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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 67: In Vitro Sensitive Skin Models: Review of the
           Standard Methods and Introduction to a New Disruptive Technology

    • Authors: Alexandre Guichard, Noëlle Remoué, Thibault Honegger
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The skin is a protective organ, able to decode a wide range of tactile, thermal, or noxious stimuli. Some of the sensors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family, for example, TRPV1, can elicit capsaicin-induced heat pain or histamine-induced itching sensations. The sensory nerve fibers, whose soma is located in the trigeminal or the dorsal root ganglia, are able to carry signals from the skin’s sensory receptors toward the brain via the spinal cord. In some cases, in response to environmental factors, nerve endings might be hyper activated, leading to a sensitive skin syndrome (SSS). SSS affects about 50% of the population and is correlated with small-fiber neuropathies resulting in neuropathic pain. Thus, for cosmetical and pharmaceutical industries developing SSS treatments, the selection of relevant and predictive in vitro models is essential. In this article, we reviewed the different in vitro models developed for the assessment of skin and neuron interactions. In a second part, we presented the advantages of microfluidic devices and organ-on-chip models, with a focus on the first model we developed in this context.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9040067
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 68: Pickering Emulsions: A Novel Tool for
           Cosmetic Formulators

    • Authors: Eduardo Guzmán, Francisco Ortega, Ramón G. Rubio
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The manufacturing of stable emulsion is a very important challenge for the cosmetic industry, which has motivated intense research activity for replacing conventional molecular stabilizers with colloidal particles. These allow minimizing the hazards and risks associated with the use of conventional molecular stabilizers, providing enhanced stability to the obtained dispersions. Therefore, particle-stabilized emulsions (Pickering emulsions) present many advantages with respect to conventional ones, and hence, their commercialization may open new avenues for cosmetic formulators. This makes further efforts to optimize the fabrication procedures of Pickering emulsions, as well as the development of their applicability in the fabrication of different cosmetic formulations, necessary. This review tries to provide an updated perspective that can help the cosmetic industry in the exploitation of Pickering emulsions as a tool for designing new cosmetic products, especially creams for topical applications.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9040068
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 69: Methylcellulose-Chitosan Smart Gels for

    • Authors: Meghan Hartson, Ciara Coyle, Samiul Amin
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Methylcellulose and chitosan served as promising ingredients for a thermoresponsive hair styling gel after successful application in the medical industry. Both ingredients uphold the clean beauty standard without infringing on performance. By combining these two ingredients, a hair gel can be created that promises an extended hold of style once a heated external stimulus, such as a curling wand, is applied to the hair. Chitosan serves as the cationic biopolymer to adhere the gel to the hair, whereas the methylcellulose acts as the smart biopolymer to lock the desired hairstyle in place. Various ranges of chitosan and methylcellulose concentrations were explored for formulation optimization with rheology and curl drop testing. The rheology testing included a flow sweep test to understand the shear-thinning behavior of the sample as well as the effect of concentration on viscosity. Another rheology test completed was a temperature ramp test from room temperature (25 °C) to 60 °C to study the effect of heat on the various concentrations within the samples. A curl drop test was performed as well, over a 48-h period in which the different samples were applied to wet hair tresses, dried, curled, and hung vertically to see how the style held up over a long period of time with the influence of gravity.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9040069
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 70: Impact of the Interactions between Fragrances
           and Cosmetic Bases on the Fragrance Olfactory Performance: A Tentative to
           Correlate SPME-GC/MS Analysis with That of an Experienced Perfumer

    • Authors: Lucrezia Di Nicolantonio, Maria Rosa Gigliobianco, Dolores Vargas Peregrina, Simone Angeloni, Luca Ilorini, Piera Di Martino, Roberta Censi
      First page: 70
      Abstract: “Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, isopropyl myristate and butylene glycol, with the objective to verify how the olfactory performance of fragrances can be influenced by skin or hair care ingredients. The semiquantitative approach applied in this study aims in providing a practical solution to appropriately combine a fragrance with cosmetic ingredients. Pure fragrance and binary blends were analysed by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), based on the assumption that the solid phase microextraction is able to extract volatile compounds, mimicking the ability of the nose to capture similar volatile compounds. Fifty-seven and forty-four compounds were identified by SPME-GC/MS in pure fragrances “Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé”, respectively. Once mixed with the bases, the analysis of the blends revealed that a qualitative modification in the chromatograms could occur according to the characteristics of the bases. In general, for both fragrances, blends with glycerin and butylene glycol, which are the most hydrophilic bases among the ones tested, were able to release most of the peaks, that were thus still present in the chromatograms. Differently, in the blends with caprylic-capric triglyceride, most of the peaks are lost. Blends with paraffine, dimethicone and isopropyl myristate showed an intermediate behaviour. These results were thus compared with the sensory evaluation made by an experienced perfumer, capable of assessing the different olfactory performances of pure fragrances and their different binary blends. The evaluation made by the perfumer fitted well with the analytical results, and in the blends where most of the peaks were revealed in the chromatogram, the perfumer found a similar olfactory profile for example with glycerin, butylene glycol, while a modification of the olfactory profile was highlighted when several peaks were not still present in the chromatogram, as it was the case with caprylic-capric triglyceride. Interestingly, when the most typical peaks of a fragrance were still observed in the blend, even if some of them were lost, the olfactory performance was not lost, as was the case of paraffin and isopropyl myristate. In the case of dimethicone, its high volatility was considered responsible for a certain decrease in the fragrance “volume”. The results achieved with this investigation can be used to hypothesize that the different compounds of a fragrance, characterized for the first time by different volatility and solubility, could be differently retained by the bases: the more lipophilic are strongly retained by the lipophilic bases with a consequently reduced volatility that limits the possibility of being appreciated by the nose and that corresponds to disappearance or a percentage reduction from the chromatogram. Therefore, in a more accurate and helpful view for a formulator, we could come to the conclusion that based on the results achieved by our investigation, the inclusion of a less lipophilic base can be more appropriate to exalt more lipophilic fragrances.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9040070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 71: Comparative Analysis of Various
           Plant-Growth-Regulator Treatments on Biomass Accumulation, Bioactive
           Phytochemical Production, and Biological Activity of Solanum virginianum
           L. Callus Culture Extracts

    • Authors: Hazrat Usman, Hasnain Jan, Gouhar Zaman, Mehnaz Khanum, Samantha Drouet, Laurine Garros, Duangjai Tungmunnithum, Christophe Hano, Bilal Haider Abbasi
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Solanum virginianum L. (Solanum xanthocarpum) is an important therapeutic plant due to the presence of medicinally useful plant-derived compounds. S. virginianum has been shown to have anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory properties. This plant is becoming endangered due to overexploitation and the loss of its native habitat. The purpose of this research is to develop an ideal technique for the maximum biomass and phytochemical accumulation in S. virginianum leaf-induced in vitro cultures, as well as to evaluate their potential antiaging, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant abilities. Leaf explants were grown on media (Murashige and Skoog (MS)) that were supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of plant hormones (TDZ, BAP, NAA, and TDZ + NAA) for this purpose. When compared with the other hormones, TDZ demonstrated the best response for callus induction, biomass accumulation, phytochemical synthesis, and biological activities. However, with 5 mg/L of TDZ, the optimal biomass production (FW: 251.48 g/L and DW: 13.59 g/L) was estimated. The highest total phenolic level (10.22 ± 0.44 mg/g DW) was found in 5 mg/L of TDZ, whereas the highest flavonoid contents (1.65 ± 0.11 mg/g DW) were found in 10 mg/L of TDZ. The results of the HPLC revealed that the highest production of coumarins (scopoletin: 4.34 ± 0.20 mg/g DW and esculetin: 0.87 ± 0.040 mg/g DW) was determined for 10 mg/L of TDZ, whereas the highest accumulations of caffeic acid (0.56 ± 0.021 mg/g DW) and methyl caffeate (18.62 ± 0.60 mg/g DW) were shown by 5 mg/L of TDZ. The determination of these phytochemicals (phenolics and coumarins) estimates that the results of our study on biological assays, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging assays, are useful for future cosmetic applications.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9040071
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 72: Overview of Cosmetic Regulatory Frameworks
           around the World

    • Authors: Mariana Ferreira, Ana Matos, Ana Couras, Joana Marto, Helena Ribeiro
      First page: 72
      Abstract: To ensure safety and efficacy, cosmetic products are regulated and controlled worldwide. However, the regulatory approaches of each country may be significantly different and impact the competitiveness and economic viability of the industry. This work presents an updated review and comparison of regulatory requirements from the European Union, United States of America, Canada, Japan, People’s Republic of China and Brazil. It outlines contents such as the definition, classification and categorization of cosmetics, pre-market requirements, ingredients management, general labelling requirements, regulation of claims concerning advertisement and commercial practices, increase of animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetic products. Furthermore, it weighs the impact of regulatory differences on the safety and accessibility of these products in the mentioned regions.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9040072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 44: Performance and Acceptability of a New
           Dexpanthenol-Containing Hand Cream in Subjects with Sensitive and Very Dry
           Skin: A Randomized Controlled Study

    • Authors: Hans Stettler, Raffaella de Salvo, Marianne Brandt, Ann-Kathrin Effertz, Sabrina Laing, Sonja Trapp
      First page: 44
      Abstract: A new dexpanthenol-containing hand cream (ND-HC) was developed for people with dry, sensitive, and/or environmentally stressed hands. To explore the performance and acceptability of ND-HC, we conducted a randomized, intraindividual comparison study in 40 healthy adult subjects with sensitive and very dry skin on the hands. Instrumental measurements determined the effects on stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after single and/or 4 weeks’ use of ND-HC. Single and continued at least four times daily applications of ND-HC to very dry skin of the hand for 4 weeks triggered significant increases in SC hydration. On day 29, the mean change in skin capacitance from baseline was significantly greater when ND-HC was applied to the test area compared with the untreated area on the contralateral hand (12.41 vs. 4.46 a.u.; p < 0.001). Upon use of ND-HC over 4 weeks, mean TEWL decreased significantly (bilateral difference: −1.8 vs. 1.0 g/m2/h; p = 0.003), indicating an improvement in SC barrier function. A reduction in dry hand symptoms was observed over the study course. ND-HC was well tolerated and achieved a high level of acceptance and satisfaction. Our findings suggest that ND-HC complies with the required features of a state-of-the-art hand cream.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 45: The Emotional Impact of Maskne in the Era of
           COVID-19: A Commentary on the Future of a Multi-Modality Approach

    • Authors: Kavita Beri, Dhruv Singh, Dia Beri
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Over the past two years, the world has experienced the destructive effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, better known as COVID-19. The use of surgical face masks was declared necessary by many governments around the world to protect citizens from catching the rapidly spreading virus. Albeit surgical masks contributing to stopping the spread of SARS-CoV-2, many people have reported rashes closely resembling acne on their chins ever since wearing face masks became mandatory. This article studies the acne that results from masks worn to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. Acne due to the wearing of masks (“Maskne”) is a new challenge that has affected the population and can decay the mental health of societies and individuals. The exploration of the mental and physical health effects of “Maskne” help us to form treatments that emphasize the association of improving mental health to decrease acne and enhancing quality of life.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030045
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 46: Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of
           Green Cosmeceutical Herbal Face Cream Containing Standardized Mangosteen
           Peel Extract

    • Authors: Puay Luan Tan, Mogana Rajagopal, Sasikala Chinnappan, Malarvili Selvaraja, Mun Yee Leong, Lee Fang Tan, Vi Lien Yap
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The widely reported adverse effects of synthetic ingredients encourage the development of green cosmeceuticals to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3. The waste product of mangosteen (mangosteen peel) was utilized in the formulation to reduce waste production corresponding to SDG 12, in addition to its anti-aging and pigmentation control effects. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate novel herbal face creams containing standardized mangosteen peel extract. The mangosteen creams were formulated using natural ingredients and were evaluated for their organoleptic characteristics, rheology, spreadability and pH. Furthermore, an accelerated stability study, freeze–thaw stability study and centrifugation test were conducted. In addition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were conducted to assess its antioxidant effects, whereas tyrosinase inhibitory assay was conducted to determine its anti-tyrosinase activity. The formulated creams appeared light yellowish-brown and homogenous without phase separation. The creams displayed shear-thinning behavior and optimal pH which was ideal for topical application. The creams were stable after being subjected to various stability tests and were shown to have antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity. In conclusion, the development of mangosteen-based green cosmeceutical face cream is in line with SDG 3 and 12. It is expected to be used as a safe and effective alternative to synthetic products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030046
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 47: Multi-Ingredient Supplement Supports
           Mitochondrial Health through Interleukin-15 Signaling in Older Adult Human
           Dermal Fibroblasts

    • Authors: Irena Alexandra Rebalka, Linda May, Joshua Peter Nederveen, Mark Andrew Tarnopolsky
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The macroscopic and microscopic deterioration of human skin with age is, in part, attributed to a functional decline in mitochondrial health. We previously demonstrated that exercise attenuated age-associated changes within the skin through enhanced mitochondrial health via IL-15 signaling, an exercise-induced cytokine whose presence increases in circulation following physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if these mitochondrial-enhancing effects could be mimicked with the provision of a novel multi-ingredient supplement (MIS). Cultured human fibroblasts isolated from older, sedentary women were treated with control media (CON) or CON supplemented with the following active ingredients to create the MIS: coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid, resveratrol, curcumin, zinc, lutein, astaxanthin, copper, biotin, and vitamins C, D, and E. Outcomes were determined following 24 or 72 h of treatment. MIS provision to dermal fibroblasts significantly increased the mRNA abundance of mitochondrial biogenesis activators and downstream IL-15 signaling pathways, and proteins for oxidative phosphorylation subunits and antioxidant defenses. These findings were co-temporal with lower cellular senescence and cytotoxicity following MIS treatment. In summary, MIS supplementation led to exercise-mimetic effects on human dermal fibroblasts and their mitochondria by reproducing the molecular and biochemical effects downstream of IL-15 activation.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030047
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 48: Permanent Make-Up (PMU) Inks Decolorization
           Using Plant Origin Materials

    • Authors: Eleni Andreou, Agapi K. Triantafyllou, Soultana Mountsaki, Efstathios Rallis, Fotini N. Lamari, Sophia Hatziantoniou, Vasiliki Kefala
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Permanent make-up (PMU) has become a very popular application over the last few years. The ingredients of PMU inks, used over the face area, are organic and inorganic substances very close to the chemical composition of tattoo inks. As the application rates increase, the demand for PMU removal rises. The aim of this study is to assess the decolorization of PMU inks using preparations originating from different plant sources. The leaves of Pelargonium zonale (PE) were extracted with water for 48 h. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of the extract was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu technique reaching 201.34 ± 4.57 μg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/mL of extract. The antioxidant activity of the extract was 20.87 ± 0.36 μg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL and 3.56 ± 0.43 mg FeSO4×7H2O mL of extract when assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay respectively. The decolorization potential of PE leaf extract on five commercially available PMU inks of different hues was assessed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in comparison to polyphenol oxidases enzyme (PPO). The results demonstrated higher absorption reduction that indicates decolorization potential for the inks that have mainly ferrous oxides as colorants.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030048
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 49: Usage Patterns and Self-Esteem of Female
           Consumers of Antiaging Cosmetic Products

    • Authors: Marta Evangelista, Sandra Mota, Isabel Filipa Almeida, M. Graça Pereira
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Aging is an irreversible process of the human body, resulting from a progressive decrease in the biological functions of the organs, including the skin. This study analyzed the relationship between usage patterns of different types of anti-aging cosmetic products, sociodemographic variables, appearance schemes, psychological morbidity, perfectionism, and aging perception of aging with self-esteem. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 260 women, aged between 25 and 64 years, who are users of anti-aging cosmetics and/or aesthetic treatments. Participants were assessed on psychological morbidity (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), appearance schemes (Appearance Schemas Inventory—Revised), perfectionism (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), aging perceptions (Brief Aging Perceptions Questionnaire), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The use of facial-firming cosmetics positively correlated with self-esteem. The results of regression analysis revealed that psychological morbidity and perfectionism contribute negatively to self-esteem, while marital status, professional status, and aging perceptions (positive consequences) contribute positively. According to the results, intervention programs to promote women’s self-esteem should focus on the reduction in psychological morbidity and the promotion of adaptive patterns of perfectionism and address aging perceptions. Longitudinal studies might help explain the complex relationship between the use of anti-aging cosmetic products and psychological variables, particularly self-esteem in women.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030049
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 50: Anti-Wrinkle Effect of BB-1000: A
           Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study

    • Authors: Sang-Wang Lee, Hong-Sig Sin, Joon Hurh, Seon-Young Kim
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Skin aging usually results from intrinsic or extrinsic stress. Photodamage promotes skin damage and stimulates the skin, manifesting as wrinkles, dryness, roughness, and loss of elasticity. We have previously found that blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5, designated BB-1000, showed an in vitro and in vivo anti-skin-aging activity. In the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of BB-1000 via a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 102 volunteers aged 35 to 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Subjects took BB-1000 or a placebo orally at 800 mg/day for 12 weeks. Skin hydration and degree of wrinkles around the eyes were measured at weeks 6 and 12. Skin hydration had no significant effect in both groups at weeks 6 and 12. Otherwise, volunteers in the BB-1000 group had a significant reduction in eye wrinkle grade at week 12. These findings suggest that BB-1000 may be considered a candidate anti-aging agent for preventing skin wrinkles as a nutricosmetic agent.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030050
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 51: Evaluation of the Efficacy of an
           Elastin-Inducing Composition Containing Amino Acids, Copper, and
           Hyaluronic Acid: Results of an Open Single-Center Clinical Trial Study

    • Authors: Man-Seok Kim, Ko-Eun Chun, Dong-Keun Lee, Seh-Hyon Song
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The degradation and reduction in number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are representative biological changes associated with decreased elasticity resulting in various skin problems. Elastin is an ECM protein that plays an important role in maintaining the skin’s structure. It is highly elastic and helps the tissue regain its shape after stretching or contracting. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the product containing amino acids, copper, and hyaluronic acid on the improvement of skin aging. A small open single-center study involved four treatments performed on five subjects at 1-week intervals with Elastic Lab®. As a result, eye wrinkles, skin moisture, inner elasticity, thickness, and density were improved 1 week after the last treatment in all subjects compared to the baseline. Among all evaluation items, skin elasticity, thickness, and density showed significant increases. Therefore, by using a composition containing amino acids, minerals, and hyaluronic acid, the biosynthesis of elastin and collagen in the skin increases, restoring skin elasticity and improving various skin problems.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030051
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 52: Physicochemical Properties of Cellulose

    • Authors: Roger L. McMullen, Seher Ozkan, Timothy Gillece
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Cellulose ethers are naturally derived ingredients that are commonly used in personal care products as rheology modifiers, film formers, stabilizers, and sensorial agents. In this work, we investigated the physicochemical properties of various grades of hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In addition, we also studied the influence of hydrophobic modification on the structure of HEC by carrying out experiments with cetyl hydroxyethylcellulose (HMHEC). Rheological, friction coefficient, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), surface tension analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data were generated for the cellulose ethers in order to obtain information about their viscosity, lubricity, moisture absorption, solubility in the bulk solution phase, physical properties, and thermal degradation profile, respectively.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030052
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 53: Skin Barrier Enhancing Alternative
           Preservation Strategy of O/W Emulsions by Water Activity Reduction with
           Natural Multifunctional Ingredients

    • Authors: Alexandra Nadarzynski, Jonas Scholz, Markus S. Schröder
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Water activity (aw) as an important parameter for self-preservation can help to control microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. However, high amounts of water-binding substances are required to lower the aw enough to affect microbial growth. Since consequences for the skin barrier have been poorly studied so far, we investigated the effect of aw-lowering agents on both the antimicrobial properties of o/w emulsions and skin physiological parameters. A combination of selected natural humectants (Sodium lactate, Propanediol, Erythritol, Betaine and Sodium PCA) with a total concentration of 28 wt% in an o/w emulsion was able to reduce its aw from 0.980 ± 0.003 to 0.865 ± 0.005. The challenge test results of the aw-lowered emulsion showed a convincing microbial count reduction in potentially pathogenic microorganisms. The addition of as little as 0.5% of the antimicrobial multifunctionals Glyceryl Caprylate and Magnolia Officinalis Bark Extract further enhanced the antimicrobial effect, resulting in adequate antimicrobial protection. Moreover, twice-daily application of the aw-lowered emulsion for a period of four weeks led to a skin barrier-enhancing effect: TEWL significantly decreased, and SC hydration significantly increased. Thus, we present an opportunity to replace conventional preservatives with a natural alternative preservation strategy that has been shown to offer benefits for the skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030053
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 54: Anti-Skin-Aging Effect of a Treatment with a
           Cosmetic Product and a Food Supplement Based on a New Hyaluronan: A
           Randomized Clinical Study in Healthy Women

    • Authors: Federica Carlomagno, Gloria Roveda, Angela Michelotti, Federica Ruggeri, Francesco Tursi
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA) has long been used for its anti-age properties, as an ingredient in both topical applications and food supplements. In this study, a novel sodium hyaluronate, based on the innovative full spectrum technology, was administered as an ingredient of a cosmetic product and as the main constituent of a food supplement to evaluate its efficacy in counteracting skin ageing signs. Seventy-five female subjects were randomly assigned to the following treatments for 4 weeks: an active food supplement and a placebo cosmetic product, an active cosmetic product and a placebo food supplement, and a combination of the two products containing the active ingredient, that is, an “In&Out” treatment. The subjects used the placebo cosmetic product for another 14 days. Improvement of all the outcome measures (skin moisturization, elasticity, firmness and profilometry) was achieved by all treatments (p < 0.05); however, the combined treatment resulted in a further amelioration of the skin aging signs with respect to the two single active treatments (p < 0.001), and such effect lasted also after the follow-up period. In conclusion, such results confirmed that the concomitant administration of hyaluronans by these two different routes represents more than an interesting approach to counteract skin aging signs.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030054
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 55: Clinical Translation of Microbiome Research
           in Alopecia Areata: A New Perspective'

    • Authors: Fabio Rinaldi, Anna Trink, Angela Papale, Giammaria Giuliani, Daniela Pinto
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The continuous research advances in the microbiome field is changing clinicians’ points of view about the involvement of the microbiome in human health and disease, including autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata (AA). Both gut and cutaneous dysbiosis have been considered to play roles in alopecia areata. A new approach is currently possible owing also to the use of omic techniques for studying the role of the microbiome in the disease by the deep understanding of microorganisms involved in the dysbiosis as well as of the pathways involved. These findings suggest the possibility to adopt a topical approach using either cosmetics or medical devices, to modulate or control, for example, the growth of overexpressed species using specific bacteriocins or postbiotics or with pH control. This will favour at the same time the growth of beneficial bacteria which, in turn, can impact positively both the structure of the scalp ecosystem on the host’s response to internal and external offenders. This approach, together with a “systemic” one, via oral supplementation, diet, or faecal transplantation, makes a reliable translation of microbiome research in clinical practice and should be taken into consideration every time alopecia areata is considered by a clinician.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030055
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 56: Criticisms in the Development of
           High-Protection and Broad-Spectrum “Natural/Organic”
           Certifiable Sunscreen

    • Authors: Guido Tortini, Paola Ziosi, Elena Cesa, Sonia Molesini, Erika Baldini, Daniela De Lucia, Caterina Rossi, Elisa Durini, Silvia Vertuani, Stefano Manfredini
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Attention to environmental issues has become increasingly important in recent years and also massively affects the cosmetics sector. In this context, sunscreens are questioned due to the proven or believed ecotoxicity of organic ultraviolet (UV) filters. This has pushed developers increasingly towards the use of inorganic filters, which can prove difficult to spread with low compliance. We faced the problem by proposing a rational approach based on the evaluation of the morphology of the inorganic material, as the real dimension does not often correspond to the characteristics declared by the producers because the material itself tends to aggregate. A combination of a specially selected inorganic filter is required to formulate Cosmetic Products with a Natural and Sustainable Connotation (CPCNS) standards.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030056
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 57: Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii):
           Extraction, Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Stability in the
           Presence of Ascorbic Acid

    • Authors: Dyah Utami Cahyaning Rahayu, Regina Ainunnisa Hakim, Shofi Airiza Mawarni, Andhina Rizkya Satriani
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) is a potential source used in cosmetics to prevent skin aging due to its flavonoids and antioxidant properties. This research aims to determine the best solvent for extracting flavonoids, to conduct a large-scale isolation of flavonoids, and to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid and temperature on the extract’s stability for 16 weeks. Various solvents for small-scale extraction were screened based on the polarity index, and one of the best for use in large-scale maceration was selected based on the AlCl3 colorimetric flavonoid content and DPPH antioxidant activity. The stability test was performed by treating cinnamon with and without ascorbic acid at selected temperatures. This test measured physical stability, evaluated flavonoid content and antioxidant activity, and analyzed volatile and non-volatile compounds using GC-MS and LC-MS. The most excellent solvent to extract flavonoids was ethanol due to its high yield (21.50%), flavonoid content (0.01749 ± 8.0 × 10−5 mg QE/g extract), and antioxidant activity (IC50 0.0162 + 7.5 × 10−4 mg/mL). The ascorbic acid addition at both temperatures affected the stability of the pH and chemical constituents. The vast majority of the extract’s flavonoid content and antioxidant activity continued to increase until the end of the observation week. This study revealed that ethanol was the best extraction solvent, and ascorbic acid can be recommended as a stabilizer of cinnamon extract for use in cosmetics for further application.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 58: Azadirachta indica (Neem) as a Potential

    • Authors: André Rolim Baby, Thamires Batello Freire, Gabriela de Argollo Marques, Patricia Rijo, Fabiana Vieira Lima, João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho, John Rojas, Wagner Vidal Magalhães, Maria Valéria Robles Velasco, Ana Lucía Morocho-Jácome
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a large tree that is native to India and is traditionally used due to its several properties, mainly to treat skin diseases, as well as its “herbicidal” activity. Its bark, leaves, seeds, fruits and flowers are widely used in medicinal treatment due to the presence of active secondary metabolites with biological effects, mainly limonoids and tetranortriterpenoids, such as azadirachtin. Thus, A. indica was studied in a variety of conditions, such as anticancer, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents, as well as a biopesticide. Furthermore, differentiated cell tissue in A. indica cultivation was reported to produce active metabolites for different purposes. However, only a few studies have been developed regarding its potential use in cosmetics. For instance, most studies explained the antimicrobial properties in health conditions, such as acne, dandruff and personal health care. Here, we summarized not only the most common cosmetic claims to treat acne but also mitigating other skin disorders related to inflammatory and oxidant processes in recent in vivo studies and patents to aid researchers and industrialists to select A. indica derivatives as novel cosmetic ingredients.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030058
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 59: The Role of Preservatives and
           Multifunctionals on the Oxidation of Cosmetic O/W Emulsions

    • Authors: Arielle Springer, Helena Ziegler
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Preservatives are typically used to protect cosmetic products from microbial spoilage. However, there is evidence that some preservatives can increase oxidation in O/W emulsions. This could have disadvantages for product quality, efficacy, and consumer health and well-being. Therefore, the impact of preservatives or multifunctionals on oxidation should be quantified. For this purpose, five O/W emulsions with different preservatives were prepared and stored. During storage, the oxygen concentration in the headspace of the samples was studied. The samples showed significant differences in their oxygen uptake and daily oxygen consumption rate. Thus, the preservatives used in this study had an influence on oxidation.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030059
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 60: Effects of Structure on the Solubility of UV

    • Authors: Marc Del Olmo, Àngel Navarro, Cristina Garcia, Taro Ehara, Lluís Beltran
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In recent years, one of the most concerning topics in healthcare is the constant exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light being the cause of numerous skin diseases. This issue created a keen interest in sun-care cosmetics, and particularly in sunscreens, since it has been proven to significantly reduce human skin disorders. Usually, sunscreens are formulated as emulsions with organic UV-absorbers dissolved in the oil phase; thus, the solubility of these UV-filters in the emollients is crucial. In this work we expose the properties of different emollients, correlating the chemical structure with the ability to dissolve organic UV-filters.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030060
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 61: A Review of Moisturizers; History,
           Preparation, Characterization and Applications

    • Authors: Saeid Mezail Mawazi, Jo Ann, Noordin Othman, Jiyauddin Khan, Sultan Othman Alolayan, Sultan S. Al thagfan, Mohammed Kaleemullah
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Moisturizers are one of the most widely used preparations in cosmetics and have been extensively used to soften the skin for consumers. Moisturizers work effectively in combating dry skin which may cause pain, tightness, itch, stinging, and/or tingling. The aim of this review is to evaluate published studies on the history, ingredients, preparation processes, characteristics, uses, and applications of moisturizers. Moisturizers bridge the gap between medicine and consumer goods by being used to make the skin more beautiful and healthy. In the future, in moisturizer therapy, the capacity to adapt specific agents to specific dermatological demands will be crucial. Cosmetically, moisturizers make the skin smooth by the mechanism of increasing the water content in the stratum corneum, hence exerting its most vital action, which is moisturizing action and maintaining a normal skin pH.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030061
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 62: Correction: Gu et al. In Vitro Methods for
           Predicting Chemical Leukoderma Caused by Quasi-Drug Cosmetics. Cosmetics
           2017, 4, 31

    • Authors: Lihao Gu, Haifeng Zeng, Tomomi Takahashi, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...]
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030062
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 63: Plant and Herbal Extracts as Ingredients of
           Topical Agents in the Prevention and Treatment Radiodermatitis: A
           Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Agnieszka Kulawik-Pióro, Weronika Joanna Goździcka
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Background: The use of herbal extracts as the source of antioxidant substances capable of neutralizing free radicals and providing protection from ionizing radiation appears to be an alternative therapy for radiodermatitis. As concerns the prevention and treatment of side effects, a lot of recommendations are based on proper experience of radiotherapy centers. We summarize recent research aiming at reducing radiation-induced skin injuries by use of proper skin care, using topical preparations with herbal extracts including onco-cosmetics. Methods: This article is limited to a critical analysis of scientific and professional literature. It concerns preparations in different physicochemical forms, e.g., gels, emulsions, ointments. We stress the connection between the type of applied skin care (type of preparation, its composition, the dose), the properties of the herbal extract and the evaluation of its efficiency in preventing and treating radiation reaction on skin. Conclusions: Herbal extracts can be added to recipes because they are part of a category of cosmeceutical supplements and can be introduced into preparations without prescription. The effectiveness evaluation for herbal extracts in radiotherapy is not an easy task since there are no strict guidelines. Studies should be preceded by the analysis of herbal extracts and recipe in terms of physicochemical, dermatological and performance characteristics.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030063
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 64: Review on the Use of Kojic Acid—A
           Skin-Lightening Ingredient

    • Authors: Vivey Phasha, Jeremiah Senabe, Phatheka Ndzotoyi, Blessed Okole, Gerda Fouche, Anil Chuturgoon
      First page: 64
      Abstract: This article reviews the use of Kojic Acid (KA) as a skin-lightening ingredient in the cosmetics industry. In 1907, Saito discovered KA, a natural product; it has since become one of the most investigated skin-lightening agents. This paper highlights the findings of the research conducted on this agent. It has been found that KA has certain disadvantages, and researchers have attempted to mitigate these disadvantages by designing new equivalents of KA that are more efficient in tyrosinase inhibition. These equivalents are also safe to use and have improved properties and solubility. The Cosmeceutical Ingredient Review (CIR) indicates that this ingredient can be safely used at a concentration not higher than 1% due to its cytotoxicity. Other scientific data also support its safety at a concentration of 2% or less. It was shown to be helpful in the treatment of hyper pigmentary disorders, such as freckles, age spots, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and melasma, which has been proven clinically.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030064
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 65: Correction: Majeed et al. Novel Topical
           Application of a Postbiotic, LactoSporin®, in Mild to Moderate Acne: A
           Randomized, Comparative Clinical Study to Evaluate Its Efficacy,
           Tolerability and Safety. Cosmetics 2020, 7, 70

    • Authors: Muhammed Majeed, Shaheen Majeed, Kalyanam Nagabhushanam, Lakshmi Mundkur, H. Rajalakshmi, Kalpesh Shah, Kirankumar Beede
      First page: 65
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030065
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 66: Effect of Coffee Berry Extract on Anti-Aging
           for Skin and Hair—In Vitro Approach

    • Authors: Nisakorn Saewan
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The aging process encompasses gradual and continuous changes at the cellular level that slowly accumulate with age. The signs of aging include many physiological changes in both skin and hair such as fine lines, wrinkles, age spots, hair thinning and hair loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anti-aging potential of coffee berry extract (CBE) on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and hair follicle dermal papilla (HFDP) cells. Coffee berry was extracted by 50% ethanol and determined for chemical constituents by HPLC technique. Cytotoxicity of the extract was examined on both cells by MTT assay. Then, HDF cells were used to evaluate antioxidant properties by using superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and nitric oxide inhibition as well as anti-collagenase inhibition assays. The effectiveness of anti-hair loss properties was investigated in HFDP cells by considering cell proliferation, 5α-reductase inhibition (5AR), and growth factor expression. The results showed that caffeine and chlorogenic acid were identified as major constituents in CBE. CBE had lower toxicity and cell proliferation than caffeine and chlorogenic acid on both cells. CBE showed SOD and nitric oxide inhibition activities that were higher than those of caffeine but lower than those of chlorogenic acid. Interestingly, CBE had the highest significant anti-collagenase activity, and its 5AR inhibition activity was comparable to that of chlorogenic acid, which was higher than caffeine. CBE also stimulated hair-related gene expression, especially insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The results confirmed that CBE provided anti-aging activity on both skin and hair cells and could be beneficial for applications in cosmeceuticals.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9030066
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 27: Trends in Cosmetics: Product Packaging at the
           Point of Sale

    • Authors: Belén Borja Guerrero, Aránzazu López Pecharromán, Rosario C. Sánchez León
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Recently, there has been a proliferation of establishments where cosmetics products are packaged at the purchaser’s request, promoting the circular economy with the aim of reusing, recycling and reducing packaging. At the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS, for its Spanish acronym), we asked ourselves whether this was a legal and safe practice. In order to verify this, a bibliographic analysis of the applicable legislation and regulations was carried out, and the conclusion reached was that it is legal practice, but a series of guidelines are necessary for it to be carried out with guarantees. Consequently, an instruction was developed which provides recommendations to ensure that the packaging of cosmetic products at the point of sale is carried out under optimum conditions. This instruction is aimed at both responsible persons and the personnel who carry out product packaging at the point of sale.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020027
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 28: Managing Wound Healing with a High-Risk
           Patient: A Case Report

    • Authors: Nikolai N. Potekaev, Olga B. Borzykh, German V. Medvedev, Marina M. Petrova, Elena I. Karpova, Maria A. Zatolokina, Mustafa Al-Zamil, Olga M. Demina, Ekaterina A. Narodova, Natalia A. Shnayder
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Wound healing is a complex, multi-step process. This process begins immediately after skin damage. The outcome of wound healing depends on the quality of each stage of this process: a normal or pathological scar. Violation of wound healing entails a decrease in the function of scar tissue as well as aesthetic dissatisfaction with the patient. This problem is especially important in aesthetic surgery. Patients who have come for beauty feel frustration, obtaining pathological scars. We have been dealing with the problem of wound healing after plastic surgery for about 10 years. Our approach includes the assessment of the risk of pathological wound healing and the treatment of high-risk patients. The risk assessment includes historical data on wound healing, signs of connective tissue dysfunction (especially patients with connective tissue dysplasia), and genetic polymorphisms of genes responsible for the structure of the components of the extracellular matrix of the skin. In the future, patients with a high risk of pathological scarring can be prescribed treatment after surgery. This article presents a clinical case in which we demonstrate our approach.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020028
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Prospecting In Vitro Antioxidant and
           Photoprotective Properties of Rosmarinic Acid in a Sunscreen System
           Developed by QbD Containing Octyl p-Methoxycinnamate and Bemotrizinol

    • Authors: Thalita Marcílio Cândido, Maíra Bueno Ariede, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira Pinto, Felipe Rebello Lourenço, Catarina Rosado, Maria Valéria Robles Velasco, André Rolim Baby
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may potentiate the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of topical formulations. This research presents the application of the concepts of quality by design (QbD) to evaluate the critical parameters of quality and the development of an optimized cosmetic formulation with RA by means of an understanding of product design space. Samples were developed using design of experiments (DoE) and they were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity and photoprotective efficacy, as well as for photostability through artificial irradiation. We were able to achieve the RA performance regarding antioxidant and SPF properties through in vitro experiments. We obtained the equations for predicting the in vitro antioxidant activity and SPF. Considering our sunscreen system, developed with octyl p-methoxycinnamate and bemotrizinol, the presence of RA increased its antioxidant capacity; however, the in vitro SPF was reduced when both UV filters were used. The development of multifunctional sunscreens is of utmost importance; moreover, there is a need for the rational development of formulations that ensure representative statistical tests of the effects and interactions among the components of a formulation on the desired critical quality attributes, including efficacy.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020029
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 30: Developing Eco-Friendly Skin Care
           Formulations with Microemulsions of Essential Oil

    • Authors: Sie Huey Lee, Pui Shan Chow, Chetan Kantilal Yagnik
      First page: 30
      Abstract: With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising delivery technology of skin care actives. Essential oils such as peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil are purported to have excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that could be used as the eco-friendly alternatives for synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the skin care formulations. This work therefore seeks to develop eco-friendly skin care formulations based on microemulsions of essential oil. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil were used as the oil phase to formulate naringin-loaded microemulsions, which demonstrated similar or better antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to the synthetic ones. When formulated into gel form, naringin-loaded microemulsion-gel formulations showed enhanced stability and release profile over their unformulated counterpart. Hence, microemulsions of essential oil developed in this work conferred a 4-fold benefits to the skin care formulations: (1) improved release (membrane permeation) of skin care active, (2) improved stability of skin care active, (3) as an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic antioxidant, and (4) a self-preserving system.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 31: Managing Skin Ageing as a Modifiable
           Disorder—The Clinical Application of Nourella® Dual Approach
           Comprising a Nano-Encapsulated Retinoid, Retilex-A® and a Skin
           Proteoglycan Replacement Therapy, Vercilex®

    • Authors: Jan Wadstein, Israel Sánchez Alvarez, Lidia Bernal López
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Skin ageing is a progressive, but modifiable, multi-factorial disorder that involves all the skin’s tissues. Due to its wide range of physiological and psychosocial complications, skin ageing requires rigorous clinical attention. In this review, we aim to encourage clinicians to consider skin ageing as a disorder and suggest a novel, dual approach to its clinical treatment. Topical retinoids and per-oral proteoglycans are promising, non-invasive, therapeutic modalities. To overcome the low bioavailability of conventional free retinoids, Nourella® cream with Retilex-A® (Pharma Medico, Aarhus, Denmark) was developed using a proprietary nano-encapsulation technology. The nano-encapsulation is a sophisticated ‘permeation/penetration enhancer’ that optimises topical drug delivery by increasing the surface availability and net absorption ratio. Treatment adherence is also improved by minimising skin irritation. Interventional evidence suggests the greater efficacy of Retilex-A® in improving skin thickness and elasticity compared with conventional free forms. It is also reported that the rejuvenating efficacy of Retilex-A® and tretinoin are comparable. Another skin anti-ageing approach is proteoglycan replacement therapy (PRT) with Vercilex®. Vercilex® in Nourella® tablet form has the potential to ameliorate proteoglycan dysmetabolism in aged skin by activating skin cells and improving collagen/elastin turnover. Replicated clinical trials evidenced that PRT can significantly enhance the density, elasticity and thickness of both intrinsically aged and photoaged skin. Evidently, Vercilex® and Retilex-A® share a range of bioactivities that underlie their synergistic activity, as observed in a clinical trial. Dual therapy with Nourella® tablets and cream produced greater effects on skin characteristics than monotherapy with each of the two treatments. In conclusion, Nourella® cream and tablets are safe and effective treatments for skin ageing; however, combining the two in a ‘dual skin rejuvenation system’ significantly improves treatment outcomes.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 32: Occurrence of Allergens in Cosmetics for
           Sensitive Skin

    • Authors: Márcia S. Martins, Marta S. Ferreira, Isabel F. Almeida, Emília Sousa
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Sensitive skin is characterized by symptoms such as stinging and tingling in response to stimuli that usually do not cause unpleasant sensations. Epidemiological studies show that individuals with sensitive skin are more prone to developing skin allergies, although the link between both conditions is unknown. Aiming to evaluate the presence of allergens in facial-skin products for sensitive skin, a pool of 88 cosmetic products from international brands marketed in pharmacies and parapharmacies was analyzed. A list of allergens identified in product labels was compiled and grouped according to their function. Fragrances were the most common allergens, followed by skin-conditioning agents, surfactants, and preservatives. Fragrances presenting the highest use percentages were linalool, benzyl alcohol, geraniol, and citronellol. Overall, the majority of cosmetic formulations were absent of fragrance allergens, being present only in 7% of products. Other allergens were found in most products (95%). This finding should be interpreted with caution, since many of these compounds are rare sensitizers and studies demonstrating their risk for individuals with sensitive skin are lacking. With this study, useful information for health professionals is provided to support their advice and to help consumers choosing cosmetic products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020032
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 33: Storage Effect on Phenolic Compounds and
           Antioxidant Activity of Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract

    • Authors: Nont Thitilertdecha
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities of the extracts were evaluated. The stability of the potential extract was then assessed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity under various storage conditions. The extractive yields of crude phenolic extract ranged from 16.61 to 28.78%. The ethanolic extract of N. lappaceum rind exhibited potential antioxidant activities and contained a high amount of phenolics and flavonoid contents. The extract remained with a high amount of the phenolic content (up to 88.79%) and retained its antioxidant property under various temperatures (4, 25, and 45 °C) after the first week of the storage period. The results suggest that phenolic content and antioxidant activity of N. lappaceum rind extract, as a nutraceutical or anti-aging ingredients in cosmetics, could be stored at a temperature from 4 °C to 45 °C with or without oxygen exposure at least for 16 weeks.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 34: Can Performance and Gentleness Be
           Reconciled' A Skin Care Approach for Sensitive Skin

    • Authors: Cyril Messaraa, Justine Drevet, David Jameson, Gabriela Zuanazzi, Ileana De Ponti
      First page: 34
      Abstract: People with self-reported sensitive skin may reluctantly use performing anti-ageing skin care products as it could elicit skin discomfort. We thus aimed to design and test an anti-ageing skin care routine that is suitable for people reporting sensitive skin. Key principles for developing products for sensitive skin were applied and formulas were screened for their mildness in vitro using the Reconstructed Human Epidermis ET50 method. Anti-ageing efficacy and mildness was evaluated during a clinical study in China, with 33 female volunteers aged 40–65 years, with sensitive skin. The anti-ageing benefits were measured using Primos 3D, the cutometer and clinical evaluation. Hallmarks for sensitive skin such as skin hydration, skin barrier, skin redness and response to lactic acid were also measured. The ET50 method yielded values suggesting moderate to mild expected irritancy effect in vivo for most of them, and non-irritating effect for the serum. During the clinical study, no physical or functional signs of discomfort were reported with twice-daily usage of the routine. Instrumental evaluation of Wrinkle depth, skin elasticity/firmness, skin hydration, skin barrier and skin redness revealed improvement at 4 and 8 weeks. Clinical evaluation evidenced skin smoothness, skin suppleness and radiance improvements. The skin was less reactive to lactic acid stimuli, while the sensitive skin burden was lowered according to the dermatological quality of life index. Lastly, a separate investigation suggested the potential relief aspect of such routines to alleviate discomforts from mask wearing. With the right formulation design, the benefits of layering products from a routine can be made accessible to people with sensitive skin while simultaneously alleviating the burden of sensitive skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020034
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 35: Clinical Evaluation of Indian Sandalwood Oil
           and Its Protective Effect on the Skin against the Detrimental Effect of

    • Authors: Vimi Lutchmanen Kolanthan, Andrew Brown, Vitisha Soobramaney, Evans Georges Philibert, Veronique Francois Newton, Muzzammil Hosenally, Bibi Nusayha Sokeechand, Gitanjali Petkar, Alain Moga, Philippe Andres, Madiiha Bibi Mandary, Dhanushka Hettiarachchi
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and exacerbating inflammatory skin conditions. This study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of Indian sandalwood oil of varying concentrations against oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light. Twenty-two healthy human subjects entered and completed the study of 11 days. Test products containing 0.1%, 1% and 10% of sandalwood oil, as well as a placebo and a comparator control (α-tocopherol), were applied on the different investigational zones of the upper back of each subject. Exposure ensued on day 7, using a controlled pollution exposure system (CPES) and blue light at a wavelength of 412 nm. Sebum was sampled on each investigational zone following the last exposure. The level of squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) was the primary endpoint. A dose-dependent decrease in SQOOH on the zones treated with 10%, 1% and 0.1% of the sandalwood oil formulation compared to the untreated zones was observed. The zone treated with the 10% sandalwood-containing formula demonstrated the highest protective efficacy with the lowest amount of SQOOH. Increasing the concentration of the sandalwood oil increased its protective antioxidant activity. The results collected from this intraindividual comparative is the first clinical trial to suggest that sandalwood oil at a concentration between 1% and 10% protects the skin against the oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light exposure.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020035
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 36: Effect of the Use of a Cream with Leucine and
           Lactic Acid Associated with Electrostimulation in Contouring and Facial
           Tonus: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Carolina da Silva, Giselle Costa, Andreo Aguiar, Mariana Camargo, Karen Fernandes, Marcio Oliveira, Rubens da Silva
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to improve contour and facial tonus in women. A total of 23 women were randomly allocated into two groups: Experimental (EG)—use of the leucine-based cream and lactic acid + electrostimulation for facial toning (mean intensity 13 Hz and protocol in progression); and placebo (GP)—use of the placebo cream (without the addition of leucine and lactic acid) + stimulation with the same protocol as the EG. Each group used their cream daily and underwent the intervention protocol three x/week with stimulation for 40 min, for a total of 8 weeks. Three main outcomes were reported: angular variation of facial contour by means of photogrammetry, muscle tone through the electromyographic activity of the masseter and zygomatic muscles during rest and functional tasks of biting and smiling. A significant effect of the intervention and between the groups was obtained for the experimental group against the placebo group for facial contour and muscle tone. An increased muscular activity of the masseter (average 28%) when smiling, and a reduction of zygomatic activity (in average 41%) when biting were found. The use of cream containing leucine and lactic acid combined with electrostimulation contributes to the improvement of facial contour and muscle tone when biting and smiling.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020036
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 37: Deciphering the Phytochemical Profile of an
           Alpine Rose (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) Leaf Extract for a Better
           Understanding of Its Senolytic and Skin-Rejuvenation Effects

    • Authors: Jane Hubert, Alexis Kotland, Bernhard Henes, Stéphane Poigny, Franziska Wandrey
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly contribute to its senolytic activity and skin-rejuvenation effects. For this purpose, the dereplication method “CARAMEL”, which combines Centrifugal Partition Chromatography to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data interpretation, was directly applied to the hydro-glycerinated extract, leading to the unambiguous identification of fourteen Alpine rose metabolites, despite the strong presence of the heavy solvent glycerol. Flavonoids derived from taxifolin, quercetin, and (+)-catechin were identified as significant constituents of the extract, followed by flavanones, orcinol derivatives, phloroacetophenone, and phenolic acids, as well as the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. Given that senolytic molecules are known to selectively induce the death of senescent cells without affecting healthy proliferating cells, which can be achieved by the selective inhibition or downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and considering the well-recognized pro-apoptotic activity of hyperoside, taxifolin, naringenin and farrerol, the senolytic activity of the glycerol/water Alpine rose extract can be explained by the abundance of flavonoids present in the extract.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020037
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 38: Skin Sensitization Testing: The Ascendancy of
           Non-Animal Methods

    • Authors: David A. Basketter, George F. Gerberick
      First page: 38
      Abstract: A century ago, toxicology was an empirical science identifying substance hazards in surrogate mammalian models. Over several decades, these models improved, evolved to reduce animal usage, and recently have begun the process of dispensing with animals entirely. However, despite good hazard identification, the translation of hazards into adequately assessed risks to human health often has presented challenges. Unfortunately, many skin sensitizers known to produce contact allergy in humans, despite being readily identified as such in the predictive assays, continue to cause this adverse health effect. Increasing the rigour of hazard identification is inappropriate. Regulatory action has only proven effective via complete bans of individual substances. Since the problem applies to a broad range of substances and industry categories, and since generic banning of skin sensitizers would be an economic catastrophe, the solution is surprisingly simple—they should be subject to rigorous safety assessment, with the risks thereby managed accordingly. The ascendancy of non-animal methods in skin sensitization is giving unparalleled opportunities in which toxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators can work in concert to achieve a better outcome for the protection of human health than has been delivered by the in vivo methods and associated regulations that they are replacing.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020038
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 39: Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of
           Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and
           Antibacterial Activities

    • Authors: Rafaela Santos de Melo, Silvio Alan Gonçalves Bomfim Reis, Amanda Leite Guimarães, Naiane Darklei dos Santos Silva, Joao Miguel Rocha, Noureddine El Aouad, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The objective of this study was to develop a topical emulsion containing leaf extract of Morus nigra L., as well as to evaluate the stability, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the formulations. A crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract of M. nigra leaves (MnCE) was submitted to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) analysis and incorporated into an anionic base emulsion. Antioxidant activity was evaluated according to the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, and the stability of the formulation was assessed for 90 days, submitting the emulsion to storage at 4, 20, and 37 °C. Microdilution techniques evaluated the antibacterial activity and a challenge test assessed the microbiological stability. Analysis by HPLC–DAD identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercetin in the M. nigra extract. The emulsion and plant extract presented antioxidant activity, and the stability of the emulsion was preserved in terms of pH value and viscosity—which did not show significant changes, except for the spreadability, which was affected by the temperature. The antioxidant activity did not change significantly, except for the sample under 4 °C, which showed a considerable decrease in activity. The crude hydroalcoholic extract and formulation showed antimicrobial activity and the emulsion was considered stable in terms of organoleptic, physicochemical, and microbiological properties.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020039
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 40: Strategy to Avoid Skin Sensitization:
           Application to Botanical Cosmetic Ingredients

    • Authors: Mickaël Puginier, Alicia Roso, Hervé Groux, Cédric Gerbeix, Françoise Cottrez
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Assessment of skin sensitization potential is mandatory for ingredients dedicated to topical applications. A battery of in vitro tests covering the key steps of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization has been recommended to replace animal testing. However, despite international guidelines on in vitro methods, there is no universal approach defining their combination. The purpose of this work was to assess skin sensitization of botanical ingredients relying on a previously developed in vitro testing strategy. This tool focused on complex and poorly water-soluble substances, which were not already covered. Sixteen botanical extracts were tested in a sequential approach, starting with Sens-Is, supplemented by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro methods when necessary. The results on the selected well-known botanical sensitizers complemented the relevance of the strategy. Testing on experimental botanicals could detect skin sensitizers. In addition, phytochemistry was a determining support to identify and remove the components at the origin of the effect. Altogether, these results enlarged the scope of the methodology to various ingredient categories and chemical natures, contributing to place on the market new ingredients, safe for workers and end-users.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020040
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 41: Study of P-Phenylenediamine (PPD)
           Concentrations after Hair Dye Mixing: A Call for Safety Reassessment

    • Authors: Majda H. Al-Enezi, Fahad S. Aldawsari
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. The aim of this study was to test whether the limit for PPD is surplus, and hence whether the consumer may be exposed to unnecessarily PPD levels. Experimentally, the analysis of PPD was performed using HPLC, where method validation and an inter-laboratory comparison test (ILC) were conducted to evaluate method performance. Thirty-three commercial products were analyzed, and five products were chosen to study the unconsumed PPD. Successfully, the implemented method confirmed its suitability and validity for the determination of PPD. For ILC results, PPD levels were 0.97 ± 0.04% and 0.92 ± 0.02%, quantified by our laboratory and an accredited laboratory, respectively. For all products, the initial concentration (T0) of PPD was lower than the regulatory limit. After 45 min, the content of PPD significantly reduced compared to T0. One product showed unconsumed PPD to be as high as 96% following the recommended dyeing time. In conclusion, the existence of high levels of unreacted PPD increases the likelihood of allergic events and elevates the risk of PPD-related chemicals. Collaborative efforts between industries, regulatory bodies, and health-related decision makers are deemed necessary to establish safe concentrations for PPD.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020041
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 42: Skincare Device Product Design Based on
           Factor Analysis of Korean Anthropometric Data

    • Authors: Tae-Won Kim, Chun-Hee Lee, Hye-Jin Min, Da-Du Kim, Dong-Hun Kim, Sang-Yong Park, Hyun-Woong Kim
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics centers, which require regular visits, the fact that their skin can be easily managed in leisure hours at home attracts consumers who value convenience. Thus, various beauty-care devices that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been launched. However, in the case of skincare devices using LEDs, pressure is expected to be applied to one’s face. Therefore, there is a need to develop a design based on ergonomic measurements that can distribute the pressure evenly on the skin. This study analyzed data to create a design for certain skincare devices that can be worn as glasses, using a three-dimensional human-measurement database of South Korean women between 30 and 49 y, as they are the major consumers of such devices. Additionally, a product design was proposed after a review of preference surveys from consumer focus group interviews and through an analysis of the direction of the light beams from the source using three-dimensional scanning data.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020042
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 43: Age-Defying and Photoprotective Potential of
           Geranium/Calendula Essential Oil Encapsulated Vesicular Cream on
           Biochemical Parameters against UVB Radiation Induced Skin Aging in Rat

    • Authors: Alka Lohani, Pierfrancesco Morganti
      First page: 43
      Abstract: UVB irradiation promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to an increase in oxidative stress in the cell and the generation of toxic components, resulting in photoaging. Essential oils (EOs) are well-known in the cosmetics sector for their beneficial effects, as they have a wide range of biological activities. Considering this fact, the current study investigates the photoprotective potential of geranium essential oil (GEO)/calendula essential oil (CEO) encapsulated vesicular cream on the biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats exposed to UVB radiation. After 30 days of treatment with cream formulations and UVB irradiation, the skin tissue was assayed for several biochemical parameters and histopathology analysis. The results of biochemical study revealed that, in comparison to non-vesicular creams, vesicular cream formulations were able to protect the endogenous skin natural antioxidant system by maintaining superoxide dismutase, catalase, total protein, ascorbic acid, and hydroxyproline levels and by decreasing malondialdehyde levels in the skin after UVB exposure. Changes in various cellular structures along with the change in the epidermis and dermis of the skin after UVB exposure in the treated group were observed by a histopathology of skin tissue and compared to the non-treated group, which revealed the skin damaging effect of UVB radiation and the protective effect of vesicular creams. The results suggest that the GEO/CEO-encapsulated vesicular creams have the potential to protect the skin against harmful UVB radiation by maintaining the natural antioxidant defence mechanism of the skin. In conclusion, this research presents novel herbal cosmetic formulations with improved antioxidant capacity and photoprotective potential that may help to slow down the skin aging process.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9020043
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 7: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis,
           and G. inflata) and Their Constituents as Active Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    • Authors: Antonietta Cerulli, Milena Masullo, Paola Montoro, Sonia Piacente
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The interest in plant extracts and natural compounds in cosmetic formulations is growing. Natural products may significantly improve cosmetics performance since they have both cosmetic and therapeutic-like properties, known as cosmeceutical effects. Glycyrrhiza genus, belonging to the Leguminosae family, comprises more than 30 species, widely distributed worldwide. The rhizomes and roots are the most important medicinal parts currently used in pharmaceutical industries and in the production of functional foods and food supplements. In the last few years, the interest in their potential activities in cosmetic formulations has greatly increased. Glycyrrhiza spp. extracts are widely implemented in cosmetic products for their good whitening effect. The biological effects of Glycyrrhiza extracts are especially ascribable to the occurrence of specialized metabolites belonging to the flavonoid class. This review focuses on the botany and the chemistry of the main investigated Glycyrrhiza spp. (G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) along with their cosmeceutical activities categorized as skin anti-aging, photoprotective, hair care, and anti-acne. It has been highlighted how, along with Glycyrrhiza extracts, three main flavonoids namely licochalcone A, glabridin, and dehydroglyasperin C are the most investigated compounds. It is noteworthy that other molecules from licorice show potential cosmeceutical effects. These data suggest further investigations to clarify their potential value for cosmetic industries.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 8: Cosmetic Potential of a Recombinant 50 kDa

    • Authors: Nesma Aly, Emilie Benoit, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Kavyasree Chintalapudi, Soojin Choung, Monique de Leeuw, Matthew Diaz, Dan Dueppen, Bryce Ferraro, Valerie Fischetti, Evan Gassaway, Isabelle Hansenne-Cervantes, Arjan Heeres, Christina Karas, Mohamed Khan, Jonathan M. Kral, Srujana Lam, Richel Lartey, Mencius Leonard, Stanley W. Lue, Joshua McDaniel, Kevin Ramirez, Brenna Rauw, Kelly A. Raymond, Catherine Roggero-Lovisi, Scott Rubin, Kristin Ruebling-Jass, Zoë Spiegelhoff, Monica Celise Stewart, Shashwat Vajpeyi, Alejandro Vicente, Kathleen E. Vincent, Jing Wang, David Williamson, Zhihao Yu, Lixin Dai
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Collagen and its derivative proteins have been widely used as a major component for cosmetic formulations as a natural ingredient and moisturizer. Most commercially available collagens are animal-derived collagen type I and other forms of collagen, such as type III collagen, are far less prevalent in animals, making extraction and purification extremely difficult and expensive. Here, we report the production of a 50 kDa protein produced in yeast that is 100% identical to the N-terminus of the human type III collagen. This recombinant protein has a larger molecular weight than most incumbent recombinant collagen proteins available for personal care applications. We report the industrialization of both the fermentation and purification processes to produce a final recombinant protein product. This final protein product was shown to be safe for general applications to human skin and compatible with common formulation protocols, including ethanol-based formulations. This recombinant collagen type III protein was also shown to uniquely stimulate both collagen type I and type III production and secretion by primary human dermal fibroblasts. The unique combination of biostimulation, compatibility with beauty product formulations and demonstrated commercial production, make this novel recombinant type III collagen a good candidate for broad application in the cosmetics industry.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Microalgae as a Sustainable, Natural-Oriented
           and Vegan Dermocosmetic Bioactive Ingredient: The Case of Neochloris

    • Authors: Ana Lucía Morocho-Jácome, Bruna Bertoloni dos Santos, João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho, Tânia Santos de Almeida, Patrícia Rijo, Maria Valéria Robles Velasco, Catarina Rosado, André Rolim Baby
      First page: 9
      Abstract: “Vegan” and “sustainable” characteristics are strong claim trends behind the development of innovative skincare, fragrances, and makeup products. This created a need in the market for compliant ingredients. To date, there have been no records evidencing the use of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans (NA) in dermocosmetics. Therefore, we studied the applicability of such a natural compound in this context. NA was cultivated, and the scavenging activity (SA) of the NA extracts was evaluated. The highest SA was from the aqueous extract (54.8% ± 2.1%), being higher than that of the positive control. Two hydrogels were prepared with 1.0% ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer: (1) control gel; and (2) gel with a 1.0% NA aqueous extract. In vivo experiments were performed in healthy male and female volunteers with skin phototypes of II–IV. The stratum corneum (SC) hydration and the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured in the forearm of participants to determine their biocompatibility. This parameter was determined by skin bioengineering measurements, confirming that SC hydration and TEWL were not affected by the samples. The laser Doppler measurements results showed a delayed erythema onset in the sites, where the NA hydrogel was applied. The results confirmed the biocompatibility and the anti-inflammatory activity of an innovative ingredient derived from microalgae suitable for a natural and vegan lifestyle.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 10: Pigmentation and Scaring Management after
           Hypodermoclysis, a Case Report

    • Authors: Kamal Alhallak, Adel Abdulhafid, Salem Tomi, Dima Omran
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin diseases and cosmetic issues are treated has altered dramatically as a result of laser technology. This is the first article to our knowledge that describes the treatment of pigmentation and scarring produced by Hypodermoclysis cutaneous damage by using laser treatment. It was vital to select the appropriate endpoint, technology, and configuration parameters. The lesion was completely resolved after five months of treatment with four laser sessions. The first session used a fractional Er-Yag laser to perform cold ablation. The remaining sessions used 1064 and 585 nm Nd-Yag Q-switch lasers to operate in the nanosecond region. To minimize the danger of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), the treated region was prepped between laser treatments with 4% hydroquinone (HQ) cream. Our protocol may reduce scars and pigmentation while minimizing adverse effects and downtime.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 11: Aeroterrestrial and Extremophilic Microalgae
           as Promising Sources for Lipids and Lipid Nanoparticles in Dermal

    • Authors: Maya Stoyneva-Gärtner, Blagoy Uzunov, Georg Gärtner
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 12: In Vitro Cell Culture of Rhus coriaria L.: A
           Standardized Phytocomplex Rich of Gallic Acid Derivatives with Antioxidant
           and Skin Repair Activity

    • Authors: Giovanna Pressi, Oriana Bertaiola, Chiara Guarnerio, Elisa Barbieri, Giovanna Rigillo, Paolo Governa, Marco Biagi, Flavia Guzzo, Alessandra Semenzato
      First page: 12
      Abstract: This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of a new ingredient obtained by in vitro cell culture of Rhus coriaria L. An in vitro plant cell culture method permits to cultivate plant in a short period of time and to obtain extract with a high safety profile for the consumer, free from heavy metals, pesticides, aflatoxins, bacterial or fungal contamination. Through the selection of specific cell culture media, it was possible to obtain a Rhus coriaria cell line with a high content of gallic acid derivatives. The Rhus coriaria L. phytocomplex (RC-P), containing 7.6% w/w of acid gallic derivatives, was obtained by drying of plant cell biomass after 14 days of growth in the final selected culture medium. UPLC-ESI-MS and UPLC-DAD analysis allowed to identify numerous gallic acid derivatives, such as galloyl hexose, trigalloyl hexose and high molecular weight galloyl derivatives, and to quantify their overall content. The antioxidant activity of the RC-P was tested by DPPH assay and the wound healing activity was evaluated using a scratch wound healing test on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This work showed that RC-P could be a new effective cosmetic ingredient with antioxidant and skin repair activity.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 13: Zooceuticals and Cosmetic Ingredients Derived
           from Animals

    • Authors: Luigi Cristiano, Manuela Guagni
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Many substances derived from animals are used as ingredients in the cosmetic industry and constitute a particular type of product: zooceuticals. The main ingredients used can come from insects, such as snail slime; land animals, such as lanolin; and marine animals, such as marine collagen. Today, they are used less than in the past for hygienic–sanitary, ethical, and ecological reasons. Moreover, some can give rise to irritative or allergic dermatitis. However, they still represent a fraction of the common ingredients in certain types of cosmetic products today.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 14: Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant,
           Antimicrobial, and Antiaging Activities of Ethanolic Seed Extracts of Four
           Mucuna Species

    • Authors: Tinnakorn Theansungnoen, Nichcha Nitthikan, Mayuramas Wilai, Phanuphong Chaiwut, Kanokwan Kiattisin, Aekkhaluck Intharuksa
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The investigation into promising botanical materials for natural cosmetics is expanding due to environmental and health awareness. Here, we aimed to evaluate the phytochemical substances and the potential skin-related pharmacological activities of four Mucuna seeds, namely M. gigantea (Willd.) DC. (MGG), M. interrupta Gagnep. (MIT), M. monosperma Wight (MMM), and M. pruriens (L.) DC. (MPR), belonging to the Fabaceae family. In methodology, the Mucuna seeds were authenticated using morphological and molecular approaches. L-DOPA, phenolics, and flavonoid content, incorporated with HPLC and GC–MS fingerprinting analyses, were determined. Then, skin-related antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiaging activities were determined. The results revealed that MPR showed the highest L-DOPA content (75.94 mg/100 mg extract), whereas MGG exhibited the highest phenolic and flavonoid content (56.73 ± 0.62 mg gallic/g extract and 1030.11 ± 3.97 mg quercetin/g extract, respectively). Only MMM and MPR could inhibit all of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and C. albicans, but no sample could inhibit C. acnes. Furthermore, all samples demonstrated antioxidant activity. Interestingly, all Mucuna samples exhibited strong collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase inhibitory activities. We conclude that the ethanolic extracts of four Mucuna seeds are probably advantageous in the development of skincare cosmeceutical products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 15: Development and Characterization of Emulsions
           Containing Ground Seeds of Passiflora Species as Biobased Exfoliating

    • Authors: Natalia Linares-Devia, Javier Arrieta-Escobar, Yolima Baena, Alvaro Orjuela, Coralia Osorio
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Ground seeds from three species of the genus Passiflora, P. ligularis, P. edulis Sims fo edulis, and P. mollissima, were obtained by extraction, drying, grinding, and sieving, and their physicochemical properties (morphology, hardness, and proximal analysis) were compared to those of commercial exfoliant seeds from passion fruit. Particle sizes between 0.5 and 1 mm were obtained, and their properties were similar to the commercial product except for the extractable material content that was higher. Subsequently, prototypes of an exfoliating cosmetic product were developed by using the ground seeds as the main active ingredient. Rheology characterization of samples enables to verify that the particles have minor effects on emulsion properties and that the emulsion is stable even after thermal treatment. In particular, the pH of the emulsion decreased when using the obtained ground seeds. This is consistent with the extraction and solvation of organic acids into the emulsion, in particular, alpha-hydroxy acids, which are present in high concentrations in Passiflora species. This indicates that the prepared emulsions could have a synergic chemical and physical exfoliating activity and could be used in cosmetic products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 16: Effect of Three-Week Vibrotherapy on Selected
           Skin Parameters of Thighs and Buttocks in Women with Cellulite

    • Authors: Anna Piotrowska, Olga Czerwińska-Ledwig
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy women (age: 19–43 years) with cellulite of at least grade I on the Nurnberg–Muller scale were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving a series of 15 vibration treatments in a sitting or lying position for 30 or 60 min. Before and after the first and last treatment, selected skin parameters were measured with the use of Courage and Khazaka equipment. Results: Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of thighs and buttocks differed significantly at all time points. Post hoc tests showed that each treatment caused a decrease in TEWL but no long-term effect was observed. For skin pH, a significant difference was observed between the measurements I and IV. The lying position caused a greater reduction in the value of the acid–base balance. Conclusions: A series of vibration treatments improved the hydration and pH of the skin. The treatments limited TEWL; however, no long-term effect was observed.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 17: Afro-Ethnic Hairstyling Trends, Risks, and

    • Authors: Sara Asbeck, Chelsi Riley-Prescott, Ella Glaser, Antonella Tosti
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Hairstyling trends among Black women fluctuate with social, cultural, and environmental pressures. Dermatologists should be aware of current trends and their associated risks in order to provide the best care to this population. In order to summarize the updated trends and associated health risks for the most common hairstyles worn by Black women, a literature review was performed. PubMed and EMBASE were used to identify articles related to hair styling practices, studies on the effects or risks of various styling practices, and magazine articles citing current styling trends among women of African descent. All hairstyles were found to have associated health risks; however, natural styles had the fewest adverse associations of all styles reviewed. Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) is the most cited hair disorder in this population, possibly linked to both chemical relaxants and traction styles. Additional studies are needed to further establish causality between these styles and CCCA. Additionally, while acceptance of natural hairstyles is on the rise, there is more work to be done throughout society to help protect and encourage women who choose to wear Afrocentric styles. Dermatologists should be well versed in these hairstyles and ready to lend appropriate advice to patients when it is requested.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010017
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 18: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Cosmetics in

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010018
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 19: Food Loss and Food Waste for Green Cosmetics
           and Medical Devices for a Cleaner Planet

    • Authors: Pierfrancesco Morganti, Xinghua Gao, Natalia Vukovic, Alessandro Gagliardini, Alka Lohani, Gianluca Morganti
      First page: 19
      Abstract: To stay wealthy in a world where all can live in prosperity and wellbeing, it is necessary to develop sustainable growth at net zero emissions to stop climate change, neutralizing both risks and diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic and inequalities. Changing the worldwide use of the great quantity of food loss and waste can help to move in this direction. At this purpose, it seems useful to transform food waste into richness, extracting and using its content in natural ingredients and biopolymers to make new sustainable products and goods, including cosmetics and medical devices. Many of these ingredients are not only bioactive molecules considered of interest to produce these consumer products but are also useful in reducing the environmental footprint. The active agents may be obtained, for example, from waste material such as grapes or olive pomace, which include, among others natural polymers, phythosterols, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids. Among the polymers, chitin and lignin have shown particular interest because biodegradable, nontoxic, skin- and environmentally friendly ingredients can be obtained at low cost from food and forestry waste, respectively. According to our experience, these polymers may be used to make nanocomposites and micro-nanoparticles that encapsulate different active ingredients, and which may be embedded into gel and non-woven tissues to realize advanced medications and smart cosmeceuticals. However, to utilize food waste in the best possible way, a better education of both industry and the consumer is considered necessary, introducing all to change the ways of production and living. The consumer has to understand the need to privilege, food, cosmetics and goods by selecting products known to be effective that also have a low release of carbon dioxide. Thus, they must pay heed to purchasing cosmetics and medical devices made by natural ingredients and packaged by biodegradable and/or reusable containers that are possibly plastic free. Conversely, the industry must try to use natural raw materials obtained from waste by changing their actual production methods. Therefore, both industry and the consumer should depart from the linear economy, which is based on taking, making, and producing waste, to move into a circular economy, which is based on redesigning, reducing, reusing and recycling. Some examples will report on the possibility to use natural polymers, including chitin and lignin, to produce new cosmeceutical tissues. These innovative tissues, to be used as biodegradable carriers for making smart cosmetics and medical devices, may be produced at zero waste to save our health and the planet biodiversity.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010019
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 20: Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Sunscreens on
           Marine Plankton

    • Authors: María Pilar González, Alejandro Vilas, Ricardo Beiras
      First page: 20
      Abstract: In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine environment, different ecotoxicological bioassays were carried out using planktonic organisms from three phyla and two different trophic levels: larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the copepod Acartia tonsa, and the microalga Tisochrysis lutea. The aim of these tests was to expose these organisms to leachates from eight sunscreen formulations. All of them showed a great variability in toxicity on the different plankton organisms. The highest toxicity level was found for cream number 4 when tested on sea urchin, exhibiting an EC50 = 122.4 mg/L. The toxicity of the UV filter 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid, exclusively present in that cream, was evaluated in sea urchin, where an EC10 = 699.6 mg/L was obtained under light exposure. According to our results, all tested creams become nontoxic to plankton upon 30,000-fold dilution in seawater; thus, only local effects are expected. This study highlights the need to understand the toxic effects generated by solar protection products, as well as their ingredients, on marine organisms.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010020
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 21: Sample Preparation of Cosmetic Products for
           the Determination of Heavy Metals

    • Authors: Apostolos Papadopoulos, Nikos Assimomytis, Athanasia Varvaresou
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The sample preparation of a cosmetic specimen in Cosmetic Science for the purpose of determining the analytical composition of heavy and toxic metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) is of particular importance due to the difficulty of handling the sample. There are two main methods of sample preparation. The first method is the wet digestion of the sample with strong acids such as H2SO4, HNO3, HF, and HNO3/HCl (1:3) and the combination of a strong acid with H2O2. Liquid digestion of the sample under the influence of strong acids damages the organic material of the sample and converts the carbon into carbon dioxide. The contained metals are oxidized to the highest oxidizing step and converted to soluble salts. A problem with this method is the loss of metals during digestion because it occurs at high temperatures as well as the decrease in the concentration of the residual acid. The second method of preparation is the wet liquid digestion of the sample with strong acids in a microwave oven in a closed vessel. The acids that are used are mainly HNO3 or mixtures of acids such as HNO3–HCl and HNO3–H2SO4. When the sample in the acid’s solvent is exposed to microwave energy, it can reach temperatures substantially above the boiling temperature of the acid solution. The result is the decomposition of the organic material, the oxidation of the metals, and their conversion to soluble nitrates. The advantages of using microwaves are the ability to control the temperature, pressure, and loss of metals and, thus, avoid erroneous measurement results. Simultaneously with the above, extraction methods have been, for almost a decade, very effective complementary processes that we can use to enrich a sample of a cosmetic product. Liquid–liquid dispersion micro-extraction (DLLME) and solid phase extraction (SPE) are the two main methods used in sample preparation and are usually applied after the digestion process.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010021
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 22: True Grit: A Story of Perseverance Making Two
           Out of Three the First Non-Animal Testing Strategy (Adopted as OECD
           Guideline No. 497)

    • Authors: Annette Mehling, Susanne N. Kolle, Britta Wareing, Robert Landsiedel
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In the last two decades, great strides have been made in developing alternative methods to animal testing for regulatory and safety testing. In 2021, a breakthrough in regulatory testing was achieved in that the first test strategies employing non-animal test methods for skin sensitization have been accepted as OECD guideline 497, which falls under the mutual acceptance of data (MAD) by OECD member states. Achieving this goal was a story of hard work and perseverance of the many people involved. This review gives an overview of some of the many aspects and timelines this entailed—just from the perspective of one stakeholder. In the end, the true grit of all involved allowed us to achieve not only a way forward in using test strategies for skin sensitization, but also a new approach to address other complex toxicological effects without the use of animals in the future.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010022
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 23: Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma comosa Extracts
           and Isolated Constituents Provide Protection against UVB-Induced Damage
           and Attenuate Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in HaCaT Cells

    • Authors: Wachirachai Pabuprapap, Wongnapa Nakyai, Waraluck Chaichompoo, Nattharika Pheedee, Saowanee Phetkeereerat, Jarupa Viyoch, Boon-ek Yingyongnarongkul, Vachiraporn Ajavakom, Apiwat Chompoosor, Pawinee Piyachaturawat, Apichart Suksamrarn
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure is one of the primary extrinsic factors causing skin photoaging. It stimulates inflammatory responses and arrests the cell cycle. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) secreted by keratinocytes is one of the important extracellular matrixes to attenuate UVB-induced skin aging via collagen degradation. Curcuma aromatica (CA) and Curcuma comosa (CC), the herbaceous plants in the Zingiberaceae family, are commonly used in Thai traditional women’s medicines. The present work was aimed to investigate the potential of the CA and CC extracts and their isolated compounds to attenuate UVB-induced MMP-1 and cell cycle arrest in HaCaT keratinocytes. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the extracts were determined. CC extract contains more phenolic components and provides more potent antioxidant activities than CA extract. HaCaTs were pretreated with the extracts or their isolated constituents 1–4 for 24 h and then repeatedly exposed to UVB at 100 mJ/cm2 10 times. Both extracts and compounds 1–4 effectively reduce UVB-induced MMP-1 levels in HaCaT cells and restore cell cycle arrest. This is the first report on the potential of CA and CC extracts in reducing UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and regulating cell proliferation in HaCaT cells. Thus, CA and CC extracts might be used as alternative natural agents to prevent UVB-induced skin photoaging.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010023
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 24: Molecular Docking, Tyrosinase, Collagenase,
           and Elastase Inhibition Activities of Argan By-Products

    • Authors: Hicham Mechqoq, Sohaib Hourfane, Mohamed El Yaagoubi, Abdallah El Hamdaoui, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Joao Miguel Rocha, Noureddine El Aouad
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and press cake are traditionally used by the Berber population for heating and feeding livestock. Molecular docking is an in silico approach that predicts the interaction between a ligand and a protein. This approach is mainly used in chemistry and pharmacology of natural products as a prediction tool with the purpose of selecting plant extracts or fractions for in vitro tests. The aim of this research is to study the evaluation of potential tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase inhibitory activities of argan fruit press-cake and pulp extracts. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and the major polyphenols of both press-cake and pulp extracts were submitted to molecular docking in order to determine the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Obtained results revealed that fruit pulp had the strongest dermocosmetic activities, as well as the highest TPC, with values above 55 mg gallic-acid equivalent per gram of dry matter (mgeq AG/gDM). Moreover, those results were positively correlated with the docking findings, suggesting that the pulp lead compounds have higher affinity with tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase action sites. The results here presented are very promising and open new perspectives for the exploitation of argan-tree by-products as cosmetic agents towards the development of new anti-aging products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010024
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 25: Lipsticks History, Formulations, and
           Production: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Saeid Mezail Mawazi, Nurul Aqilah Binti Azreen Redzal, Noordin Othman, Sultan Othman Alolayan
      First page: 25
      Abstract: A considerable amount of literature has been published on several aspects of lipsticks production. To date, there is no collation of studies related to lipsticks production that has been published. This review was conducted to examine information about the history of lipsticks; ingredients used in the preparation of lipsticks, focusing on the natural and chemical ingredients; methods of preparation for the lipsticks; and the characterization of the lipsticks. A literature search for English language articles was conducted by searching electronic databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Overall, the evidence indicates that lipsticks have been used since ancient times and are among the highest demand cosmetics. The findings of this review summarize those of earlier studies that explained the use of different types of ingredients in the manufacturing processes of lipsticks. It highlights the importance of using green technology and ingredients to fabricate lipsticks to avoid potential side effects such as skin irritation and allergy reaction.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010025
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 9, Pages 26: Exploring the Adsorption Properties of
           Zeolite in a New Skin Care Formulation

    • Authors: Massimo Pesando, Veronica Bolzon, Michela Bulfoni, Alessandro Nencioni, Emanuele Nencioni
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Introduction: Zeolites are natural or synthetic aluminosilicates, characterized by a regular and microporous crystalline structure that plays a particularly active role in neutralizing free radicals, screening UV rays and in the adsorption of toxins and heavy metals. Skin is one of the main areas for the accumulation of toxic substances released by environmental pollutants. The biological scavenger activity of zeolite opens a wide spectrum of applications in cosmetics and dermatology. Up to now, there is little evidence related to the use of natural zeolite in cosmetics. Aim: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of zeolite to retain heavy metals in a new skin care formulation, in order to provide a proof of principle of its employment in the field of cosmetics. Materials and Methods: Taking the advantages of spiked samples, we studied the in vitro adsorption properties of zeolite in a new skin care formulation. The removal capacities of Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Nickel and Cobalt were studied, using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). First of all, the better concentration of zeolite was defined, testing two different proportions of zeolite, from 1% to 3%, keeping all other components constant. Then, on the 3% formulation, the adsorption properties of each single metal were measured. Results and Conclusions: Our preliminary study demonstrated the selectivity of zeolite in retaining Cadmium (p < 0.0001), Nickel (p = 0.026), in a 3% zeolite-based formulation. This work provides a proof of principle of zeolite employment in the field of cosmetics. Based on the data collected, our work provides a scientific proof of principle of zeolite employment in the field of cosmetics. New and extensive research will be needed to explore all the potential benefits of zeolite.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics9010026
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
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