radio-sensitization effect on SP cells.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.12
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sufentanil reduces myocardial apoptosis in rats with myocardial
           ischemia-reperfusion injury

    • Authors: Jianming Yao, Xiaoyue Zhang, Xuemei Hou
      Pages: 1619 - 1625
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the effect of sufentanil on myocardial apoptosis in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI).
      Methods: Fifty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, model, low-dose, moderate-dose, and high-dose. The groups, except sham, underwent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to establish the MIRI model. The low, moderate, and high-dose groups received intraperitoneal injections of sufentanil at different concentrations. Cardiac function, serum LDH, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were evaluated. The mRNA expression levels of apoptosis genes and protein levels of p38 and p-p38 were assessed in myocardial tissues using various methods while apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay.
      Results: Compared to sham group, the model group exhibited significant decrease in fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF), increase in CK activity, LDH, and MDA contents, lower SOD activity. Model group also showed increase in mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and caspase- 3, higher apoptosis, significant increase in protein levels of p38 and p-p38, and higher level of myocardial apoptosis (p < 0.05). High-dose group demonstrated significant increase in FS and EF, decrease in LDH content and CK activity, lower MDA content, higher SOD activity, decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and caspase-3, lower apoptosis, decrease in protein levels of p38 and p-p38, and lower level of myocardial apoptosis (p < 0.05), when compared with model group.
      Conclusion: High-dose sufentanil reduces myocardial apoptosis and improves cardiac function, and thus can potentially be developed as a cardioprotective agent.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.13
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of Asplenium nidus ethanolic extract on nociception using a
           Caenorhabditis elegans model

    • Authors: Michael Roy Vencer Malaluan, Paul Mark B. Medina
      Pages: 1627 - 1634
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of Asplenium nidus ethanolic extract (ANEE) using a Caenorhabditis elegans model.
      Methods: Sublethality assay was performed on ANEE to determine the experimental concentrations to be used for the antinociceptive assays. Antinociceptive effect of ANEE in C. elegans was investigated using mechanosensation assays in four treatment timepoints within 72 hours. Antinociceptive index (AI) was calculated for the cells treated with ANEE cells as well as morphine, paracetamol and control (1% DMSO).
      Results: The mechanosensation assays revealed that ANEE (104, 103, 102 μg/mL) had a significantly higher antinociceptive index (AI) (p<0.05) compared to the vehicle control (1% DMSO). The antinociceptive effects of ANEE, 2.5 μM morphine, and 0.01% mg/mL paracetamol in C. elegans were not significantly different (p>0.05). This effect of ANEE continued after four treatments within a 72-hour period.
      Conclusion: The findings revealed that A. nidus ethanolic extract (ANEE) possesses antinociceptive effect which validates folkloric use of A. nidus and suggest a potential for chronic therapeutic use.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.14
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • In vivo anti-tumor effect of Egyptian scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus
           venom in Ehrlich ascites carcinomabearing mice

    • Authors: Wesam M Salama, Sabry A El-Naggar, Barakat M ALRashdi
      Pages: 1635 - 1643
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the anti-tumor efficacy of scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus venom (LQV) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) mouse model.
      Methods: Mice were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), with Group 1 as negative control. Groups 2 to 4 mice were inoculated with EAC cells (1 x 106/mouse) intraperitoneally (ip). Group 2 mice were untreated while groups 3 and 4 mice were injected with 2 mg/kg of cisplatin (Cis) and 0.025 mg/kg of LQV ip, respectively, for 7 days. Tumor profile, as well as hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out.
      Results: Tumor volume and tumor cell counts decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following LQV treatment. Also, LQV potentiated necrosis, apoptosis and arrested tumor cells in the G0 and S-phases. Furthermore, it upregulated apoptotic-related gene (Bax and caspase-3) expressions and down-regulated anti-apoptotic gene (bcl-2) expression in EAC cells (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: LQV has potential anti-tumor activity against EAC cells in mouse models. Therefore, it should be further investigated in vivo as an anti-tumor agent.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.15
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Studies on in vitro binding of parecoxib to p38MAPK using
           spectroscopic methods

    • Authors: Xuejie Li, Kun Huang, Shan Zhong
      Pages: 1645 - 1650
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the interaction between parecoxib and p38MAPK under simulated physiological conditions.
      Methods: The interaction between parecoxib and p38MAPK was studied under simulated physiological conditions using spectroscopy-based methods. The effect of parecoxib on the microenvironment and conformation of p38MAPK chromophore was studied by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy.
      Results: Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy showed that addition of parecoxib changed the structure of p38MAPK and destroyed the original stable structure. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the hydrophilicity of the microenvironment in which the fluorescent chromophore is located was enhanced, and the polarity increased such that the serum protein macromolecules tend to be unfolded, and the alpha-helix content reduced. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the presence of parecoxib hardly affected the fluorescence quenching of p38MAPK, and the combination of parecoxib and p38MAPK forms a stable complex (static quenching). Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the combined parecoxib change, the secondary structure of p38MAPK and reduced the alpha-helix content. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed changes in the microenvironment of the three amino acid residues as well as the tertiary structure of the protein.
      Conclusion: The results shows that parecoxib has a significant effect on the structure of p38MAPK. In addition to explicitly inhibiting COX-2 and blocking arachidonic acid synthesis of prostaglandins, it inhibits the pathway involved in p38MAPK.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.16
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of carboprost tromethamine and carbetocin on coagulation factors
           and prognosis in puerpera with postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine

    • Authors: Hong Chen, Huifang Xiong, Chunmei Chen, Liping Fan
      Pages: 1661 - 1666
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the effect of carboprost tromethamine and carbetocin on coagulation factors and prognosis in puerpera with postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine inertia.
      Methods: A total of 80 high-risk pregnant women with postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine inertia admitted to Longyan First Hospital Affiliated of Fujian Medical University, Longyan, China from June 2021 to June 2022 were randomly divided into control group (oxytocin + carboprost tromethamine, n = 40) and study group (oxytocin + carboprost tromethamine + carbetocin, n = 40). Vaginal bleeding volume was recorded for both groups at delivery, and 2 and 24 h after delivery. Decrease in hemoglobin level 24 h after delivery, as well as levels of coagulation factors, and adverse drug reactions before and after treatment were assessed.
      Results: The third stage of labor, postpartum hemorrhage at 2 and 24 h, and decrease in hemoglobin 24 h after delivery in the study group were lower (p < 0.05). Compared with that before treatment, PLT and FIB levels also fell, while APTT and PT levels rose in both groups after treatment for 24 h (p < 0.05). Platelet count and fibrinogen levels in the study group were lower after treatment for 24 h, but APTT and PT levels were higher (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse drug reactions between both groups (15.00 vs 12.50 %; p > 0.05).
      Conclusion: Co-administration of carboprost tromethamine with carbetocin prevents high-risk postpartum hemorrhage in pregnant women due to uterine inertia. It also reduces the level of bleeding, and promotes recovery of coagulation function. However, further clinical trials on a larger scale are recommended prior to the application of this treatment strategy in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.17
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effectiveness of combined use of formoterol fumarate tablets and
           interventional bronchoscopy in the treatment of central airway tumor

    • Authors: Dandan Fu, Lina Duan, Chi Zhang, Fengjiao Liu, Xingyi Chen, Rong Liu, Zheng Li
      Pages: 1667 - 1673
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the effectiveness of formoterol fumarate tablets when used in combination with interventional bronchoscopy for central airway tumor.
      Methods: A total of 154 central airway tumor patients on admission in Second Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China (August 2020 - December 2022) were assigned to benign group (BG, n = 70) and malignant group (MG, n = 84), based on the nature of tumor lesion. The patients were administered formoterol fumarate tablets as well as interventional bronchoscopy. Clinical efficacy, lung function indices such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio, blood gas indices (pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)), scores on shortness of breath, and survival rate, were determined and compared between the two groups.
      Results: The overall effectiveness in BG (97.14 %) was significantly higher than that in MG (84.52 %). There were higher post-treatment values of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC; higher values of pH and PaO2, lower PaCO2, and lower scores on shortness of breath in BG and MG, relative to pre- treatment levels (p < 0.05). Follow-up showed no recurrence in patients with benign tumor, and clinical efficacy was satisfactory. The 2-year survival rate of patients with malignant tumor was 51.19 %.
      Conclusion: The combination of formoterol fumarate tablets and interventional bronchoscopy produces significant curative effect on benign and malignant tumor in central airway. It improves lung function, blood gas indices and survival rate, and mitigates shortness of breath. Therefore, this treatment strategy has a high potential for use in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.18
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of ginkgo leaf tablets combined with compound carbidopa on patients
           with Parkinson’s disease

    • Authors: Yan Huang, Bo Du, Shiguang Zhu, Yingfeng Mu, Deqin Geng
      Pages: 1675 - 1681
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the effect of a combination of ginkgo leaf tablets with compound carbidopa tablets on cognitive function, serum homocysteine (Hcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
      Methods: A total of eighty (80) PD patients admitted to The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China between December 2020 and December 2022 were randomly divided into two groups: Western medicine group (n = 40, using compound carbidopa tablets alone) and combination group (n = 40, using ginkgo leaf tablets combined with compound carbidopa tablets), and orally treated for 3 months. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess cognitive function before and after treatment. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine serum Hcy levels, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate serum MDA and NSE levels. Adverse reactions were also recorded during treatment.
      Results: Total response rate following treatment in combination group was significantly higher than in Western medicine group (95.00 vs 80.00 %, p < 0.05). After treatment, MMSE and MoCA scores in combination group were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in Western medicine group, while serum Hcy, MDA and NSE levels in combination group were significantly lower than those in Western medicine group (p < 0.05). During treatment, there was no significant difference in incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups (p > 0.05).
      Conclusion: Ginkgo leaf tablets in combination with carbidopa significantly improve cognitive functions associated with PD with high safety, when compared to carbidopa tablets alone. However, further clinical trials are commended to validate these findings.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.19
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Efficacy of caffeine citrate combined with mechanical ventilation in the
           treatment of apnea of prematurity and its influence on neurodevelopmental

    • Authors: Yingxian Liu, Yanpi Xie, Chuming You, Qiong Meng, Dongjun Liu, Zhenyu Liang
      Pages: 1683 - 1689
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of caffeine citrate when combined with mechanical ventilation in the treatment of apnea of prematurity and its influence on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
      Methods: One hundred and sixty (160) premature infants with apnea admitted in Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China were enrolled in this study, and divided into control and study groups. Children in the control group underwent mechanical ventilation combined with aminophylline therapy, while children in the study group were administered mechanical ventilation combined with caffeine citrate. Blood gas and pulmonary function indices, as well as clinical symptom and neurodevelopmental improvements were assessed. Also, the incidence of adverse reactions were recorded during treatment.
      Results: Blood gas indices including oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and pulse oxygen saturation (SPO2) levels in the study group were significantly higher, but partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) level was lower (p < 0.05); furthermore, tidal volume, respiratory rate and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the study group were higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the disappearance time of apnea, invasive mechanical ventilation time and oxygen inhalation time in the study group were shorter than in the control group (p < 0.05). Mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) values in the study group were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05), while the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, feeding intolerance, tachycardia and hyperglycemia in the study group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: The combination of caffeine citrate and mechanical ventilation aids improvement in the neurodevelopmental outcome of children, as well as reduction in the incidence of adverse reactions. However, further clinical trials are required prior to application of this strategy in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.20
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effects of early application of heparin on coronary blood flow during
           primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    • Authors: Shutian Shi, Lei Zhen, Mei Wang, Chunmei Wang, Hui Ai, Bin Que, Shaoping Nie
      Pages: 1691 - 1698
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of unfractionated heparin (UFH) anticoagulant administered upstream in the ambulance or emergency room during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
      Methods: The study included STEMI patients who received either early UFH subcutaneously (SC) (n = 163) or intraoperative UFH (SC) during pPCI (n = 476) between January 2017 to August 2018. Baseline characteristics, infarct-related artery (IRA) status, and procedural characteristics were analyzed. The primary endpoint was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade 2 - 3 before intervention. The secondary endpoints were time from first medical contact to guidewire passage, postoperative TIMI 3 flow grade, acute stent thrombosis, and in-hospital bleeding events.
      Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups, with no significant difference in IRA location. Both groups underwent coronary angiography, with most patients receiving pPCI. The primary endpoint occurred in 18.1 % of patients in intraoperative UFH group and 27.6 % in the early UFH group, with a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative TIMI 3 flow grade or acute stent thrombosis, but bleeding events (BARC 2-5) were similar between groups (1.1 % in intraoperative group and 1.8 % in early UFH group, p > 0.05)
      Conclusion: Early upstream administration of UFH anticoagulation in STEMI patients improves coronary artery potency before pPCI, and early use of fixed-dose UFH is safe and does not increase major bleeding complications.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Use of enteral nutrition and factors influencing feeding intolerance in
           severely ill patients in the intensive care unit

    • Authors: Fen Tang, Pai Liu, Chunyan Wang
      Pages: 1699 - 1704
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the use of enteral nutrition (EN) and factors influencing feeding intolerance (FI) in severely ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU).
      Methods: Retrospective data collection was performed on records of 247 severely ill patients admitted to ICU of the West China Hospital, Chengdu, China between January 2020 and December 2022. Data were divided into two groups: FI group (n = 107) and non-FI group (n = 140). Influencing factors of FI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis, and the use of EN was analyzed.
      Results: Defined daily doses (DDDs) of enteral nutrition emulsion TPF-T (Ruineng), enteral nutrition suspension (Baipuli) and enteral nutrition emulsion TPF (Ruixian) were most prevalent. The DDDs of enteral nutrition suspension (Nengquanli 1.5) increased, while that of Nengquanli 1.0 decreased. Univariate analysis showed significant differences between FI and non-FI groups in start time of EN, addition of dietary fiber, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, use of sedatives, types of antibiotics used, use of vasoactive drugs and oral potassium preparation, mechanical ventilation and hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that addition of dietary fiber, APACHE II score ≥ 20 points, sedatives use, types of antibiotics used ≥ 2, oral potassium preparation and hypoalbuminemia were independent risk factors of FI.
      Conclusion: Use of EN in ICU is consistent. Factors that influence FI in critically ill patients include dietary fiber, APACHE II score, use of sedatives, use of antibiotics, use oral potassium preparations and hypoalbuminemia. Knowledge of these risk factors and timely measures are of great significance in avoiding FI in ICU.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.22
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Efficacy of dexmedetomidine in the prevention and treatment of
           postanesthetic shivering after cesarean section

    • Authors: Yi Wang, Xianjie Zhang
      Pages: 1705 - 1711
      Abstract: Purpose: To assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in the prevention and treatment of postanesthetic shivering in cesarean section.
      Methods: A total of 144 pregnant women who underwent anesthesia for cesarean section between March and December 2022 were randomly divided into the study group (n = 72) and control group (n = 72). The pregnant women were given combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Following childbirth, those in the study group were given dexmedetomidine, while those in the control group were given normal
      saline. The dose of spinal anesthesia was administered based on the following criteria: intraoperative infusion, atropine usage, ephedrine usage, intraoperative bleeding, intraoperative dosage, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, incidence of shivering, and sedation score. Incidence of adverse reactions were recorded and compared between the two groups.
      Results: Intraoperative infusion volume, bleeding volume, levels of atropine and ephedrine usage, and spinal anesthesia dose were similar between the two groups (p > 0.05). At 10 min post-treatment, the study group had lower mean arterial pressure, heart rate and incidence of postanesthetic shivering, as well as higher postoperative sedation score than the control group. Compared with the control group, the study group had slightly higher incidence of pregnancy-related adverse reactions, but the difference was non-significant.
      Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine has good efficacy in preventing and treating postanesthetic shivering in cesarean section patients. However, further clinical trials are required prior to its adoption in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.23
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of trimetazidine on ventricular remodeling, serum Cys C and ET-1
           levels in patients with chronic heart failure

    • Authors: Xiaoyan Wu, Wenzhong Chen, Huiming Han
      Pages: 1713 - 1718
      Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of trimetazidine on ventricular remodeling and serum levels of cystatin C and endothelin-1 in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).
      Methods: A total of 96 patients with CHF were randomly divided into two groups, given either conventional treatment (control group) or conventional treatment plus trimetazidine (study group) for 6 months. Clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were measured using cardiac echocardiography before and after treatment. Patients were
      recorded at 6 MVT before and after treatment. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to assay serum Cys C levels before and after treatment. Serum levels of ET-1, galactose agglutinin-3 (GAL-3), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and heart natriuretic peptide (ANP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after treatment. Incidence of adverse events in CHF patients was compared between groups.
      Results: Study group had a significantly higher level of treatment effectiveness (91.67 %) and better improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter than control group (p < 0.05). Serum levels of serum cystatin C, endothelin-1 and other biomarkers were also significantly lower (p < 0.05) in study group. Re-hospitalization rate was also lower in study group.
      Conclusion: Trimetazidine exerts a therapeutic effect on CHF patients, effectively improves cardiac function and reduces the rate of re-hospitalization.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.24
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • A comparative study of the efficacy and safety of pure silica gel and
           chitosan quaternary ammonium salt silica gel in hypertrophic scar

    • Authors: Shenglin Wu, Yuan Jiang
      Pages: 1719 - 1724
      Abstract: Purpose: To compare clinical efficacy of pure silica gel and chitosan quaternary ammonium salt silica gel (SQASC) in treatment of hypertrophic scars.
      Methods: Eighty-four patients with hypertrophic scars, who were admitted to hospital, were randomly divided into study group and control group with 42 patients in each group. Study group was treated with SQASC while control group was treated with pure silica gel. Scar scores (Vancouver scar score, VSS), scar aesthetics (Patient and observer scar assessment scale, POSAS), symptom improvement and adverse reactions were compared between groups before and after treatment.
      Results: Before treatment, there were no differences in VSS and POSAS scores for each aspect between groups. After treatment, VSS and POSAS scores for each aspect in study group were significantly lower than those in control group (p < 0.05). Congestion, itching, pain disappearance and thickness reduction occurred significantly earlier in study group than in control group (p < 0.05). Incidence of adverse reactions in study group was 4.76 %, which was significantly lower than 19.05% in control group (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Compared with pure silica gel, SQASC effectively alleviates symptoms of hypertrophic scars and aesthetics with fewer adverse effects. In future studies, sample size will be increased and study duration will be extended appropriately.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.25
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Efficacy of combined use of acetylcysteine and methylprednisolone in the
           treatment of paraquat poisoning

    • Authors: Yudan Yang, Pingping Zhou, Qingmian Xiao, Yongyan Han, Weizhan Wang, Yulan Yu
      Pages: 1725 - 1731
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the clinical impact of combined application of acetylcysteine and methylprednisolone in treating paraquat poisoning (PQP).
      Methods: The clinical data of 92 PQP patients who received treatment in our hospital for 1 year were analyzed. The patients were equally divided into control group (CG) and study group (SG), based on treatment plans. All patients underwent routine acute-phase treatment, while SG was additionally treated with acetylcysteine in combination with methylprednisolone. After treatment, the renal function, pulmonary fibrosis indices and inflammatory factor levels of both groups were determined.
      Results: During the 1 - 4 weeks of treatment, there was no statistical difference in the survival rates of patients at various time periods (p > 0.05). After treatment, there were markedly lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in SG than in CG. There was lower incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in SG than in CG, although the difference was not significant. Patients in SG had lower HRCT scores and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) than those in CG (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Acetylcysteine in combination with methylprednisolone significantly reduces the degree of pulmonary fibrosis and improves renal function and inflammatory levels. It has a positive implication for early treatment of patients, especially for the prognosis of patients with mild-to-moderate poisoning. Therefore, the combined therapy has potential for clinical application.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.26
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of remifentanil co-administered with propofol on stress response
           and postoperative complications in patients with cerebral hemorrhage
           undergoing surgical anesthesia

    • Authors: Litian Zhou, Jiajia Xu, Jian Hu, Jiao Lei, Pinglai Yang
      Pages: 1733 - 1740
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the anesthetic effect and related indicators following concurrent administration of remifentanil and propofol in cerebral hemorrhage surgery patients.
      Methods: A total of 88 cerebral hemorrhage patients admitted in Lishui People’s District Hospital, Nanjing, China, from December 2019 to December 2020, were assigned to two groups, viz, control group which received fentanyl and propofol for anesthesia, while study group was administered remientanil combined with propofol for anesthesia There were 44 patients in each group. Hemodynamic index, brain injury marker index, stress response index, awakening condition, propofol dosage, anesthetic effect, and adverse reactions were assessed and recorded.
      Results: Heart rate (HR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) at T2 and T3 of the two groups were less than those at T1. At T3, the study group’s HR, DBP, and SBP were substantially higher than those of control group (p < 0.05); At 12 and 24 h after operation, brain injury markers and stress response indices in study group were significantly lower compared to control group (p < 0.05), while in comparison to control group (79.55 %), the degree of anesthesia in the study group was higher (95.45 %; p < 0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the study group (15.91 %) was lower than in control group (43.18 %; p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Remifentanil, when combined with propofol anesthesia, stabilizes hemodynamics, protects against brain injury, and reduces stress reactions in patients undergoing cerebral hemorrhage surgery. The combination is also highly effective and safe. However, validation of these findings in larger clinical trials is required.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.27
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Efficacy of the combination of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in the
           treatment of hypertensive heart disease

    • Authors: Xin Zhou, Yuefeng Chu
      Pages: 1741 - 1747
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of the combination of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in managing hypertensive heart disease.
      Methods: From August 2020 to October 2022, the case data of 120 patients in Lu’an Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Lu’an, China were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the different treatment options, 54 patients with hypertensive heart disease who received valsartan alone (80 mg, once daily) for 3 months were placed in control group (CG), while 66 patients who received valsartan combined with Systolic blood pressure (SBP), therapeutic effect, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and incidence of adverse effects were also recorded for CG and SG.
      Results: In the SG, there were significant reductions in SBP, DBP, LVMI and LVPWT compared to CG, while EF showed significant increase after treatment (p < 0.05). In both groups, SBP, DBP, LVMI and LVPWT decreased significantly after treatment compared to pre-treatment values, but EF however showed a significant increase (p < 0.05). In the SG, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the total effective rate compared to CG and there was also a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the total incidence of adverse effects compared to CG.
      Conclusion: Valsartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide is more effective in treating patients with hypertensive heart disease than valsartan monotherapy alone. However, the combination treatment should be subjected to further clinical trials prior to its introduction into clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.28
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of Euodia rutaecarpa Benth acupressure
           and Wendan decoction in the treatment of vertigo

    • Authors: Tianying Wu, Qiang Zheng, Shuxian Niu
      Pages: 1749 - 1755
      Abstract: Purpose: To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of combining Euodia rutaecarpa Benth acupressure with Wendan decoction for the treatment of vertigo, thereby establishing a theoretical framework for informed clinical practice.
      Methods: Computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases to identify randomized controlled literature pertaining to efficacy and safety of Euodia rutaecarpa Benth acupressure in combination with Wendan decoction for management of vertigo. The experimental group received an intervention of Euodia rutaecarpa Benth acupressure combined with Wendan decoction. Articles that met set inclusion and exclusion criteria were screened and evaluated for quality based on Cochrane Quality Rating Scale. Baseline data, intervention data and outcome indicators of included studies were also extracted. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.4 software.
      Results: The difference in symptom scores between groups was statistically significant (RR = -0.04, 95 % CI (-0.3, 0.23), p = 0.78). Meta-analysis of the outcome indicators showed heterogeneity at p < 0.0001, I2 = 91 %. I2 = 91 > 50 %. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups in terms of total treatment efficiency (RR = 0.31, 95 % CI (-0.25, 0.88), p = 0.28). Heterogeneity of vertigo degree score showed p < 0.0001, I2 = 98 %. I2 = 98 % > 50 %, SMD = 2.34, 95 % CI (0.69, 3.99), p = 0.53.
      Conclusion: The combination of clinical Euodia rutaecarpa Upright acupressure and Wendan decoction demonstrates significant clinical effectiveness in treating vertigo as evidenced by improvement of all indicators. Moreover, this treatment approach exhibits a high level of safety.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i8.29
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
  • Retracted: Development of a hydrogel containing metronidazole-loaded
           Eudragit RS 100 nanoparticles for buccal drug delivery

    • Authors: Hoang Nhan Ho, Van Anh Tuan Nguyen, Nguyen Anh Thu Ho, Hoang Hao Le
      Pages: 1757 - 1757
      Abstract: This article previously published in Volume 22 Issue 6 of this journal in June 2023 has been retracted in line with the guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, http://publicationethics.org /resources /guidelines). This was a follow up to the report by somebody identified as VU Nguyen (email: nguyenvu81@protonmail.com)  of the duplicate publication of an article earlier published in 2020 (available at / ViewOnline'bitstid=0d585588-2d02-4839-907a-92998674bb4d & type=1) in Vietnamese where a figure and some text in the article were repeated in the article published in this journal. This action was taken after thorough investigation of the plagiarism report and follow-up comments from both the corresponding author and Nguyen VU against the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Retraction: Ho HN, Nguyen VA, Ho NA, Le HH. Development of a hydrogel containing metronidazole-loaded Eudragit RS 100 nanoparticles for buccal drug delivery. Trop J Pharm Res 2023; 22(6):1147- 1154 doi: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i6.1.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i6.1.
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 8 (2023)
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