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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 317)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2226-4787
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 47: Development of a Campus-Wide Community
           Service Initiative during a Pandemic

    • Authors: Kevan King, Hannah E. Davis, Robin Moorman-Li, Kelsey J. Cook, Nathan D. Seligson
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Community service serves as a major aspect of pharmacy education; however, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represented a significant disruption to student involvement. The College of Pharmacy student council, which serves as the local student government organization for the University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Jacksonville campus, developed a community service initiative to offer more consistent opportunities for students to participate in community service events, while adapting to COVID-19 restrictions. A retrospective, qualitative review of this initiative demonstrates the potential value of this model. Prior to this initiative, students relied on individual student organizations to provide service opportunities to their members. This excluded portions of the student body and led to sparse and inconsistent events, with limited variation in the types of service events available. Furthermore, de-centralized planning of service opportunities increased the difficulty of ensuring that COVID-19 safety restrictions were followed appropriately. This initiative resulted in 39 students logging over 200 service hours through nine events in the first seven months after its development. Despite the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, our centralized initiative serves as a model for improving community service involvement.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 48: The Potential of Methocinnamox as a Future
           Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Colleen G. Jordan, Amy L. Kennalley, Alivia L. Roberts, Kaitlyn M. Nemes, Tenzing Dolma, Brian J. Piper
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The opioid epidemic is an ongoing public health crisis, and the United States health system is overwhelmed with increasing numbers of opioid-related overdoses. Methocinnamox (MCAM) is a novel mu opioid receptor antagonist with an extended duration of action. MCAM has potential to reduce the burden of the opioid epidemic by being used as an overdose rescue treatment and a long-term treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). The currently available treatments for OUD include naloxone, naltrexone, and methadone. These treatments have certain limitations, which include short duration of action, patient non-compliance, and diversion. A narrative review was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases covering the history of the opioid epidemic, pain receptors, current OUD treatments and the novel drug MCAM. MCAM could potentially be used as both a rescue and long-term treatment for opioid misuse. This is due to its pseudo-irreversible antagonism of the mu opioid receptor, abnormally long duration of action of nearly two weeks, and the possibility of using kappa or delta opioid receptor agonists for pain management during OUD treatment. MCAM’s novel pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties open a new avenue for treating opioid misuse.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 49: The Lean Six Sigma Define, Measure, Analyze,
           Implement, Control (LSS DMAIC) Framework: An Innovative Strategy for
           Quality Improvement of Pharmacist Vaccine Recommendations in Community

    • Authors: Kenneth C. Hohmeier, Chelsea Renfro, Benjamin Loomis, Connor E. Alexander, Urvi Patel, Matthew Cheramie, Alina Cernasev, Tracy Hagemann, Chi-Yang Chiu, Marie A. Chisholm-Burns, Justin D. Gatwood
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Community pharmacies represent a highly accessible and convenient setting for vaccination. However, setting-specific barriers exist which contribute to suboptimal vaccination rates, particularly for pneumococcal vaccinations. One proven quality improvement framework growing in use within healthcare settings is Lean Six Sigma (LSS). This paper describes the application of the LSS framework in select locations of a national pharmacy chain. The implementation of a training program for improved recommendation techniques to promote higher rates of pneumococcal vaccinations in high-risk adult populations is also addressed. A mixed-methods approach including pre/post quasi-experimental design and in-depth key informant interviews was used.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Fixed-Dose Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing
           Activity (FEIBA) in the Management of Warfarin-Associated Coagulopathies

    • Authors: Francisco Ibarra, Mallory Cruz, Matthew Ford, Meng-Jou Wu
      First page: 50
      Abstract: This retrospective review evaluated our institutions’ practice of administering low fixed-dose FEIBA (high (1000 units) or low dose (500 units) for an INR ≥ 5 or < 5, respectively) for the management of warfarin-associated coagulopathies. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who had a post-FEIBA INR ≤ 1.5. In the total population, 55.6% (10/18) of patients achieved a post-FEIBA INR ≤ 1.5. In the subgroup analysis, significantly more patients in the low dose FEIBA group achieved a post-FEIBA INR ≤ 1.5 compared to the high dose FEIBA group (71.4% vs. 45.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). In the post hoc analysis, there was a significant difference in the number of patients who achieved a post-FEIBA INR ≤ 1.5 when comparing those who received high dose FEIBA with a baseline INR 5–9.9 to those who received high dose FEIBA with a baseline INR ≥ 10 (60% vs. 33.3%, respectively, p < 0.001). The existing literature and our findings suggest that patients who present with lower baseline INR values and receive additional reversal agents are more likely to meet post-reversal INR goals. Current low fixed-dose protocols may be oversimplified and may need to be revised to provide larger fixed-doses.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 51: Pharmacists’ Seasonal Influenza
           Vaccine Recommendations

    • Authors: Roland Langer, Mirjam Thanner
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Seasonal influenza vaccination rates among European countries remain low despite the World Health Organization’s recommendations to vaccinate high-risk groups. Healthcare worker recommendations are strong predictors of increased vaccination uptake in the population. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze seasonal influenza vaccination recommendation behavior among pharmacists towards high-risk groups including patients, coworkers, and pharmacists’ family members during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based research was conducted in Switzerland during the flu season and sent to all members of the Swiss Pharmacist Association. In December 2020, 569 community pharmacists completed the online survey. The influenza vaccination recommendation rates for high-risk patients were 93.6% for the elderly, 70.7% for pregnant women, 65.2% for immunocompromised people, and 60.3% for patients with chronic diseases. Pharmacists tend to recommend influenza immunization to patients more than to family members and colleagues. Holding a certification to administer immunization and personal influenza vaccine history were the main predictors for recommending influenza vaccination to patients, family members, and colleagues. Our results indicated that influenza vaccination recommendation rates in our whole sample of pharmacists, were higher for vaccinated and immunizing pharmacists. Ensuring high vaccinations rates and high ratio of immunizing pharmacists may be important in promoting seasonal influenza vaccination in the general population.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 52: Clinical Impact of Implementing a Nurse-Led
           Adverse Drug Reaction Profile in Older Adults Prescribed Multiple
           Medicines in UK Primary Care: A Study Protocol for a Cluster-Randomised
           Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Vera Logan, Alexander Bamsey, Neil Carter, David Hughes, Adam Turner, Sue Jordan
      First page: 52
      Abstract: (1) Aims: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) particularly affect older people prescribed multiple medicines. The professional bodies of nursing, medicine and pharmacy have issued guidelines on identification and management of ADRs; however, ADRs continue to account for ~10% unplanned hospital admissions in the UK. Current methods of ADR identification and management could be improved by multidisciplinary collaboration involving nurses. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of implementing the nurse-led Adverse Drug Reaction (ADRe) Profile in UK primary care. (2) Design: A pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) followed by qualitative interviews in a sequential mixed-methods study. (3) Methods: For the cluster RCT, 60 patients aged ≥65 prescribed ≥5 regular medicines for long-term conditions will be recruited, 10 in each of 6 general practices. The intervention arm (n = 30) will complete the ADRe Profile, whilst the control participants (n = 30) continue to receive usual, standard care. Primary outcomes will include clinical impact on patients, benefit and prescription changes. On completion of the RCT, participants will be invited to semi-structured qualitative interviews, to evaluate the impact of the ADRe Profile from stakeholders’ perspectives, and to describe the contextual factors relevant to ADRe implementation. (4) Results: The findings of this study will evaluate the effectiveness of the ADRe Profile in identifying and resolving potential ADRs in primary care. Trial registration: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number NCT04663360, date of registration—29 November 2021 (date of initial registration: 26 November 2020), protocol version 2, dated 8 January 2021.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 53: Instructor-Blinded Study of Pharmacy Student
           Learning When a Flipped Online Classroom Was Implemented during the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Paul R. V. Malik, Nardine Nakhla
      First page: 53
      Abstract: A multi-cohort instructor-blinded research study was completed at the School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, to test the impact on study learning endpoints when an online flipped classroom teaching style was implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The learning endpoints were gain in factual knowledge and gain in self-confidence in clinical skills (assessing a patient, developing a care plan for a minor ailment, and implementing the care plan by counselling patients on the condition). Gain in factual knowledge was assessed with an instructor-blinded multiple-choice test administered before and after the course. Gain in self-confidence in clinical skills was assessed with a survey asking students to report their self-confidence in completing 10 clinical tasks on a 5-item Likert scale. Students being taught in an online flipped classroom cohort during the COVID-19 pandemic trended toward having a higher gain in self-confidence throughout the course but a lower gain in factual knowledge when compared with a traditional classroom cohort in the previous year.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Extending Pharmacist Roles in Primary
           Healthcare to Meet the Needs of Universal Health Coverage in Zimbabwe: A
           Pharmacist Perspective and Curriculum Evaluation

    • Authors: Douglas Chiutsi, Fatima Suleman, Velisha Ann Perumal-Pillay
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Zimbabwean pharmacists undergo university level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of medicines but are limited in their scope of practice. They are called medicines experts, yet they are not allowed to apply their specialized knowledge independently in direct patient management. We aim to obtain Zimbabwean pharmacists’ perceptions on extending their scope of practice and to evaluate the Zimbabwe pharmacy honours degree curriculum to determine the competencies covered and whether these are in-line with an extended scope of practice. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with selected pharmacists were conducted to gather perspectives on the BPharm (Hons) curricula and extending pharmacists’ scope of practice. A desktop review of the pharmacy curricula was also conducted to determine competencies covered. The results showed that pharmacists are keen to extend their scope of practice but the curriculum does not equip them with the required exit level competencies. “The pharmacist is obviously not equipped currently but needs to be involved in direct patient care such as identifying and managing medicine therapy problems, prescription extension, ordering and reviewing laboratory data and administrationof vaccines and immunizations”. There exists an opportunity for pharmacists to extend their scope of practice in order to achieve universal health coverage.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Exploring Muslims’ Health-Related
           Behaviours in Portugal: Any Impact on Quotidian Community Pharmacy

    • Authors: Aisha Omar, Grishma Dramce, Dragana Lakic, Afonso Cavaco
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Muslims are a growing community in European countries. General health habits, including therapy-related behaviours, have been described, though implications to pharmacy practice might vary with the local dominant culture and setting. This exploratory study aimed to describe Muslims’ prevalent health and medication-related practices and possible implications for culturally competent community pharmacy practice. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenient sample of 100 participants at Lisbon Central Mosque, Portugal. Demographics, dietary, Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM) and religious practices were examined, including health conditions and conventional biomedical treatments. Participant reported ailments (26%) were aligned with prevalent conditions in the general population. Ill participants were significantly associated with TAIM and Islamic dictates (p < 0.05), particularly Zam-Zam water and milk thistle usage. Participants’ orientation to dietary options and Qur’an restrictions were observed regarding forbidden substances in medication, raising issues on medication adherence for some oral dosage forms. TAIM and religious beliefs supplement illness recovery and health improvement instead of replacing conventional healthcare in a religious minority well integrated within the dominant culture. Portuguese community pharmacists should not neglect religious specificities if seamless care is delivered, enhancing professionals’ collaboration skills with multicultural patients.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10030055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 35: Community Pharmacy Services in Malanje City,
           Angola: A Survey of Practices, Facilities, Equipment, and Staff

    • Authors: Bernardo Nicodemo Chimbuco, Mateus Alfredo Ferreira, Euclides Nenga Manuel Sacomboio, Eduardo Ekundi-Valentim
      First page: 35
      Abstract: A community pharmacy, also known as a retail pharmacy, is the most common type of pharmacy that allows the public access to their medications and advice about their health. The conditions existing in the community pharmacy, as well as the qualification of the staff who work there, are fundamental for the compliance of good pharmacy practices. Objective: To assess the practices, facilities, equipment, and personnel of community pharmacies in the Municipality of Malanje. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study with a quantitative and qualitative approach. Through a simple random sampling technique, 20 pharmacies were selected from a universe of 73 reported by official authorities. Results: no pharmacist was acting in the local pharmacies, and their activity was supported by other professionals, particularly intermediate nursing technicians (57%). Most pharmacies were in the peri-urban area, and their functional areas, equipment, and utilities were not in accordance with Angolan law. In addition, the distribution of some drugs that are not over-the-counter was observed. Conclusion: community pharmacies in Malanje develop their activity in disregard of the law, constituting a considerable weakness that affects the observance of pharmacy service standards.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 36: The Geriatric Virtual Escape Room in Pharmacy

    • Authors: Aisha F. Badr
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Due to COVID-19 and the limitation of face-face teaching, electronic adaptation for formative and continuous assessment methods were greatly used and documented between 2020 and 2021. This study aims to implement a virtual escape room that will help assist and refine problem-solving skills in fifth-year pharmacy students by reviewing Beer’s criteria and selecting the most appropriate management. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted following the implementation of the virtual escape room using google form. Students had to unlock five puzzles using Beer’s criteria. To evaluate pharmacy students’ perception of this method, they completed a survey to identify their views of the game. Of the 128 students enrolled in the geriatric course, all were able to escape (100%). A one-sample t-test indicated statistical significance between gender. Female students escaped statistically faster than male students (p < 0.00002) and were more likely to recommend the game to other students and thought the game encouraged them to think of the material in a new way, whereas male students were more neutral towards it. In conclusion, the geriatric virtual escape room was successfully implemented as a pilot innovative method to assist in virtual learning. However, future studies should investigate virtual gamification in pharmacy education and its impact on learning, as well as identify if there were any gender-specific differences in using these tools.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Engaging Patient Advisory Boards of African
           American Community Members with Type 2 Diabetes in Implementing and
           Refining a Peer-Led Medication Adherence Intervention

    • Authors: Martha A. Maurer, Olayinka O. Shiyanbola, Mattigan L. Mott, Julia Means
      First page: 37
      Abstract: African Americans are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with and die from diabetes. A contributing factor to these health disparities is African Americans’ poor diabetes medication adherence that is due in part to sociocultural barriers (e.g., medicine and illness misperceptions), which negatively affect diabetes management. In our prior work, we engaged with community stakeholders to develop and test a brief version of a culturally adapted intervention to address these barriers to medication adherence. The objective of this study was to elicit feedback to inform the refinement of the full 8-week intervention. We utilized a community-engaged study design to conduct a series of meetings with two cohorts of patient advisory boards of African Americans with type 2 diabetes who were adherent to their diabetes medicines (i.e., peer ambassadors). In total, 15 peer ambassadors were paired with 21 African American participants (i.e., peer buddies) to provide specific intervention support as peers and serve in an advisory role as a board member. Data were collected during nine board meetings with the patient stakeholders. A qualitative thematic analysis of the data was conducted to synthesize the findings. Feedback from the patient advisory board contributed to refining the intervention in the immediate-term, short-term, and long-term. The inclusion of African American community members living with type 2 diabetes on the advisory board contributed to further tailoring the intervention to the specific needs of African Americans with type 2 diabetes in the community.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 38: Evaluation of Current Community Pharmacist
           Practice in Saudi Arabia—A Cross-Sectional Study from
           Pharmacists’ Perspective (Part II)

    • Authors: Mohammad Alhazmi, Abdulmajeed Bajuayfir, Ejaz Cheema, Mahmoud Elrggal, Majid Ali
      First page: 38
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the current practice of community pharmacists from patients’ and pharmacists’ perspectives in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents the pharmacist’s perspective. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was designed to collect responses from community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia from February to April 2021. The questionnaire consisted of several statements related to best practice in community pharmacy. Pharmacists’ responses to each statement were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. Higher scores represented a greater extent to which they adhered to best practice in the community pharmacy setting and vice versa. Data of 164 participants were included in the analysis. The minimum median score was related to the statement: Pharmacist explains the main side effects. The maximum median score was related to the statement: Pharmacist explains dosage regimen. Pharmacists aged 30 years or above and non-Saudi pharmacists had significantly higher median scores compared with pharmacists less than 30 years of age (p = 0.016) and Saudi pharmacists, respectively (p = 0.001). A gap between best practice and current practice of community pharmacists was observed. Policymakers can utilize these findings to provide targeted professional development opportunities for the practicing community pharmacists in order to improve the overall service and care for patients.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 39: Online and Blended Learning Courses for
           Healthcare Professionals and Policymakers on Patients’ Perspectives
           on Medicine: A Project Report

    • Authors: Ramune Jacobsen, Anna Birna Almarsdóttir, Lourdes Cantarero-Arevalo, Anne Gerd Granås, Johanne M. Hansen, Martin C. Henman, Solveig N. Jacobsen, Susanne Kaae, Lotte S. Nørgaard, Katja Taxis, Sofia K. Sporrong
      First page: 39
      Abstract: In order for healthcare professionals to better engage with patients, they need to understand and integrate the perspectives of patients into their daily work. In this project, we developed two courses for healthcare professionals on patients’ perspectives on medicine. One course was an online course that introduced the patients’ perspectives on medicine and explained its importance for healthcare and health policy. The second course was a blended learning course, consisting of online modules and face-to-face webinars, which specified how to explore patients’ perspectives in qualitative interviews, and how to develop implementation plans. Patients participated in the development, execution, and evaluation of both courses. Overall, more than 2000 healthcare professionals enrolled in the first course and, in just over a year, 191 participants completed the online course; 57 healthcare professionals registered in the second blended learning course and six participants completed both components of the course. The relevance of knowledge gained was positively evaluated. Participants especially appreciated the participation of patients. Based on the feedback, the second blended learning course was adapted to run online and both courses continue to be freely available to all interested healthcare professionals on the Coursera platform.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 40: Introducing Audio Podcasts into a Practical
           Laboratory Course for Pharmacy Students as a Novel Tool for Performance

    • Authors: Daniel Baecker
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The use of digital tools can positively impact higher education for both scholars and faculty. In recent years, it has become apparent that podcasts are a suitable medium for use in teaching. They are provided almost exclusively by lecturers for students, with students passively listening to them rather than actively participating in their production. However, this could also be valuable for students. Therefore, this pilot study investigated the extent to which the creation of a podcast would be accepted by students as a method for capturing pharmacy students’ understanding of the learning content. The evaluation was performed as part of the “Clinical Chemistry” practical course, which was attended by third-year pharmacy students in groups of three. After passing the station dealing with practical clinical chemistry relevant diagnostic systems, the groups were asked to produce an educational podcast covering the essential content on the topics of urine test strips or pulse oximetry, respectively. Student attitudes toward the adoption of podcasts as a tool for performance assessment were determined with an anonymous and voluntary survey. The respondents reported that they had fun creating the podcast, which enabled them to look at the instructional content from a different perspective. Competencies such as social and communication skills and media literacy as well as self-organized and self-directed learning were also promoted. However, the students assumed that the tool is not ideally suited for dealing with extensive topics. Nonetheless, the students clearly support the continued creation of podcasts as a performance assessment tool. In addition, they suggest integrating podcasts into other courses within the pharmacy curriculum. This may also be related to the infrequent use of novel technologies, such as podcasts, in their education thus far.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Virtualized Gamified Pharmacy Simulation
           during COVID-19

    • Authors: Denise L. Hope, Gary D. Grant, Gary D. Rogers, Michelle A. King
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Extended and immersive gamified pharmacy simulation has been demonstrated to provide transformative learning in pharmacy education, preparing graduates for real-world practice. An international consortium of universities has implemented local adaptations of the Pharmacy Game into their curricula. From early 2020, pharmacy academics modified the delivery of gamified simulation in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, while still aiming to deliver the important learning outcomes of enhanced communication, collaboration, confidence and competence. Australian universities went into full lockdown from March 2020, and the critical gamified simulation at Griffith University was delivered entirely virtually in 2020. An array of synchronous and asynchronous approaches and software platforms was employed, including Microsoft Teams, Forms and Stream plus the online interview platform Big Interview. These allowed for the simulation activities, including dispensing, counselling and clinical cases, to be conducted by students online. In 2021, Griffith University conducted hybrid delivery of its Pharmacy Game, balancing student participation both in person and online. Microsoft Power Apps was added to the hosting platform to enhance the simulation interface, and Power Virtual Agent artificial intelligence chatbots, with natural language processing, were used to enable asynchronous clinical interaction. The combination of learning technologies provided the means to deliver successful gamified simulation in the virtual and hybrid environments while still achieving outstanding learning outcomes from the capstone activity. This paper details the technologies used to virtualize the Australian Pharmacy Game and the analytics available to educators to assess student participation, engagement and performance.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Online Pharmacies Selling Prescription Drugs:
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Chiau Soon Long, Harshily Kumaran, Khang Wen Goh, Faizah Safina Bakrin, Long Chiau Ming, Inayat Ur Rehman, Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal, Muhammad Abdul Hadi, Yee Wai Sim, Ching Siang Tan
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Introduction: The patronage of online pharmacies is rapidly growing, driven by the convenience and cheaper costs of purchasing prescription drugs electronically, especially under the lockdown situation. However, there are issues regarding the quality of the prescription drugs sold online and the legitimacy of online pharmacies. The use of prescription drugs without the supervision of a licensed health care practitioner may potentially harm consumers. Objectives: This systematic review was conducted to improve the body of knowledge on three main aspects of online pharmacies: (1) type and characteristics of the online pharmacies selling drugs; (2) the quality of pharmaceutical drugs purchased online; and (3) the characteristics of consumers of online pharmacies. Methods: Based on a pre-defined search strategy, PubMed and Scopus were utilised to search articles written in the English language published between January 2009 and February 2020. Studies focusing on the sale of prescription drugs were included. The terms used for the literature search were “online pharmacy”, “internet pharmacy”, “e-pharmacy”, “prescription”, “quality”, “medication safety”, and “counterfeit medicine”. These terms were used alone and in combination with Boolean operators. The institutional webpages including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) were also examined for any additional studies. No methodological limitations in terms of study design were applied. A standardised data collection form was used to compile the data. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 46 articles were eligible and included in the final analysis. There were 27 articles on types and characteristic of online pharmacies, 13 articles on the quality of prescription drugs sold from online pharmacies, and 11 articles on consumers purchasing prescription drugs from online pharmacies. Readers should note that five articles discussed both the types and characteristics of online pharmacies, and the quality of the drugs sold from the outlets. The response rate (products received out of the number of orders) ranged from 20% to 100%, whereas the proportion of consumers buying prescription drugs online ranged from 2.3% to 13%. Reasons for online purchase of prescription drugs include the difficulty of obtaining a prescription for certain medications such as opioid analgesics, cheaper cost, since the costs associated with seeing a physician to obtain a prescription are reduced, and the need to obtain drugs such as opioid analgesics and benzodiazepine for misuse. Conclusions: Almost half of the online pharmacies are not properly regulated and fraudulent issues were uncovered. To address this issue, stricter regulation by World Health Organization and implementation should be carried out together with frequent monitoring of the licensure system and pharmacy verification on every online pharmacy, this would reduce the number of illegal or illegitimate online pharmacy.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Exploring a New Theoretical Model to Explain
           the Behavior of Medication Adherence

    • Authors: Elizabeth Unni, Sun Bae
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Medication adherence is essential for optimal therapeutic outcomes. However, non-adherence with long-term therapy is at 50%. Several theoretical models have identified several key factors that could explain medication adherence. Though numerous interventions have been developed based on these theoretical models, the success rates with interventions are not the best. This paper proposes a new Hierarchical Model for Medication Adherence. In this model, we propose medication adherence as a five-tier model with medication adherence as the desirable behavior on the top of the pyramid. From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the skills/beliefs/behaviors to be achieved are: health literacy, belief in illness (impacted by perceived susceptibility and severity of illness), belief in medicines (impacted by treatment satisfaction), and self-efficacy (impacted by social support). The model further proposes that each individual will achieve or already have these skills/beliefs/behaviors at various levels. Screening patients for these benchmarks will enable providers to decide where to target interventions.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Impact of a Prepharmacy Program on
           Students’ Self-Awareness of Pharmacist Professional Identity:
           Comparison between Virtual and In-Person Settings

    • Authors: Ashim Malhotra, Eugene Kreys, Xiaodong Feng
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Ensuring an adequate preparation for undergraduate students transitioning to pharmacy school is challenging. A significant barrier is changing from a subordinate to a critical thinking mindset while self-identifying as a professional. Here, we aimed to (1) determine whether our prepharmacy program called “Professional Identity and Me” (PRIME) could enhance learners’ self-awareness of their professional identity and (2) compare the effectiveness of the in-person and online versions of PRIME. PRIME introduced prepharmacy students to aspects of pharmacists’ professional identity including community, hospital, and interprofessional work, as well as mental health, wellness, and time and stress management skills, Top-200 drugs, prerequisite foundational sciences, and calculations. Concepts of professionalism, graduate writing, and ownership were also presented. Bridging exercises were introduced to exemplify application. We used a mixed-methods approach to assess the outcomes. The average performance in knowledge-based assessments increased before and after the PRIME program from 53.8 to 74.6% and from 47.7 to 75.9%, while the difference in the test scores was statistically significant, with a 21% increase (p < 0.001, 95% CI 15–26%) and a 28% improvement (p < 0.001, 95% CI 23–34%) for face-to-face versus virtual PRIME. The results of a student perception survey revealed PRIME was equally effective as a virtual program during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting transferability to other pharmacy programs.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 45: Digital Storytelling Review in a Pharmacy
           Self-Care Course

    • Authors: Jenna M. Mills, Jason W. Guy, Julie H. Oestreich
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Digital storytelling is a type of active learning that allows instructors to simulate real-life situations through a series of connected videos. While this technique has been used in other healthcare education disciplines, its use in pharmacy has not been well documented. A digital storytelling model was incorporated in a required self-care pharmacy course to assess if the technique was helpful to improve the knowledge, confidence, and satisfaction of students. Due to a shift in online learning, the self-care course offered a remote exam review session containing a digital storytelling model, and this approach was compared to an in-person exam review that followed a lecture-based model held earlier in the course. Pre- and post-knowledge assessments were given to determine the impact of the digital storytelling review. There were 50 students involved in both sessions and there was a 70% response rate in the digital storytelling group and a 90% response rate in the lecture-based group. Students’ knowledge numerically improved, but not to a statistically significant level for most questions. Nonetheless, students reported more confidence (p < 0.05) in their ability to pass the upcoming exam following the digital storytelling review. Thematic analysis revealed that the digital storytelling session was engaging and interactive, though time-management and breakout rooms could be further optimized. Based on these results, exam review in a required self-care pharmacy course using a digital storytelling format may be a suitable method for students to apply course content and may particularly be of utility in online or hybrid courses.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 46: Evaluating Students’ COVID-19
           Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (COVKAP) during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: David R. Axon, Alina Cernasev, Meghana Desai, Sharon E. Connor, Lauren J. Jonkman, M. Chandra Sekar
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant disruption in students’ lives through lockdowns, restricted movement, remote instruction, and mixed information. Therefore, this study aimed to capture the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of student pharmacists during 2020–2021. A 43-item COVID-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (COVKAP) survey previously developed was administered at four schools of pharmacy across the U.S. during Fall 2020 and Spring 2021. A total of 418 responses were analyzed from graduating classes of 2021–2024. There were no significant differences in correct COVID-19 knowledge responses across the four graduating years. Respondents’ attitudes around COVID-19 were homogenous with the exception for their belief in their preparedness to administer COVID-19 vaccines. Respondents reported wearing masks daily (76.8%), infrequently visiting restaurants (82.1%), practicing social distancing daily (45.7%), and referring to medical journals for information (72%). In conclusion, during the pandemic, student pharmacists experienced significant changes in their academic lives. Their knowledge and subsequent attitudes and practices were consistent with the state of evidence during Fall 2020 and Spring 2021. Subsequently, as newer information has emerged, the authors suggest that the COVKAP survey may be modified and administered frequently to address student needs and concerns as the pandemic evolves.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10020046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 7: Interviews with Global Pharmacists and
           Healthcare Professionals in Great Britain to Establish Personal
           Experiences around Professional Development Activity

    • Authors: Ricarda Micallef, Reem Kayyali
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Professional development activity is needed to ensure practitioners are up to date and providing optimal patient care. This includes, but is not restricted to, mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) or continuing education (CE) requirements, which differ by professions globally and within countries. This study aimed to investigate perceptions, participation, and individual practice for healthcare professionals in Great Britain (GB) and pharmacists globally to identify similarities and differences after the introduction of revalidation for pharmacists in GB. Qualitative data was received through interviews, which was analysed using content analysis. In total, 24 interviews were completed with pharmacists registered globally, and healthcare professionals registered in GB. A culture of CPD was seen for healthcare professionals in GB and globally for pharmacists; there was no consistent model. Face-to-face activity was common, with an increase in online provision, especially where large geographies were seen. Most learning was completed in the professional’s own time. Multiple providers were seen, with the evaluation of events using questionnaires being commonplace. Different formats of learning were useful for different topics, with skills learning being better when face-to-face. Although varied requirements were in place, regulation should support patient-based practice outcomes. This study showed that commitment to learning was similar in different professions in GB and by pharmacists globally, with similar benefits and challenges.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010007
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 8: Evaluating the Effectiveness of the
           Computer-Based Education Platform, Pharmacy5in5, on Pharmacists’

    • Authors: Rand Hussein, Zhoushanyue He, Julia Bareham, Tejal Patel, Rosemary Killeen, Kelly Grindrod
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Background: Computer-based education has been widely implemented in healthcare professional development education. However, there has been little examination of the potential for computer-based education to enhance pharmacists’ knowledge. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of computer-based education on improving pharmacists’ knowledge compared to printed education material. Methods: This study was a web-based randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention group where they had access to the computer-based education module on Pharmacy5in5.ca or to a control group where they had access to printed educational material. Knowledge gain was assessed using a pre- and post-knowledge test. Results: A total of 120 pharmacists were recruited and 101 completed the post-knowledge test (50/60 in the intervention group; 51/60 in the control group). Both groups showed a significant increase in knowledge gain (intervention group: pre-test mean score 19.35 ± 3.56, post-test mean score 22.42 ± 3.812, p value < 0.001; control group pre-test mean score 19.22 ± 3.45, post-test mean score 23.29 ± 3.087, p value < 0.001). However, the difference in knowledge change was not significant between the two groups (22.42 vs. 23.29, p value = 0.333). Conclusions: In this study, a computer-based education module enhanced pharmacists’ knowledge to a similar degree to printed education material. Efforts should be made to provide computer-based education as an option to support pharmacists’ professional development.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010008
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 9: Antimicrobial Resistance Following Prolonged
           Use of Hand Hygiene Products: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Gouri Rani Banik, Bandar Durayb, Catherine King, Harunor Rashid
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Background: This systematic review aimed to establish whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs following prolonged use of antimicrobial hand hygiene (HH) products, and, if so, in what magnitude. Methods: Key bibliographic databases were searched to locate items on HH use and AMR development from database inception to December 2020. Records were screened and full texts of all potentially eligible articles were retrieved and checked for inclusion. The following data from the included studies were abstracted: type of HH product used, including the name of antimicrobial agent, study setting, country, study year, duration of use and development of AMR including the organisms involved. Quality assessment was done using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results: Of 339 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, only four heterogeneous United States (US) studies conducted in the period between 1986 and 2015 were found eligible, and included. One hospital-based study showed evidence of AMR following long term use of HH products, two studies conducted in household settings showed no evidence of AMR, and another experimental study showed partial evidence of AMR. The overall certainty of the evidence was moderate. Conclusion: Prolonged use of HH products may cause AMR in health care settings, but perhaps not in other settings.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010009
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 10: Respecting the Patient’s Choice: A Case
           of Possible Drug-Induced Parkinsonism

    • Authors: Megan R. Undeberg, Kimberly C. McKeirnan, David Easley
      First page: 10
      Abstract: This report describes a case of likely drug-induced Parkinsonism (DIP) identified by the pharmacist. A 54-year-old female patient was referred by a physician to the pharmacist in a rural, integrated care team for a comprehensive medication review (CMR) to address the patient’s concerns of possible Parkinson’s disease (PD). While PD may occur over the progression of age, medications that affect dopamine transport can also cause DIP, a secondary form of Parkinson’s disease. Although PD and DIP may be clinically indistinguishable, differentiation may be possible by reviewing a patient’s medication history for any potential causative drugs correlating to the timeline of the onset of symptoms. In this case, the pharmacist reviewed the medication profile and identified medications that could be responsible for causing DIP, specifically bupropion. The pharmacist suggested discontinuing bupropion and identifying another option for treating depression. The patient appreciated the suggestion and education, but ultimately preferred continuing her bupropion therapy instead of discontinuing therapy or changing to an alternative agent. At a follow-up meeting with the pharmacist, not only was the patient still experiencing tremors despite taking carbidopa/levodopa, but additional medications known to be potential inducers of tremors were added to her regimen. Although the pharmacist repeatedly discussed DIP with the patient and believed stopping bupropion would determine whether her Parkinsonism was PD or DIP, ultimately the patient continued taking bupropion because of concerns related to depression severity and the impact on her well-being. The patient’s wishes were respected.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010010
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Game-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education

    • Authors: Julie H. Oestreich, Jason W. Guy
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Game-based learning (GBL) involves adding game elements to non-game activities to encourage engagement. Pharmacy curricula are required to incorporate active learning to meet accreditation standards. The literature supports that well-designed GBL holds the attention of students and improves knowledge in some instances. Furthermore, these adaptable experiences can be leveraged for a variety of content areas in pharmacy education. Some activities utilized by educators require large amounts of technological expertise, while others involve minimal use of technology. The incorporation of technology can create highly immersive experiences for learners; however, there are barriers (e.g., financial and technology prowess) to implementation compared to simpler designs. One area of GBL that is not well defined in the literature is how to adequately assess student learning outcomes. Most current studies describe subjective attitudes and confidence or assess content knowledge through objective pre- and post-tests. In the future, more defined and connected methods for assessment—such as active demonstrations within the game—will be needed to better incorporate GBL into pharmacy curricula. Based on the collective evidence in the literature, some GBL activities may serve as useful tools to improve pharmacy student engagement and learning.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 12: iEthics: An Interprofessional Ethics

    • Authors: Victoria Wood, Lynda Eccott, Philip Crowell
      First page: 12
      Abstract: This article discusses the development, content, implementation, and evaluation of an interprofessional ethics curriculum that has been integrated as a required component of learning in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of British Columbia (UBC), along with 12 other health professional programs. We start by giving a background and rationale for the development of the integrated ethics (iEthics) curriculum, led by UBC Health, and provide an overview of the pedagogical approach used, curriculum model, and content. We outline the way in which the iEthics curriculum has been implemented in the Faculty and share findings from program evaluations. In the discussion section, we reflect on our experience as facilitators for the interprofessional workshops and link these experiences with the findings from the program evaluations. These reflections highlight the way in which the iEthics curriculum has been successful in meeting the desired outcomes of learning in terms of the interprofessional delivery, and provide insights into how the findings from the iEthics evaluation informed other modules in the integrated curriculum and its implementation in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Pharmacist-Led Programs to Increase Statin
           Prescribing: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Mary Elkomos, Raha Jahromi, Michael S. Kelly
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Statins are lipid-lowing medications shown to reduce cardiovascular events and are recommended for specific patient populations at elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite the demonstrated efficacy of statins for reducing ASCVD risk, and guidance on which populations should receive statin therapy, a substantial portion of eligible patients are not prescribed statin therapy. Pharmacists have attempted to increase the number of eligible patients receiving appropriate statin therapy through a variety of interventions and across several clinical settings. In this article, we highlight multiple studies evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions to improve statin use. A total of seven studies were selected for this narrative review, demonstrating the effectiveness and barriers of different statin-initiation programs delivered by pharmacists to increase statin use in eligible patients. Among the interventions assessed, a combination of provider communicating and statin prescribing through collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) appear to the be the most useful at increasing statin use. Pharmacists can significantly improve statin use rates among eligible patients through multiple intervention types and across different clinical settings. Further studies should evaluate continued statin adherence and clinical outcomes among patients served by pharmacists.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 14: A Qualitative Analysis to Understand
           Perception about Medication-Related Problems among Older Minority Adults
           in a Historically Black Community

    • Authors: Ivy O. Poon, Felicia Skelton, Lena R. Bean, Dominique Guinn, Terica Jemerson, Ngozi D. Mbue, Creaque V. Charles, Uche A. Ndefo
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Older adults taking multiple chronic medications experience an increased risk of adverse drug events and other medication-related problems (MRP). Most current literature on medication management involves researcher-driven intervention, yet few studies investigate patients’ understanding of MRP in a diverse community setting. This report investigates patients’ perception of MRP and patient-centered strategies among a cohort of the older adult group in a historically Black urban community. The study design is qualitative using structured open-ended questions in a multidisciplinary patient-centered focus group. Patients (age 65 years or older) taking seven or more medications were recruited. The group comprises patients, caregivers, pharmacists, health educators, a physician, and a nurse. Recordings of the group discussion are transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic content analysis and categorized by codes developed from the social-ecological model. The group reports patient-provider relationships, previous experience, fear of side effects played important roles in medication adherence. There is an unmet need for medication management education and tools to organize complex medication lists from multiple providers. This study provides important insights into MRP experienced by minority older adults and provided researchers with potential strategies for future interventions.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 15: Expanded Pharmacy Practice Implementation:
           Lessons from Remote Practice

    • Authors: Selina Taylor, Alice Cairns, Beverley Glass
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study is to explore pharmacist perspectives of the implementation of a community pharmacy-based ear health service in rural communities. Method: A community pharmacy-based health service model was designed and developed to provide an accessible ear care service (LISTEN UP—Locally Integrated Screening and Testing Ear aNd aUral Program) and pharmacist’s perspectives of the implementation of LISTEN UP were explored. Thematic analysis was conducted and data coded according to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Results: A total of 20 interviews were conducted with 10 pharmacists, averaging 30 min. Visualistion of the ear canal was reported as the greatest advantage of the service, whilst the time required for documentation reported as a complexity. The number of pharmacists working at one time and the availability of a private consultation room were identified as the two limiting factors for execution. On reflection, the need for government funding for service viability and sustainability was highlighted. Discussion/Conclusion: Expanded pharmacy practice is emerging for the Australian pharmacy profession. Rural community pharmacists are recognised as integral members of healthcare teams, providing accessible medication supply and health advice to seven million people in Australia who call rural and remote regions home. However, there are no structured models supporting them to provide expanded services to improve health outcomes in their communities. This study provides lessons learnt to guide future design and development of expanded models of pharmacy practice.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010015
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 16: Intravenous versus Oral Step-Down for the
           Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in a Pediatric Population

    • Authors: Sarah Grace Gunter, Mary Joyce B. Wingler, David A. Cretella, Jamie L. Wagner, Katie E. Barber, Kayla R. Stover
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Limited data are available regarding optimal antimicrobial therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) versus oral step-down treatment of pediatric SAB. This study evaluated patients aged 3 months to 18 years that received at least 72 h of inpatient treatment for SAB. The primary endpoint was 30-day readmission. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay and inpatient mortality. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. The median age was 7.9 years. Patients who underwent oral step-down were less likely to be immunocompromised and more likely to have community-acquired SAB from osteomyelitis or skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). More patients in the IV therapy group had a 30-day readmission (10 (25.6%) vs. 3 (5.3%), p = 0.006). Mortality was low (5 (5%)) and not statistically different between groups. Length of stay was greater in patients receiving IV therapy only (11 vs. 7 days, p = 0.001). In this study, over half of the patients received oral step-down therapy and 30-day readmission was low for this group. Oral therapy appears to be safe and effective for patients with SAB from osteomyelitis or SSTIs.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Need for Expansion of Pharmacy Education
           Globally for the Growing Field of Nanomedicine

    • Authors: Amy E. Barton, Gerrit Borchard, Matthias G. Wacker, Giorgia Pastorin, Imran Y. Saleem, Shaqil Chaudary, Tamer Elbayoumi, Zhigang Zhao, Beat Flühmann
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The emerging landscape of nanomedicine includes a wide variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug formulations. Their design provides nanomedicines with unique features leading to improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. They are manufactured using conventional or biotechnological manufacturing processes. Their physical characteristics are vastly different from traditional small-molecule drugs. Pharmacists are important members of the multi-disciplinary team of scientists involved in their development and clinical application. Consequently, their training should lead to an understanding of the complexities associated with the production and evaluation of nanomedicines. Therefore, student pharmacists, post-doctoral researchers, and trainees should be given more exposure to this rapidly evolving class of therapeutics. This commentary will provide an overview of nanomedicine education within the selection of pharmacy programs globally, discuss the current regulatory challenges, and describe different approaches to incorporate nanomedicine science in pharmacy programs around the world.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 18: Case Report of an Interprofessional
           Intervention to Improve Quality of Life for a Fluid-Limited Patient

    • Authors: Jennifer L. Cox, Maree Donna Simpson
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This was a case of an 81-year-old female, an amputee, who presented at hospital with a fractured neck of femur after a fall in the nursing home. The patient was being treated for several complex chronic conditions for which 30 regular medicines were prescribed and 100 tablets were being taken per day. The patient was fluid limited to 1500 mL per day but the need to swallow such a high number of tablets meant that there was no fluid allowance available for any other drinks, not even a cup of tea. In the nursing home, the patient had multiple prescribers, not all from the one surgery. The pharmacist conducted a multifaceted review of the patient’s medication and lifestyle factors. Working collaboratively with the wider health care team, the intervention was able to reduce the number of medications and improve the patient’s quality of life through improving the effectiveness of other lifestyle factors. This case not only showcases pharmacist interventions but also the synergistic benefit of interprofessional working with patients with chronic and complex conditions. This is arguably more critical in rural or remote areas where there is commonly a paucity of most health practitioners, health assistants and technicians.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 19: The Use of Off-Label Medications in Newborn
           Infants Despite an Approved Alternative Being Available—Results of a
           National Survey

    • Authors: Alex Veldman, Eva Richter, Christian Hacker, Doris Fischer
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Neonates continue to be treated with off-label or unlicensed drugs while in hospital. However, some medications that have previously been used in adults underwent clinical testing and licensure for use with a different indication in the neonatal and pediatric population. Almost always, the marketing of these newly approved substances in a niche indication is accompanied by a steep increase in the price of the compound. We investigated the use of the approved formulation or the cheaper off-label alternative of Ibuprofen (Pedea®), Propanolol (Hemangiol®) and Caffeine Citrate (Peyona®) in neonatal clinical practice by conducting a National Survey of 214 Perinatal Centers in Germany. We also assessed price differences between on- and off-label alternatives and the extend of the clinical development program of the on-label medication in the neonatal population. On-label medication was more frequently used than the off-label alternative in all indications (PDA: on-label to off-label ratio 1:0.26, Apnea: 1:0.56, Hemangioma 1:0.76). All sponsors did conduct placebo-controlled Phase III trials with efficacy and safety endpoints in the target population and the number of participants in the target population varied between 82 and 497. Costs for the three drugs in their approved and marketed formulations increased in median 405-fold compared with the corresponding off-label alternative. Overall, about one out of three neonatologists prescribed an off-label or non-approved drug to patients despite an alternative medication that is approved for the indication in the target population being available.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 20: The Role of Pharmaceutical Scientists in the
           Formation of a Healthy Lifestyle as a Value Orientation

    • Authors: Larisa Galiy, Tetiana Lutaieva, Larysa Lenchyk, Oleksandr Surikov, Svitlana Moroz
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This article focuses on the role pharmaceutical scientists play in achieving social well-being, in particular in the formation of a healthy lifestyle as a value orientation among students and the public in historical retrospect. The following set of research methods was used: a general scientific method, and a historical (chronological, logico-historical, retrospective), personalized, empirical method (including the questioning of pharmaceutical interns and the analytical processing of questionnaires). The territorial boundaries of the study cover Slobozhanshchyna, a historical and geographical region centered in Kharkiv. The educational activities of Slobozhanshchyna’s pharmaceutical scientists during the 19th and early-20th centuries, as well as in the modern period, are presented. Attention is drawn to the fact that the role of pharmaceutical scientists in forming the environment for the development of a harmonious, spiritually and physically developed personality in historical retrospect is important. It is noted that the founders of pharmaceutical education in Ukraine initiated educational activity as a means for promoting the formation of a healthy lifestyle in the educational space and outside of the Imperial Kharkov University. The changes in the public and educational activities recommended for forming a healthy lifestyle among Slobozhanshchyna’s medical scientists and naturalists during the Imperial era have been generalized. The analysis of the research sources and questionnaires of pharmaceutical interns allowed us to assert that, in modern times, Slobozhanshchyna’s pharmaceutical scientists are trying to organize socially useful activities, taking into account the best achievements of the founders of pharmaceutical education in Ukraine. The “orientation to a healthy lifestyle of representatives of the institution of higher pharmaceutical education” has been proposed. This includes the adoption of a set of material, social, and spiritual benefits and ideals considered to be objects of purpose in the pursuit of a healthy lifestyle by employees and students (i.e., part of the implementation of the mission of the University), and using these as tools to meet the needs of both university representatives and ordinary citizens. This article contains a number of factors that mediated the formation of a healthy lifestyle as a value orientation of an individual, including: (a) the circumstances of the individual’s life (the conditions of education of the individual); (b) the individual’s consciousness reflecting the general and specific conditions of their personality formation; (c) the motivation of the real behavior mediated by the subject’s activities. The presence of these factors was identified as typical for the health-saving educational environment. This article provides recommendations regarding the following measures for the organization and effective promotion of a healthy lifestyle by modern pharmaceutical scientists: provide an opportunity to study the peculiarities of the organization of educational activities by scientists of the past to students and specialists in the pharmaceutical field; open museum expositions devoted to the problem of healthcare; conduct master class lectures and educational events devoted to the problem of forming a comprehensively developed personality; involve students in joint research on the problem of active longevity; provide informational support to educators and the public through scientific and popular science publications; conduct awareness-raising work with the population in order to create a health-saving environment.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 21: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Pharmacy in

    • Authors: Pharmacy Editorial Office Pharmacy Editorial Office
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Clinical Update on Patient-Controlled
           Analgesia for Acute Postoperative Pain

    • Authors: Cyrus Motamed
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is an effective method for controlling acute pain, including postoperative pain in adults and in children from five years of age, pain resulting from labor, trauma, or other medical situations, or chronic and malignant pain. The treatment consists of a mini-computer-controlled infusion pump permitting the administration of on-demand, continuous, or combined doses of analgesic (mainly opioid) variations in response to therapy, which allows pain to be significantly controlled. Intravenous (IV)-PCA minimizes individual pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic differences and is widely accepted as a reference method for mild or severe postoperative pain. IV-PCA is the most studied route of PCA; other delivery methods have been extensively reported in the literature. In addition, IV-PCA usually voids the gap between pain sensation and analgesic administration, permitting better recovery and fewer side effects. The most commonly observed complications are nausea and vomiting, pruritus, respiratory depression, sedation, confusion and urinary retention. However, human factors such as pharmacy preparation and device programming can also be involved in the occurrence of these complications, while device failure is much less of an issue.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 23: A Pilot Program to Teach Pharmacy Students
           Practical Skills to Navigate Drug Insurance Benefits

    • Authors: Camlyn Masuda, Tony Huynh, Veronica Wong, Colette DeJong, Chien-Wen Tseng
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Pharmacists must be able to navigate prescription drug coverages to help providers and patients reduce out-of-pocket costs. Traditionally, curricula on drug insurance benefits rely on lectures and lack a practicum that offers students hands-on experience with determining formulary and cost-sharing information. An activity for pharmacy students to update a free public website that summarizes formularies and copayment requirements across major insurers was piloted. Pharmacy students were trained to locate online formularies and identify a drug’s coverage tier, step therapy, prior authorization, and cost-sharing during a 6-week experiential rotation. Students checked formularies from six insurance plans for 250-plus drugs across 15 health conditions. Graduates were surveyed (74% response rate) about the activities’ impact on their learning and ability to navigate drug benefits. Respondents rated the training as helpful in learning whether a drug was covered (100%), or required step therapy or prior authorization (100%). The majority of graduates reported being able to look up formulary coverage (90%), step therapy or prior authorization (90%), and copayment requirements (65%). Our innovative skills-based pilot activity was effective in teaching pharmacy students to navigate insurance formularies, which is essential for helping patients access medications.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 24: Protocol for the Optimizing Naloxone
           Dispensing in Pharmacies (ONDP) Online Continuing Education Program: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Ashley Cid, Alec Patten, Michael Beazely, Kelly Grindrod, Jennifer Yessis, Feng Chang
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The number of opioid-related deaths in Canada has steadily increased since 2016 and the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened this trend. Naloxone has been pivotal for reducing opioid-related harms and death, and pharmacists play a crucial role in ensuring the supply of naloxone to Canadians through community pharmacies. However, naloxone dispensing by pharmacists is not optimal; in fact, in Ontario, only 50% of pharmacists offer naloxone, despite national guidelines that pharmacists should offer naloxone to everyone with an opioid prescription. When asked why pharmacists do not proactively offer naloxone, recent research has identified that pharmacists need continuing education to boost confidence and knowledge on how to start conversations with patients. The study involves a delayed start, double-blind randomized controlled trial, for Canadian licensed pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. The goals of the program are to increase Canadian pharmacy professional’s knowledge, confidence, and motivation to proactively offer naloxone, as well as to decrease stigma associated with naloxone. The program incorporates behaviour change techniques from the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The intervention program includes three modules that focus on improving pharmacists’ communication skills by teaching them how to proactively offer naloxone, while the control group will complete a reading assignment on the naloxone consensus guidelines. The program will involve a process and outcome evaluation in addition to a contribution analysis. This program is important for breaking down previously identified barriers and knowledge gaps for why pharmacists currently do not proactively offer naloxone. This study will provide important new information about what behaviour change techniques are successful in improving confidence and motivation in the pharmacy profession and in an online environment. Findings from this study can be used to produce a national naloxone education program that can also be implemented into current pharmacy school curriculum.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Assessment of Information Sharing on Adverse
           Drug Reactions by Community Pharmacies with Other Medical Institutions

    • Authors: Daisuke Kikuchi, Taku Obara, Aoi Noda, Gen Oyanagi, Mami Ishikuro, Kouji Okada, Nariyasu Mano
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Widespread coordination and sharing of information regarding adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important for drug safety assessment. However, the actual status of coordination and sharing of information on ADRs in community pharmacies remains unclear. Therefore, a survey was conducted at community pharmacies to analyze the status. In this cross-sectional study conducted from 31 March 2021 to 9 April 2021, a request letter with the uniform resource locator of the questionnaire form was sent to 302 community pharmacies affiliated with Tsuruha Holdings Inc., and the responses were obtained online. The response rate for the questionnaires was 80.8% (n = 244). In total, 20.9% of the community pharmacies provided information on patients’ ADRs to hospitals or clinics prescribing drugs. None of the community pharmacies provided patient ADR information to other community pharmacies. Of the community pharmacies, 98.8% felt that insufficient information was available to monitor ADRs from hospitals or clinics prescribing drugs. For example, the name of the disease (67.6%), considered to be the most common information, was insufficiently provided. Overall, the existing system for providing information on ADRs between community pharmacies and other medical institutions is insufficient and needs to be developed further.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 26: Career Preference and Factors Influencing
           Career Choice among Undergraduate Pharmacy Students at University of
           Khartoum, Sudan

    • Authors: Arbab, Eltahir, Elsadig, Yousef
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The pharmacy profession has expanded and adapted to changes in community needs. Although career planning and understanding the determinants of career choice are essential, there remains a lack of studies exploring factors influencing future career plans. This study was conducted to identify career preferences and factors influencing future career choices among undergraduate pharmacy students. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected participants. Out of 220 respondents, 85.9% were females. The average age of the respondents was 21.7 ± 1.5 years. Clinical pharmacy was selected as the most preferred future career domain (30%), followed by academia and research (12%), the pharmaceutical industry (11%), and community pharmacy (10.5). Approximately 20% of participants reported a preference for moving abroad for work. Regarding factors influencing future career domain choice, participants ranked training in the workplace (80%) and curriculum content (70%) as the top faculty-related factors, while interaction with practicing pharmacists (71.8%) and salary (78%) were the major personal-related and job-related factors. This study emphasized the importance of understanding job preferences and the factors influencing career choice, and could be useful in ensuring a future balance between professional domains and meeting society’s evolving expectations.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Medication Use and Storage, and Their
           Potential Risks in US Households

    • Authors: Lee, Schommer
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Background: Medications stored in US households may pose risks to vulnerable populations and the environment, potentially increasing societal costs. Research regarding these aspects is scant, and interventions like medication reuse may alleviate negative consequences. The purpose of this study was to describe medications stored in US households, gauge their potential risk to minors (under 18 years of age), pets, and the environment, and estimate potential costs of unused medications. Methods: A survey of 220 US Qualtrics panel members was completed regarding medications stored at home. Published literature guided data coding for risks to minors, pets, and the environment and for estimating potential costs of unused medications. Results: Of the 192 households who provided usable and complete data, 154 (80%) reported storing a medication at home. Most medications were taken daily for chronic diseases. The majority of households with residents or guests who are minors and those with pets reported storing medications with a high risk of poisoning in easily accessible areas such as counters. Regarding risk to the aquatic environment, 46% of the medications had published data regarding this risk. For those with published data, 42% presented a level of significant risk to the aquatic environment. Unused medications stored at home had an estimated potential cost of $98 million at a national level. Implications/Conclusions: Medications stored at home may pose risks to vulnerable populations and the environment. More research regarding medications stored in households and their risks is required to develop innovative interventions such as medication reuse to prevent any potential harm.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Reflective Practice: Co-Creating Reflective
           Activities for Pharmacy Students

    • Authors: Hokanson, Breault, Lucas, Charrois, Schindel
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Reflective practice is important in pharmacy education to support skill development for decision-making, critical thinking, problem-solving, and in continuing professional development and beyond. Despite the importance of reflective practice in higher education and professional practice, reflection assignments are not universally embraced by students. This project was initiated due to recent interest in the co-creation of pharmacy curriculum by students and faculty. The purpose of this project was to develop reflection assignments for pharmacy students. The principles of the analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation (ADDIE) instructional design framework guided the development of reflection assignment templates for three focus areas: personal development, professional development, and professional identity formation. Templates included background and definitions for these specific focus areas as well as objectives, instructions, guiding questions, assessment methods, and submission requirements. A previously tested assessment rubric was adopted for reflection assignments. Development involved target audience and expert reviews and a trial implementation was held in a year 3 patient care skills course. The co-creation process enriched the experiences of students and faculty involved in it. Future co-creation projects including groups of students, formal evaluation of outcomes, and impact on the program will further support integration of reflective practice in the pharmacy curriculum.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Towards Better CARE for Superficial Fungal
           Infections: A Consultation Guide for the Community Pharmacy

    • Authors: Pantira Parinyarux, Wiwat Thavornwattanayong, Cheardchai Soontornpas, Peeranon Rawangnam
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Superficial fungal infections (SFIs) are among the most common skin diseases worldwide and are common in many parts of Asia. Community pharmacists are well-placed to help identify and manage SFIs. However, effective management may be hindered by a suboptimal consultation process, attributed to the misalignment between consumers’ and pharmacists’ viewpoints. The Fungal CARE (Care, Assess, Recommend, Empower) guide, a patient-centered collaborative framework, was developed to improve pharmacist-led SFI consultations in community pharmacy. A survey on real-world consumer experiences with SFIs provided insights for aligning the Fungal CARE guide with consumer perspectives. To further optimize the guide, community pharmacists were surveyed on their current practice and challenges of managing SFIs, as well as views on the usefulness of the Fungal CARE guide. The pharmacists’ survey indicated that respondents engaged with some but not all of consumers’ top concerns with SFIs, such as emotional and social aspects. Pharmacists identified their greatest challenges as poor compliance with SFI treatment and limited confidence in identifying and/or managing SFIs. Encouragingly, when presented with the Fungal CARE guide, nearly all pharmacists agreed it would be helpful and would use it in practice. Implementing the Fungal CARE guide may help improve pharmacist-led consultations for SFIs and encourage better treatment outcomes.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Explaining Correlates of Cervical Cancer
           Screening among Minority Women in the United States

    • Authors: Manoj Sharma, Kavita Batra, Christopher Johansen, Siddharth Raich
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of death among women. While overall cervical cancer rates have decreased over the last few decades, minority women continue to be disproportionately affected compared to White women. Given the paucity of theory-based interventions to promote Pap smear tests among minority women, this cross-sectional study attempts to examine the correlates of cervical cancer screening by Pap test using the Multi-theory Model (MTM) as a theoretical paradigm among minority women in the United States (U.S.). Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was done for testing the construct validity of the survey instrument. Data were analyzed through bivariate and multivariate tests. In a sample of 364 minority women, nearly 31% (n = 112) of women reported not having received a Pap test within the past three years compared to the national rate (20.8%) for all women. The MTM constructs of participatory dialogue, behavioral confidence, and changes in the physical environment explained a substantial proportion of variance (49.5%) in starting the behavior of getting Pap tests, while the constructs of emotional transformation, practice for change, and changes in the social environment, along with lack of health insurance and annual household income of less than $25,000, significantly explained the variance (73.6%) of the likelihood to sustain the Pap test behavior of getting it every three years. Among those who have had a Pap smear (n = 252), healthcare insurance, emotional transformation, practice for change, and changes in the social environment predicted nearly 83.3% of the variance in sustaining Pap smear test uptake behavior (adjusted R2 = 0.833, F = 45.254, p < 0.001). This study validates the need for health promotion interventions based on MTM to be implemented to address the disparities of lower cervical cancer screenings among minority women.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 31: Perceptions of Pharmacy Students on the
           E-learning Strategies Adopted during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic

    • Authors: Carla Pires
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Background: E-learning strategies were globally adopted by academies because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The characterization of students’ perception of online learning is fundamental to design appropriate models for pharmacy curricula. The study aim was to carry out a systematic review about the perception of pharmacy students on the e-learning strategies adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist was followed. PICOS criteria were applied. Five databases were screened: PubMed, Cochrane Library, DOAJ—Directory of Open Access Journals, SciELO—Scientific Electronic Library Online and b-on—Online Library of knowledge (Biblioteca do conhecimento online). Keywords: “pharmacy and (distant or remote or e-learning or online or zoom or education or training or digital) and (COVID or SARS and (student or undergraduate) and (opinion or satisfaction or perception or attitude)”. Results: 23 out of 176 papers were selected (28 duplicated and 125 excluded). Selected papers were classified, as follows: studies exclusively involving pharmacy students (n = 8); studies simultaneously involving pharmacy students and other healthcare students (n = 6); and studies related to the involvement of pharmacy students in specific courses (n = 9). Conclusions: In general, the perception of pharmacy students on e-learning strategies adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic was positive. However, an expressive proportion of undergraduates reported negative issues about online education, which seems to support the necessity of optimizing e-learning strategies in the future.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 32: The Effect of the NorGeP–NH on Quality
           of Life and Drug Prescriptions in Norwegian Nursing Homes: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Enrico Callegari, Jurate Šaltytė Benth, Geir Selbæk, Cato Grønnerød, Sverre Bergh
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Background: The effect of the Norwegian General Practice–Nursing Home (NorGeP–NH) criteria has never been tested on clinical outcomes in nursing home (NH) residents. We performed a cluster-randomized trial in Norwegian NHs and tested the effect of NorGeP–NH on QoL (primary outcome), medication prescriptions, and physical and mental health (secondary outcomes) for the enrolled residents; Methods: Fourteen NHs were randomized into intervention NHs (iNHs) and control NHs (cNHs). After baseline data collection, physicians performed NorGeP–NH on the enrolled residents. We assessed the difference between cNHs and iNHs in the change in primary outcome from baseline to 12 weeks and secondary outcomes from baseline to eight and 12 weeks by linear mixed models; Results: One hundred and eight residents (13 lost to follow-up) and 109 residents (nine lost to follow-up) were randomized to iNHs and cNHs, respectively. Difference in change in QoL at 12 weeks between cNHs and iNHs was not statistically significant (mean (95% CI)): −1.51 (−3.30; 0.28), p = 0.101). We found no significant change in drug prescriptions over time. Difference in depression scores between cNHs and iNHs was statistically significant after 12 weeks. Conclusions: Our intervention did not affect QoL or drug prescriptions, but reduced depression scores in the iNHs. NorGeP–NH may be a useful tool, but its effect on clinical outcomes may be scarce in NH residents. Further studies about the effectiveness of NorGeP–NH in other healthcare contexts and settings are recommended.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 33: Mapping of Danish Pharmacy Technician
           Students’ Third-Year Projects in a Year with the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Bjarke Abrahamsen, Rikke Nørgaard Hansen, Mette Skjøtt, Ditte Sloth-Lisbjerg, Charlotte Verner Rossing
      First page: 33
      Abstract: To graduate, pharmacy technician students write a project in their third year. They choose between six elective courses, and work with a subject related to their education and everyday practice at community or hospital pharmacies. In this article, we report the mapping of third-year project themes and provide an overview of the challenges that COVID-19 pandemic restrictions have had on completing the projects. On the basis of all project titles, a list of themes was generated and described before all projects were allocated to one of the themes. Challenges experienced due to the COVID-19 pandemic were investigated from an analytical workshop where supervisors discussed their experience with supervising students throughout the completion of the projects. In total, 140 projects were included and thematised into eight themes: advanced pharmacy services, digital patient support, organisation and collaboration, handling of medicine, automated dose dispensing, medication counselling in community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, and others, covering all six elective courses. The COVID-19 pandemic affected students’ possibilities to collect data from either physical interviews or observations. The challenges prompted both constructive and creative discussions between students and supervisors to find ways to complete the projects, and required flexibility from all those involved: students, supervisors, community pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies. In conclusion, all students managed to complete their third-year project at a similar level of achievement statistically compared to average grades for the previous six years (2016–2020).
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 34: Improving Asthma Management:
           Patient–Pharmacist Partnership Program in Enhancing Therapy

    • Authors: Tatiana Makhinova, Jamie C. Barner, Carolyn M. Brown, Kristin M. Richards, Karen L. Rascati, Arpita Nag
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Community pharmacist interventions can assist in improving adherence in patients with asthma. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of patient-centered counseling using the developed asthma-specific tools to identify barriers to adherence and identify their preliminary effect on adherence barrier score and asthma control. Adult patients with persistent asthma were invited to participate in a 3-month pre–post intervention study involving community pharmacist-provided patient-centered counseling. Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine whether there were changes in outcomes from the pre to post period. Of 36 recruited patients, 17 completed both pre and post surveys. At baseline, patients had a mean ACT score of 15.1 ± 3.5, with 94% having uncontrolled asthma, and an average of 4.2 ± 2.5 reported barriers. The following barriers were most common: not having an Asthma Action Plan (52.9%), use of inhaler more or less often than prescribed (47.1%) and forgetfulness (41.2%). The ACT score increased by 2.7 ± 5.4, which was not statistically significant; however, it might be clinically significant. Two barrier scores improved as a result of the intervention. Preliminary evidence on the feasibility of identifying and addressing patient-specific barriers to adherence delivered by pharmacists showed that it has the potential to resolve barriers and improve asthma outcomes.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 159: Student Pharmacists during the Pandemic:
           Development of a COVID-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (COVKAP)

    • Authors: Alina Cernasev, Meghana Desai, Lauren J. Jonkman, Sharon E. Connor, Nicholas Ware, M. Chandra Sekar, Jon C. Schommer
      First page: 159
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused innumerable changes to all aspects of human life and behavior, including academic life. This study describes the development of a COVID-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (COVKAP) Survey among U.S. student pharmacists. The survey was administered at Doctor of Pharmacy programs in three states—Tennessee, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Methods: The COVKAP survey—an online cross-sectional survey—was distributed to U.S. student pharmacists enrolled in three different colleges of pharmacy in three states during the fall semester of 2020. The survey was developed using literature review and Dillman’s recommendations for survey design. The COVKAP survey consisted of 23 closed and Likert-scale questions, and three open-ended questions. The research team conducted descriptive and inductive thematic analyses on the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively using SPSS (v27) and Dedoose® software. Results: A total of 421 responses were received. Respondents were predominantly female (72%) and White (79%). The average age of respondents was 23.4 years. The qualitative analysis revealed three themes: (1) Wellbeing and mental health struggles; (2) Being part of the decision-making process; (3) Necessity of adequate protection measures. Conclusions: Preliminary study findings indicate that student pharmacists’ concerns and the challenges that they face in their academic pursuits are largely similar across three states and inform about the importance of recognizing and mitigating the impact of widespread disruption in education. This disruption provides an opportunity for pharmacy academia to examine practices and methods that can be improved upon to help students become successful practitioners.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040159
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 160: The Prevalence of and Documented Indications
           for Antipsychotic Prescribing in Irish Nursing Homes

    • Authors: Kelleher, Weedle, Donovan
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Background: Antipsychotic medications are often used ‘off-licence’ to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders of aging and to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia despite the warnings of adverse effects. Objective: To establish the prevalence of and documented indication for antipsychotic medication use in the Irish nursing home setting. Setting: This study was conducted in six nursing homes located in Co. Cork, Ireland. Method: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was employed. All patients who met the inclusion criteria (≥65 years, residing in a nursing home on a long-term basis) were eligible for inclusion. There were 120 nursing home residents recruited to the study. Main Outcome Measure: The prevalence of antipsychotic medication use in nursing home residents (with and without dementia). Results: The overall prevalence of antipsychotic prescribing was found to be 48% and patients with dementia were significantly more likely to be prescribed an antipsychotic compared to those without dementia (67% vs. 25%) (χ2 (1, N = 120) = 21.541, p < 0.001). In the cohort of patients with dementia, there was a trend approaching significance (p = 0.052) of decreasing antipsychotic use with increasing age (age 65–74 = 90%; age 75–84 = 71%; age 85 and over = 58%). An indication was documented for 84% of the antipsychotic prescriptions in this cohort. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight that high rates of antipsychotic medication use remains an issue in Irish nursing homes. Further work should explore factors in influencing prescribing of these medications in such settings.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040160
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 161: Pharmacists’ Interventions on Electronic
           Prescriptions from Various Specialty Wards in a Malaysian Public Hospital:
           A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Poh Ling Ooi, Hadzliana Zainal, Qi Ying Lean, Long Chiau Ming, Baharudin Ibrahim
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Background: The emergence of new technologies in the area of health information and communication helps pharmacists to check the safety of medications used via electronic prescribing. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the rate and types of problems with electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions) that required pharmacist intervention at an inpatient pharmacy, and to evaluate prescribers’ acceptance of these interventions. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on the interventions of e-prescriptions documented by pharmacists was conducted in a public hospital inpatient pharmacy. Data were collected for descriptive analysis using a collection form, including the e-prescription interventions, types of wards, drugs involved, and acceptance of intervention by prescribers. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between ward pharmacist availability and the rate of interventions. Results: A total number of 11,922 (3.3%) pharmacist interventions were proposed for 357,760 e-prescriptions ordered in the 12 month study period. Of the total number of proposed interventions, 11,381 (95.5%) were accepted by prescribers. The interventions on e-prescriptions were from surgical wards (11.7%) followed by intensive care (5.6%), paediatric (3.5%) and medical specialty wards (2.9%). Anti-infective agents (33.8%) and cardiovascular medicines (27.0%) were among the drugs with the highest rate of interventions. The most common type of intervention was revising the drug regimen (58.4%), especially with anti-infective agents (33.8%). Prescribers in surgical wards showed the highest level of acceptance of pharmacist interventions, which was 97.37%. The presence of ward pharmacists showed a higher number of interventions (6.2 vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001) than wards without pharmacists, as well as a higher percentage of acceptance (96.4 vs. 91.1%, p < 0.001) towards e-prescription intervention. Conclusion: In e-prescribing, errors can be prevented by pharmacists’ interventions on e-prescriptions. This helps to prevent medication errors and thus optimise rational pharmacotherapy in patients. The role of ward pharmacists in pharmaceutical care is highly accepted by prescribers.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040161
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 162: The Challenge of Medication-Induced Dry Mouth
           in Residential Aged Care

    • Authors: William Murray Thomson, Moira B. Smith, Catherine Anna Ferguson, Geraldine Moses
      First page: 162
      Abstract: With a reported prevalence between 20% and 30%, dry mouth is more common among older people than any other age group. The major risk factor for dry mouth is polypharmacy. Older people take more medications than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also to reduce the likelihood of the complications that may arise from those conditions. Most aged care residents take even more medications than older people who are living in their own homes. The greater the number of medications taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. The condition not only affects the dentition and ability to wear dentures, but also the sufferers’ quality of life. Treating dry mouth is a considerable challenge for clinicians. As medication use is by far the most important risk factor, there is a need for pharmacists, doctors and dentists to work together to prevent this from occurring. Medication review and deprescribing is a key strategy, but there have not yet been any randomised control trials of its efficacy in reducing the occurrence of dry mouth.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040162
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 163: Development and Implementation of an
           Integrated Framework for Undergraduate Pharmacy Training in Maternal and
           Child Health at a South African University

    • Authors: Elizabeth Oyebola Egieyeh, Angeni Bheekie, Mea Van Huyssteen, Renier Coetzee
      First page: 163
      Abstract: The South African Pharmacy Council (SAPC) regulates undergraduate pharmacy education and pharmacy practice. The SAPC Good Pharmacy Practice manual describes the role of pharmacists in maternal and child health (MCH) in line with the recommendation of international health regulatory bodies. However, baseline study findings in 2017 supported literature from around the world that indicated a need for curriculum review and integration to address the knowledge and skills gap in pharmacists’ MCH training. This paper describes the development and implementation of an integrated framework for MCH training across the four years of a Bachelor of Pharmacy program. The intervention included didactic lectures, skills practical on infant growth assessment, and an experiential learning component at primary health care clinics and pharmacies. Knowledge and skills assessment on contraception, maternal and antenatal care, and neonatal and child care were carried out pre, eight weeks post, and two years post intervention using the same questionnaire. ANOVA and post hoc analyses showed that participants’ knowledge and skills increased post intervention but decreased significantly two years later except in contraception where students experienced longitudinal integration of the MCH component. Geenerally, participants performed above the university average except in maternal and antenatal care.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040163
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 164: Supporting COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout before
           Charter Class Arrives: The University of California, Irvine Experience

    • Authors: Alexandre Chan, Melanie D. Joe, Jan D. Hirsch
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Despite numerous challenges in relation to being a recently established school, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SPPS), similar to many schools of pharmacy in the United States, was highly committed to supporting the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines. UCI SPPS and our affiliated UCI Medical Center (UCIMC) Pharmacy Department partnered to spearhead the pharmacy element of a large-scale COVID-19 vaccination clinic on campus for both employees and the community. Three key initiatives were established in order to overcome the obstacles we faced in the large-scale roll out of COVID-19 vaccines: (1) forging new collaborations within the pharmacy team, (2) leveraging interprofessional education and practice, and (3) raising awareness of the pharmacists’ role. Our response to the COVID-19 vaccines at UCI was a tangible, visible model that demonstrated that, while we continue to embrace our role in team-based, patient-centered care, it is also important for us to step up and lead the profession. Additionally, this vaccine rollout experience is a teachable moment for our communities and our health professional partners as we continue to march forward as one voice to serve the American public.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040164
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 165: Outcomes of a National, Cross-Sector
           Antimicrobial Stewardship Training Initiative for Pharmacists in England

    • Authors: Vincent Ng, Diane Ashiru-Oredope, Helena Rosado, Beth Ward
      First page: 165
      Abstract: (1) Background: Pharmacists play a pivotal role in tackling Antimicrobial resistance through antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and are well placed to lead behaviour change interventions across the healthcare system; (2) Methods: A cross-sector AMS training initiative for pharmacists was implemented across England, with three cohorts between 2019–2021. Each cohort took part in an introductory workshop, followed- by a workplace-based quality improvement project supported by peer-assisted learning sessions. Completion of training was determined by an end of training assessment after three to four months. Outcome data and learner survey results were collated, anonymised, and analysed by the training provider. (3) Results: In total, 118 pharmacists participated in the introductory workshop, 70% of these subsequently undertook an improvement project, and 48% engaged workplace stakeholders in the process. Interventions were designed by 57% of learners and 18% completed a at least one Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. Approximately a quarter of learners met the requirements for a Certificate of Completion. Knowledge quiz scores were obtained from 115 learners pre-training and 28 learners post-training. Paired t-tests conducted for 28 learners showed a statistically significant improvement in mean score from 67.7% to 81.1% (p < 0.0001). Sixty-two learner survey responses were received during the training and 21 follow-up survey responses 6 to 12 months post training. Of the 21 responses to the follow-up survey, ongoing quality improvement work and improvement outcomes were reported by nine and six learners, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The delivery of workplace-based training at scale can be challenging, however this study demonstrates that coupling learning with workplace implementation and peer support can promote behaviour change in learners. Further study into the impact of providing pharmacists across sectors and geographies with access to this type of training will help inform ongoing workforce development interventions.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040165
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 166: Student Pharmacists’ Perceptions of
           Amazon Pharmacy

    • Authors: Alexandra Stich, Christian Cava, Dominic Cava, David R. Axon
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Amazon recently launched their online pharmacy in the United States (US). However, no studies have explored student pharmacists’ perceptions of the potential impact of Amazon Pharmacy. This qualitative study used individual semi-structured interviews to examine third- and fourth-year student pharmacists’ perceptions of how Amazon Pharmacy will affect economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes; the pharmacy experience; and the job market. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed by two independent reviewers until saturation was reached, with differences resolved through discussion with a third researcher. Seventeen students participated in the study. Five themes were identified: perceived economic outcomes for patients, perceived clinical outcomes for patients, perceived humanistic outcomes for patients, perceived impact of the pharmacy experience for patients, and perceived influence of Amazon Pharmacy on the pharmacy market. The majority suggested Amazon Pharmacy would offer lower costs for patients (71%), improved medication adherence (76%), and improved quality of life (65%). There was a consensus that the Amazon Pharmacy experience would be different, with various opinions highlighting potential positive or negative aspects of the service. There were mixed opinions about job opportunities and impact on existing pharmacies. Future studies should evaluate economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes for patients utilizing Amazon Pharmacy.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040166
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 167: COVID-19 Vaccination Engagement and Barriers
           among Mississippi Pharmacists

    • Authors: Emily Gravlee, Eric Pittman, Wesley Sparkmon, Hyllore Imeri, Hannah-Faith Cox, Marie Barnard
      First page: 167
      Abstract: After the emergency use authorization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations in the United States, existing pharmacy infrastructure was leveraged to disseminate vaccines. However, the national uptake of COVID-19 vaccines remains poor. This survey study of Mississippi pharmacists aimed to identify barriers to providing COVID-19 vaccination among pharmacists in practice settings that provided other vaccines. A thematic analysis was used to analyze open-ended survey responses. This study found that the greatest identified barrier to COVID-19 vaccination for pharmacists was patient willingness. The thematic analysis revealed logistical barriers, vaccine hesitancy, and rural pharmacy distribution concerns. These findings suggest that pharmacists require further training in overcoming vaccine hesitancy, and potentially indicate a need for the distribution of vaccination responsibilities to additional pharmacy staff members.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040167
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 168: Pharmacy Education Development

    • Authors: Claire Anderson, Naoko Arakawa
      First page: 168
      Abstract: Pharmacy education and training is fundamental in supplying the pharmacy workforce with adequate numbers and correct competencies to provide relevant pharmaceutical care [...]
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040168
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 169: Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions and
           Attitudes towards Online Education during COVID-19 Lockdown in Saudi

    • Authors: Saleh Alghamdi, Majid Ali
      First page: 169
      Abstract: In March 2020, a national lockdown in Saudi Arabia due to the pandemic forced all educational institutions to complete their academic year via online education. This study aims to explore pharmacy students’ perceptions and assess their attitude towards online education during the lockdown. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was designed to collect responses of pharmacy students (from one college of pharmacy in Saudi Arabia) from December 2020 through January 2021. A total of 241 students completed the survey. Students’ responses indicated that they had easy access to the technology, online skills, motivation and overall favorable acceptance for online learning and examinations. There was a significant difference in the mean scores between the students from different years of study (p = 0.013) related to technology access, and the male students were in significantly more favor of online examinations than female students (p = 0.009). The majority of the students indicated that the lockdown had no or negative impact on their learning and training. Students have general acceptance for online education delivery due to more technology access and online skills. More research should explore the factors affecting and the extent of the impact of online education on student learning and training.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040169
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 170: Validation Assessment of a Pain Interference
           Questionnaire among Student Pharmacists

    • Authors: Megan Whaley, Nouf Bin Awad, Terri Warholak, David Rhys Axon
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Validation studies of pain interference instruments used among student pharmacists are rare yet essential for understanding their appropriate use and interpretation in pharmacy education and practice. This study conducted validation and reliability assessments of a five-item Pain Interference Scale previously administered to student pharmacists. Construct validity was assessed using Rasch analysis. Unidimensionality was measured using: point-biserial measure correlations; percent of raw variance explained by items; difference between expected; variance modeled by items; and Rasch model fit. To assess scale functioning, response frequency distribution, observed average and sample expected logit distribution, Andrich logit distribution, item separation, and item reliability were assessed. Visual examination of the Item-Person Map determined content validity. Items explained 64.2% of data raw variance. The difference between raw variance modeled and observed was 0.6. Point-biserial measure correlations were >0.77. Item mean-square infits were 0.7–1.3 while outfit measures were 0.72–1.16. There were >10 responses per response category, response frequency and Andrich thresholds progressively advanced, and observed average and sample expected logits advanced monotonically, Andrich logits = −2.33–1.69, item separation = 2.61, and item reliability = 0.87. Item probability curves indicated response categories were minimally yet adequately distinct. Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93. The Item-Person Map had a ceiling effect indicating content gaps. In conclusion, the pain interference instrument has acceptable construct validity yet contains content gaps. Additional difficult items should be added to the instrument to better capture pain interference among student pharmacists.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040170
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 171: Community Pharmacist-Led Interventions to
           Improve Preconception and Pregnancy Health: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Polly A. Scott, Ola F. Quotah, Kathryn V. Dalrymple, Sara L. White, Lucilla Poston, Jessica Farebrother, Shivali Lakhani, Marsha Alter, Mitch Blair, John Weinman, Angela C. Flynn
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Background: Community pharmacist-led interventions are effective in improving health outcomes; however, their impact in improving preconception and pregnancy health is not clear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of community pharmacist-led interventions which aimed to improve health outcomes of preconception and pregnant women. Methods: A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed. Five electronic databases were searched up to February 2021. Results: Four studies, three in pregnant women and one in preconception women, were identified. The studies focused on improving micronutrient status and smoking cessation. The studies increased knowledge about, and use of, iron supplements, and improved iron status and smoking cessation rates in pregnant women, while improving knowledge regarding, and increasing the use of, preconception folic acid. The studies were ranked as weak to moderate quality. Conclusion: This review provides preliminary evidence for the potential benefit of community pharmacist-led interventions to improve the health of women before and during pregnancy.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040171
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 172: Clinical Pharmacists’ Knowledge of and
           Attitudes toward Older Adults

    • Authors: Tasia Karis Allen, Patrick Mayo, Sheri Koshman, Margaret Gray, Amina Babar, Cheryl Ann Sadowski
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Background: Although pharmacy literature suggests that pharmacists have a positive attitude towards older adults, there is a paucity of studies that have measured pharmacists’ knowledge or attitudes towards older people. The purpose of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of hospital pharmacists toward older adults. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed over two months to clinical hospital pharmacists across the province of Alberta, Canada. The survey was composed of two validated tools, the Palmore Facts of Aging Quiz (PFAQ) and Kogan’s Attitude toward Old People Scale (KOPS). PFAQ is scored from 0 (poor knowledge) to 25 (high knowledge) and KOPS from 34 to 204, with higher than 119 indicating a positive attitude. Results: A total of 153 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate of 24%). The mean age was 39 (SD 10.8) years; the average years practiced was 15 (SD 11), and the majority of respondents (n = 65) reported that >50% of patients in their practice were geriatrics. The mean correct responses on the PFAQ were 18.8 (SD 2.6). KOPS had a mean score of 156.8 (SD 14), with only one pharmacist score falling below 119, indicating a negative attitude. There was a statistically significant, positive correlation between attitudes and knowledge (r = 0.38, p < 0.05), as well as the increasing age of the respondents (r = 0.18, p = 0.03). The remaining measured categories (i.e., gender, years of pharmacy practice) had no significant effect. Conclusion: Clinical hospital pharmacists in Alberta have a positive attitude toward geriatric patients, as well as a satisfactory knowledge of older adults.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040172
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 173: Gender and Pharmacists’ Career
           Satisfaction in the United States

    • Authors: Manuel J. Carvajal, Ioana Popovici, Patrick C. Hardigan
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Job satisfaction reflects pharmacists’ evaluation of their current work experiences, while career satisfaction is an evaluation of how satisfied pharmacists are with their profession across various jobs. The objectives of this article were to measure career satisfaction and specific facets of current-job satisfaction of U.S. pharmacists, compare satisfaction across genders, and examine the determinants of career satisfaction. This study was based on self-reported survey data collected from a random sample of licensed pharmacists practicing throughout the United States. The sample consisted of 422 men and 315 women. Within each gender, pharmacists’ career satisfaction was modeled using ordinary least squares as a function of three sets of variables: personal characteristics, earnings and workweek, and other job-related variables. Female pharmacists exhibited higher levels of contentment with their careers than their male counterparts. Their career-satisfaction levels were not affected by age, marital status, annual earnings, or average workweek, covariates that systematically influenced male pharmacists’ career satisfaction. Job satisfaction substantially affected pharmacists’ long-term career satisfaction. Male and female pharmacists responded differently to stimuli, so a uniform set of work-related incentives may not be effective for both genders. Initiatives perceived by male practitioners as increasing satisfaction may be adversely perceived by female practitioners, and vice-versa.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040173
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 174: Ethical Tenets of PRN Medicines Management in
           Healthcare Settings: A Clinical Perspective

    • Authors: Mojtaba Vaismoradi, Cathrine Fredriksen Moe, Flores Vizcaya-Moreno, Piret Paal
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Prescription and administration of pro re nata (PRN) medications has remained a poorly discussed area of the international literature regarding ethical tenets influencing this type of medication practice. In this commentary, ethical tenets of PRN medicines management from the clinical perspective based on available international literature and published research have been discussed. Three categories were developed by the authors for summarising review findings as follows: ‘benefiting the patient’, ‘making well-informed decision’, and ‘follow up assessment’ as pre-intervention, through-intervention, and post-intervention aspects, respectively. PRN medicines management is mainly intertwined with the ethical tenets of beneficence, nonmaleficence, dignity, autonomy, justice, informed consent, and error disclosure. It is a dynamic process and needs close collaboration between healthcare professionals especially nurses and patients to prevent unethical practice.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040174
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 175: Linezolid for the Treatment of Urinary Tract
           Infections Caused by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    • Authors: Mary Joyce Wingler, Neel R. Patel, S. Travis King, Jamie L. Wagner, Katie E. Barber, Kayla R. Stover
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) account for a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections. Determining optimal treatment of VRE urinary tract infections (UTIs) is challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in efficacy or safety exists between linezolid and non-linezolid treatments for VRE UTIs. This retrospective cohort evaluated patients admitted between 1 June 2012–30 November 2017 who were treated for VRE UTI. Patients must have had at least one sign, symptom, or laboratory confirmation of UTI to be included. The primary endpoint of this study was difference in clinical cure between linezolid and non-linezolid treatment options. Secondary endpoints included 30-day recurrence, 30-day infection-related readmission, inpatient mortality, infection-related hospital length of stay (LOS), and time to appropriate therapy. A total of 45 patients (33 linezolid and 12 non-linezolid) were included. Clinical cure occurred in 71.4% linezolid and 58.3% non-linezolid (p = 0.476). No patients had a 30-day infection-related readmission or 30-day recurrence. Of the 45 patients, 6 (13.3%) patients died during admission, and 5 of those deaths were in the linezolid group (p = 1.000). No significant difference was found for clinical cure between linezolid and non-linezolid treatment options for VRE UTIs.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040175
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 176: Healthy People and Interested Students:
           Medical and Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Public

    • Authors: Richard P. Boyd, Trate A. DeVolld, Natalie A. DiPietro Mager, William J. Burke
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Little is known about health professions students’ awareness and attitudes regarding public health in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess medical and pharmacy students’ knowledge and interest in the Healthy People initiative as well as perceptions of public health content in their curricula. An electronic survey was distributed in March 2021 in seven schools across Ohio; participation was incentivized through a USD 5 donation to the Ohio Association of Foodbanks to aid in COVID-19 relief efforts (maximum USD 1000) for each completed survey. A total of 182 medical students and 233 pharmacy students participated (12% response rate). Less than one-third of respondents reported familiarity with Healthy People and correctly identified the latest edition. However, nearly all respondents agreed public health initiatives are valuable to the American healthcare system. Almost all students expressed a desire to practice interprofessionally to attain public health goals. Both medical and pharmacy students recognized core public health topics in their curricula, and nearly 90% wanted more information. These findings indicate that the majority of medical and pharmacy students in Ohio believe public health initiatives to be important, yet knowledge gaps exist regarding Healthy People. This information can guide curricular efforts and inform future studies of health professions students.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040176
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 177: Medicines Optimisation for Respiratory
           Patients: The Establishment of a New Consultant Respiratory Pharmacist
           Role in Northern Ireland

    • Authors: Cairine Gormley, Maureen Spargo, Glenda Fleming, Brendan Moore, Michael Scott, Rose Sharkey, Anne Friel
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Medicines optimisation for those with respiratory conditions can have a significant impact on clinical outcomes and substantial efficiency gains for health care. Consultant pharmacists are experts working at the top of their specialism in four main pillars of practice, namely clinical care, leadership, education and training, and research and development. A consultant respiratory pharmacist has recently been appointed at a large Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland to provide expert care and clinical leadership for the medicines optimisation agenda with regards to respiratory care in Northern Ireland. Alongside clinical practice, leadership, and service development, emphasis will be placed on monitoring and evaluating the work of the consultant respiratory pharmacist with a view to gathering the necessary evidence to support the case for further investment in such consultant pharmacist posts in the region. This short communication article outlines some of the clinical and economic factors associated with the decisions to invest in the consultant pharmacist model of care in Northern Ireland
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040177
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 178: Patients, Social Workers, and Pharmacists’
           Perceptions of Barriers to Providing HIV Care in Community Pharmacies in
           the United States

    • Authors: Adati Tarfa, Kristen Pecanac, Olayinka Shiyanbola
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care is a global priority to end the HIV epidemic. Community pharmacies in the United States have structural influences on the success or failure of retention in HIV care by supporting patients’ complex needs. However, to date, barriers to retention in care in the community pharmacy setting have not been examined beyond pharmacy services of medication therapy management. We utilized the patient-centered medical home model to examine the barriers to HIV care in the community pharmacy setting. We utilized semi-structured interviews to collect data from 15 participants: five PLWH, five community pharmacists, and five social workers from a midwestern state. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed using directed content analysis. Four key themes emerged regarding the barriers that impact utilization of community pharmacy services by PLWH: the perception of the role of community pharmacists in HIV care, perceptions of pharmacists’ HIV knowledge, perceptions of pharmacy operation and services, and negative experiences within the community pharmacy space. Participants’ perceptions of solutions for improving HIV care in the community pharmacy focused on improving the relationship between pharmacists and patients, ensuring that the community pharmacy is a private and safe space for patients, and having a diverse pharmacy staff that is equipped to take care of the diverse and marginalized HIV population, such as transgender people.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040178
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 179: Precision of Medication Therapy Problem

    • Authors: Nicholas Cox, Bryce Ashby, Bradly Winter, Gregory Stoddard, Joanne LaFleur, G. Benjamin Berrett, Kyle Turner
      First page: 179
      Abstract: This study assesses the level of agreement on medication therapy problem (MTP) identification and classification between primary care, ambulatory care pharmacists within a health-system that recently implemented system-wide pharmacist provision of comprehensive medication management (CMM) services. Twenty standardized case vignettes were created and distributed to pharmacists who reviewed each case and identified and categorized MTPs. Outcomes include the number of MTPs identified, identification (yes/no) of specific MTPs within each case (e.g., need for a statin), and Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) category used when classifying MTPs. The level of agreement on MTP identification/categorization was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and interpreted using the Landis and Koch interpretation scale. “Moderate agreement” was observed for the number of MTPs identified by pharmacists (ICC equal to 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 0.65). In approximately one-half of opportunities, the pharmacists agreed perfectly on the number of MTPs; in approximately one-third of opportunities, the number of MTPs identified varied by 1; and approximately one-tenth of the time, the number of MTPs varied by 2. In regard to the MTP identification (yes/no) and categorization, percent agreement was ≥73% across all MTPs. The results support the need for further training and education and provide the information necessary to target specific disease states.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040179
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 180: Pharmacists’ Approach to Optimise Safe
           Medication Use in Paediatric Patients

    • Authors: Nicole Keuler, Annatjie Bouwer, Renier Coetzee
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Paediatric patients are unique, yet challenging patients to care for by pharmacists. Paediatric medicine use requires special consideration. Pharmacists play an important role in educating and counselling patients, carers, and healthcare workers. Further, pharmacists have the necessary knowledge and skills to optimise safe medicine use in paediatric patients. This article provides basic principles for safe practices in paediatric medicine by following the nine rights of medication administration.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040180
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 181: An Understanding of the Drivers of Infectious
           Diseases in the Modern World Can Aid Early Control of Future Pandemics

    • Authors: Taiwo Opeyemi Aremu, Oluwatosin Esther Oluwole, Kehinde Oluwatosin Adeyinka
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Infectious diseases have been a significant challenge to health and wellbeing from ancient times, with substantial economic implications globally. Despite the advent of technology, infectious diseases continue to affect people of various social statuses and across geographical locations. Understanding some of the drivers of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, vaccination, and vaccine hesitancy is a step towards thriving in the modern world, achieving fewer morbidities and mortalities, and adequately controlling future pandemics. Pharmacists are strategically placed as healthcare team members to promote early disease control through health education, advocacy, cross-professional and specialty collaboration, communal trust-building, research, and global unity. Not forgetting that infectious diseases in the modern world are about people and science, credible crisis communication during the early phases of disease outbreaks paves the way for well-informed guidance globally.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040181
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 182: Medication Utilisation Program, Quality
           Improvement and Research Pharmacist—Implementation Strategies and
           Preliminary Findings

    • Authors: Karen Whitfield, Ian Coombes, Charles Denaro, Peter Donovan
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Judicious use of medicines that considers evidence-based practice, together with cost-effectiveness, is a priority for all health care organisations. We describe an initiative to lead a Medication Utilisation Program, incorporating medication quality improvement and research activities. In August 2020 an advanced pharmacist position was implemented to lead the Program. The purpose was to provide oversight and facilitate initiatives promoting medication optimisation to create sustainable change in practice. A strategic plan was developed with key performance indicators. A governance structure was implemented with relevant reporting mechanisms. Strategic planning and collaboration with medical, nursing and allied health professionals has seen the successful implementation of seven codesigned medication-use evaluations and eight quality improvement projects centred around patient safety, quality and value-based care. Several research studies have been designed with subsequent commencement of pharmacists enrolled in university Research Higher Degree programs. Cost containment initiatives have realised potential savings approximating AUD 250,000. Educational programs included protocol design, ethics approvals and report writing. Key success criteria for a Medication Utilisation Program include dedicated pharmacist resources, structured governance and reporting mechanisms. Alignment of study complexity with staff experience and interdisciplinary collaboration are also critical.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040182
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 183: Telepharmacy during COVID-19: A Scoping

    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Unni, Kanchita Patel, Isaac Rex Beazer, Man Hung
      First page: 183
      Abstract: The objective of this scoping review is to summarize the implementation of telepharmacy during the surge of COVID-19. This review will focus on answering four questions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, (1) what were the various telepharmacy initiatives implemented' (2) what were the challenges faced when implementing telehealth initiatives' (3) what were the strategies used by pharmacies to overcome the challenges, and (4) what were some of the innovative methods used by pharmacies to implement telepharmacy' A literature search was conducted to include publications post-March 2020 about telepharmacy implementation via PubMed Central database and Google searches. All articles were examined for inclusion or exclusion based on pre-determined criteria. A total of 33 articles were reviewed. The most commonly observed telepharmacy initiatives were virtual consultations, home delivery of medicines and patient education. Limited access to technology and lack of digital access and literacy were major barriers in the implementation of telepharmacy. New protocols were developed by healthcare systems and regulations were relaxed by countries to accommodate telepharmacy. Pharmacies that successfully implemented telepharmacy overcame these challenges through patient and pharmacist education. The review also revealed the steps that can be taken by pharmacy organizations, payers and entrepreneurs in leveraging the convenience of telepharmacy.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040183
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 184: Physicians’ Opinion Regarding Extended
           Access to Hormonal Contraception in Switzerland

    • Authors: Tamara Yous, Samuel Allemann, Monika Lutters
      First page: 184
      Abstract: (1) Background: Access to hormonal contraceptives (HC) strongly differs between countries and varies from over the counter (OTC) to prescription-only availability. This study aimed to identify opinions among physicians in Switzerland regarding extended access to HC. (2) Methods: Web-based survey among physicians (gynecologists, general practitioners, and pediatricians) in Switzerland. (3) Results: Hundred sixty-three physicians, mainly gynecologists, participated in this survey and 147 (90%) were included for analysis. A total of 68% (n = 100) answered that prescription-only status could be extended under certain conditions but physicians were concerned about patients’ safety (97%, n = 142). Moreover, there was concern about insufficient patient education on HC (93%, n = 136) and that women may forego preventive examinations (80%, n = 118). Participants did not support OTC availability (93%, n = 136). Pharmacists prescribing (including initiation of HC) revealed controversial results, but a combined access model (initial prescription from physician and follow-up prescriptions by pharmacists) found acceptance in 70% (n = 103). (4) Conclusions: Participating physicians stated that prescription-only status for HC could be lifted under certain conditions but also some concerns, e.g., patients’ safety or neglection of preventive examinations, were raised. Future research should focus on specific conditions in which extended access to HC could be agreed on.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040184
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 185: Evaluation of Student Pharmacists’
           Attitudes and Perceptions of Hormonal Contraception Prescribing in Indiana

    • Authors: J. Henry Papineau, Jenny L. Newlon, Ryan S. Ades, Veronica Vernon, Tracey A. Wilkinson, Lynn M. Thoma, Ashley H. Meredith
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Community pharmacists’ scope of practice is expanding to include hormonal contraceptive prescribing. Prior to introducing statewide legislation, it is important to assess the perceptions of future pharmacists. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 651 third- and fourth-year professional students enrolled at three colleges of pharmacy in Indiana. Data were collected between September and October 2019 to assess students’ attitudes about prescribing hormonal contraceptives, readiness to prescribe, perceived barriers, and desire for additional training. In total, 20.9% (n = 136) students responded. Most (89%, n = 121) believe that pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraceptives would be beneficial to women in Indiana, and 91% (n = 124) reported interest in providing this service. Liability, personal beliefs, and religious beliefs were the most commonly cited perceived barriers. Most students felt they received adequate teaching on hormonal contraceptive methods (90%, n = 122) and hormonal contraceptive counseling (79%, n = 107); only 5% (n = 7) felt ready to provide the service at the time of survey completion. Student pharmacists in their final two years of pharmacy school are interested in prescribing hormonal contraceptives and believe that this service would be beneficial. This expansion of pharmacy practice would likely be supported by future pharmacists who feel the service could provide benefit to women seeking hormonal contraceptives in Indiana.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040185
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 186: Optimization of Medication Regimens in
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Clinical Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular

    • Authors: Jarred Prudencio, Paige Cajudoy, Donald Waddell
      First page: 186
      Abstract: The American Diabetes Association recommends that patients with type II diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease be prescribed an SGLT-2 inhibitor or GLP-1 agonist for cardioprotective benefit. This project assessed the use of these medications in this patient population in a rural clinic by measuring prescribing rates of SGLT-2/GLP-1 therapy before and after pharmacist interventions. Of the 60 patients identified at baseline, 39.39% (13/33) managed by a pharmacist were prescribed SGLT-2/GLP-1 therapy compared to the 14.81% (4/27) who had not seen a pharmacist (p = 0.025). Of the 43 patients that were not on SGLT-2/GLP-1 therapy at baseline, 13 were lost to follow-up and 13 had contraindications. For the 17 remaining patients, pharmacists recommended initiating SGLT-2/GLP-1 therapy and were able to successfully initiate therapy for 9 patients (52.94%). Pharmacist interventions improved the prescription rates from a baseline of 36.17% (17/47) to 55.3% (26/47) (p = 0.002), with SGLT-2/GLP-1 therapy contraindicated in 27.66% (13/47) of patients. This suggests that patients managed by a pharmacist have medication regimens that were optimized at a greater rate and pharmacists can have a positive impact on the appropriate medication usage in this population.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040186
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 187: Patient Satisfaction with Pharmacist-Provided
           Health-Related Services in a Primary Care Clinic

    • Authors: Jacob N. Jordan, Thomas G. Wadsworth, Renee Robinson, Hayli Hruza, Amy Paul, Shanna K. O’Connor
      First page: 187
      Abstract: (1) Background: Patient satisfaction plays an important role in the perceived value, sustained utilization, and coverage of healthcare services by payers and clinics. (2) Methods: A 33-question survey was designed to assess patient satisfaction and perceived value for healthcare services provided by a clinical pharmacist in a single primary care facility. It included general items from validated patient satisfaction surveys (i.e., PROMIS®, CAHPS) and pharmacist-specific items identified in selected literature. It was offered to all patients who were presenting for a new, unique visit with the clinical pharmacist at the medical clinic between May 2019 and April 2020. (3) Results: A total of 66 patients agreed to take the survey (RR = 100%), and the responses were overwhelmingly positive. However, men were more likely than women to report higher satisfaction (X2(1, n = 920) = 0.67, p = 0.027), and new patients reported higher satisfaction than existing patients (X2(1, n = 1211) = 1.698, p = 0.037). (4) Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate a high degree of patient satisfaction with pharmacist-provided healthcare services in the primary care setting.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040187
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 188: Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines:
           Point Prevalence Survey of Vaccine Hesitancy in an Irish Population

    • Authors: Sarah Marshall, Anne C. Moore, Laura J. Sahm, Aoife Fleming
      First page: 188
      Abstract: Understanding parental attitudes to their children’s vaccination is critical to developing and implementing interventions that address parents’ hesitancy and improve vaccine uptake. The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey is a validated tool for identifying vaccine hesitancy in parents. We evaluated the rate of vaccine hesitancy and areas of concern regarding childhood vaccinations using an adapted version of the PACV survey, in a convenience sample of parents attending a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) outreach event in Ireland, in 2018. A score ≥ 50 identified vaccine hesitant parents. Of 105 parents who completed the survey, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 6.7%, (7/105). Parents had concerns around vaccine side effects (36.2%, n = 38), vaccine safety (20%, n = 21) and the number of vaccines administered (13.3%, n = 14). Parents trusted the vaccine information they received (85.6%, n = 90) and 81.9% (n = 86) believed that the vaccine schedule was good for their child. The findings indicate the presence of vaccine hesitancy in parents in Ireland regarding paediatric vaccines with further research necessary to address parents’ vaccine concerns. Future research should explore further, by qualitative methods, parents’ vaccine concerns. There is also potential to identify vaccine hesitant parents with the PACV survey as a surveillance method in healthcare settings; for example, in community pharmacies, family doctor clinics and out-patient clinics.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040188
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 189: Potentially Inappropriate Medication
           Prescribing Detected by Computer Algorithm among Older Patients: Results
           from the MAPT Study

    • Authors: Arnaud Pagès, Laure Rouch, Nadège Costa, Philippe Cestac, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas, Laurent Molinier, Blandine Juillard-Condat, MAPT/DSA Group MAPT/DSA Group
      First page: 189
      Abstract: (1) Background: Some medications may be dangerous for older patients. Potentially inappropriate medication prescribing (PIP) among older patients represents a significant cause of morbidity. The aim of this study was to create an algorithm to detect PIP in a geriatric database (Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) study), and then to assess the algorithm construct validity by comparing the prevalence of PIP and associated factors with literature data. (2) Methods: An algorithm was constructed to detect PIP and was based on different explicit criteria among which the European list of potentially inappropriate medications (EU(7)-PIM), the STOPP and START version 2 tools. For construct validity assessment, logistic mixed-effects model repeated measures analyses were used to identify factors associated with PIP. (3) Results: Prevalence of PIP was 59.0% with the EU(7)-PIM list criteria, 43.2% with the STOPP criteria and 51.3% with the START criteria. Age, polypharmacy, and higher Charlson comorbidity index were associated with PIP. (4) Conclusions: Prevalence of PIP and associated factors are consistent with literature data, supporting the construct validity of our algorithm. This algorithm opens up interesting perspectives both in terms of analysis of very large databases and integration into e-prescribing or pharmaceutical validation software.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040189
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 190: Dose Administration Aid Service in Community
           Pharmacies: Characterization and Impact Assessment

    • Authors: André Vicente, Beatriz Mónico, Mónica Lourenço, Olga Lourenço
      First page: 190
      Abstract: Adherence to therapies is a primary determinant of treatment success. Lack of medication adherence is often associated with medical and psychosocial issues due to complications from underlying conditions and is an enormous waste of medical resources. Dose Administration Aid Service (DAAS) can be seen as part of the solution, allowing individual medicine doses to be organized according to the dosing schedule determined by the patient’s prescriber. The most recent systematic reviews admit the possibility of a positive impact of this service. In line with this background, the study reported in this paper aimed to characterize DAAS implementation in Portugal and understand the perceptions of pharmacists and owners of community pharmacies regarding the impact of DAAS, preferred methodology types, and State contribution. The study was guided by qualitative description methodology and reported using the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) checklist. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 pharmacists and/or owners of community pharmacies. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified categories that revealed that automated weekly methodology is the preferred methodology, because of its easiness of use and lower cost of preparation. However, the investment cost was felt to be too high by the participants considering the number of potential users for implementation in practice. Participants were also unanimous in recognizing that DAAS has a very positive impact in terms of safety and medication adherence, and the majority agreed that it also helped reduce medication waste. Implications of these findings for medication adherence are discussed.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040190
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 191: The Impact of a Pharmacist-Driven
           Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Initiative in a Community Hospital: A
           Retrospective Cohort Analysis

    • Authors: Nate J. Berger, Michael E. Wright, Jonathon D. Pouliot, Montgomery W. Green, Deborah K. Armstrong
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia with a 30-day mortality of 20%. This study evaluated outcomes after implementation of a pharmacist-driven Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) initiative in a community hospital. Methods: This retrospective cohort analysis compared patients admitted with SAB between May 2015 and April 2018 (intervention group) to those admitted between May 2012 and April 2015 (historical control group). Pharmacists were notified of and responded to blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus by contacting provider(s) with a bundle of recommendations. Components of the SAB bundle included prompt source control, selection of appropriate intravenous antibiotics, appropriate duration of therapy, repeat blood cultures, echocardiography, and infectious diseases consult. Demographics (age, gender, and race) were collected at baseline. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Compliance with bundle components was also assessed. Results: Eighty-three patients in the control group and 110 patients in the intervention group were included in this study. Demographics were similar at baseline. In-hospital mortality was lower in the intervention group (3.6% vs. 15.7%; p = 0.0033). Bundle compliance was greater in the intervention group (69.1% vs. 39.8%; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: We observed a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality and increased treatment bundle compliance in the intervention cohort with implementation of a pharmacist-driven SAB initiative. Pharmacists’ participation in the care of SAB patients in the form of recommending adherence to treatment bundle components drastically improved clinical outcomes. Widespread adoption and implementation of similar practice models at other institutions may reduce in-hospital mortality for this relatively common and life-threatening infection.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040191
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 192: Understanding the Potential for Pharmacy
           Expertise in Palliative Care: The Value of Stakeholder Engagement in a
           Theoretically Driven Mapping Process for Research

    • Authors: Joseph Elyan, Sally-Anne Francis, Sarah Yardley
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Potentially avoidable medication-related harm is an inherent risk in palliative care; medication management accounts for approximately 20% of reported serious incidents in England and Wales. Despite their expertise benefiting patient care, the routine contribution of pharmacists in addressing medication management failures is overlooked. Internationally, specialist pharmacist support for palliative care services remains under-resourced. By understanding experienced practices (‘what happens in the real world’) in palliative care medication management, compared with intended processes (‘what happens on paper’), patient safety issues can be identified and addressed. This commentary demonstrates the value of stakeholder engagement and consultation work carried out to inform a scoping review and empirical study. Our overall goal is to improve medication safety in palliative care. Informal conversations were undertaken with carers and various specialist and non-specialist professionals, including pharmacists. Themes were mapped to five steps: decision-making, prescribing, monitoring and supply, use (administration), and stopping and disposal. A visual representation of stakeholders’ understanding of intended medicines processes was produced. This work has implications for our own and others’ research by highlighting where pharmacy expertise could have a significant additional impact. Evidence is needed to support best practice and implementation, particularly with regard to supporting carers in monitoring and accessing medication, and communication between health professionals across settings.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040192
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 193: Community Pharmacists’ Experiences and
           Perception about Transitions of Care from Hospital to Home in a Midwestern

    • Authors: Rachel K. Vossen, Yifei Liu, Peggy G. Kuehl
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Objectives: (1) To describe the experiences of community pharmacists in transitions of care (TOC) from hospital to home in a Midwestern metropolis; and (2) to develop instruments to measure perceived importance of TOC activities. Methods: Survey items were developed, including a six-item instrument to capture perceived importance of TOC activities. The items were piloted to examine face validity before dissemination to 310 community pharmacists. Descriptive statistics were reported. Principal component analysis and reliability analysis for the six-item instrument were performed to assess construct validity and Cronbach’s alpha, respectively. Results: The response rate was 37% (n = 118). The majority of community pharmacists estimated that they learned of a patient’s discharge on less than 10% of the occasions. There were 76 cases in which the discharged patients experienced either a prescription- or medication-related problem. For the six-item measurement of perceived importance, one component was yielded and all items loaded on the component with high values, which confirmed construct validity. The Cronbach’s alpha for these six items was 0.941, indicating high reliability. Conclusions: A large communication gap existed for community pharmacists to receive patient discharge information. The six-item instrument to measure perceived importance of TOC activities was valid and reliable.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040193
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 194: Prescribing-Assessment Tools for Long-Term
           Care Pharmacy Practice: Reaching Consensus through a Modified RAND/UCLA
           Appropriateness Method

    • Authors: João R. Gonçalves, Betsy L. Sleath, Manuel J. Lopes, Afonso M. Cavaco
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Medicines are the most used health technology in Long-Term Care. The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicines amongst Long-Term Care patients is high. Pharmacists, assisted by prescribing-assessment tools, can play an important role in optimizing medication use at this level of care. Through a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, 13 long-term care and hospital pharmacists assessed as ‘appropriate’, ‘uncertain’, or ‘inappropriate’ a collection of commonly used prescribing-assessment tools as to its suitability in assisting pharmacy practice in institutional long-term care settings. A qualitative analysis of written or transcribed comments of participants was pursued to identify relevant characteristics of prescribing-assessment tools and potential hinders in their use. From 24 different tools, pharmacists classified 9 as ‘appropriate’ for pharmacy practice targeted to long-term care patients, while 3 were classified as ‘inappropriate’. The tools feature most appreciated by study participants was the indication of alternatives to potentially inappropriate medication. Lack of time and/or pharmacists and limited access to clinical information seems to be the most relevant hinders for prescribing-assessment tools used in daily practice.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040194
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 195: Impact of a Regional Campus on the Placements
           of Students at Rural Pharmacy Experiential Sites

    • Authors: Stephanie Kiser, Elizabeth Ramsaur, Charlene R. Williams
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Pharmacist shortages in rural communities underscore the need to focus on increasing the pipeline of pharmacists practicing rurally. Experiential placement in rural communities is one method to approach this challenge. Regional pharmacy campuses may facilitate rural experiential placements. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a regional campus on the number of rural experiential placements. This retrospective analysis compared experiential student placements in the five-year periods before and after the addition of a regional school of pharmacy campus. Experiential placements in the designated time periods were compared with respect to numbers of overall pharmacy practice experiences, experiences in rural locations, and rural counties with rotation sites. The average distance to rural sites was also compared. Differences in rural experiential placements were not statistically different. The number of rural counties with pharmacy experiential placements grew from eight to twelve, and driving distance increased. While institution of a regional campus contributed to an increase in the number of rural counties with experiential placements, overall rural experiential placements did not statistically differ versus suburban placements. Additional inquiry into factors that affect rural placement is needed to influence strategies to develop and maintain rural experiential sites and consistently place students at those sites.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040195
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 196: The Development of an Enhanced Palliative
           Care Pharmacy Service during the Initial COVID-19 Surge

    • Authors: Jaquie Hanley, Maureen Spargo, Joanne Brown, Julie Magee
      First page: 196
      Abstract: The Northern Health and Social Care Trust developed an enhanced palliative care pharmacy service for acute inpatients within a large hospital in Northern Ireland during the initial COVID-19 surge. By training additional staff, there was an opportunity to increase service provision, utilising palliative care pharmacy skills to undertake activities such as the symptom management of patients, appropriate management of medicines, improved access to medicines, advice for other healthcare professionals, and supporting discharge from the hospital. The data collected showed a mean of 6.8 interventions per patient, and that, irrespective of the demand resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, the palliative care pharmacy team had a role in improving the quality of care for palliative and end-of-life patients. Subsequent data analysis also demonstrated associated cost saving and the potential for the palliative care pharmacy team to reduce the length of stay at the hospital.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040196
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 197: Prescription Renewal Request Reviews by
           Student Pharmacists in a Family Medicine Clinic

    • Authors: Jarred Prudencio, Michelle Kim
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Prescription renewal requests were reviewed by student pharmacists on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) at a primary care and family medicine clinic. Student pharmacists reviewed requests and triaged them to the respective primary care provider (PCP), along with any recommendations to optimize the medication regimen. This study aims to assess the acceptance of these recommendations as well as the student’s perception of this activity as a learning tool. A total of 35 4th-year pharmacy students participated in this activity during APPE rotations from May 2019 to March 2021. A total of 184 recommendations were made, with 128 (70%) being accepted by PCPs. Based on a post-rotation anonymous survey, students reported high levels of agreeance that this activity had a positive impact on their education in a variety of ways. This prescription renewal request review process has been shown to have a positive impact on patient care and clinic workflow while also providing pharmacy students with a helpful educational activity.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040197
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 198: The Secondary Use of Data to Support
           Medication Safety in the Hospital Setting: A Systematic Review and
           Narrative Synthesis

    • Authors: Navila Talib Chaudhry, Bryony Dean Franklin, Salmaan Mohammed, Jonathan Benn
      First page: 198
      Abstract: Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and narrative synthesis of interventions based on secondary use of data (SUD) from electronic prescribing (EP) and electronic hospital pharmacy (EHP) systems and their effectiveness in secondary care, and to identify factors influencing SUD. Method: The search strategy had four facets: 1. Electronic databases, 2. Medication safety, 3. Hospitals and quality/safety, and 4. SUD. Searches were conducted within EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Empirical SUD intervention studies that aimed to improve medication safety and/or quality, and any studies providing insight into factors affecting SUD were included. Results: We identified nine quantitative studies of SUD interventions and five qualitative studies. SUD interventions were complex and fell into four categories, with ‘provision of feedback’ the most common. While heterogeneous, the majority of quantitative studies reported positive findings in improving medication safety but little detail was provided on the interventions implemented. The five qualitative studies collectively provide an overview of the SUD process, which typically comprised nine steps from data identification to analysis. Factors influencing the SUD process were electronic systems implementation and level of functionality, knowledge and skills of SUD users, organisational context, and policies around data reuse and security. Discussion and Conclusion: The majority of the SUD interventions were successful in improving medication safety, however, what contributes to this success needs further exploration. From synthesis of research evidence in this review, an integrative framework was developed to describe the processes, mechanisms, and barriers for effective SUD.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040198
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 199: A Peer Educational Tool to Promote
           Antimicrobial Stewardship on a University Campus

    • Authors: Yuman (Yumi) Lee, Nicole Bradley
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat. Patient education on the appropriate use of antibiotics is a key component in combating antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility of an origami fortune teller as a novel peer educational tool in promoting antimicrobial stewardship on a university campus. An origami fortune teller, with various case scenarios to demonstrate key antibiotic principles, was developed and used by peer educators to educate students attending a university wellness fair. The case studies included: antibiotic indications; differentiation between viral vs. bacterial infection; proper use of antibiotics; non-pharmacologic measures to combat infection; and antibiotic resistance. Students were asked to take an assessment pre and post working with the tool. One hundred and forty-three students received education using the novel tool. A significant improvement in the assessment score was observed after education was completed using the novel tool (69.5 vs. 96.6 p ≤ 0.05).
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040199
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 200: Urban Expansion of the SAFE-Home Opioid
           Management Education (SAFE-HOME) Naloxone Awareness Initiative for Home
           Health Workers and Older Adults

    • Authors: Abigail T. Elmes, Brianna M. McQuade, Michael Koronkowski, Erin Emery-Tiburcio, Jennie B. Jarrett
      First page: 200
      Abstract: The SAFE-Home Opioid Management Education (SAFE-HOME) Naloxone Awareness pilot program utilized home health workers (HHWs) in rural settings to educate older adults prescribed opioids on naloxone access and use. This work expands the SAFE-HOME program to urban settings to prepare HHWs to educate community-dwelling older adults on opioid risks and life-saving naloxone. This prospective, interventional cohort study evaluated 60-min synchronous, virtual HHW educational training sessions describing opioid risks in older adults, opioid overdose signs and symptoms, and naloxone access and use. Knowledge assessments were conducted pre- and post-intervention via a pre-developed assessment tool in a repeated measure model. Outcomes included change in total opioid and naloxone knowledge, and baseline total and individual opioid and naloxone knowledge. Six educational sessions were held (n = 154). The average pre- and post-education scores were 62.7% (n = 108) and 83.5% (n = 82), respectively (p < 0.001). Of the 69 participants who completed both pre- and post-education assessments, the average change in total score was +19.6% (p < 0.001), opioid knowledge score −0.4% (p = 0.901), and naloxone knowledge score +32.9% (p < 0.001). At baseline, HHWs were knowledgeable on opioid risks, but lacked familiarity with naloxone access and use. Targeting HHWs with opioid and naloxone training positions them to effectively educate at-risk community-dwelling older adults.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040200
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 201: Pharmacists as Personalized Medicine Experts
           (PRIME): Experiences Implementing Pharmacist-Led Pharmacogenomic Testing
           in Primary Care Practices

    • Authors: Miles J. Luke, Nina Krupetsky, Helen Liu, Clara Korenvain, Natalie Crown, Sameera Toenjes, Beth A. Sproule, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Lisa M. Guirguis, Lisa M. McCarthy
      First page: 201
      Abstract: Research exploring the integration of pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing by pharmacists into their primary care practices (including community pharmacies) has focused on the “external” factors that impact practice implementation. In this study, additional “internal” factors, related to the capabilities, opportunities, and motivations of pharmacists that influence their ability to implement PGx testing, were analyzed. Semi-structured interview data from the Pharmacists as Personalized Medicine Experts (PRIME) study, which examined the barriers and facilitators to implementing PGx testing by pharmacists into primary care practice, were analyzed. Through thematic analysis, using the theoretical domains framework (TDF) domains as deductive codes, the authors identified the most relevant TDF domains and applied the behavioural change wheel (BCW) to generate intervention types to aid in the implementation of PGx testing. Pharmacists described how their professional identities, practice environments, self-confidence, and beliefs in the benefits of PGx impacted their ability to provide a PGx-testing service. Potential interventions to improve the implementation of the PGx service included preparing pharmacists for managing an increased patient load, helping pharmacists navigate the software and technology requirements associated with the PGx service, and streamlining workflows and documentation requirements. As interest in the wide-scale implementation of PGx testing through community pharmacies grows, additional strategies need to address the “internal” factors that influence the ability of pharmacists to integrate testing into their practices.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040201
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 202: Interventional, Quasi-Experimental Study of a
           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Education Care Plan for Hospital

    • Authors: Letitia N. Warunek, Nicole E. Cieri-Hutcherson, Brian P. Kersten, Amany K. Hassan
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and reduced quality of life for patients. Proper use of inhaler devices is critical for effective drug delivery and prevention of COPD progression. The primary endpoint of this study was a mean percent increase in correct steps associated with inhaler technique after pharmacist education. The co-primary endpoint was a 25% increase in the proportion of patients correctly identifying the appropriate use of short-acting versus long-acting inhaler types. This was an interventional quasi-experimental study of patients hospitalized at a 491-bed tertiary academic medical center with a COPD exacerbation to assess a pharmacist-led COPD care plan. Eligible patients included general floor, adult patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of COPD exacerbation. The primary investigator recorded initial inhaler technique scores through a paper checklist, and provided education about device types and usage. Patients were reassessed within 48 h to determine if pharmacist education improved inhaler knowledge. A total of 67 patients received the COPD care plan before hospital discharge. At baseline, patients scored a median of 81.8% (67.5–97.0) of steps correct across all inhaler device types. After pharmacist education, patient scores increased to a median of 100% (90.9–100.0) (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients correctly identifying when to use short-acting versus long-acting inhalers increased from 73.1% to 98.5% (p < 0.0001). Implementation of a pharmacist-led care plan for patients admitted for COPD exacerbation was associated with an increase in correct steps for appropriate inhaler technique and understanding of inhaler device types after pharmacist education.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040202
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 9, Pages 203: Patterns and Predictors of Off-Label Drug
           Prescribing in Psychiatric Practice: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Sadia Shakeel, Shagufta Nesar, Hina Rehman, Khizra Jamil, Imran Ahsan Mallick, Muhammad Shahid Mustafa, Mudassir Anwar, Shazia Jamshed
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Off-label drug prescribing (OLDP) must be based on strong scientific evidence to make sure that patients get the optimum therapeutic outcomes. Adherence to the prerequisites is determined by the physicians’ attitude and knowledge. In this context, the present study was conducted with the goal of investigating psychiatrists’ perceptions of the use of OLDP in their clinical practice. A total of 14 psychiatrists were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Thematic content analysis was performed. Data saturation was achieved at the 12th interview. Six major themes and fifteen subthemes emerged from qualitative interviews. Among the major themes were knowledge and concepts about the off-label drugs, attitude and current practice of prescribing off-label drugs, and rationale of prescribing and suggestions for reducing the use of off-label drugs. Almost all of the respondents interviewed provided detailed comments concerning the OLDP concept, depicted an optimistic approach and deemed that OLDP is quite common in psychiatry. Off-label usage of benzodiazepines such as clonazepam, diazepam and lorazepam in mania, depression, and obsessive–compulsive disorder were commonly reported. It was observed that the majority of the respondents did not inform the patients before prescribing off-label drugs. The present findings revealed that respondents had awareness; however, they depicted diverse attitudes towards prescribing off-label drugs. Further education and sensitization in regions with impoverished knowledge would certainly assist in preventing the risks associated with the use of OLDP.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy9040203
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 1: Clinical Utility and Cost Effectiveness of
           Long-Acting Lipoglycopeptides Used in Deep-Seated Infections among
           Patients with Social and Economic Barriers to Care

    • Authors: Kayla Antosz, Majdi N. Al-Hasan, Z. Kevin Lu, Benjamin Tabor, Julie Ann Justo, Alexander Milgrom, Joseph Kohn, P. Brandon Bookstaver
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The use of long-acting lipoglycopeptides (LaLGPs) in serious, deep-seated infections is of increasing interest. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic and clinical utility of LaLGPs in patients requiring protracted antibiotic courses who are not ideal candidates for oral transition or outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT). This is a retrospective, observational, matched cohort study of adult patients who received a LaLGP. Patients were matched 1:1 to those who received standard of care (SOC). Cost effectiveness was evaluated as total healthcare-related costs between groups. Clinical failure was a composite endpoint of mortality, recurrence, or need for extended antibiotics beyond planned course within 90 days of initial infection. There was no difference in clinical failure between the two cohorts (22% vs. 30%; p = 0.491). Six patients in the SOC cohort left against medical advice (AMA) prior to completing therapy. Among those who did not leave AMA, receipt of LaLGPs resulted in a decreased hospital length of stay by an average of 13.6 days. The average total healthcare-related cost of care was USD 295,589 in the LaLGP cohort compared to USD 326,089 in the SOC cohort (p = 0.282). Receipt of LaLGPs may be a beneficial treatment option for patients with deep-seated infections and socioeconomic factors who are not candidates for oral transition or OPAT.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010001
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 2: Clinical and Organizational Impacts of Medical
           Ordering Settings on Patient Pathway and Community Pharmacy Dispensing
           Process: The Prospective ORDHOSPIVILLE Study

    • Authors: Justine Clarenne, Julien Gravoulet, Virginie Chopard, Julia Rouge, Amélie Lestrille, François Dupuis, Léa Aubert, Sophie Malblanc, Coralie Barbe, Florian Slimano, Céline Mongaret
      First page: 2
      Abstract: During the dispensing process of medical orders (MOs), community pharmacists (CPs) can manage drug-related problems (DRPs) by performing pharmacist interventions (PIs). There is little evidence that the PI rate is higher with MOs from hospitals (MOHs) than ambulatory (MOAs) settings, and their impact on the patient and community pharmacy is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to compare the MOH and MOA PI rates. The secondary objective was to describe PIs and their clinical and organizational impacts on patient and community pharmacy workflow. A total of 120 CPs participated in a prospective study. Each CP included 10 MOH and 10 MOA between January and June 2020. DRP and PI description and clinical and organizational impacts between MOH and MOA were assessed and compared. We analyzed 2325 MOs. PIs were significantly more frequent in MOH than in MOA (9.7% versus 4.7%; p < 0.001). The most reported PI was the difficulty of contacting hospital prescribers (n = 45; 52.2%). MOHs were associated with a longer dispensing process time and a greater impact on patient pathway and community pharmacy workflow than MOAs. Lack of communication between hospital and primary care settings partly explains the results. Implementation of clinical pharmacy activities at patient discharge could alleviate these impacts.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010002
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 3: Pharmacist-Facilitated Interactive E-Learning
           for Patients Newly Initiated on Warfarin: A Randomised Controlled Study

    • Authors: Joanne Young, Michelle J. Nalder, Alexandra Gorelik, Rohan A. Elliott
      First page: 3
      Abstract: It is not known whether electronic-learning (e-learning) is effective for educating hospital inpatients about complex medications such as warfarin. This prospective randomised controlled study compared pharmacist-facilitated e-learning with standard pharmacist-delivered face-to-face education on patients’ or their unpaid carers’ knowledge of warfarin and satisfaction with warfarin education as well as the time that was spent by pharmacists in delivering warfarin education. Adult English-speaking patients (or their carers) who had been prescribed warfarin were randomised to receive standard pharmacist face-to-face education (control) or an e-learning module on a tablet device facilitated by a pharmacist (intervention). All of the participants received written warfarin information and were presented with the opportunity to ask any questions that they may have had to a pharmacist. Fifty-four participants completed the study (27 per group). The participants who received e-learning had median correct Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge (OAK) test scores of 85% compared to 80% for standard education (p = 0.14). The participants in both groups were satisfied with the information that they received. There was a trend towards pharmacists spending less time on warfarin education for the e-learning group than in the standard education group (25.5 vs. 33 min, respectively, p = 0.05). Education delivered via pharmacist-facilitated e-learning was non-inferior in terms of patient or carer warfarin knowledge compared to standard pharmacist-delivered education.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010003
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 4: Remote Learning in Transnational Education:
           Relationship between Virtual Learning Engagement and Student Academic
           Performance in BSc Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

    • Authors: Taher Hatahet, Ahmed A.Raouf Mohamed, Maryam Malekigorji, Emma K. Kerry
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The 21st century has seen dramatic changes to education delivery which have widened the scope of transnational education and remote learning via various virtual learning environments (VLEs). Efficient remote teaching activities require students to be engaged with taught materials and academic staff, and for educators to be able to track and improve student engagement. This article describes the generation of a predictive mathematical model for students’ exam performance using VLE engagement indicators and coursework marks together to enable the creation of a model with a correlation coefficient of 0.724. This article examines the relationship of each of these variables with final exam marks, as well as the addition of personal related variable X on the generated model’s accuracy. The generated models show that each variable had a different impact on the prediction of the final exam mark. The results’ analysis suggests that coursework marks and total VLE page views were the major attributes, while personal factors were also found to greatly impact model accuracy. Considering the case of outliers, who were students with low VLE engagement achieving high exam marks, it is proposed that personal factors, such as behavioural factors and study style, also have a significant effect on student academic attainment. The generated model can be used by students to improve self-efficacy by adjusting their study style and by educators to provide early interventions to support disengaged students. This model can be replicated in different remote learning settings and transnational education, and the findings might be insightful for courses with remote learning strategies to investigate the key educational, personal and engagement parameters for students’ overall success.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010004
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Interactive Narrative Simulation as a Method
           for Preceptor Development

    • Authors: Charlene R. Williams, Robert Hubal, Michael D. Wolcott, Abbey Kruse
      First page: 5
      Abstract: (1) Background: This proof-of-concept study assessed an interactive web-based tool simulating three challenging non-academic learning situations—student professionalism, cross-cultural interactions, and student well-being—as a means of preceptor development. (2) Methods: Three scripts focused on professionalism, cross-cultural interactions, and student well-being were developed and implemented using a commercial narrative tool with branching dialog. Delivered online, this tool presented each challenge to participants. Participants had up to four response options at each turn of the conversation; the choice of response influenced the subsequent conversation, including coaching provided at the resolution of the situation. Participants were invited to complete pre-activity, immediate post-activity, and one-month follow-up questionnaires to assess satisfaction, self-efficacy, engagement, and knowledge change with the tool. Knowledge was assessed through situational judgment tests (SJTs). (3) Results: Thirty-two pharmacist preceptors participated. The frequency of participants reflecting on challenging learning situations increased significantly one-month post-simulation. Participants affirmatively responded that the tool was time-efficient, represented similar challenges they encountered in precepting, was easily navigable, and resulted in learning. Self-efficacy with skills in managing challenging learning situations increased significantly immediately post-simulation and at a one-month follow-up. Knowledge as measured through SJTs was not significantly changed. (4) Conclusions: Preceptors found an interactive narrative simulation a relevant, time-efficient approach for preceptor development for challenging non-academic learning situations. Post-simulation, preceptors more frequently reflected on challenging learning situations, implying behavior change. Self-efficacy and self-report of knowledge increased. Future research is needed regarding knowledge assessments.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010005
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Pharmacy, Vol. 10, Pages 6: Self-Assessment of Cultural Competence and
           Social Determinants of Health within a First-Year Required Pharmacy Course

    • Authors: Ulyana Kucherepa, Mary Beth O’Connell
      First page: 6
      Abstract: As social determinants of health (SDOH) and health disparities are integrated with cultural competence in healthcare education, tools assessing multiple topics are needed. The Self-Assessment of Perceived Level of Cultural Competence (SAPLCC) survey is validated in student pharmacists and includes SDOH. The research objective was to determine if the SAPLCC survey can quantify cultural competence and SDOH course learning. First-year student pharmacists (N = 87) completed the SAPLCC survey anonymously before and after a social and administrative sciences course. The survey had 75 items with 1–4 Likert scales (4 high, total 300 points). All items were summed for the total score. Each item was assigned to a domain and factor. Factors were assigned to domains. The baseline total score was 190 ± 29 points, increasing by 63 ± 33 points post-course. All domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes, encounters, abilities, awareness), 13 of 14 factors, and total scores statistically increased. The SAPLCC tool captured student pharmacists’ self-reported changes in cultural competence and SDOH.
      Citation: Pharmacy
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy10010006
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
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