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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 316)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.256
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1596-5996
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Investigation of transdermal permeation of atorvastatinloaded

    • Authors: Jamal Alyoussef Alkrad, Raad J. Musa, Rawan Al-Hijjawi, Samer H. Hussein- Al-Ali
      Pages: 211 - 220
      Abstract: Purpose: To develop microemulsions containing atorvastatin for transdermal application, which will improve the bioavailability and reduce the side effects associated with the oral administration of atorvastatin.
      Methods: Atorvastatin-loaded microemulsions (MEs) were developed using tween 80 as a nonionic surfactant, isopropyl myristate, polyethylene glycol 400 and dimethyl sulfoxide. Their droplets’ size, and rheological properties were estimated, with the diffusion through the rat’s skin being evaluated using Franz diffusion cells. Furthermore, the in vivo transdermal and oral bioavailability, as well as the toxicity of formulation, were assessed in rats.
      Results: The results showed that the MEs have a droplet size lower than 100 nm and low Newtonian viscosity. In addition, a flux rate of atorvastatin as high as 10.078 μg/cm2.h was achieved after the loading of the MEs. The in vivo transdermal application maintained a steady state concentration of 1.02μg/mL for 48 h, in comparison to a maximum concentration of 7.7 μg/mL after 2.74 h following oral administration at the same dosing level. Moreover, the transdermally treated rats did not elicit skin irritation.
      Conclusion: The developed atorvastatin MEs for transdermal application delivers the drug to achieve a controlled plasma level, as well as reduce dosing frequency and toxicity in rats when compared to oral administration. Therefore, the formulation has a potential for development for use in humans.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Suppressive effect of Hsa-miR-125a-5p on cervical cancer proliferation and
           invasion via regulation of Rab25- PI3K/AKT pathway

    • Authors: Huanming Lin, Chunjing Chen
      Pages: 221 - 227
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the suppressive effect of Hsa-miR-125a-5p on the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer (CC) cells through the modulation of the Rab25-PI3K/AKT pathway.
      Methods: 66 pairs of CC and neighboring cell samples were harvested from patients who underwent surgical resection in the Oncology Department from August 2017 to December 2018. The expression levels of Hsa-miR-125a-5p in CC and neighboring cell samples were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The overexpression vector was transfected into CC cells (siHa cell line), and the proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis of siHa cells were determined. The regulatory role of Hsa-miR-125a-5p in PI3K/AKT pathway was determined using Western blotting.
      Results: CC tissues, relative to the neighboring tissues, exhibited remarkably lower Hsa-miR-125a-5p levels (p < 0.05), and their upregulation significantly inhibited the growth, migration, and intrusion of siHa cells while repressing apoptosis (p < 0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter assay (DLRA) data indicate that luciferase activity decreased when Hsa-miR-125a-5p was bound to Rab25 (p < 0.05). The HsamiR-125a-5p mimics group had significantly lower PI3K/AKT levels, relative to the negative control mimics group (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Hsa-miR-125a-5p represses CC cell proliferation and invasion through the modulation of Rab25-PI3K/AKT pathway, thus suggesting that this pathway is a target for drug development
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • High miR-34a and miR-26b expressions inhibit prostate cancer cell OPCN-1
           proliferation and enhances apoptosis

    • Authors: Yingwei Lin, Tao Sun, Guoliang Sun
      Pages: 229 - 236
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effects of miR-34a and miR-26b on the targeted genes, LEF1 and EphA2, and proliferation and apoptosis of OPCN-1.
      Methods: Sixty specimens of cancer tissue (CT) and equivalent tissue adjacent to tumors (TAT) were collected from prostate cancer patients. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of miR-34a, miR-26b, LEF1, and EphA2 in the above tissues, while protein expression levels of LEF1 and EphA2 were evaluated by Western blot.
      Results: Compared with TAT, the expression levels of miR-26b and miR-34a in CT decreased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of EphA2 and LEF1 in CT significantly increased (p < 0.05). TargetScanHuman7.2 assay data revealed that miR-26b targeted EphA2, while miR-34a targeted LEF1. MiR-26b MG showed decreased EphA2 mRNA and protein levels when compared with miR-26b-NC group after overexpression. The miR-34a MG exhibited decreased expression levels of LEF1 mRNA and protein compared with the miR-34a-NC group. Between 48 and 72 h, miR-26b MG grew more slowly than miR-26b-NC group; miR-34a MG also showed significantly slower growth than miR-34a-NC group. The miR-26b MG and miR-34a MG groups displayed higher apoptosis rate than miR-26b-NC and miR-34a-NC groups, respectively.
      Conclusion: High expressions of miR-34a and miR-26b targeted the inhibition of LEF1 and EphA2, respectively, indicating that they inhibit the proliferation, and also control the increased apoptosis rate of OPCN-1 cells. Hence, miR-34a and miR-26b are probable molecular targets for the development of new prostate cancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Atorvastatin suppressed proliferation and facilitated apoptosis of A549
           cells through mediating recruitment of Fas and CD59 in lipid raft

    • Authors: Jiahuan Lu, Huiping Qiang, Tianqing Chu
      Pages: 237 - 244
      Abstract: Purpose: Lipid raft facilitated progression of NSCLC and atorvastatin could break cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential mechanism of atorvastatin through lipid raft mediation in NSCLC.
      Methods: A549 cells were first grouped as NC, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, lipid raft inhibitor, 5mM and 10mM), atorvastatin (0, 5mM, 10mM and 15mM) and MβCD (10mM) with atorvastatin (15mM). Later 10mM MβCD treated A549 cells were divided into three groups: NC, 3BDO (mTOR agonist) (60μM) and 3BDO (60μM) with atorvastatin (15mM) group. Thereafter, FLOT-2, SLP-2 expressions were assessed with RT-qPCR,mTOR proteins were measured by western blot and cell viability by CCK-8 method. Meanwhile, apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, lipid raft isolation was performed for acquiring Fas and CD59 and concentrations were detected by ELISA.
      Results: MβCD treatment significantly inhibited FLOT-2 and SLP-2 RNA expressions and cell viability of A549 cells but up-regulated apoptosis. Besides that, Fas protein level was promoted and CD59 was suppressed. Atorvastatin also repressed FLOT-2 and SLP-2 RNA levels. Meanwhile, atorvastatin downregulated cell viability and accelerated apoptosis. Moreover, Fas was increased and CD59 was inhibited by atorvastatin and MβCD enhanced functions of atorvastatin. MβCD inhibited mTOR RNA expression in A549 cells was increased by 3BDO but atorvastatin restored 3BDO caused up-regulation of mTOR. Furthermore, up regulated cell viability of A549 by 3BDO was declined with atorvastatin and decreased apoptosis by 3BDO was reversed through atorvastatin. Fas suppressed by 3BDO and promotion of CD59 were also resumed by atorvastatin.
      Conclusion: Atorvastatin suppressed FLOT-2 and SLP-2 and mediated recruitments of Fas and CD59 with suppressing cell viability and facilitating apoptosis of A549 cells via mTOR signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Lugrandoside attenuates spinal cord injury by targeting peli1 and

    • Authors: Wenbo Sheng, Haitao Jiang, Hantao Yuan, Sibo Li
      Pages: 245 - 251
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the curative effect and mechanism of lugrandoside (LG) on spinal cord injury (SCI).
      Methods: We probed the expression of Pellino1 (peli1) in microglia and spinal cord tissues with
      different treatments of LG. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to activate the microglia. Furthermore, rats were used to establish SCI model, and LG, at low and high concentrations, was administered to injured animals to ascertain whether LG exerted a therapeutic effect on SCI.
      Results: LG inhibited the activation and recruitment of glial cells by acting as a negative regulator of glial inflammation, and this reverse the targeting of peli1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the in vivo data showed that LG exerted a neuroprotective effect, following SCI, via anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Furthermore, Peli1 and TLR4/NF-κB were suppressed by LG stimuli.
      Conclusion: These results suggest that LG protects neural tissue against neuroinflammation and apoptosis by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB pathway and negatively targeting peli1. The findings may provide new insights into the treatment of spinal cord injury.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Down-regulation of NRIP1 alleviates pyroptosis in human lens epithelial
           cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide by inhibiting NF-κB activation

    • Authors: Hongyan Yao, Shanjun Wu, Bifei Lan, Li Cai, Zefeng Li
      Pages: 253 - 258
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the role of nuclear receptor-interacting protein 1 (NRIP1) in oxidative stressinduced apoptosis and pyroptosis in cataract disease.
      Methods: Human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3 cells) were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). NRIP1 expression in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated HLE-B3 cells was determined by western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). CCK8 and EdU staining were used to assess cell viability. Flow cytometry and western blotting were used to assess pyroptosis.
      Results: NRIP1 was significantly up-regulated in HLE-B3 cells post-H2O2 incubation (p < 0.01). Hydrogen peroxide incubation reduced cell viability and proliferation of HLE-B3 cells, while NRIP1 knockdown enhanced cell viability and proliferation. NRIP1 silencing attenuated the H2O2-induced increase in NLRP3, N-terminal domain of gasdermin D, caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18 in HLEB3 cells, but suppressed the pyroptosis of H2O2-treated HLE-B3 cells. Hydrogen peroxide incubation down-regulated protein expression of cytoplasmic NF-κB and up-regulated nuclear NF-κB, while the expression of cytoplasmic NF-κB was increased and nuclear NF-κB was decreased in HLE-B3 cells by HLE-B3 interference.
      Conclusion: NRIP1 down-regulation represses apoptosis and pyroptosis of H2O2-treated human lens epithelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation, thus, providing a potential strategy to treat cataract disease.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Eriocitrin alleviates sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells via
           Nrf2 pathway

    • Authors: Zhiguo Yuan, Mei Zhu, Xiaojia Wei, Xiaojing Li
      Pages: 259 - 264
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of eriocitrin on sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in mice.
      Methods: Mouse hippocampal neurons (HT22) were exposed to different concentrations of sevoflurane for 6 h and then incubated with different concentrations of eriocitrin for another 24 h. Cell viability was determined by CCK8 assay, while fluorescence intensity of dichlorodihydrofluorescein was used to evaluate reactive oxygen species. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry.
      Results: Sevoflurane exposure decreased HT22 cell viability, whereas incubation with eriocitrin increased viability of sevoflurane-treated HT22 cells (p < 0.05). Sevoflurane-induced increase in dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence intensity was reduced by eriocitrin, but eriocitrin attenuated sevoflurane-induced increase in malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in HT22 cells. Cell apoptosis increased after sevoflurane exposure, and eriocitrin suppressed apoptosis in sevoflurane-treated HT22 cells through downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 (p< 0.05). Eriocitrin incubation enhanced protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) in sevoflurane-treated HT22 cells (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Eriocitrin ameliorates sevoflurane-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in HT22 cells via activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 signaling. Thus, agent may be useful in the treatment of sevoflurane-induced toxicity, but in vivo studies are required to buttress this.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inhibitory activity of CXCR4 attenuates intervertebral disc degeneration
           by regulating TXNIP/NLRP3 expression

    • Authors: Jie Yu, Xiaohui Tao
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Purpose: To explore the inhibitory effect and mechanism of action of CXCR4 on intervertebral disc degeneration.
      Methods: The expression of CXCR4 was assessed in different degrees of degenerate disc tissues. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells-induced degeneration were obtained using interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) stimulation. CXCR4 inhibitor, AMD 3100, was employed to resist the function of CXCR4, in order to determine whether CXCR4 inhibition acted by targeting TXNIP/NLRP3 axis.
      Results: Expression of CXCR4 increased in severely degenerated disc tissues. IL-1β activated and promoted the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration, but AMD3100 treatment reversed the effects of IL-1β. Moreover, TXNIP and NLRP3 were significantly suppressed by AMD3100 stimuli.
      Conclusion: The results demonstrate that inhibition of CXCR4 prevents NP cells from degradation by regulating TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling pathway, thus indicating that this approach could be effective in the management of intervertebral disc degeneration.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Nicorandil alleviates inflammation and oxidation in diabetic

    • Authors: Yi Tao, Bing Zhou, Jie Zou, Yixian Yu, Jing Zhao, Naijia Xu, Qiong Wang
      Pages: 273 - 279
      Abstract: Purpose: To examine the effect of nicorandil on high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte inflammation and oxidative stress.
      Methods: H9C2 cardiomyocytes were divided into control group, high glucose group and nicorandil group. The survival rate of cardiomyocytes was determined using the CCK-8 method. The contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of cardiomyocytes were determined by flow cytometry. The contents of MDA and LDH in cell supernatant were determined by kit. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to assess oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis related factors in each group of cardiomyocytes. The expression levels of IL-1β were determined by immunofluorescence. Tunnel staining was used to determine the apoptosis level of each group.
      Results: The expressions of SOD1 and SOD2 in the high glucose group were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Also, the contents of MDA and LDH were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, caspase 3 and Bax expressions were increased, while Bcl-2 expression was inhibited. IL-1β and Tunnel fluorescence also increased significantly. NF-κB and Ikkα were significantly increased, while IκB-α was inhibited. Furthermore, nicorandil inhibited oxidative stress and apoptosis, as well as NF-κB pathway and downstream factor Ikkα.
      Conclusion: Nicorandil ameliorates the inflammation and oxidative damage of cardiomyocytes induced by high glucose, by inhibiting NF-κB pathway, thereby lowering apoptosis. Thus, the findings provide new insight into the development of new agents for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of hydrogen sulfide on PC12 cell injury induced by high ATP

    • Authors: Kunli Yang, Hu Luo, Yajie Liu, Yankai Ren, Meixia Guo, Bin Wang, Chih-huang Yang, Dongliang Li
      Pages: 281 - 288
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the potential protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against neural cell damage induced by a high-concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
      Methods: PC12 cells were incubated with ATP in order to induce cell damage. The extracellular level of H2S and protein expression of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) were determined. The PC12 cells pretreated with NaHS, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and KN-62, prior to further incubation with ATP, and the effect of the treatments on cell viability was investigated.
      Results: High-concentration ATP induced cell death in PC12 cells, and this was accompanied by markedly increased contents of extracellular H2S and CBS expression (p < 0.05). The ATP-induced cytotoxicity was significantly compromised after pretreatment with H2S. (p < 0.05). The viability of PC12 cells pretreated with NaHS and AOAA was significantly higher than that of PC12 cells treated with ATP alone. In addition, the viability of ATP-treated PC12 cells was further markedly increased after pretreatment with NaHS and KN-62 (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: ATP induced a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in PC12 cells via the
      endogenous H2S/CBS system. Supplementation with exogenous H2S mitigated the cell damage
      induced by high concentration of ATP via a specific mechanism which may be specifically related to P2X7R.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.10
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Protective effect of maternal exposure to α-lipoic acid during pregnancy
           and lactation on susceptibility to OVAinduced neonatal asthma

    • Authors: Yong Jiang, Xingjuan Liao, Shengsheng Wang, Zhifu Ni, Rui Liang, Yuling Zhang, Didi Tao
      Pages: 289 - 296
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) during pregnancy and lactation on susceptibility to ovalbumin (OVA)-induced neonatal asthma, and the mechanism of involved.
      Methods: Pregnant BALB/c mice were administered ALA (1 % mixed with mouse chow) or standard mouse chow from 6th day of gestation to 21st day of lactation (postnatal). The offspring (neonatal pups) from the OVA and ALA+OVA groups were sensitized on 1st, 7th and 14th postnatal days (PNDs) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OVA (0.5 μg). Control mice pups were not exposed to OVA. On PND 21, all pubs were again exposed to 1 % OVA aerosol using a nebulizer.
      Results: Neonatal mice exposed to ALA showed a significant decline (p < 0.05) in the number of inflammatory cells (eosinophils), levels of inflammatory markers (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and TNF-α) as well as OVA-specific IgE and total IgE, when compared to neonatal mice from pregnant mice that did not receive ALA (control). Moreover, the antioxidant profiles of ALA-treated mice offspring were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Marked downregulation (p < 0.05) of the protein expressions of NF-κB p-p65 subunit and TNF-α were observed in ALA-treated mice pups.
      Conclusion: ALA exposure during pregnancy (maternal exposure) markedly decreases OVA-induced asthmatic airway inflammatory response in pups. Thus, ALA might be beneficial for use along with standard anti-asthmatic drugs in the management of pediatric asthmatic patients
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.11
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of cucurbitacin on malignant biological behavior of breast cancer
           cells, and its possible underlying mechanism

    • Authors: Yun Ren, Guangyan Huang, Guangyan Huang, Qiang Xue, Qinjing Lv, Yayun Wu, Qianfei Wu, Wei Yao, Bowen Wang, Shengya Wang
      Pages: 297 - 302
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the influence of cucurbitacin on malignant biological behavior of mammary carcinoma cells, and the likely mechanism involved.
      Methods: Human mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-436 was selected for cell culture and treated with different concentrations of cucurbitacin. The effect of cucurbitacin on cell activity, cell colonyformation capacity, cell invasion, migration potential, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), epithelial calcium adhesion (E-cadherin), and neurogenic calcium adhesion (N-cadherin) were measured. Moreover, levels of wave protein (vimentin), phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (p-EGFR), phosphorylated signaling transduction, and transcription activation factor 3 (p-STAT3) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) were determined.
      Results: With increase in cucurbitacin dose, there was significant decrease in cell viability, cell colony ratio, cell invasion and migration capacity, and expression levels of MMP-9, VEGFA, e-cadherin, ncadherin, vimentin, P-EGFR, P-STAT3 and p-Akt (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Cucurbitacin inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of breast cancer cells by down-regulating the expressions of EGFR/STAT3/Akt signaling-related proteins, and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition transformation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.12
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Design, synthesis and biological activities of 5Hdibenzo[
           b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide derivatives; Targeted hippocampal trypsin
           inhibition as a novel approach to treat epileptogenesis

    • Authors: Taha Iqbal, Mohsin Abbas Khan, Irshad Ahmad, Fahad Mehmood Khan
      Pages: 303 - 312
      Abstract: Purpose: To synthesize anticonvulsant drug derivatives that target protease-activated receptor generated epileptic seizures.
      Method: Varieties of carbamazepine-based Schiff bases were designed with different aldehydes and ketones, and evaluated for in silico computer-aided drug design prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), and potential drug targets. The resultant compounds were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, including FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13CNMR, analysis. Thereafter, they were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticonvulsant potential.
      Results: Prominent anti-protease potential was shown by C7 and C3 compounds and the order of activity was C7 > C3 > C5 > C2 > C6 > C4 > C2 > C1 (p < 0.05). The anticonvulsant activity of C7 and C5 was comparable with the standard drug; C3, C4, C6 and C8 had mild activity while C1 and C4 showed the least activity. The synthesized compounds exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant potential (rank order: C3 > C4 > C5 > C7 > C8 > C6 > C1 > C2) and antimicrobial activity against S.aureus and B. bronchiseptica (rank order: C5 > C2 > C8 > C1 > C4 > C3 > C7).
      Conclusion: Synthesized derivatives retained their potential for anticonvulsant and antitrypsin activity, unlike their mother moiety, i.e., carbamazepine. The additional antibacterial activity effectively treats neurological disorders associated with bacterial infections.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.13
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of,
           and recovery from COVID-19 infection

    • Authors: Naglaa Gamil Shehab, Sareh Dortaj, Mariam Othman, Esraa Mostafa, Parisa Rezvani, Fatimah Alshawi, Lilyan Al Ahmad
      Pages: 313 - 322
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of natural remedies and supplements on the progress of andrecovery from COVID-19 infection, and the role of safety precautions in controlling the spread of its causative pathogen.
      Methods: A questionnaire was designed and electronically distributed among previously infected individuals across countries. The survey included questions about the participants’ demographic information, medical history, how they were infected, symptoms they have experienced, where they were isolated, the degree of precautions taken against the virus, and their consumption of natural remedies or supplements before and during the infection period.
      Results: The results showed that natural remedies and supplements are widely consumed among COVID-19 patients both before and during infection, either as a single remedy or in combination with other remedies. As the age of the participants increased, the incidence of their hospitalization increased. Significant results were observed when comparing the severity of infection with the number of natural remedies and supplements taken before (P 0.000) and during the infection (P 0.003).
      Conclusion: Increasing the intake of natural remedies and/or supplements before and during COVID-19 infection lowers the severity of the infection. Vitamin C, honey, and citrus fruits such as orange and lemon were the major remedies consumed before and during infection. A large number of the participants that experienced severe COVID-19 conditions, did not consume any natural remedies or supplements.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.14
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Myocardin immunohistochemistry index is associated with clinical prognosis
           in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a clinical practice-based cohort study

    • Authors: Fu Chen, Zhe Zhang, Xin-Mao Song, Xue Xiao, Xiao-Ying Zhou, Sheng-Zi Wang
      Pages: 323 - 331
      Abstract: Purpose: Recent findings have implicated the role of myocardin re-expression in carcinogenesisHowever, the clinical functions of myocardin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not known yet. The purpose for the cohort research was to investigate whether myocardin re-expression level may predict clinical prognosis in NPC patients.
      Methods: 148 NPC patients were recruited from September, 2005 to September, 2011 with median follow-up time of 4.5 years in a clinical practice setting. At study entry myocardin re-expression of these patients was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and additional 20 normal nasopharyngeal tissues were included as control. Two-sample t-test was used to compare mean myocardin reexpression levels and Chi-square test was used for comparing tumour recurrence rate. Logistic regression analysis was used for tumour local control rate, and log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard model for disease-free survival and overall survival.
      Results: Myocardin IHC index was significantly downregulated in NPC samples than in normal
      nasopharyngeal tissues (mean ± standard deviation, 61.2 ±31.5 vs. 109.9 ±73.6, P= 0.009). However, among NPC patients was observed a roughly V-shaped change of myocardin IHC index according to Tumour T-stage (P=0.067); meanwhile higher IHC level was associated with more tumour recurrence rate in NPC patients (High vs. Low: 21.6% vs. 8.1%; P=0.021). Logistic regression analysis equally showed high myocardin IHC level was an independent risk factor for local tumour control rate regardless of adjustments [High vs. Low: unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 0.320, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.117 to 0.871; P=0.026]. Moreover, higher myocardin IHC level was associated with a marginal but not significant risk increase of disease-free survival [High vs. Low: adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.760, 95% CI: 0.981 to 3.158; log-rank: P=0.129]. A less obvious trend was observed with regard to overall survival [adjusted HR 1.409, 95% CI: 0.715 to 2.77; log-rank: P=0.745].
      Conclusion: The study results suggested that high myocardin IHC index level could be a potential clinically prognostic intermediate biomarker for tumour recurrence for NPC patients in routine practice. Large well-designed cohort studies involving IHC re-expression change over time is needed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.15
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • A clinical study on the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on
           erythrocyte deformability during anaesthesia

    • Authors: Xiang Cui, Ling Ma, Jingfang Wei
      Pages: 333 - 339
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on erythrocyte deformability (ED) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
      Methods: A total of 522 patients undergoing gallbladder removal surgery were randomly divided into groups A (dexmedetomidine group), B (propofol group), and C (control). Erythrocyte suspensions were prepared from each group. Then, erythrocyte deformability index (EI) was measured in terms of RBC deformability. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, and concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were determined. Patients in the three groups received the same anaesthesia induction and maintenance, and their EI and Hct values were assayed before anaesthesia (T0) and post-surgery (T1). The activity of eNOS in each group was assayed using immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting analysis.
      Results: There were higher levels of EI and NO, and higher eNOS activity in erythrocytes in the dexmedetomidine group than in the propofol and ginsenoside groups (p < 0.05). Post-naethesia EI (T0) values were higher in propofol and control groups than in dexmedetomidine group (p < 0.05). The protein expression of eNOS was higher in dexmedetomidine group, as was evident from immunofluorescence and western blotting analyses.
      Conclusion: Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine during anaesthesia increases RBC deformability in vitro and directly upregulates eNOS activity in erythrocytes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.16
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of combined treatment with benazepril and spironolactone on
           diabetic nephropathy and serum levels of IL-6, CRP and TNF-α

    • Authors: Xiaoxing Duan, Liying Zhang, Xue Pan, Dongying Shi
      Pages: 341 - 347
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of a combination of benazepril and spironolactone on diabetic nephropathy patients, and also to determine the influence of the combined treatment on serum IL-6, CRP and TNF-α.
      Methods: 100 diabetic nephropathy patients admitted to The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from April 2019 to October 2020 were randomly chosen and divided into groups E and F by drawing lots (n = 50 each). Group E received benazepril, while group F received a combined treatment of benazepril and spironolactone. Therapeutic efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions, and renal function after treatment, as well as IL-6, CRP and TNF-α levels in serum pre- and posttreatment, were determined. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were also measured pre-treatment, and at 7 days and 14 days post-exposure to drugs.
      Results: Therapeutic efficacy and renal functions were significantly better in group F than in group E, while post-treatment incidence of adverse drug reactions, and expression levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly reduced in group F, relative to group E (p < 0.05). Following treatment, the inflammatory factor levels were decreased in both groups.
      Conclusion: The combination of benazepril and spironolactone produces higher treatment effect in diabetic nephropathy patients than those that received benazepril only. The combined treatment is recommended in the management of diabetic nephropathy patients.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.17
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of different hypertonic resuscitations on traumatic brain injuries
           and cranioencephalic trauma: A single centre, retrospective analysis

    • Authors: Fei Han, Yingzhu Wang, Zhengjie Sun, Junyi Gu
      Pages: 349 - 358
      Abstract: Purpose: To compare the efficacies of 3 % (w/v) hypertonic saline, 20 % (w/v) mannitol, and 10 % (w/v) mannitol plus 10 % (v/v) glycerol in the management of intracranial hypertension.
      Methods: Patients with intracranial pressure > 20 mmHg received 3 % (w/v) hypertonic saline (HT cohort, n = 78) or 20 % w/v mannitol (MT cohort, n = 82) or 10 % (w/v) mannitol plus 10 % (v/v) glycerol (MG cohort, n = 73) until intracranial pressure was reduced below 15 mmHg. Neurologic outcomes, hemodynamic parameters, and clinical biochemistry were evaluated as indices of intracranial pressure and pathological parameters.
      Results: Serum sodium levels and serum osmolarity were significantly increased by 3 % (w/ v) hypertonic saline, relative to the other hypertonic resuscitations. At the end of 1 h observation period, 60 (77 %), 36 (44 %), and 41 (56 %) of patients from HT, MT, and MG cohorts, respectively, had their cerebral perfusion pressure successfully maintained at > 70 mmHg. At the end of 1 h observation period, intracranial pressure ≤ 20 mmHg was successfully maintained in 78 (100 %), 81 (99 %), and 73 (100 %) patients from HT, MT, and MG cohorts, respectively. The mean values of arterial pressure of patients in HT, MT, and MG cohorts were increased after 1 h, 15 min, and 30 min of interventions, respectively.
      Conclusion: These results indicate that 3 % (w/v) hypertonic saline was the most rapid and most effective resuscitation for the management of intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injuries or cranioencephalic trauma.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.18
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Efficacy and safety of combination of ulinastatin and meglumine cyclic
           adenosine monophosphate in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction,
           and its effect on serum levels of hs-CRP, cTnI and CK

    • Authors: Hairui Jiang, Liru Liu, Huiying Sui, Bo Liang, Lingyu Jin
      Pages: 359 - 365
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of a combination of ulinastatin and meglumine cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and its effect on serum levels of hypersensitive-c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK).
      Methods: A total of 90 AMI patients admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College, Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province, China from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected and randomized (in a 1:1 ration) into control group and study group. Patients in the two groups received meglumine cAMP, while those in the study group were, in addition, treated with ulinastatin. The two groups were compared with regard to clinical efficacy, cardiac function indices, serum biochemical indices, incidence of drug-related side effects, duration and number of episodes of angina pectoris, and levels of neuroendocrine hormones.
      Results: The study group exhibited remarkably higher treatment effectiveness and cardiac function indices compared to the control group (p < 0.05). However, lower levels of serum biochemical indices, lower total incidence of drug toxicity, smaller number and shorter duration of angina pectoris, and lower levels of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) were observed in the study when compared to control group (p< 0.001).
      Conclusion: Treatment of AMI patients with the combination of ulinastatin and meglumine cAMP significantly reduces the clinical symptoms of the patients, with remarkable efficacy and high safety. Furthermore, it down-regulates serum levels of hs-CRP, cTnI and CK. Thus, the combination treatment seems superior to the conventional therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.19
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effectiveness of Zhixiao Decoction in children with bronchial asthma, and
           its effect on serum levels of IL-13, IL-6, and IL-17

    • Authors: Wenjun Luo, Ming Chen, Wenbin Wang
      Pages: 367 - 374
      Abstract: Purpose: To probe into the efficiency of Zhixiao Decoction in treating children with bronchial asthma, and its effect on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-13, IL-6, and IL-17.
      Methods: 140 children with bronchial asthma who were treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of traditional Chinese medicine from February 2018 to October 2020, were included as the study group, while 70 children at the same period of physical examination served as the control group. Using the random number table, the study group was equally subdivided into regular group given Asthma-relief Oral Liquid, and treatment group given Zhixiao Decoction. Serum levels of IL-13, IL-6, and IL-17, and effectiveness and safety of Zhixiao Decoction, were measured.
      Results: Zhixiao Decoction showed higher levels of IL-13, IL-6, and IL-17 and greater treatment effectiveness in patients compared with Asthma-relief Oral Liquid (p < 0.05). IL-13, IL-6, and IL-17 levels exhibited negative correlation with FEV1 and PEF. The treatment group had lower post-treatment traditional Chinese medicine syndrome scores, serum levels of IL-13, IL-6, IL-17; fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and eosinophil counts. The treatment group also demonstrated higher scores in asthma control test, mini-asthma-related quality of life, and better lung function than the regular group (p <0.05).
      Conclusion: Zhixiao Decoction mitigates clinical symptoms of bronchial asthma children, improves lung function and clinical efficacy, and down-regulates levels of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, this therapeutic approach has potentials in the management of pediatric asthma.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.20
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of a combination of donepezil tablets and butylphthalide soft
           capsules on neurological function in dementia patients, and its effect on
           serum inflammatory factors

    • Authors: Fuqiang Ma, Tao Chen, Yanqiu Wang, Junxia Xu
      Pages: 375 - 380
      Abstract: Purpose: To determine the effect of combined use of donepezil tablets and butylphthalide soft capsules in the treatment of patients with vascular dementia, and its effect on serum inflammatory factor levels and neurological functional recovery of patients.
      Methods: 120 patients with vascular dementia were selected and assigned to group A (n = 60) and group B (n = 60). All patients were treated with donepezil tablets, while patients in group A were, in addition, treated with butylphthalide soft capsules. Mini mental state examination (MMSE) scores, clinical dementia rating scale (CDRS) scores, activities of daily living (ADL) scores, incidence of adverse reactions, serum inflammatory factor levels and neurological functional recovery were determined.
      Results: There was significantly higher MMSE score in group A than in B, while CDRS score was lower in group A. The ADL scores and inflammatory factor levels were lower in group A than in B (p < 0.001), while neurological functional recovery was markedly better in A (p < 0.001). Incidents of unwanted events were comparable in groups A and B, and there were no serious complications in the patients.
      Conclusion: The combination therapy of donepezil tablets and butylphthalide soft capsules reduces inflammatory factor levels and improved cognitive level and quality of life of patients with vascular dementia. It also produces good neurological functional recovery and low incidence of adverse reactions. Therefore, this treatment strategy has potentials for the management of vascular dementia.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Therapeutic potential of a combination of recombinant human growth hormone
           (r-hGH) and vitamin D in children with idiopathic short stature

    • Authors: Wenlong Mei, Yupei Wu, Hongyue Shang
      Pages: 381 - 386
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the effectiveness and clinical significance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in combination with vitamin D in the treatment of idiopathic short-stature children.
      Methods: A total of 90 idiopathic short-stature children admitted at Children Health Care Center of Shiyan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Shiyan between March 2017 and March 2020 were assigned to three groups: A, B and C, based on dose of r-hGH given. Group A received r-hGH at a dose of 0.26 mg/kg/week, while groups B and C received r-hGH at doses of 0.35 and 0.42mg/kg/week, respectively. All the patients were given vitamin D along with the r-hGH doses administered. Height, growth rate, bone age, height standard deviation score, fasting blood glucose, thyroid function and treatment effectiveness were determined and compared among the three groups before treatment, and one year after treatment.
      Results: Significantly higher height standard deviation score, growth rate, bone age, and height were observed in the three groups of patients after one year of treatment than before treatment, with group A < group B < group C (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and thyroid function were not significantly different amongst the three groups after treatment (p < 0.05). Group C showed the highest treatment effectiveness, followed by group B, and then group A (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: The use of a combination of r-hGH and vitamin D produces a favorable treatment effectiveness in idiopathic short-stature children. However, further clinical trials are required to validate this treatment strategy.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.22
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Mitigating effect of clopidogrel and systematic management on adverse
           events after interventional therapy for coronary heart disease

    • Authors: Jing Shao, Wenqiang Chen
      Pages: 387 - 392
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of clopidogrel combined with systemic management care in the prevention of adverse events in patients with coronary heart disease after interventional therapy.
      Methods: 100 patients undergoing interventional therapy after coronary heart disease admitted to Jinan Third People’s Hospital from April 2018 to April 2020 were assigned at a ratio of 1:1 either into control (low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) injection) or study groups randomly (clopidogrel plus system management care). Thrombin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, incidence of adverse events, NIHSS score and QLI score were determined for the two groups.
      Results: There thrombin time, prothrombin time and fibrinogen in the two groups were similar (p >0.05). The study group showed a significantly lower incidence of adverse events than the control group (p < 0.05). The treatment administered to the study group resulted in a higher QLI (quality of life) scores than those in the control group (p < 0.05). Remarkably lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was reported in the study group versus control group (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Clopidogrel plus systemic management care might be a preferable therapeutic strategy for patients with coronary heart disease undergoing interventional therapy. It reduces the incidence of adverse events, significantly improves the quality of life of patients, and enhances neurological function. Thus, this therapeutic strategy has significant promise in the management of coronary heart disease.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.23
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparison of the safety and efficacy of propofol and dexmedetomidine as
           sedatives when used as a modified topical formulation

    • Authors: Shixiong Wen, Zhengyang Li, Xiuying Xiao, Weiwei Zhan, Yuanyuan Zheng
      Pages: 393 - 399
      Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of propofol and dexmedetomidine as sedatives in patients with anticipated difficult airways, used as a modified topical preparation.
      Methods: A total of 432 patients were enrolled in this study. They were classified as ASA I and ASA II. The patients were equally divided into group A (propofol group) and group B (dexmedetomidine group). A modified Awake Fiberoptic Intubation (AFOI) was carried out for these patients, followed by airway assessment and evaluation of clinical outcome based on intubation scores, adverse events, and postoperative data.
      Results: Patients in both groups had successful intubation at the first attempt. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The SARI scores which characterized the overall score for tracheal intubation were 4.6 and 4.2 for groups A and B, respectively. With respect to rescue infusion and consciousness, 11 patients (5.09 %) in group A required rescue, as against 5 patients (2.31 %) in group B. Seven (7) patients (3.24 %) in group A (propofol group) had severe airway obstruction, while only 4 patients (1.85) in group B had the same adverse reaction. Patients in group B had more satisfactory and favourable outcomes than those in group A who were treated with modified AFOI.
      Conclusion: The use of dexmedetomidine based on modified topical anaesthesia is safe and comfortable in terms of patient convenience and difficult airway management. Thus, dexmedetomidine is a safe, feasible and effective method for managing difficult airway when applied using the modified AFOI.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.24
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Efficacy of Wushaoshe Qufeng Tablet and leflunomide combination therapy in
           the management of rheumatoid arthritis, and its influence on incidence of
           adverse drug reactions

    • Authors: Zenghui Xin, Xiangwei Zhang
      Pages: 401 - 407
      Abstract: Purpose: To study the effectiveness and safety of combined use of Wushaoshe Qufeng tablets andleflunomide in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
      Methods: A retrospective trial was conducted among 120 patients with rheumatoid arthritis hospitalized in Heyuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Heyuan, from February 2020 to February 2021. The patients were equally divided into study group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). Both groups received conventional treatment. in addition, the control group received leflunomide, whereas the experimental group received Wushaoshe Qufeng tablets. The two groups were compared with respect to laboratory indicators, TCM syndrome scores, and adverse events.
      Results: The post-treatment TCM syndrome scores was lower in the experimental group versus control group (p < 0.001). After treatment, the study group was superior to the control group in terms of their biochemical indicators (p < 0.001). Safety profile was better in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment effectiveness was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Combined treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients with Wushaoshe Qufeng tablets and leflunomide shows improved biochemical indicators, mitigates clinical symptoms, and enhances treatment effectiveness. Moreover, the combination therapy is safe, and therefore, should be considered for the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.25
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of the combination of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and
           pharmacological thrombolysis on hemodialysis patients

    • Authors: Liwen Yang, Fengying Tang, Weiqiang Zhong
      Pages: 409 - 416
      Abstract: Purpose: To examine the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), combined with
      pharmacologic thrombolysis (PT) on thrombosis of autologous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs),
      inflammatory factors, and β2 microglobulin (β2-MG) levels in hemodialysis patients.
      Methods: Seventy-eight patients with AVF thrombosis allocated randomly into a control group (CG) received PTA, and a study group (SG) received PTA combined with PT (n = 39 in each). The patency, vascular condition, inflammatory factors, viz, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)), β2-MG levels, vascular-related factors (VEGF-A and MCP-1), complications, and quality of life were determined.
      Results: At three and six months after surgery, t SG exhibited a higher vascular patency than CG (p <0.05). Serum levels of IL-6, hs-CRP, β2-MG, VEGF-A, and MCP-1 of t SG were lower than those of CG
      (p < 0.05). The SG showed higher cross-sectional area, inner diameter at the site of fistula, and better quality of life scores than CG (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: The combination of PTA and PT enhances efficacy, increases vascular patency, reduces inflammatory response, lowers the level of β2-MG, and improves quality of life in patients with AVFs without increasing complications. Thus, the combination treatment has potentials for the management of hemodialysis patients.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.26
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Efficacy and safety of a combination of shuangdan mingmu capsules and
           laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy, and its effect on blood glucose
           indices and quality of life of patients

    • Authors: Rui Zhang, Boru Feng
      Pages: 417 - 423
      Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a combination of Shuangdan Mingmu capsules and
      laser therapy in diabetic retinopathy (DR), as well as on blood glucose index and quality of life.
      Methods: One hundred and twenty DR patients admitted to Zhenba County Peoples Hospital, Shaanxi were assigned equally to 2 groups: A and B. Retinal laser photocoagulation was performed for group B patients, while Shuangdan Mingmu capsules were given to group A, in addition to laser treatment. Ophthalmic parameters, blood glucose indices, ultrasonic indices, platelet parameters, quality of life, and incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) were determined and compared between groups A and
      Results: Following treatment, group A had significantly better ophthalmic parameters, blood glucose indices and platelet parameters (p < 0.05); better ultrasonic indices and quality of life (p < 0.001), and lower ADRs (p < 0.05) than group B.
      Conclusion: The combination of Shuangdan Mingmu capsules and laser therapy effectively cures ocular lesions, controls blood glucose, and lowers ADR in DR patients. Therefore, the combined therapy should be further investigated for the management of diabetic retinopathy.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.27
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Treatment efficacy of carrelizumab in metastatic castration-resistant
           prostate cancer, and the significance of circulating tumor DNA fraction

    • Authors: Henan Zhou, Yanning Chen, Xiaonan Zhang, Yuanyuan Sang
      Pages: 425 - 432
      Abstract: Purpose: To explore the efficacy of carrelizumab in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), and the significance of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fraction in the process.
      Methods: 100 mCRPC patients who were treated in the Oncology Department of Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital in a time frame of January 2018 to January 2019 were enrolled and assigned (1:1) into control and study groups and were given a regimen consisting of a combination of docetaxel and prednisone. Prognosis of patients with high and low ctDNA fractions relative to baseline ctDNA level, was compared.
      Results: The study group obtained considerably higher objective response rate (ORR) in relation to the control group (p < 0.05). Serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone (TTE) were significantly lower in the study group versus control group. Better quality of life and bladder function were witnessed in the study group when compared to control group (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients with ctDNA fraction < 2 % in the study group significantly increased, but there was no significant change in ctDNA in the control group. The clinical prognosis of patients with low ctDNA fraction was significantly better than that of patients with high fraction (p < 0.05).
      Conclusion: Combined use of carrelizumab and docetaxel-prednisone regimen for mCRPC patients substantially improved clinical efficacy, quality of life, and long-term prognosis, while reducing ctDNA levels. Thus, the combination regimen has promise for the treatment of mCRPC patients.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.28
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Clinical efficacy and anti-recurrence effect of isatis root eye drops
           combined with ganciclovir eye drops in the treatment of Herpes simplex
           keratitis; a case report

    • Authors: Liang Yin, Mingxue Zhang, Hongguang Jin
      Pages: 433 - 438
      Abstract: Purpose: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing into cancer is 40 – 70 %. Endoscopic resection has been the preferred method for treating gastric polyps since the late 1960s. Surgical removal of polyps continues to play an important role in the treatment of polyps; however, the efficacy of such treatment cannot be guaranteed, and polyps may recur.
      Case presentation: Here, we report a 44-year-old man suffering from gastrointestinal polyps who refused surgical treatment and instead was treated with traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) for approximately 1 year. The patient was diagnosed with “qi deficiency and dampness syndrome” based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and was treated with the TCHM “strengthen qi and remove dampness formula”, referred to as the shen-ling-bai-zhu powder/decoction.
      Conclusion: This case suggests that TCHM may play an important role in the treatment of gastrointestinal polyps. Relevant data are, however, limited and a randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm TCHM efficacy in a larger population.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.29
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
  • Molecular scaffold and biological activities of anti- Alzheimer agents

    • Authors: Fars K Alanazi, Awwad A Radwan, Hisham Aou-Auda
      Pages: 439 - 451
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-associated and neurodegenerative illness which results in progressive dementia and severe cognitive malfunctions. The pathogenesis of AD is affected by some factors such as accumulation of β-amyloid, aggregation of tau protein, cholinergic insufficiency, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Factors such as gene mutation, as well as environmental, psychical and other co-existing diseases influence the pathogenesis of AD to varying extents. While there are no available drugs for arresting AD-associated neurodegeneration, the characteristics that result from AD treatment are considered as indexes of symptomatic cure. Several medications with varied scaffolds have been used for the treatment of many cognitive syndromes, including AD. These medications act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, and as inhibitors of cholinesterase and β-secretase. Moreover, these drugs suppress the accumulation of β-amyloid and its fibril. This review is an update and compilation of various scaffolds of anti-AD medications used to ameliorate the deleterious effects of the disease, based on their pharmacologic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v22i2.30
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 2 (2022)
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