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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  

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Number of Followers: 4  

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ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 146: The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Acne
           Patients and Their Management: An Observational Multicenter Study from

    • Authors: Marta Grimaldi, Giuseppe Micali, Vincenzo Bettoli, Giulia Odorici, Concetta Potenza, Maria Letizia Musumeci, Sara Cacciapuoti, Giulia Giovanardi, Benedetta Agrifoglio, Cristina Guerriero
      First page: 146
      Abstract: Acne vulgaris was one of several diseases whose progression was significantly influenced psychologically by the rapid and protracted alteration of daily routines that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for specific populations like adolescents. In order to assess their psychological impact and the relationship with the progression of acne vulgaris, this study aims to examine the quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression of acne patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and their care. This observational, multicenter investigation was carried out in five dermatology clinics in Italy. Data were obtained via a remote telephone interview using questionnaires that were approved by a group of dermatologists and psychiatrists. Evaluations included demographic information, treatment status, disease progression, dietary habits, and employment activities. Some 178 acne vulgaris patients in various stages of systemic or topical medication were included in the study: 47 of 178 (26.4%) patients showed high scores on the HADS anxiety subscale, and 41 of 178 (23%) patients showed high scores on the HADS depression subscale. The Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) was used to measure resilience; 70 patients out of 178 (or 39.3%) showed low resilience (range: 1.00–2.99). In 32 out of 178 patients with PSS, high levels of stress were discovered (18%). Some 50 out of 178 patients experienced alterations in their way of life, including increased acne-related symptoms of relationship humiliation and constraints on everyday activities. Some 52 out of 178 patients (29.2%) said that they felt their condition had gotten worse over the study period. Our findings revealed a potential link between the exacerbation of acne and high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as an elevated sense of stress and low or moderate levels of adaptability and resilience.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060146
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 147: Quality-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm Laser for
           Management of Hyperpigmentation and Atrophic Scars after Long-Pulsed
           Nd:YAG Laser for Treatment of Leg Telangiectasias—A Case Report

    • Authors: Kristine Heidemeyer, S. Morteza Seyed Jafari, Maurice A. Adatto, Laurence Feldmeyer, Nikhil Yawalkar, Simon Bossart
      First page: 147
      Abstract: The correction of leg telangiectasias is one of the most frequently performed interventions in the Western world. While sclerotherapy remains the gold standard of treatment, several studies have shown comparable efficacy and, in some situations, an even more favorable use of lasers as an alternative treatment option. The most frequent side effect of both treatment options is hyperpigmentation, which usually clears spontaneously in most cases but can be challenging to treat if it persists. The origin of this hyperpigmentation is not fully understood; small studies point to hemosiderin as the causative pigment, at least in post-sclerotherapy hyperpigmentation. More rare side effects of the treatment include ulcerations and scarring. Quality-switched (QS) Nd:YAG lasers have demonstrated good efficacy in treating hemosiderin depositions in the skin, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and atrophic scars. We present a case of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and scarring after laser treatment of leg telangiectasia with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser that was successfully treated using a QS Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. This case suggests the QS Nd:YAG laser as a possible treatment option in cases of hyperpigmentation with various origins, including hemosiderin and melanin, and scarring after laser treatment of leg telangiectasias.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060147
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 148: Development of Effervescent Cleansing
           Tablets Containing Asiatic-Acid-Loaded Solid Lipid Microparticles

    • Authors: Lucy Mang Sung Thluai, Varin Titapiwatanakun, Warintorn Ruksiriwanich, Korawinwich Boonpisuttinant, Romchat Chutoprapat
      First page: 148
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop effervescent cleansing tablets that can be dissolved and turned into liquid soap, which can be used for bathing or soaking the body. The asiatic-acid-loaded solid lipid microparticles (AASLMs) were prepared via the hot emulsification method followed by cold re-solidification and then freeze-dried to obtained dry powder. The physicochemical properties such as morphology and % entrapment efficiency (%EE) were evaluated. The results revealed that AASLMs have an irregular shape, and the %EE for the resulting AASLMs was 92.04 ± 3.43%. The tablets were manufactured via the direct compression technique. The compatibility test was conducted to ensure that the excipients are compatible with the active ingredient. The angle of repose, Carr’s index, and Hausner’s ratio were studied to evaluate the flowability of the powder blend before compression. The weight of each tablet was set to 1000 mg, and physicochemical characteristics, in vitro dissolution, ex vivo cleansing efficacy, and stability were evaluated. The results showed that the active ingredient was compatible with other excipients, as the results obtained from FTIR spectra indicated the absence of potential chemical interaction between the active ingredient and excipients used in this study. Additionally, all formulations had good flow properties. The effervescence times of selected formulations, F2 and F3, were <5 min, with favorable pH and hardness values. The friability values of all formulations exceeded 1% because the excipients used in effervescent tablets are very fragile. The release of asiatic acid (AA) from the tablets was dependent on the concentration of SLS. In an ex vivo test, it was discovered that the developed products F2 and F3 showed much more effective cleansing efficacy than water. Nevertheless, brown spots appeared in the tablets and the AA content was significantly decreased in both tested formulations after 3 months’ storage at 40 ± 2 °C/75% RH ± 5% RH. The stability study revealed that the developed products were not stable at high temperature and humidity. Therefore, it is recommended that the developed effervescent tablets are not stored at a high temperature.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060148
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 149: Molecular Docking Simulation of Phenolics
           towards Tyrosinase, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Activity of
           Some Zingiberaceae Plant Extracts

    • Authors: Mutakin, Nyi Mekar Saptarini, Riezki Amalia, Sri Adi Sumiwi, Sandra Megantara, Febrina Amelia Saputri, Jutti Levita
      First page: 149
      Abstract: In Indonesia, plants have been indigenously used to treat various diseases and as cosmetics. It is always challenging to explore the molecular interactions of phenolic compounds towards the levels of constituents that contribute to the biological activities of plants. This study aimed to select a plant of the Zingiberaceae family with the highest phenolics and flavonoids, the strongest radical scavenging activity, and the best interaction towards tyrosinase in terms of docking score and binding mode. Initially, the total phenolics and radical scavenging capacity of Zingiberaceae plants, namely, Hedychium coronarium, Curcuma zedoaria, Curcuma heyneana, and Alpinia galanga, were determined using the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The main phytoconstituents of plants with the highest phenolic levels were docked to the binding site of tyrosinase. Three anti-melanogenesis agents commonly used in cosmetics, namely, arbutin, hydroquinone, and kojic acid, were used as the standard. Our study revealed that all the tested plants contain polyphenolic compounds in the range of 17.92 (C. zedoaria rhizome extract) to 252.36 (A. galanga rhizome extract) mg GAE/g and have radical scavenging capacity, with IC50 values in the range of 66.67 (A. galanga rhizome extract) to 320.0 (C. heyneana rhizome extract) μg/mL. A molecular docking simulation demonstrated that four constituents, i.e., kaempferol, galangin, ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, and 6-gingerol, could occupy the binding site of tyrosinase with prominent affinity and interact with essential residues of the enzyme. This study confirms that Alpinia galanga possesses the potential to be further developed as a cosmetic with a radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. However, it may be interesting to carry out further studies of how the plant extract affects the melanogenesis signaling pathway.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060149
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 150: Initial Study on Physiochemical Property
           and Antibacterial Activity against Skin-Infecting Bacteria of Silver
           Nanoparticles Biologically Produced Using Crude Melanin from Xylaria sp.

    • Authors: Linh Doan, Nhu K. H. Vo, Hanh T. M. Tran
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by biological methods are safer for biomedical applications. Melanins were initially reported to facilitate AgNPs synthesis. Our research found that the stromata of some Xylaria species contained significant amounts of melanins, which had strong antioxidant and anti-ultraviolet activities without toxicity toward human skin cells. This study reported the characteristics and antibacterial activities against skin-infecting bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Cutibacterium acnes) of AgNPs synthesized using crude melanin extracted from stromata of Xylaria sp. AgNPs were successfully synthesized by mixing the crude melanin solution with 0.1 M AgNO3 (25:1, v/v) and incubating for 3 h at 100 °C. The SEM found that the average size of the synthesized AgNPs was 18.85 ± 3.75 nm. The melanin-mediated AgNPs displayed significantly higher antibacterial activities against the tested acne-causing bacteria compared to the positive control (Erythromycin). Specifically, the melanin-mediated AgNPs inhibited 90% of S. aureus and C. acnes at 62.5 (µg/mL) and 15.625 (µg/mL), respectively, whereas it required erythromycin up to 4000 (µg/mL) to achieve the same activities. This research illustrated the feasibility of using crude melanin of Xylaria sp. for the direct synthesis of AgNPs and the potential use of the synthesized AgNPs for treating acne-causing bacteria (with further investigation needed).
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060150
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 151: Skin Anti-Aging Potentials of
           Phytochemicals from Peperomia pellucida against Selected Metalloproteinase
           Targets: An In Silico Approach

    • Authors: Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Emmanuel Ayodeji Agbebi, Oluwaseun Emmanuel Agboola, Chukwudi Sunday Ubah, Olutunmise Victoria Owolabi, Raphael Taiwo Aruleba, Sunday Amos Onikanni, Jerius Nkwuda Ejeje, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Skin aging and wrinkle formation are processes that are largely influenced by the overexpression of enzymes like tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase. This study aimed to validate the skin anti-aging properties of phytochemicals from Peperomia pellucida (PP) as well as its attendant mechanism of action. Compounds previously characterized from PP were retrieved from the PubChem database and docked to the active sites of tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase using Schrödinger’s Maestro 11.5 and AutoDock tools to predict compounds with the best inhibitory potential to block these enzymes in preventing skin aging. It was observed that our hit compounds had favorable affinity and displayed key interactions at the active sites of these enzymes similar to those of the standards. With elastase, we observed key interactions with the amino acids in the S1 sub-pocket (especially ALA-181), Zn chelation, and histidine residues, which are key for inhibitory activity and ligand stability. The hit compounds showed H-bonds with the key amino acids of collagenase, including LEU-185 and ALA-186; phlobaphene and patuloside B were found to have better docking scores and inhibition constants (Ki) (−12.36 Kcal/mol, 0.87 nM and −12.06 Kcal/mol, 1.45 nM, respectively) when compared with those of the synthetic reference compound (−12.00 Kcal/mol, 1.67 nM). For tyrosinase, our hit compounds had both better docking scores and Ki values than kojic acid, with patuloside B and procyanidin having the best values of −9.43 Kcal/mol, 121.40 nM and −9.32 Kcal/mol, 193.48 nM, respectively (kojic acid = −8.19 Kcal/mol, 898.03 nM). Based on this study, we propose that acacetin, procyanidin, phlobaphene, patulosides A and B, palmitic acid, and hexahydroxydiphenic acid are responsible for the anti-aging effects of PP on the skin, and that they work synergistically through a multi-target inhibition of these enzymes.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060151
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 152: Piperine Extraction and Encapsulation in
           Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Julia Cedran Coco, Luiza Aparecida Luna Silvério, Érica Mendes dos Santos, Ana Claudia Sueiro, Janaína Artem Ataide, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos, Priscila Gava Mazzola
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Black pepper, a commonly utilized culinary condiment, holds significant importance in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicinal practices due to its various biological benefits, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. To amplify these attributes and enhance their efficacy in formulations, the utilization of nanocarriers presents a promising approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to obtain a pepper extract, evaluate its constituents, and encapsulate it in polymeric nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of the grains powder had a higher concentration of piperine and better antioxidant activity when compared to whole grains. Pepper extract encapsulation efficiency in terms of piperine concentration was 84.8 ± 3.5%, and a sustained and prolonged release profile was observed, as well as other studies in the literature using polycaprolactone (PCL). The presence of the extract did not change the instability index and the sedimentation velocity of the nanoparticles, as well as the polydispersity index and the zeta potential of nanoparticles. However, there was a difference in the mean size and concentration of particles. This study highlights the potential of PCL nanoparticles as a promising delivery system for black pepper extract, which could have various applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, maximizing the benefits of black pepper extract.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060152
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 153: Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Dupilumab
           in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Michela Ortoncelli, Nicole Macagno, Luca Mastorino, Federica Gelato, Irene Richiardi, Giovanni Cavaliere, Pietro Quaglino, Simone Ribero
      First page: 153
      Abstract: Introduction: There are few long-term effectiveness and safety data for dupilumab in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of dupilumab for up to three years after treatment initiation. Materials and Methods: We collected data from patients ≥ 12 years with severe AD who started dupilumab at the Dermatology Clinic of the Turin University Hospital between December 2018 and October 2022. Clinic and patient reported outcomes were evaluated from baseline, up to 3 years (T9), every 4 months. Results: A total of 418 patients were observed. A progressive decrease in the meanEASI was observed: from 23.64 at baseline to 2.31 at T9. Similar trends were observed in patients’ reported outcomes. The achievement of EASI75 and EASI90 was observed in 75.58% of patients and 53.49%, respectively, at T1 (4 months), and in 92.55% and 80.85% at T9; DLQI 0/1 was achieved at T9 in 61.7%. Mean NRSpp ≤ 4 was achieved at T9 in 91.5% (86 out of 94 patients). The most common adverse event was conjunctivitis occurring in 13% of patients on average at each timepoint analyzed. Conclusions: Dupilumab proved to be effective and safe for the treatment of AD in clinical practice, up to 3 years.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060153
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 154: Analysis of Depigmenting Substances of
           Interest (Hydroquinone, Kojic Acid, and Clobetasol Propionate) Contained
           in Lightening Cosmetic Products Marketed in Burkina Faso

    • Authors: Boumbéwendin Gérard Josias Yaméogo, Lydiane Sandra B. A. Ilboudo, Nomtondo Amina Ouédraogo, Mohamed Belem, Ouéogo Nikiema, Bertrand W. Goumbri, Bavouma Charles Sombié, Hermine Zimé-Diawara, Elie Kabré, Rasmané Semdé
      First page: 154
      Abstract: The practice of voluntary depigmentation is still prevalent in Africa, with a wide range of lightening cosmetics used. Our objective was to research and quantify three regulated and/or prohibited depigmenting ingredients present in lightening cosmetics sold in Ouagadougou. Twenty-nine lightening cosmetic samples were collected from vendors and HPLC analysis was subsequently conducted to identify and measure the concentrations of hydroquinone, clobetasol propionate, and kojic acid. The presence of hydroquinone was indicated on the label of 13.79% of the products, while 51.72% contained it after analysis. Furthermore, none of the products mentioned a concentration of hydroquinone exceeding 2.00%, even though 27.58% of them contained high concentrations. For clobetasol propionate, its presence was stated on the labels of 13.79% of the products, while 31.03% contained it. One sample had a clobetasol content exceeding 0.05%, although none mentioned a concentration higher than this value. Finally, while 24.13% of the samples claimed to contain kojic acid, only 17.24% did. We also observed that 41.38% of the samples contained combinations of two depigmenting ingredients investigated, with a predominance of the hydroquinone + clobetasol propionate (27.38%). These results demonstrate that manufacturers’ declarations regarding the compositions of active ingredients in lightening cosmetics can sometimes be deceptive.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060154
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 155: Adaptogen Technology for Skin Resilience

    • Authors: Andrea Cavagnino, Lionel Breton, Charline Ruaux, Celeste Grossgold, Suzy Levoy, Rawad Abdayem, Romain Roumiguiere, Stephanie Cheilian, Anne Bouchara, Martin A. Baraibar, Audrey Gueniche
      First page: 155
      Abstract: (1) Background: Skin undergoes constant changes, providing capabilities to repair and renovate its constituents once damaged and a fundamental shield to contrast environmental stress. Nevertheless, environmental stressors may overcome the skin’s protective potential inducing premature aging and accelerating the appearance of anaesthetic age-related skin aspects. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and pollutants (particulate matters, PAHs) contribute to skin aging and functional decline inducing harmful oxidative modifications of macromolecules and stress-related skin disorders. Innovative approaches to preserve skin are needed. (2) Methods: Skin keratinocytes were treated (or not) with a combination of ingredients (Lactobacillus plantarum extract, Withania somnifera root extract and Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extract; “MIX”) in the presence or absence of stress (oxidative stress or pollution). The effects of the MIX adaptogen technology on (a) cellular resilience, (b) the regulation of cellular functions and (c) regeneration of skin were disclosed through expression proteomics and bioinformatics analyses first, and then through focused evaluations of protein carbonylation as a hallmark of oxidative stress’ deleterious impact and mitochondrial activity. (3) Results: The deleterious impact of stressors was evidenced, as well as the beneficial effects of the MIX through (a) mitochondrial activity preservation, (b) the “vigilance” of the NRF2 pathway activation, (c) NADPH production and protein homeostasis improvements, (d) preserving skin regeneration function and I the contrasting stress-induced oxidation (carbonylation) of mitochondrial and nuclear proteins. (4) Conclusions: The effects of the MIX on increasing cell adaptability and resilience under stress suggested a beneficial contribution in precision cosmetics and healthy human skin by acting as an adaptogen, an innovative approach that may be employed to improve resistance to harmful stress with a potential favourable impact on skin homeostasis.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060155
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 156: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of
           Staphylococcus Phages in a Skincare Serum against Staphylococcus spp.

    • Authors: Wattana Pelyuntha, Mingkwan Yingkajorn, Thamonwan Narkpao, Supanida Saeaui, Khemapsorn Promkuljan, Kitiya Vongkamjan
      First page: 156
      Abstract: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus spp. has resulted in the reduced use of antibiotics in many skincare cosmetic products. Alternative treatments using natural bioactive compounds and chemical agents can be replaced. However, these compounds have induced negative side effects among users and are not environmentally friendly. Phage therapy is an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of specific pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., without harmful effects on human skin cells and microflora. Phages can be potentially used in cosmetic products. The direct application of phage-based cosmetic products on skin can reduce the chance of skin infection caused by pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. In the present work, we isolated 17 Staphylococcus phages from sewage and soil samples. Phage A1 showed the highest lytic ability at 50% (B1 profile), covering 13 tested Staphylococcus isolates including Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), S. capitis (SC), and S. epidermidis (SE). Phage A1 reduced the representative S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. capitis SC1 by 2.0 ± 0.1 and 4.1 ± 0.3 log units at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 104 and by 4.2 ± 0.2 and 4.4 ± 0.5 log units at a MOI of 105 after 6 h of post-phage treatment. The transmission electron microscope revealed that phage A1 was classified in the order Caudovirales of the family Myoviridae based on its appearance. Phage A1 showed optimal survival in the presence of a 0.125% (v/v) solidant DMH suspension after 3 h of post-treatment. Under a phage skincare serum formulation, the titers of phage A1 were reduced by 0.46 and 0.85 log units after storage at 4 and 25 °C, whereas a reduction of 2.96 log units was also observed after storage at 37° for 90 days. This study provides strong evidence for the effectiveness of phage application in cosmetic skincare serum for the treatment of skin diseases caused by MDR and pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. The concept of this study could be advantageous for cosmetic and/or cosmeceutical industries searching for new bioactive ingredients for cosmetic/cosmeceutical products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060156
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 157: Pharmacy and Fragrances: Traditional and
           Current Use of Plants and Their Extracts

    • Authors: Francisco José González-Minero, Luis Bravo-Díaz, Esteban Moreno-Toral
      First page: 157
      Abstract: This paper aims to establish a current relationship between pharmaceutical sciences andthe development of perfumes and fragrances, which bring significant economic benefits. For this purpose, historical data are used as a starting point, and galenic, chemical and botanical aspects are discussed in a transversal way. Sources such as Web of Science (WOS) and databases such as Scopus, monographs and various web pages (where scientific–technical documents appear) were used. The results and discussion are based on the selection of the 50 plant species most commonly used in high-quality fragrances. Therefore, this publication should be considered an approach to this subject based on an analysis of a representative sample of data. Some characteristics of perfumes (classification according to the concentration of essential oils and combination of plant extracts) are presented beforehand. The main focus of this work is the botanical and chemical analysis of these described plants, pointing out their common name, correct botanical name, geographical place of origin, used part of the plant and main molecules. The most significant families are aromatic: Rutaceae, Lamiaceae (16.7%) and Apiaceae. The most represented genus is Citrus (with seven species or hybrids). However, it should be noted that natural extracts of good quality natural fragrances may be supplemented with chemically synthesized molecules. Of the 50 botanical species selected, 84% of the extracts have their origin in Tropical Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean region. This figure generally coincides with the percentage of medicinal plants (or their extracts) admitted by the European Pharmacopoeia. All parts of a plant (depending on which one it is) can be a source of molecules for the elaboration of these products. The most commonly used parts to obtain extracts are flowers and leaves, a biological circumstance that is explained in this work. In this work, 110 molecules have been found that are part of the essences of perfumes and fragrances; the most frequent are linalool, limonene, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and derivatives, geraniol, vanillin and derivatives, β-caryophyllene, p-cymene, and farnesene and derivatives. However, in order to elaborate a quality perfume, many other molecules must be taken into account, according to the creative experience of the perfumer, which is subject to confidentiality, and chemical analysis according to current legislation, which would avoid fraud, allergy and dermatitis problems.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060157
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 158: Characterization and Efficacy of Essential
           Oil-Based Cosmetic Formulations for Acne-Prone Skin

    • Authors: Victor Hugo Pacagnelli Infante, Maxim E. Darvin, Patrícia M. B. G. Maia Campos
      First page: 158
      Abstract: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical in vivo study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic formulation for non-inflammatory acne using essential oils. Fifty-three male participants were divided into four groups: a formulation containing a mixture of four essential oils (4EO), Melaleuca alternifolia (M.a.), nanoemulsion of M. alternifolia (Nanoem.), and a placebo group. The participants applied the formulation daily for 90 days and non-invasive skin imaging techniques were employed to assess the outcomes. Skin microrelief images and reflectance confocal microscopy images were captured in the malar region, and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the terpene composition of the essential oils, oil mixture, and nanoemulsion. The results indicated that the nanoemulsion, M.a. essential oil, and 4EO formulation effectively reduced the overall number of comedone and improved follicular hyperkeratinization. The nanoemulsion of M.a. demonstrated the most promising outcomes in reducing comedone areas, especially in the infundibular region. This effect could be attributed to the presence of terpinene-4-ol in the essential oil and the enhanced penetration provided by the nanoemulsion formulation. These findings suggest that cosmetic formulations containing essential oils, particularly in nanoemulsion form, have potential against mild acne. This study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between terpene composition and clinical activity, highlighting the importance of innovative delivery systems.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060158
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 159: Developing Botanical Formulations for
           Sustainable Cosmetics

    • Authors: Lonetá Lauro Lima, Karina Bispo-dos-Santos, Ingrid Mayara Cavalcante Trevisan, Catarina Rapôso, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho, Ediléia Bagatin, Rodrigo Alvarenga Rezende, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Gislaine Ricci Leonardi
      First page: 159
      Abstract: Interest in clean beauty is rising due to minimalism in the formulation of cosmetics, rational use of water, and fewer chemical additives like preservatives, colorants, surfactants, and artificial fragrances. Green ingredients lead to the development of sustainable formulations with advanced performance and are less aggressive to human health and the environment. Currently, the electrospinning technique is used as a simple one-step manufacturing process to produce nanostructured cosmetics under mild temperature conditions. This study focuses on the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) in the creation of sustainable nanostructured cosmetics for potential cosmetic and well-being applications. Four sustainable formulations were developed to optimize the creation of nanostructured cosmetics using ethyl cellulose and rice bran oil (RBO). Ethanol absolute and polyvinyl pyrrolidone have been chosen to compose the sustainable formulation due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. We studied four different RBO concentrations regarding morphology, encapsulation efficiency, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity. Nanostructured cosmetics present biomimetic surfaces, high RBO encapsulation ability, low mass loss at simulated physiologic conditions, and non-cytotoxicity. Therefore, the minimalist sustainable formulation does not contain any toxic solvents and incompatible harmful excipients, was nanostructured using a mild manufacturing process, and obtained high RBO entrapment.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060159
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 160: Endocrine Disruptors in Cosmetic Products
           and the Regulatory Framework: Public Health Implications

    • Authors: Paraskevi Kalofiri, Foteini Biskanaki, Vasiliki Kefala, Niki Tertipi, Eleni Sfyri, Efstathios Rallis
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are molecules capable of mimicking the natural hormones of the body and interfering with the endocrine system in both humans and wildlife. Cosmetic products are one source of EDs; these include an extensive variety of personal care and beauty products designed for the skin and hair, as well as makeup. The widespread use of such products has raised concerns about the presence of EDs within them. In this study, we highlight the issue of EDs and analyze the functioning of the EU regulatory framework for chemicals, specifically those which act as EDs in cosmetic products. We also highlight issues related to the interface between science and policy in the critical area of risk regulation within the EU. In addition, we investigate how chemical substances that act as EDs are identified based on specific criteria and conditions, a process which involves the production and adoption of particular scientific opinions. Finally, we assess the efficiency, suitability, and effectiveness of the regulatory framework in this sensitive area of human exposure to chemicals, especially those that function as EDs.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060160
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 161: Hair Pores Caused by Surfactants via the
           Cell Membrane Complex and a Prevention Strategy through the Use of Cuticle

    • Authors: Sang-Hun Song, Hyun-Sub Park, Juhyun Jeon, Seong Kil Son, Nae-Gyu Kang
      First page: 161
      Abstract: In this study, we discovered that washing hair with surfactants causes a decrease in the internal density of hair, and we propose a cuticle-sealing strategy to inhibit this phenomenon. This phenomenon was revealed based on optical analyses such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drop shape analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and single hair analysis. Repeated treatment with surfactants creates areas of low density within the hair. Additionally, treatment with low-molecular-weight materials resulted in replenishment of the internal density of the hair. It has been shown that the more severe the degree of cuticle lifting, the more the internal density of the hair is reduced by surfactants. In addition, the study confirmed that a decrease in internal density could be prevented by sealing the cell membrane complex (CMC), and it was suggested that this reduced internal density may reflect the pore structure of hair. This study investigates the mass transfer phenomenon that occurs in hair and proposes a strategy to maintain hair homeostasis.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060161
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 162: Development of a “Green”
           Emulsion with a Milk Protein Hydrolysate: An Evaluation of Rheology,
           Texture, In Vitro Bioactivity, and Safety

    • Authors: Mila Vukašinović, Ivana Pantelić, Sanela Savić, Nebojša Cekić, Maja Vukašinović Sekulić, Jelena Antić Stanković, Dragana D. Božić, Anđela Tošić, Slobodanka Tamburić, Snežana D. Savić
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Bioactive peptides are promising cosmetic active ingredients that can improve skin health and appearance. They exhibit a broad spectrum of activity, including anti-aging, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to develop a safe, stable, and efficacious environmentally friendly (“green”) emulsion using a milk protein hydrolysate as a model active ingredient. Potential emulsions were formulated with biodegradable emollients, stabilized with naturally derived mixed emulsifier, and prepared by cold process. They were evaluated for rheological behavior (continuous rotation and oscillation tests), physical stability (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis—DMTA test), and texture profiles, as well as cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. Rheological characterization revealed shear-thinning flow behavior with yield point from continuous rotation tests and predominantly elastic character from oscillation (amplitude and frequency sweep) tests, with small structural change detected in the DMTA test. These results implied satisfactory rheological properties and good stability. Texture analysis revealed acceptable spreadability and substantivity of the emulsions. The protein hydrolysate showed antioxidant activity. The developed emulsions showed low antibacterial activity against selected microorganisms, but this was due to the action of preservatives, not peptides. All potential emulsions showed a desirable safety profile. The results obtained provide the basis for the next stage of formulation development, i.e., in vivo efficacy tests.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060162
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 163: Rice Derivatives in Hair Protecting

    • Authors: Marisanna Centini, Giulia Signori, Fabrizio Francescon, Fumi Tsuno, Tomoki Oguro, Cecilia Anselmi
      First page: 163
      Abstract: The research was carried out on a hair conditioner containing the following rice derivatives individually: rice germ oil, rice germ oil GX-N, and riceterol esters. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the three active ingredients chosen, the following techniques were used: FT-IR, SEM, stress–strain test, and polarized light microscopy analysis. The tests were carried out on natural Caucasian hair. The methodologies were found to be suitable for the evaluation and led to interesting results: the selected ingredients showed good properties in improving the hair. The conditioners containing the active ingredients restored the properties of the hair even when subjected to stress such as irradiation. In this case, the most effective was the rice germ oil GX-N.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060163
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 164: Anti-Obesity Effect of Daidzein Derived
           from Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb. Extract via PPAR Pathway in MDI-Induced
           3T3-L1 Cell Line

    • Authors: Moon-Hee Choi, Seung-Hwa Yang, Yeo-Jin Lee, Jeong Ho Sohn, Ki Sun Lee, Hyun-Jae Shin
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb. is a tropical perennial vine plant native to southern Mexico, Southeast Asia, Central America, and Africa. In this study, we analyzed and identified various polyphenolic compounds and isoflavones present in ethanolic P. erosus root extracts and investigated their potential anti-obesity activity as a natural health food resource. The extraction process involved drying the yam bean, followed by extraction with 70% ethanol, evaporation, and freeze-drying. Fractionation was achieved through layer separation using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. The EtOAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the experimental groups, with an IC50 value of 531.77 µg/mL for ABTS radical scavenging. In α-glucosidase and lipase inhibition assays, IC50 values were determined to be 873.07 µg/mL and 915.02 µg/mL, respectively. Using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, we detected isoflavone components in P. erosus root extracts, identifying daidzein, genistein, and rotenone among them. Daidzein was the most abundant isoflavone in P. erosus root extracts. To validate the anti-obesity activity in the EtOAc fraction and daidzein, we used 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with MDI (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, dexamethasone, insulin) for 8 days. Oil Red O staining experiments demonstrated a concentration-dependent reduction in lipid content in the EtOAc fraction and daidzein treatment groups. Additionally, we examined the expression pattern of proteins related to the leptin-PPAR-FAS Pathway, revealing a concentration-dependent decrease in obesity-related proteins.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10060164
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 118: The Method of Studying Cosmetic Creams
           Based on the Principles of Systems Theory and Mathematical Modeling

    • Authors: Adela Manea, Delia Perju, Andra Tămaș
      First page: 118
      Abstract: This paper reviews research on some cosmetic creams considered “distributed parameters systems” and on the experimental-computational mathematical models that have been determined for them. The determined models characterize the cosmetic creams in all stages of the manufacturing process, starting with the development of recipes, the description of raw materials, manufacturing technologies, and the determination of the physico-chemical and microbiological indicators that most strongly influence their quality. This approach suggests the possibility of performing optimization operations, specifically sensitivity analyses, which may lead to the identification of best quality indicators and to the amelioration of negative effects related to disturbance sizes (temperature, pressure, humidity etc.). Five emulsions with different compositions, prepared in vitro according to our own recipes, using raw materials and preparation methods approved for cosmetic products, were studied. Through specific physico-chemical and microbiological analyses, we obtained databases that were processed computationally. The resulting mathematical models, in the form of both graphs and equations, led to important conclusions regarding obtaining high quality in the studied creams and to the confirmation of the usefulness of applying the principles of Systems Theory to the study of cosmetic products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050118
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 119: Reporting Quality of Randomized Controlled
           Trial Abstracts on Aesthetic Use of Botulinum Toxin: How Much Do Abstracts
           Actually Tell Us'

    • Authors: Sucic, Ana Seselja Perisin, Zuvela, Leskur, Rusic, Modun, Bukic
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Botulinum toxin use has become the most commonly performed aesthetic procedure among individuals of all age groups, encompassing both women and men. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of evidence and quality reporting of their abstracts plays a significant role for health professionals, influencing their decision-making in patient management. Therefore, our study aimed to assess the reporting quality of published RCT abstracts for botulinum toxin aesthetic use in the head area. The CONSORT-A checklist with 17 items was used to assess the quality of reporting. All available RCT abstracts (N = 191) found by searching the Medline database that were published up until June 2023 were included in this study. The average reporting rate was 52.9%. General items were inadequately reported (30.9%), with few abstracts describing the trial design. The methods section was better reported (62.0%), with interventions, objectives, and outcomes properly reported in over 97.5% abstracts. The results section (56.9%) demonstrated good reporting of randomized participant numbers but limited reporting of primary outcomes and harms. None of the abstracts reported funding sources or randomization information. To enhance the transparency and reliability of RCT results, abstracts should adhere more rigorously to the CONSORT-A guidelines. Improved reporting in abstracts can facilitate evidence-based decision-making in everyday practice of medical professionals in the field of aesthetic medicine.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050119
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 120: Carotenoids and Dermoaesthetic Benefits:
           Public Health Implications

    • Authors: Foteini Biskanaki, Paraskevi Kalofiri, Niki Tertipi, Eleni Sfyri, Eleni Andreou, Vasiliki Kefala, Efstathios Rallis
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Food technology, health, nutrition, dermatology, and aesthetics have focused on colorless carotenoids. Carotenoids are readily bioavailable and have demonstrated various health-promoting actions. This article reviews the recent literature concerning carotenoids with the aim to systematize the scattered knowledge on carotenoids and aesthetics. The applications of carotenoids in health-promoting and nutrient products and their potential health effects are discussed. The carotenoids, particularly phytoene and phytofluene, have the unique ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation. Their distinct structures and properties, oxidation sensitivity, stiffness, aggregation tendency, and even fluorescence in the case of phytofluene, contribute to their potential benefits. A diet rich in carotenoid-containing products can positively impact skin health, overall well-being, and the prevention of various diseases. Future studies should focus on generating more data about phytoene and phytofluene levels in the skin to accurately assess skin carotenoid status. This expanding area of research holds promise for the development of novel applications in the fields of health and cosmetics.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050120
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 121: Exploring the Biological Functions and
           Anti-Melanogenesis of Phallus indusiatus for Mushroom-Based Cosmetic

    • Authors: Kanyanat Theeraraksakul, Kittitat Jaengwang, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Lueacha Tabtimmai
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Phallus indusiatus, or bamboo mushroom, has been reported for its nutraceutical properties, while its cosmeceutical properties remain unclear. In this study, we conducted extractions of whole, fresh P. indusiatus using both aqueous and ethanolic methods. Among the extracts, ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with DI showed the highest antioxidant activity compared to the others. For cosmeceutical assessment, we evaluated the extracts’ inhibitory effects against ECM-degrading enzymes and found that they exhibited a modest inhibitory effect of approximately 50%. Remarkably, ultrasonic-assisted extraction with DI demonstrated promising cosmeceutical properties. Additionally, pressure-assisted extraction with DI showed a potentially protective effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage. To investigate the anti-melanogenic effect on MNT-1 cells, we treated them with the extracts and observed a significant decrease in cellular tyrosinase activity under α-MSH stimulation. This resulted in a relative reduction in melanin content. Notably, autoclaving extraction exhibited a significantly greater anti-melanogenic effect than the other extracts at the lowest concentration tested. Furthermore, the extracts demonstrated a reduction in NO production under LPS-induced inflammation. Hot water extraction with DI and ethanol exhibited a stronger anti-inflammatory effect compared to diclofenac, without any cytotoxicity. These findings highlight the hidden cosmeceutical properties of P. indusiatus and suggest its potential use as a bioactive ingredient in cosmetic formulations.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050121
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 122: Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery on the Face: A
           Systematic Review of Indications and Outcomes

    • Authors: Konstantinos Seretis, Konstantina Papaioannou
      First page: 122
      Abstract: Laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) has gained prominence as a promising technique with the potential to enhance topical drug skin penetration and absorption. However, the effectiveness of various laser-assisted facial procedures remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to explore and summarize the evidence regarding the indications, clinical outcomes, and adverse effects of LADD performed on the face. Based on a predetermined protocol, an electronic search in MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and CENTRAL electronic databases was conducted. Eligible studies comprised prospective controlled trials that explored the utility of laser-assisted techniques for topical medication facial application and reported on efficacy and/or safety. Secondary outcomes encompassed patient satisfaction. This review included 12 prospective controlled studies involving a total of 271 participants. LADD, through various laser types, topical medications, clinical protocols, and follow-up assessments, showed enhanced melasma, facial rejuvenation, scar, and periprocedural laser outcomes without increased risk of adverse effects. This review provides evidence that LADD is an effective and safe adjunct for various facial procedures. It also highlights the necessity for further high-quality studies with larger sample sizes, standardized treatment protocols, and evaluation of long-term outcomes and adverse effects in order to elucidate the potential of laser-assisted drug delivery.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050122
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 123: Effect of Incorporating a Biowax Derived
           from Hydroprocessing of Crude Palm Oil in a Facial Cream and a Blemish
           Balm Cream

    • Authors: Laura Aguilar, Jonathan Hernández, Luis Javier López-Giraldo, Ronald Mercado
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Most waxes used as cosmetic ingredients are derived from the petrochemical industry. A modern alternative to this complex synthesis approach is the hydrotreatment of palm oil; thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incorporating a biowax derived from hydroprocessing of crude palm oil as a new natural cosmetic ingredient in facial cream and BB cream. Therefore, two water in oil (W/O) emulsions, one including pigments, with five different weight percentages were developed and subjected to further sensory evaluation by a trained panel to estimate the level of acceptance. Moreover, resistance to centrifugation, pH, spreadability, phase separation, viscosity and storage modulus were the parameters evaluated in a preliminary stability study using thermal stress. Sensory analysis showed that the highest level of acceptance was obtained between 3% and 9 wt% biowax. For both prototypes, increasing biowax percentage led to a greater effect on stickiness, the viscosity increased, and extensibility decreased. The formulations were able to maintain their pH. The best stability for BB cream was observed at 9%, since the changes in the properties were slight. For facial cream, the emulsion was more stable at intermediate biowax content. It was observed that biowax exhibits favorable characteristics as an emollient or thickening agent. Finally, the formulations with the best stability and sensory characteristics were obtained at 9 wt% biowax.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050123
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 124: Antioxidant Profile of Origanum dictamnus
           L. Exhibits Antiaging Properties against UVA Irradiation

    • Authors: Sophia Letsiou, Maria Trapali, Despina Vougiouklaki, Aliki Tsakni, Dionysis Antonopoulos, Dimitra Houhoula
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Skin aging mainly occurs due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Extrinsic aging is a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Meanwhile, natural products exhibit protective properties against skin aging as well as photoaging. In this context, the research on natural anti-aging agents is greatly advanced, and in recent years, numerous plant-based products have been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant profile of Origanum dictamnus L. extract as well as its antiaging effects on 2D cultures of fibroblasts and keratinocytes under UVA irradiation to unravel the potential role of Origanum dictamnus L. in cosmetology. In an attempt to explore the antioxidant profile of the extract, we employed well-established enzymatic assays (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and TPC) and a phytochemical screening by LC/MS. According to our findings, the Origanum dictamnus L. extract possesses high scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS), high phenolic content (TPC), and high Fe(III)-reduction activity (FRAP). Moreover, the LC/MS analysis revealed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, holding a high content of curcumin, kampferol, silymarin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, deosmin, rutin, and quercetin. To gain insight into the bioactivity of Origanum dictamnus L. extract in cell aging, the expression of various genes that are implicated in the skin aging process in keratinocytes and fibroblasts was studied. The gene expression analysis revealed that the extract increases cell proliferation in the cells exposed to UVA irradiation and concomitantly modulates the expression of genes related to the aging process in keratinocytes (KLK7, OCLN, GBA1) and fibroblasts (SIRT2, FOXO3, COL3A1) under the same conditions.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050124
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 125: The Antibacterial Potential of Essential
           Oils of Oral Care Thai Herbs against Streptococcus mutans and
           Solobacterium moorei—In Vitro Approach

    • Authors: Kasemsan Atisakul, Nisakorn Saewan
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Oral malodor, often known as halitosis, is an irritating breath odor that originates in the mouth and can cause significant psychological and social distress. Chlorhexidine, a powerful antimicrobial agent effective against bacteria and fungi, has become the standard treatment for halitosis. However, it has drawbacks including altered taste perception, dry mouth, and more noticeable dental staining. The use of natural essential oils to avoid these unwanted effects has proven to be an attractive strategy. This study aims to evaluate the potential of four essential oils consisting of Ma-kwean fruit (Zanthoxylum limonella, MK), clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum, CV), star anise fruit (Illicium verum, SA) and cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum aromaticum, CM) for the purpose of combating bad breath by assessing their antibacterial efficacy against halitosis-associated bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Solobacterium moorei). The hydro-distillation process was used to prepare the essential oils, which were obtained as yellowish to colorless liquids with yields of 6.58 ± 0.81, 12.21 ± 2.98, 4.29 ± 0.15 and 1.26 ± 0.09% for MK, CV, SA and CM, respectively. The terpenoid compounds terpinene-4-ol (47.04%), limonene (17.19%), sabinene (13.27%) and alpha-terpineol (6.05%) were found as the main components in MK essential oil, while phenylpropanoids were identified as the primary components of other essential oils, namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (83.60%), eugenol (83.59%) and anethol (90.58%) were identified as the primary components of CM, CV and SA essential oils, respectively. For the antibacterial properties, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were investigated. CM essential oil exhibited the greatest capacity to inhibit growth and eradicate S. mutans, with MIC and MBC values of 0.039%, followed by CV (MIC of 0.078% and MBC of 0.156%) and MK (MIC and MBC of 0.156%), whereas the MIC of SA was 1.250% without eradication. Both CM and CV essential oils demonstrated exceptional efficacy against S. moorei, with MIC and MBC values of 0.019% and 0.033%, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibition of S. moorei biofilm formation was investigated and we discovered that the lowest effective concentration necessary to eliminate the S. moorei biofilm was one quarter of the MIC for MK, CM and CV, while that for SA essential oil was half of the MIC. These encouraging results suggest that the incorporation of MK, CM and CV essential oils into oral care products could potentially enhance their efficacy in halitosis treatment.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050125
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 126: Sequential and Combined Efficacious
           Management of Auricular Keloid: A Novel Treatment Protocol Employing
           Ablative CO2 and Dye Laser Therapy—An Advanced Single-Center
           Clinical Investigation

    • Authors: Simone Amato, Steven Paul Nisticò, Giovanni Pellacani, Stefania Guida, Anthony Rossi, Caterina Longo, Enzo Berardesca, Giovanni Cannarozzo
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Auricular keloids pose significant aesthetic and functional challenges, and traditional treatments often fall short in addressing these issues. Our study presents an innovative combined approach of ablative CO2 and dye laser therapy for improved keloid management. This treatment protocol was applied to 15 patients with auricular keloids after an initial multispectral analysis to assess keloid composition. The laser sequence was tailored per patient based on this analysis. Evaluations using the Vancouver Scar Scale and Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale were carried out at baseline and at 3-week intervals post-treatment. The results showed a significant reduction in these scores at the final follow-up (p < 0.05), suggesting improvements in keloid color, texture, and pliability, with minimal adverse events. Additionally, no recurrence of keloids was observed. Our findings indicate that this novel methodology of multispectral analysis followed by tailored laser therapy may offer a safe and effective solution for auricular keloids, promising enhanced keloid treatment and prevention of recurrence. However, further investigations, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to confirm and optimize this treatment protocol.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050126
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 127: Applications of Beehive Products for Wound
           Repair and Skin Care

    • Authors: Simona Martinotti, Gregorio Bonsignore, Elia Ranzato
      First page: 127
      Abstract: There is a long and interesting history between honeybees and humans. From the beginning, honey has been utilized not only as a sweetener, but also as an ointment and a drug to treat several diseases. Until the discovery of antibiotics, honey was a very popular product used to protect and preserve skin and promote wound healing, to counteract gastrointestinal pains and disorders of the oral cavity, and for other diseases. After the development of antibiotic resistance, honey again gained interest for its use in wound management. Subsequently, more recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have displayed antimicrobial, antioxidant, and other effects of honey and honeybee products, as well as protection of cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that beehive products are also able to influence the phenotype of skin cells, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, involved in correct wound healing. This review will characterize the great potential of honeybee products in the field of health and skin care, considering that honey is a virtually inexhaustible natural resource which people, as bees have been domesticated over the centuries, can freely access.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050127
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 128: Effect of the Hypoxic Chamber Training
           Series on Skin Characteristics of Overweight and Obese Women

    • Authors: Anna Grodecka, Olga Czerwińska-Ledwig, Adrianna Dzidek, Wiktoria Lis, Dorota Cwalińska, Weronika Kozioł, Aneta Teległów, Tomasz Pałka, Anna Piotrowska
      First page: 128
      Abstract: Obesity is a disease of civilization. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in its incidence; therefore, there is an increasing emphasis on programs aimed at improving body composition, often through physical activity. Various modifications to training interventions are being introduced, including the modification of the thermo-climatic conditions of the training. However, to date, whether such a modification is safe for the skin has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a series of workouts in a hypoxic chamber on skin characteristics such as elasticity, hydration, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Women who were overweight or obese were invited to participate in the project. The workouts took place in a hypoxic chamber where conditions were mimicked at 2500 m, three times a week for a period of four weeks, for 60 min each. Finally, the results from 11 women in the study group and 9 in the control group were included in the analysis. Body composition analysis was performed, and venous blood was drawn (morphology and lipidogram). No statistically significant changes in skin firmness or the amount of TEWL were observed in the subjects. An increase in skin hydration on the hand was observed only after the first workout (p = 0.046), while skin hydration on the mandible did not change. A significant reduction in body weight (p = 0.042), BMI (p = 0.045), and TBW (p = 0.017) was indicated in the study group. The control group showed an increase in BMI (p = 0.045) and VFA (p = 0.042). There was no correlation between measured skin characteristics and body composition indices or the results of blood indices. A correlation was observed between TEWL and lipidogram results. Training under hypoxic conditions does not affect skin features in overweight and obese women. Even a significant reduction in TBW did not result in a decrease in hydration. It was also shown that the proper barrier function of the skin is closely dependent on the serum lipid profile.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050128
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 129: Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Hair,
           Scalp, and Skin Disorders: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Meagan Popp, Steven Latta, Betty Nguyen, Colombina Vincenzi, Antonella Tosti
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Cannabinoid products have been studied in the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE for articles published before 1 February 2023 that described the use of cannabinoids in the management of hair, scalp, and skin conditions, identifying 18 original articles that encompassed 1090 patients who used various forms of cannabinoid products. Where specified, topical cannabidiol (CBD) was the most commonly utilized treatment (64.3%, 173/269), followed by oral dronabinol (14.4%, 39/269), oral lenabasum (14.1%, 38/269), and oral hempseed oil (5.9%, 16/269). Using the GRADE approach, we found moderate-quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing atopic dermatitis, dermatomyositis, psoriasis, and systemic sclerosis and moderate-quality evidence supporting a lack of efficacy in treating trichotillomania. There was low to very low quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing alopecia areata, epidermolysis bullosa, hyperhidrosis, seborrheic dermatitis, and pruritus. Our findings suggest that cannabinoids may have efficacy in managing symptoms of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions. However, the evidence is still limited, and there is no standardized dosage or route of administration for these products. Large randomized controlled trials and further studies with standardized treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050129
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 130: Psychobiotics-like Activity as a Novel
           Treatment against Dry Scalp Related-White Flakes Production with
           Pogostemon cablin Leaf Extract

    • Authors: Marie Meunier, Emilie Chapuis, Cyrille Jarrin, Julia Brooks, Heather Carolan, Jean Tiguemounine, Carole Lambert, Bénédicte Sennelier-Portet, Catherine Zanchetta, Amandine Scandolera, Romain Reynaud
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Microbiome supplementation initially targeted the gut microbiota but has since been extended to the skin. A new category, psychobiotics, defined beneficial compounds with a positive action on microbiota, providing benefits to the host’s mental health. Pogostemon cablin leaf extract, proven to alleviate scalp dryness, was clinically evaluated on volunteers presenting dry scalp with flakes. A metagenomics study and sebum production analysis were performed, coupled to flakes scoring. The benefits of Pogostemon cablin leaf extract on emotions were assessed through three neuroscientific methods. Through this study, we proved that the skin microbiota of dry scalp was imbalanced, with increased alpha diversity and decreased Cutibacterium relative abundance compared to oilier skin. After applying our ingredient for one month, microbiota was rebalanced with a decrease in alpha diversity and increase in Cutibacterium relative abundance compared to the initial profile. Microbiota rebalancing led to an increase in scalp sebum and decrease in dry flakes compared to the start of the study. This global rebalancing improved the emotional state of people with scalp dryness who expressed more positive emotions after treatment.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050130
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 131: Topical AHA in Dermatology: Formulations,
           Mechanisms of Action, Efficacy, and Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Kanwarpreet Karwal, Ilya Mukovozov
      First page: 131
      Abstract: The utilization of topical formulations containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) has garnered considerable attention. This review summarizes the effectiveness of the most common topical AHA formulations, including mechanisms of action and future research directions. AHAs have a dramatic impact on diverse skin conditions, enhancing texture and stimulating collagen synthesis. Uncertainties persist regarding optimal concentration, pH, and vehicle for maximum efficacy. Advancements in formulation technologies offer opportunities for AHA penetration and stability. Understanding mechanisms is vital for skincare optimization. The review covers AHAs, their concentrations, formulation considerations, safety measures, and future directions.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050131
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 132: Sustainability by Reduced Energy
           Consumption during Manufacturing: The Case of Cosmetic Emulsions

    • Authors: Slobodanka Tamburic, Jana Fröhlich, Shivani Mistry, Ludger Josef Fischer, Tim Barbary, Sylvie Bunyan, Elisabeth Dufton
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Energy input in emulsion manufacturing comprises thermal and mechanical energy, with thermal energy being predominant. In terms of raw material selection, there is a widely accepted belief that natural formulations are more “eco-friendly” than their standard (not natural) counterparts. The aim of this study was to compare the energy consumption and subsequent carbon footprint resulting from the production of two main emulsion types, each represented by its standard and natural variant and made by using different manufacturing processes (hot, hot-cold and cold). This resulted in six samples of oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion types, respectively. Scale-down calculations were used to establish the required homogenisation time and speed of the laboratory homogeniser, necessary to achieve the same shear rates as the chosen industrial vessel. The resulting emulsions were characterised using rheological and textural analysis. The six emulsions within each emulsion type have exhibited sufficiently similar characteristics for the purpose of carbon footprint comparisons. Calculations were conducted to quantify the energy input of hot and hot-cold procedures, followed by cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis (LCA). Energy calculations demonstrated that the hot-cold manufacturing process saved approximately 82% (for O/W) and 86% (for W/O) of thermal energy in comparison to the hot process. LCA has shown that the effects of using natural instead of standard ingredients were negative, i.e., it led to a higher carbon footprint. However, it was dwarfed by the effect of the energy used, specifically thermal energy during manufacturing. This strongly indicates that the most efficient way for companies to reduce their carbon footprint is to use the hot-cold emulsification process.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050132
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 133: Development and Clinical Efficacy
           Evaluation of Facial Toner Containing Houttuynia cordata Thunb

    • Authors: Oraphan Anurukvorakun, Sarunpat Numnim
      First page: 133
      Abstract: The goal of this research was to develop a reliable oil-controlling toner for facial skin with a natural product, Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract (HCE). The developed HCE facial toner showed high stability and had a high satisfaction level. Clinical studies revealed that the sebum value of the skin after using the developed HCE toner for eight weeks decreased (4.6-times lower), which was statistically significant (p-value < 0.05) when compared to the HCE-free toner. The sebum amount on the facial skin after using the HCE toner decreased by approximately two-times compared to the HCE-free toner. In addition, the skin moisture content increased statistically significantly (p-value < 0.05) from the eighth week of treatment compared to the HCE-free toner and was 1.5- and 1.4-times higher for the left and right cheeks, respectively. The average moisture content of the facial skin treated with the HCE toner increased by 2- and 1.4-times compared to the treatment with the HCE-free toner for the left and right cheeks, respectively. Consequently, the HCE toner had anti-sebum and moisturizing efficacy, and the increased reliability of the natural product meant that it could soon be a premium commercial product.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050133
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 134: Work-Related Hand Eczema in Healthcare
           Workers: Etiopathogenic Factors, Clinical Features, and Skin Care

    • Authors: Iva Japundžić, Massimo Bembić, Bruno Špiljak, Ena Parać, Jelena Macan, Liborija Lugović-Mihić
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Work-related skin conditions, including work-related irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, rank as the second most prevalent among work-related diseases. The most commonly reported manifestation of these conditions is hand eczema, which develops due to exposure to various substances in the workplace. Understanding the origins and triggers of eczema and contact dermatitis enables healthcare professionals to educate themselves and their patients about effective preventive measures, such as avoiding specific irritants and allergens, using protective equipment, and maintaining proper skincare hygiene. Additionally, this knowledge facilitates the development of new recommendations to enhance skin protection in work-related settings, regulate the use of substances known to cause work-related skin diseases, and provide healthcare practitioners with the necessary training to recognize and manage these conditions. Given that approximately one in every five healthcare workers is considered to have hand eczema, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature regarding the characteristics of eczema in healthcare workers. Furthermore, this study aimed to comprehensively investigate environmental and constitutional factors (including years of work experience involving exposure to skin hazards, frequent glove use, regular handwashing and water contact, frequent use of disinfectants and detergents, and a history of previous allergies and atopic dermatitis) that influence the occurrence and progression of eczema.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050134
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 135: Effects of Dietary Bacillus natto
           Productive Protein on the Skin: In Vitro Efficacy Test and Single-Armed

    • Authors: Naoki Igari, Ryo Ninomiya, Satoshi Kawakami
      First page: 135
      Abstract: The dietary bacillus natto productive protein (BNPP) is a functional food ingredient that contains Bacillopeptidase F. BNPP is reported to improve blood flow. Based on previous research, we investigated the effect of BNPP on the skin. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate BNPP for its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase, elastase, and active oxygen (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) radical scavenging activities. In addition, a small-scale, single-armed trial of 15 female participants aged 40–65 years were conducted to assess the effects on human skin of BNPP, administered 250 mg/day orally, for 6 weeks. The beneficial effects of BNPP on the skin were shown by the evaluation of the tyrosinase inhibitory (0.01% and 0.1%), elastase inhibitory (0.00001% to 0.001%), and DPPH radical scavenging (1% and 10%) activities. In addition, the results suggested that the oral administration of BNPP may significantly enhance skin rosiness and also achieve significant improvement in skin conditions, defined as complexion, skin elasticity and resilience, moist feeling, skin texture, cosmetic adhesion, fine lines, under-eye darkness, eye bags, sagging cheeks, and sagging mouth. Furthermore, to investigate the use of BNPP as cosmetics, a skin irritation study was conducted using a cultured human skin model. The results showed that BNPP is non-irritant. In addition, to confirm the stability of BNPP, the quality of BNPP at the time of manufacture and three years and six months after manufacture was examined. The results showed no quality problems. These results suggest that the BNPP could be used as cosmetic purposes.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050135
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 136: A Randomized, Double-Blind,
           Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of
           Latanoprost for Eyelash Growth in Aesthetic Medicine

    • Authors: Janette Ivone Espinoza-Silva, Ernesto Macias-Nevarez, Christian Quintus Scheckhuber, Mario Adrián Tienda-Vázquez
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Eyelashes, in addition to fulfilling eye-protective functions, generate an aesthetic impact. Latanoprost is a prostaglandin analog, commonly used for the treatment of glaucoma and intraocular hypertension. The side effect reported most often is the stimulation of eyelash growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of latanoprost in inducing eyelash growth and darkening. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited in a 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. A transparent eyelash mascara was used as a vehicle. The placebo group (n = 15) received only the vehicle, and the latanoprost group (n = 15) received the vehicle + 0.005% latanoprost. The participants were asked to apply the latanoprost topically to the eyelashes while avoiding entry into the eye, daily at night. The latanoprost group showed a significant increase in eyelash length and color change, while the placebo group maintained eyelash length and color throughout the study. The intraocular pressures of all the participants were maintained in normal ranges (10–20 mmHg). Topical application of both the placebo and the latanoprost medications was well tolerated; none of the participants withdrew, generated side effects, or developed any ophthalmic pathology. In conclusion, latanoprost is effective and safe to stimulate the growth of eyelashes.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050136
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 137: Effect of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from
           Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Cutaneous
           Wound Healing in Wistar Rats

    • Authors: Chaymae Bouchama, Abdellah Zinedine, João Miguel Rocha, Noureddine Chadli, Lahsen El El Ghadraoui, Rachida Chabir, Sidi Mohammed Raoui, Faouzi Errachidi
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Turmeric and ginger, widely used rhizomes in culinary arts, have several beneficial biological activities, such as hypoglycemic, hepato-protective, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. This work investigated the effects of three phenolic extracts isolated from turmeric and ginger rhizomes on anti-inflammatory and healing properties using the solid–liquid extraction method. Wistar rats were used as a biological model. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on induced edema in the rat's hind paw using carrageenan (1%). Paw volume was measured at 0 min, 45 min, 3 h, and 5 h. Treatment with turmeric and ginger extracts, administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg, revealed a reduction in edema volume by 98.8%, 94.8%, and 98.3% using an aqueous extract of turmeric, ethanolic extract of turmeric, and methanolic extract of ginger, respectively. The healing activity parameters of induced burns on the rat's dorsal region in nine groups (7 rats each) were monitored daily throughout the experiment's duration. Results showed that the application of creams composed of petroleum jelly dispersing turmeric and ginger extracts to wounds at a dose of 100 mg/kg g induced complete healing after 19 days while the negative control was only 60% cured. On day 14, the aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic turmeric extracts nearly resulted in complete tissue repair by 95.26%, 98.34%, and 87.39%, respectively. According to the chromatographic analysis (Sephadex G50 column), there is a variation in the molecular weight distribution of phenolic compounds (polymers, oligomers, and monomers) in the three studied extracts, which has a differential effect on the anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the extracts.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050137
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 138: Efficacy of a Novel SPF Booster Based on
           Research Aboard the International Space Station

    • Authors: Kyle S. Landry, Elizabeth Young, Timothy S. Avery, Julia Gropman
      First page: 138
      Abstract: The use of sunscreen is the most effective way to minimize sun damage to the skin. Excessive UV exposure is linked to an increased risk of melanoma and accelerated skin aging. Currently, approved UV filters fall into two categories: chemical- or mineral-based filters. Besides approved filters, there are numerous SPF-boosting additives that can be added to sunscreen products to enhance their efficacy. This manuscript shows the potential application of the novel SPF booster, Bacillus Lysate, developed from Bacillus pumilus PTA-126909, which was derived from research aboard the International Space Station. The addition of the 3.5%, 7%, or 10% Bacillus Lysate resulted in a 33%, 29%, and 22% boost in the SPF values of an SPF 30 sunscreen, respectively. The potential use of extremophiles and their byproducts, like the Bacillus Lysate presented here, may be a promising alternative SPF booster for the sunscreen industry.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050138
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 139: Towards Sustainable Color Cosmetics

    • Authors: Manu Dube, Sema Dube
      First page: 139
      Abstract: In spite of the significant progress towards sustainable cosmetics, mass-produced sustainable packaging has proven to be a challenge. The complexity of environmental, economic, social, technological, and policy considerations in conjunction with varying consumer behaviors and corporate goals can make it difficult to select an optimal strategy across heterogeneous supply chain components spread over the globe, and the cost and effort of developing, testing, and validating alternative strategies discourages empirical exploration of potential alternatives. This review discusses the challenges that can be expected in the context of broader sustainability efforts, as well as the experience gained in related fields, such as sustainable cosmetics and sustainable packaging, to identify potential pitfalls as well as promising trends towards the development of sustainable color cosmetics packaging. The findings suggest there may be little to be gained from attempting to induce customers to change their behavior, waiting for a significant increase in global recycling infrastructure, or expecting regulatory constraints to substitute for the lack of technological and business solutions. A research strategy is delineated towards the development of sustainable packaging that, with appropriate policy support, could minimize externalities and provide mass-produced packaging that is acceptable to both consumers and producers.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050139
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 140: On the Path to Sustainable Cosmetics:
           Development of a Value-Added Formulation of Solid Shampoo Incorporating
           Mango Peel Extract

    • Authors: Inês Brito, Sara M. Ferreira, Lúcia Santos
      First page: 140
      Abstract: The excessive use of water and plastic packaging in the cosmetic industry imposes the need to develop sustainable alternatives. Moreover, agricultural by-products are reported in the literature to be rich in bioactive properties, namely high antioxidant capacity, suggesting their potential use in cosmetic formulations as substitutes for commercial additives. The aim of this work was the development of a sustainable formulation of solid shampoo, incorporating extracts from mango peel as antioxidants. The characterization of the extracts revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds and a strong antioxidant capacity. Six formulations of solid shampoo were produced by varying the quantity of the additives: tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, used as positive controls, and mango peel (MP) extract. The antioxidant capacity assays demonstrated that the MP extract increased the antioxidant activity of the shampoos, in comparison to the positive controls and the stability tests revealed that the MP extract is a stable ingredient. Hence, it was concluded that the MP extract is a strong source of antioxidants with the potential to replace commercial antioxidants in cosmetics. Thus, it was possible to develop a value-added formulation of solid shampoo, eliminating the use of water and plastic for the packaging, and reusing waste from the food sector.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050140
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 141: Occurrence and Regulatory Evaluation of
           Contaminants in Tattoo Inks

    • Authors: Patricia Fels, Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Pascal Hindelang, Stephan G. Walch, Birgit Gutsche
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Tattooing has been an enduring form of body art since ancient times, but it carries inherent health risks, primarily due to the complex composition of tattoo inks. These inks consist of complex mixtures of various ingredients, including pigments, solvents, impurities and contaminants. This literature review aims to shed light on the organic and inorganic contaminants present in tattoo inks prior to the implementation of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation in 2022. This review shows that the most common contaminants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with a concentration range of 0.005–201 mg/kg, mainly detected in black tattoo inks, and primary aromatic amines (PAAs), with a concentration range of 0.5–1100 mg/kg, and heavy metals such as lead (0.01–14.0 mg/kg) and chromium(VI) (0.16–4.09 mg/kg) which are detected in almost all tattoo inks. When compared to the new concentration limits outlined in REACH, it is clear that a significant part of these contaminants would be considered non-compliant. However, the results of the review are limited due to the lack of quantitative data on contaminants in tattoo inks. In addition, the future implementation of REACH is expected to lead to changes in the composition of tattoo inks, which will affect the presence of contaminants.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050141
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 142: Enhancing Skin Anti-Aging through Healthy
           Lifestyle Factors

    • Authors: Helen Knaggs, Edwin D. Lephart
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Lifestyle health has been recognized as an evidence-based innovation that defines how everyday behaviors and routines influence the avoidance and therapy of illness and provides an important adjunctive component to overall health. Specifically, an approach with small changes over time can have a dramatic impact on the health and well-being of individuals not only, in general, but also can be applied to skin health. However, lifestyle health factors to improve skin well-being have not been discussed extensively and/or well promulgated. The narrative for this overview focuses on providing a summary for topic background information, but more importantly, presents four lifestyle factors that can improve dermal health [i.e., factor 1: nutrition—diet; factor 2: rest (sleep); factor 3: movement/physical exercise, and factor 4: social and community associations]. This was accomplished by identifying preceding journal reports/reviews covering especially the last five years (January 2018 to July 2023; 164 out of 205 references cited or 80%) using scientific search databases. The main conclusions of this overview encourage the concept that lifestyle health factors such as nutrition/diet, rest/sleep, movement/physical exercise, and community/social interactions support enhanced skin health and well-being with aging. Plus, social media interventions that aim to promote dietary, sleep and physical activity changes might be an application to improve skin health in the future.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050142
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 143: Effect of an Oral Formulation on Skin
           Lightening: Results from In Vitro Tyrosinase Inhibition to a Double-Blind
           Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study in Healthy Asian Participants

    • Authors: Camille Pouchieu, Line Pourtau, David Gaudout, Ilona Gille, Kunyanatt Chalothorn, Fabrice Perin
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Oral formulations with natural plant-based extracts represent a safe and promising strategy for skin lightening and anti-dark-spot effects, especially in Asia. This study evaluated the effect of an oral formulation including polyphenol-rich extracts and vitamin C (Belight3TM) on in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity and investigated its skin lightening and anti-dark-spot effects in vivo. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the formulation was measured with spectrophotometry. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was carried out on 58 healthy Asian males and females, aged 45–65. Skin color was measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks with digital photographs. Color of dark spots was assessed with spectrophotometry. In vitro, the formulation showed a significant synergistic tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 85% compared to the control. In vivo, 12-week oral administration of the formulation significantly lightened the skin and was significantly better than the placebo. In addition, this formulation induced a slight and significant lightening effect of the dark spots after 6 and 12 weeks. Our findings suggest that the daily oral administration of Belight3TM during 12 weeks appears as an efficient and safe nutricosmetic to lighten the color of the facial skin and dark spots in Asian subjects.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050143
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 144: Skin Anti-Aging Effect of Oral Vitamin A
           Supplementation in Combination with Topical Retinoic Acid Treatment in
           Comparison with Topical Treatment Alone: A Randomized, Prospective,
           Assessor-Blinded, Parallel Trial

    • Authors: Massimo Milani, Francesca Colombo
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Topical retinoid treatment is considered a standard therapeutic approach for chrono and photo skin aging. Retinol (vitamin A) is the precursor of endogenous retinoids. A prospective, 12-week, randomized, parallel-group trial comparing the combination of vitamins’ oral supplementation (one capsule daily, 50.000 UI vitamin A and 50 mg vitamin E) and a 0.02% retinoic acid topical gel formulation (RG) applied in the evening (Group B) in comparison with the topical RG treatment alone (Group A) was conducted. A total of 60 subjects (men and women, aged >50 years, mean age 60 ± 8 years) with moderate-severe facial skin aging (Glogau score > 2) were enrolled after their written informed consent. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to Group A and 30 to Group B. The primary endpoint was the clinical evaluation of a Skin Aging Global Score (SAGS), at baseline, and after 6 and 12 weeks. A VISIA® (Canfield Scientific, Parsippany, NJ, USA)face sculptor analysis was performed in a subgroup of 20 subjects. Skin tolerability was evaluated in both groups at weeks 6 and 12. In comparison with the baseline, SAGS scores in both groups were reduced by 13% (Group A) and by 14% (Group B) after 6 weeks and by 22% (Group A) and by 27% (Group B) at week 12. At the end of the study, SAGS score absolute reduction in Group B was significantly greater (p < 0.01) in comparison with the absolute reduction in Group A. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. The combination of medium-high doses of oral retinol supplementation (Vitamin A) and topical retinoic acid gel showed superior efficacy in terms of clinical improvement in comparison with the topical treatment alone in subjects with moderate/severe skin aging.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050144
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 145: Multifunctional Biological Properties and
           Topical Film Forming Spray Base on Auricularia polytricha as a Natural
           Polysaccharide Containing Brown Agaricus bisporus Extract for Skin

    • Authors: Nichcha Nitthikan, Pimporn Leelapornpisid, Ornchuma Naksuriya, Nutjeera Intasai, Kanokwan Kiattisin
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Mushrooms are edible fungi containing valuable nutrients. They provide attractive bio-active properties, which have confirmed anti-oxidants, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory properties. Mushrooms possess abundant natural polymers affecting skin hydration and acting as moisturizers supporting skin barrier function. In this study, cloud ear mushroom (Auricularia polytricha) water extract (CW) was produced as a natural polymer to evaluate a new film-forming spray (FFS) containing CW to increase skin hydration and protect transepidermal water loss. CW contained polysaccharides as 748.2 ± 0.02 mg glucose/g extract. CW significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and enhanced skin hydration by increasing aquaporin-3 (AQP3) and filaggrin (FLG) in HaCaT cells. The FFS was formulated using CW, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, and glycerin. The selected formulation contained brown Agaricus bisporus (BE-FFS) evaluated physical appearance, spray angle, spray pattern, and in vitro skin permeation. The BE-FFS has a transparent thin film with suitable occlusive properties, drying time, and physical appearance. Afterward, in vitro skin permeation and human hydration property studies presented the long-lasting effects and provided safety and hydration potential after 4 weeks of use. Overall, all results indicate that the BE-FFS is a natural film-forming spray for skin hydration improvement.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10050145
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 94: Hydrobiome of Thermal Waters: Potential Use
           in Dermocosmetics

    • Authors: María Lourdes Mourelle, Carmen P. Gómez, José L. Legido
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Over the course of the last 20 years, numerous studies have identified the benefits of thermal waters on different skin conditions. Consequently, several investigations have been carried out on their effects on the skin, which are linked to their chemical composition, and, recently, scientists have turned their attention to the role of the thermal spring’s microbiota, named “hydrobiome”, regarding these therapeutic effects. At the same time, the development of cosmetics based on pre, pro, and postbiotics has reached great relevance and research is increasing every day. This review gathers information on the biological diversity of thermal spring waters and their potential use in obtaining biological compounds, metabolites, or bacterial extracts for use in dermocosmetics as active ingredients. These bioactive compounds are able to improve dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis or rosacea and ameliorate pruritus and xerosis; moreover, they can increase protection against UV exposure, strengthen barrier function, maintain good homeostasis of skin defenses, repair damaged skin, promote wound healing, improve skin condition, reduce uneven skin pigmentation, and prevent skin aging. From a future perspective, fruitful cooperation among researchers, hydrologists, thermal spa centers, and cosmetic industries will drive this sector toward a better understanding of the role of the hydrobiome of thermal spring waters on healthy skin and dermatological diseases and consider the inclusion of derivatives of this hydrobiome (in the form of fermenters, lysates, extracts, etc.) in dermocosmetic formulations. Therefore, and being aware of the potential of the hydrobiome in dermatological and skin care applications, the future prospects for the use of bioactive substances derived from it in dermocosmetic formulations are promising.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040094
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 95: Improvement of Human Epidermal Barrier
           Structure and Lipid Profile in Xerotic- and Atopic-Prone Skin via
           Application of a Plant-Oil and Urea Containing pH 4.5 Emulsion

    • Authors: Jürgen Blaak, Dorothee Dähnhardt, Stephan Bielfeldt, Christiane Theiss, Isabel Simon, Klaus-Peter Wilhelm, Stephan Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, Peter Staib
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Epidermal barrier dysfunction can lead to xerotic skin and promote skin disorders like atopic dermatitis. Atopic skin is characterized by reduced water-retaining compounds, altered lipid composition and elevated skin pH. Against this background, a study was conducted to investigate the impact of a specific skin care product on epidermal barrier function in dry and atopic-prone skin. A marketed pH 4.5 cosmetic formulation containing 10% urea and specific plant oils was evaluated on 25 subjects with dry and atopic-prone skin. Measurements of skin hydration, pH, and barrier function were performed before and after 3 weeks of product usage. Additionally, visual scoring and stratum corneum lipid analysis using electron microscopy were conducted to investigate lipid composition. An improved skin hydration compared to the untreated area and a tendency to decrease the baseline elevated skin surface pH were observed. The visual scoring showed reduced dryness, roughness, and tension through the application. Furthermore, the stratum corneum lipid matrix was improved in terms of lipid content and organization. The combination of an acidic product’s pH, a relevant urea content and effective plant oils is shown to be beneficial in terms of improving the skin barrier function, structure and appearance and is recommended for dry and atopic-prone skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040095
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 96: Active Ingredients and Natural Raw Materials
           Used in Foot Care in Diabetic Patients—A Literature Review

    • Authors: Aleksandra Krawiec, Olga Czerwińska-Ledwig, Bartłomiej Kita, Anna Piotrowska
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Diabetic foot syndrome is the leading cause of limb loss due to non-healing ulcers. Repeated injuries, abnormal foot loads, and ischemia lead to ulcers. Poor shoe selection and inadequate care worsen the situation. Lack of patient education contributes to bacterial infections, tissue necrosis, and amputation. Vigilant observation and regular care can reduce wound size and prevent new wounds. Cleansing, infection control, and pressure relief are crucial in diabetic foot treatment. In this review, the effect of selected active ingredients and natural raw materials used for topical application in the care of diabetic foot was analyzed. The main focus used was on ingredients of natural origin—research studies utilizing emollients, humectants, plant extracts, and animal-derived ingredients were discussed. In addition, research studies on the application of nanomaterials, ozone and stem cells are also discussed. The cosmetics industry and manufacturers of podiatric products play a vital role in diabetic care. They should prioritize proper formulation, optimal ingredient doses, and skin microbiome control. Educating diabetics and using cosmetic products with self-massage elements can reduce the risk of hard-to-heal ulcers.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040096
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 97: Modulation of Cutaneous Carotenoid Content
           via Ozone Exposure

    • Authors: Franco Cervellati, Mascia Benedusi, Angela Mastaloudis, Vittoria Nagliati, Giuseppe Valacchi
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant to which we are constantly exposed. Given its strong oxidizing effects and pervasiveness in the air we breathe, O3 is especially damaging to target organs in the respiratory system (e.g., lungs) and the integumentary apparatus (e.g., skin). Both of these systems act as a barrier and are able to limit the penetration of atmospheric pollutants into the body. In this regard, skin—the largest and main barrier against atmospheric intrusions—offers continuous protection against environmental intrusions. The skin is equipped with several defensive molecules that act as protective intracellular antioxidants against oxidative intrusions, including O3. Among these antioxidants are carotenoids, a family of lipophilic phytonutrients that are abundant in fruits and vegetables. It is well established that carotenoids accumulate in the epidermis layer of the skin, where they confer protection against oxidative intrusions and modulate inflammation, and that there is a direct correlation between skin and serum carotenoids level. The present study aimed to evaluate the variations in carotenoid content present in human skin prior to and after O3 exposure in 141 human subjects. Carotenoids were measured non-invasively using a resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS)-based photonic device (Pharmanex BioPhotonic Scanner (BPS) Nu Skin Enterprises). In each volunteer, RRS skin carotenoids were determined at baseline and after 15 and 30 min of exposure to O3 0.8 ppm. The data obtained have an indicative value for individual variations in the cutaneous carotenoids, which have been shown to correlate with plasmatic contents. After the first 15 min of O3 exposure, there was a modulation of skin carotenoids, confirming their importance in the maintenance of cutaneous redox homeostasis.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040097
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 98: Production of Resveratrol Glucosides and Its
           Cosmetic Activities

    • Authors: Samir Bahadur Thapa, Juhee Jeon, Byung Gyu Park, Dabin Shim, Chang Seok Lee, Jae Kyung Sohng
      First page: 98
      Abstract: A biocatalytic system that could produce bioactive resveratrol poly-glucosides, using sucrose as a low-cost source of UDP-glucose donors and amylosucrase DgAS from Deinococcus geothermalis, was developed in this study. This system boasts several advantages, including the rapid and direct conversion of substrates to products, thermostability, regio-stereospecificity, and effectiveness, both in vitro and in vivo, at 40 °C. The results showed that the optimal reaction condition of the production of resveratrol glucosides was obtained by 2.0 µg/mL DgAS and 100 mM sucrose at pH 7.0, incubated at 40 °C for 5 h. With a success rate of around 97.0% in vitro and 95.0% in vivo in a short period of time, resveratrol-O-glucosides showed exciting outcomes in cosmetic applications, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, and whitening effects when tested with Raw 264.7, B16, and HS68 cell lines. DgAS is recognized as an important biocatalyst due to its high thermostability, effectiveness, and specificity among all known amylosucrases (ASases) in the production of poly-glucosides in a chain of polyphenols, such as resveratrol, making it an ideal candidate for industrial use in the cost-effective production of cosmetic items.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040098
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 99: Exploring Stearic-Acid-Based Nanoparticles
           for Skin Applications—Focusing on Stability and Cosmetic Benefits

    • Authors: Catarina Pereira-Leite, Mariana Bom, Andria Ribeiro, Cíntia Almeida, Catarina Rosado
      First page: 99
      Abstract: The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), ensures protection against harmful xenobiotics, and alterations in its lipidic matrix composition are related to several cutaneous dysfunctions. The skin barrier function is usually attributed to ceramides, but the role of free fatty acids, such as stearic acid, has been increasingly acknowledged. This research work aimed to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) based on stearic acid and glyceryl distearate, in order to explore the potential of these materials as the basis of lipid nanoparticles. Different blends of stearic acid, Precirol® ATO 5, Capryol® 90 and Tween® 80 were probed to prepare SLN and NLC. These lipid nanoparticles were further characterised according to particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), pH, and viscosity. Accelerated and long-term stability tests were also performed for 90 days, as well as in vivo assays to evaluate safety and efficacy. Overall, most nanoparticles showed interesting properties for topical application if they had sizes less than 300 nm, PDI below 0.3, pH compatible with skin and viscosity lower than 5 mPa.s. In long-term stability studies, the SLN_2 and NLC_2 formulations stood out, as they remained stable over time. In vivo biocompatibility tests conducted in human volunteers showed no negative impact of the formulations when applied openly or under occlusion. Efficacy studies with the most stable nanoparticles made of Precirol® ATO 5 showed an increase in skin hydration. The nanoparticles developed in this study have shown potential to be used for cosmetic purposes, and the blend of lipids provided good biocompatibility and moisturising properties.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040099
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 100: Structural and Photoprotective
           Characteristics of Zn-Ti, Zn-Al, and Mg-Al Layered Double
           Hydroxides—A Comparative Study

    • Authors: Orielia Pria Egambaram, Sreejarani Kesavan Pillai, Suprakas Sinha Ray, Marlize Goosen
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Organic UV filters have been known to generate harmful by-products and undergo photoreactive degradation, which ultimately poses a great threat to consumers using sunscreen products. Inorganic UV filters such as TiO2 and ZnO, although considered safer options, are not without threat considering their photocatalytic nature and ability to generate reactive oxygen species. A study was conducted to identify the influence of different metal ions on the photochemical properties of layered double hydroxides (LDH), Zinc-Titanium LDH (Zn-Ti LDH), Zinc-Aluminium LDH (Zn-Al LDH), and Magnesium- Aluminium LDH (Mg-Al LDH) and their prospects in photoprotection. The photocatalytic properties of the LDH were analyzed and compared to TiO2 and ZnO. The intermediate band gaps of Zn-Ti (3.72 eV) and Zn-Al LDH (3.3 eV) proved favorable and safer for the use of these LDH in cosmetic formulations as they offer lower photo-reactivity when compared to cosmetic grade ZnO and TiO2. The in vitro SPF values obtained for formulations containing 2 wt% Zn-Ti and 2 wt% Zn-Al LDH showed promise, with both samples claiming “broad spectrum” protection and valid claims of UVA protection.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040100
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 101: Ultraviolet Filters for Cosmetic

    • Authors: Georgiana Nitulescu, Dumitru Lupuliasa, Ines Adam-Dima, George Mihai Nitulescu
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Sunscreens reduce the occurrence risk of skin disorders such as sunburn, skin aging, and cancer through their ability to absorb, reflect, and scatter ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This review provides an overview of UV filters as active ingredients of sunscreen products, emphasizing their classification and structural characteristics. Their photostability, mechanism of action of ultraviolet radiation absorption, optical properties, and regulatory status are discussed based on their chemical structure. The main classes of organic UV filters presented include aminobenzoic acid derivatives, salicylic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzophenones, dibenzoylmethane derivatives, benzylidene camphor derivatives, triazines, benzimidazole derivatives, and benzotriazole derivatives. The pursuit of new UV filters through research is crucial in advancing sunscreen technology and ensuring the availability of effective and safe options for sun protection.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040101
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 102: Natural Antioxidant-Loaded Nanoemulsions
           for Sun Protection Enhancement

    • Authors: Eleni Galani, Dimitrios Galatis, Kyriaki Tzoka, Vassiliki Papadimitriou, Theodore G. Sotiroudis, Antonios Bonos, Aristotelis Xenakis, Maria D. Chatzidaki
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to formulate nanodispersions to encapsulate antioxidants extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMW) and phycocyanin extracted from Spirulina maxima to act as enhancers for the skin’s protection against UV radiation. For this purpose, two water-in-oil nanoemulsions were prepared using a low-energy homogenization method. Both systems were based on isopropyl myristate as the continuous phase, while water or a mixture of glycerol and water was used as the dispersed phase. Then, antioxidants extracted from OMW and phycocyanin from Spirulina maxima were encapsulated in the water core of the nanoemulsions. The empty and antioxidant-loaded systems were then structurally studied using dynamic light scattering for the detection of their droplet size and stability over time. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using adequate probes was applied for the characterization of the surfactants’ monolayer in the presence and absence of antioxidants. It was found that the mean droplet diameter of the emulsions was 200 nm. The nanoemulsions remained stable for over 2 months. The encapsulated antioxidants were assessed for their scavenging activity of a model stable radical by applying EPR spectroscopy. It was found that the loaded systems exhibited an increased antioxidant capacity compared with the empty ones. Finally, the most stable system was added to commercial sunscreen lotions and the overall sun protection factor (SPF) was assessed. The sunscreen lotions that contained the nanoemulsions loaded with OMW extracts or phycocyanin showed an increase in their SPF value.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 103: Brevundimonas aurantiaca M3d10, Isolated
           from the Olive Fly, Produces Hydroxylated Astaxanthin

    • Authors: Marisanna Centini, Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Marco Biagi, Elena Dreassi, Luca Mazzon, Laura Marri
      First page: 103
      Abstract: In recent years, the exploitation of bacteria for the production of carotenoids has become of great interest as a sustainable alternative to chemical synthesis, which is expensive and technically challenging. This study contributes to the repertoire of carotenogenic bacteria by reporting the isolation of an orange-pigmented bacterium from the gut of adult olive flies. The novel isolate, designated as M3d10, shared 100% identity with Brevundimonas aurantiaca strain CB-R 16S ribosomal RNA, and, through a preliminary characterization, its orange pigment was predicted to be a hydroxylated astaxanthin derivative.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040103
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 104: Follicular Delivery of Caffeine from a
           Shampoo for Hair Retention

    • Authors: Loris Busch, Anna Lena Klein, James R. Schwartz, Kathleen Pearson, Heike Richter, Sabine Schanzer, Silke B. Lohan, Fabian Schumacher, Burkhard Kleuser, Martina C. Meinke
      First page: 104
      Abstract: A key factor in the prevention of hair loss is the provision of optimal conditions on the scalp. In this regard, reduction of oxidative stress on the scalp is one critical requirement to support the hair follicles to function optimally. Recently, a novel shampoo formulation technology containing anti-oxidants such as piroctone olamine has been demonstrated to improve hair retention based on micellar degradation and coacervation effects. Caffeine has also been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant activity including the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. As with piroctone olamine, it is expected that follicular delivery of caffeine will enhance its anti-oxidant activity in a region that will be beneficial for hair retention. In this study, two shampoo formulations as well as a control formulation were applied to the calf area of n = 9 male participants. The technique of differential tape stripping was applied to obtain the caffeine penetrated to the stratum corneum and to the hair follicles. Isotope-dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to demonstrate caffeine follicular delivery from the shampoo formulas. The results showed that the percentage of caffeine recovered in the hair follicles was 8–9% of the caffeine absorbed into the skin and matched an existing caffeine-based shampoo. In conclusion, a novel shampoo formulation technology has been developed that effectively delivers beneficial anti-oxidants to improve hair retention. This new shampoo is expected to be especially useful in the goal of retaining hair during aging.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040104
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 105: Global Facial Rejuvenation Using a New
           Cohesive, Highly Concentrated Hyaluronic Acid Filler: A Descriptive
           Analysis of 35 Cases

    • Authors: Maria Claudia Almeida Issa, Andreia Fogaça, Eliandre Palermo, Luciana Maluf, Patricia Ormiga, Luciana Conrado, Luis Henrique Barbizan de Moura
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Cosmetic procedures using fillers have gained importance over the last decades due to their ability to offer rejuvenation and beautification quickly with no (or minor) side effects. Hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is the most used filler in cosmetic dermatology; its physical and chemical properties vary according to the manufacturing process. The characteristics of the final product are crucial for its clinical indication. Specific physicochemical properties of HA gel are required to fill, volumize, sustain, and contour different anatomical areas and layers. Ideally, HA gels should have a consistency similar to that of the surrounding tissue to promote a natural feel, but, at the same time, they should be able to sustain their shape against constant physical strain caused by muscle contraction during mimic movements. Generally, softer gels are indicated to fill superficial layers, and are not usually meant to perform lifting or volumizing, for which stiffer gels are proposed. Therefore, combining gels with different characteristics is indicated for global facial treatment. The Brazilian market recently introduced a new Korean HA filler. Still, clinical evaluation of global facial treatment using these products is lacking in the literature. This study aims to describe clinical results, patient satisfaction, and side effects of facial treatment using these fillers. We analysed the clinical impact of global facial treatment in 35 patients performed by seven dermatologists. Patients of both sexes desiring beautification or rejuvenation were included, and all of them had indications for the filling procedure. Three Korean HA gels (e.p.t.q. S100, S300, and S500, Jetema ®) with high HA concentrations and cohesiveness, varying only in their crosslinking degree, were used. The dermatologists chose the product for each procedure based on their rheological properties and clinical assessment. S100 gel was indicated for refinement, and S300 and S500 gels for structure and volume. The doctors evaluated the clinical outcomes of rejuvenation or beautification using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS), and patient satisfaction using the Likert scale, 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedures. Patients treated included 4 males and 31 females with a mean age of 43.08 years. An average of 6.33 syringes was used. After 30 days, 80% of patients showed excellent or accentuated improvement, with 94.2% satisfaction. After 3 and 6 months, 80% of patients showed excellent or accentuated improvement, which increased their happiness (97%). Immediate common side effects occurred in 17 patients. One patient had a vascular occlusion, which was quickly reverted using hyaluronidase. Most patients had accentuated improvement and great satisfaction. This new cohesive, highly concentrated HA gel promoted a sustained global improvement and patient satisfaction with expected transitory side effects.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040105
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 106: An Updated Etiology of Hair Loss and the
           New Cosmeceutical Paradigm in Therapy: Clearing ‘the Big Eight

    • Authors: Nicholas Sadgrove, Sanjay Batra, David Barreto, Jeffrey Rapaport
      First page: 106
      Abstract: In this current review, research spanning the last decade (such as transcriptomic studies, phenotypic observations, and confirmed comorbidities) has been synthesized into an updated etiology of hair loss and applied to the new cosmeceutical paradigm of hair rejuvenation. The major etiological components in scalps with hair loss are denoted as the ‘big eight strikes’, which include the following: androgens, prostaglandins, overactive aerobic metabolism of glucose, bacterial or fungal over-colonization, inflammation, fibrosis, metabolism or circulation problems, and malnutrition. The relevance of the ‘big eight’ to nine categories of hair loss is explained. In cases of androgenetic alopecia or female pattern hair loss, both elevated DHT and increased frequency of androgen receptors lead to problems with the metabolism of glucose (sugar), redox imbalance, disruption to the electron transport chain, and PPAR-γ overactivity (the latter is unique to androgenetic alopecia, where the reverse occurs in other types of hair loss). These etiological factors and others from ‘the big eight’ are the focal point of our hypothetical narrative of the attenuative mechanisms of commercial cosmeceutical hair serums. We conclude that cosmeceuticals with the potential to improve all eight strikes (according to published in vitro or clinical data) utilize bioactive peptides and plant compounds that are either flavonoids (isoflavones, procyanidins, flavanols, and flavonols) or sterols/triterpenes. It is noteworthy that many therapeutic interventions are generic to the multiple types of hair loss. Lastly, suggestions are made on how scalp and hair health can be improved by following the cosmeceutical approach.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040106
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 107: Hair Lipid Structure: Effect of Surfactants

    • Authors: Luisa Coderch, Cristina Alonso, M. Teresa García, Lourdes Pérez, Meritxell Martí
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Human hair fibres are mainly comprised of proteins (>90%) and lipids (1–9%), which are characterised as exogenous or endogenous, depending on whether they originate from sebaceous glands or hair matrix cells, respectively. Exogenous lipids consist of free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides, cholesterol (CH), wax esters, and squalene. Endogenous hair lipids comprise FFAs, CH, ceramides, glycosylceramides, cholesterol sulfate, and 18-methyleicosanoic acid. Lipids were demonstrated to be fundamental against damage and maintenance of healthy hair. Several studies have evaluated the effects of hair lipid content and have shown how hair properties were altered when lipids were removed by solvent extraction. The effect of surfactants on hair lipids is difficult to determine, as the complex structure of the cell membrane complex makes it difficult to determine where surfactants act. Shampoos and conditioners contain surfactants that remove lipids during routine cleansing of hair. However, shampooing does not completely remove all free lipids from the surface layers. The effect of surfactants on the alteration and removal of structural lipids is poorly developed, and there is no consensus on the results. Further research on the lipid composition of the hair could provide information on the penetration pathways of surfactants to improve effectiveness and limit possible damage.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040107
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 108: Citrulluside T, Isolated from the Citrullus
           lanatus Stem, Inhibits Melanogenesis in α-MSH-Induced Mouse B16F10

    • Authors: Hyeon-Mi Kim, Mi-Yeon Moon, Chang-Gu Hyun
      First page: 108
      Abstract: With the increasing number of cosmetic consumers emphasizing value consumption and sustainability, upcycling has gained attention as a solution to agricultural by-products, which are the main culprits of environmental problems. In this study, we isolated citrulluside T with whitening activity from discarded Citrullus lanatus stems and investigated the anti-melanogenic effect of citrulluside T and the underlying mechanisms. We found that citrulluside T did not exhibit cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 90 μM and significantly reduced the melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells. In addition, citrulluside T inhibited the expression of melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, as well as melanin synthesis via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated downregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key transcription factor in melanogenesis. Furthermore, we found that citrulluside T exerted its anti-melanogenic effect by downregulating the β-catenin protein and upregulating phosphorylated β-catenin. Finally, we confirmed that citrulluside T was safe for skin through skin irritation tests on 33 subjects, suggesting its applicability as a protective agent against hyperpigmentation for topical applications such as cosmetics and ointments.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 109: Formulation of Botanical Shampoo Infused
           with Standardised Mangosteen Peel Extract for Healthy Hair and Scalp

    • Authors: Sze-Huey Sang, Kai Bin Liew, Siew-Keah Lee, Jing-Wen Keng, Sue-Kei Lee, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Ching Siang Tan, Yik-Ling Chew
      First page: 109
      Abstract: In recent decades, there has been a growing demand for shampoos derived from botanical sources due to their avoidance of synthetic and highly allergenic chemicals used as bioactives and excipients. These hair care products are free from sulfates, parabens, silicones, synthetic fragrances, and artificial colours. Natural shampoos are sustainable, skin-friendly, and eco-friendly to the environment. Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) peel is usually discarded as agricultural waste. It consists of numerous bioactives which exhibit promising activities for hair care and scalp maintenance. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate a novel hair shampoo containing standardised mangosteen peel extract. The formulation of the mangosteen shampoo utilised botanical ingredients and naturally derived components. It underwent an evaluation to assess its physicochemical properties, including visual inspection, pH, surface tension, percentage solid content, wetting time, foam ability and stability, as well as dirt dispersion. These properties were then compared to those of two commercially available hair shampoos. Its antimicrobial activity towards Malassezia furfur ATCC 14521 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was also examined and compared with the commercial shampoo using the microbroth dilution method. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. It was noticed that all formulations (F1–F4) had acceptable physicochemical properties, and they fell within the standard range. F2 had the best antifungal activity (MIC 0.039 mg/mL, MFC 0.156 mg/mL), and moderate antibacterial (MIC 2.50 mg/mL, MBC 5.00 mg/mL) and antioxidant activities (IC50 21.9 ± 3.27 mg/mL; AEAC 26.3 ± 4.06 mg AA/100 g sample). A microscopic examination of hair strands after washing revealed the successful removal of artificial sebum, signifying a good detergency effect. The physical and chemical properties of the hair shampoo formula remained stable without phase separation. In conclusion, the formulated clean hair shampoo with standardised mangosteen peel extract has good cleansing properties, and it is effective in inhibiting dandruff-causing microbial and scavenging free radicals.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040109
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 110: Physicochemical Characteristics and
           Hydrolytic Degradation of Polylactic Acid Dermal Fillers: A Comparative

    • Authors: Nikita G. Sedush, Kirill T. Kalinin, Pavel N. Azarkevich, Antonina A. Gorskaya
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Dermal fillers have gained significant attention in the field of aesthetic medicine due to their ability to restore volume and correct facial wrinkles. Even though such formulations have similar compositions, they can have different microstructure and molecular characteristics, which in turn affect the biodegradation profile. This study presents the results of an investigation of the physicochemical characteristics of four dermal fillers from different manufacturers (Sculptra®, Gana V®, AestheFill®, and Repart PLA®). The molecular and supramolecular characteristics of polylactic acid (L/D isomer ratio, molecular weight, degree of crystallinity), the morphology and size of PLA microparticles were determined. Hydrolytic degradation studies in phosphate buffer revealed differences in the rate of molecular weight reduction in the polymer. The obtained data may be important for the analysis and interpretation of the results of biological studies and clinical outcomes of the PLA dermal fillers.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040110
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 111: Insights into Bioactive Peptides in

    • Authors: Le Thi Nhu Ngoc, Ju-Young Moon, Young-Chul Lee
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Bioactive peptides have gained significant attention in the cosmetic industry due to their potential in enhancing skin health and beauty. These small protein fragments exhibit various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, making them ideal ingredients for cosmetic formulations. These bioactive peptides are classified into four categories: signal, carrier, neurotransmitter-inhibitory, and enzyme-inhibitory peptides. This review provides insight into applying bioactive peptides in cosmetics and their mechanisms of action (e.g., downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, radical scavenging, inhibiting collagen, tyrosinase, and elastase synthesis). The abundant natural origins (e.g., animals, plants, and marine sources) have been identified as primary sources for extractions of cosmetic peptides through various techniques (e.g., enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrafiltration, fermentation, and high-performance liquid chromatography). Furthermore, the safety and regulatory aspects of using peptides in cosmetics are examined, including potential allergic reactions and regulatory guidelines. Finally, the challenges of peptides in cosmetics are discussed, emphasizing the need for further research to fully harness their potential in enhancing skin health. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the application of peptides in cosmetics, shedding light on their transformative role in developing innovative and effective skincare products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040111
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 112: Olea europea and By-Products: Extraction
           Methods and Cosmetic Applications

    • Authors: Cecilia Dauber, Emma Parente, María Pía Zucca, Adriana Gámbaro, Ignacio Vieitez
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Currently, in addition to the use of olive oil in cosmetics, the use of olive-derived bioactives and their incorporation into cosmetics is a growing trend. The olive oil industry produces vast quantities of by-products, such as olive mill wastewater, olive pomace and leaves from which new ingredients may be obtained for cosmetic use. In this way, by-products are revalorized, which contributes to the implementation of a sustainable economy or upcycling. This review intends to provide a detailed overview of the different extraction techniques reported in order to obtain the bioactive compounds of cosmetic value that can be found in olive by-products: fatty acids, tocopherols, polyphenols, phytosterols and squalene. Different extraction techniques are presented, including some traditional techniques (solid–liquid extraction) and more novel or “greener” ones: ultrasound, microwave, supercritical extraction, pressurized fluids and deep eutectic solvents. Additionally, different applications of olive by-products in skin care products are explored: emollient, antioxidant, anti-age, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial, and the perspective of consumers is also considered since they increasingly demand products formulated with natural ingredients.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040112
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 113: Nanogels Based on Hyaluronic Acid as
           Potential Active Carriers for Dermatological and Cosmetic Applications

    • Authors: Emanuele Mauri, Stefano Scialla
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Nanogels are a prominent research topic in biomedical and drug delivery applications. The versatility of their chemistry allows them to be tailored both to carry and release a wide range of active molecules, and to target specific tissues or cell types. Within a vast field of possible chemical designs, nanogels based on hyaluronic acid seem particularly interesting from the standpoint of dermatological and cosmetic applications, due to the well-known involvement of hyaluronic acid in several fundamental processes related to skin health and ageing. In spite of this, relatively few studies about these nanocarriers and their potential skin-related benefits have appeared so far in the literature. With the aim to stimulate further interest in the topic, in this review, we provide information on hyaluronic acid-based nanogels, including their key physicochemical properties, their typical drug release behavior, and the main synthetic methodologies. The latter include: approaches based on spontaneous self-assembly of polymer molecules; approaches based on chemical cross-linking, where nanogel formation is promoted by covalent bonds between polymer chains; and hybrid approaches that leverage a combination of the above two mechanisms. We believe this body of information, which we collected by going through the relevant literature from the past 10–15 years, offers cosmetic formulators plenty of options to design innovative products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040113
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 114: Involvement of Vitamin D3 in the Aging
           Process According to Sex

    • Authors: Daniela Florina Trifan, Adrian Gheorghe Tirla, Calin Mos, Adrian Danciu, Florian Bodog, Felicia Manole, Timea Claudia Ghitea
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Background/Aim: Rapid onset of facial ptosis can impact physical appearance and compromise the outcomes of facelift procedures. The level of vitamin D has a potential correlation with collagen formation and its deficiency with inflammatory processes that affect the breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This study aims to investigate the potential relationship between accentuated facial ptosis in women and low levels of vitamin D. Furthermore, it aims to explore preventive measures or strategies to slow down facial ptosis and enhance the longevity of facelift results. Materials and Methods: The study was focused on monitoring the vitamin D levels in women and men with advanced facial ptosis and comparing them with a control group. Results: Notably, a direct association between gender and serum vitamin D levels was observed, indicating less sustainable outcomes in women. Conclusions: Women face additional challenges in the aging process due to hormonal shifts after menopause or premenopausal, which are associated with osteoporosis and lower vitamin D levels.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040114
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 115: Filler Migration after Facial
           Injection—A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Uwe Wollina, Alberto Goldman
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Background: The injection of dermal fillers for facial esthetics has become a very popular procedure. Although usually safe in the hands of the experienced user, filler injections may bear a risk of unwanted side effects. Material and Methods: This is a narrative review of dermal filler migration after facial injections. We performed research on the literature on Pubmed and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were observational studies, case reports, and clinical trials which investigated the association of facial filler injections to filler migration. Animal studies have not been considered. Intravascular injections were excluded. Results: We identified 28 reports that met the inclusion criteria. The age range of affected patients was 21 to 86 years (mean ± standard deviation: 47 ± 14.8 years). Women were 25 times more reported than males. Hyaluronic acid and polyalkylimide were the most commonly encountered filler substances. Injections into the nose, lips, nasolabial folds, and forehead (including glabella) are more often reported for filler migration than injections into the cheeks. Tear-trough correction bears a risk for orbital migration. The delay from injection to presentation of filler migration was highly variable. Very late filler migration was more commonly seen with permanent fillers than non-permanent products. Conclusions: Filler migration distant from the injection site can occur even several years after the primary treatment. All filler types can be involved. Permanent fillers bear a higher risk of very late filler migration. Migration of permanent fillers needs surgical treatment, while HA fillers respond to hyaluronidase injections. Detailed knowledge of facial anatomy, safer injection techniques, and filler qualities are preventive measures.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040115
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 116: Sargassum fusiforme Extract Induces
           Melanogenesis through the cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway

    • Authors: Hayeon Kim, Seoungwoo Shin, Youngsu Jang, Eunae Cho, Deokhoon Park, Eunsun Jung
      First page: 116
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Sargassum fusiforme extract (SFE) on melanogenesis and its mechanism both in vitro and ex vivo. The melanogenic-inducing effect of SFE was evaluated using a melanin contents assay and a cellular tyrosinase activity assay. To investigate whether SFE could protect melanocytes against oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxidase was used. The molecular mechanism underlying the effect of SFE on melanogenesis was determined via Western blot analysis of tyrosinase, a microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and a phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression. The degree of pigmentation in a 3D skin model was determined by measuring the L* values. Contents of melanin in ex vivo human hair follicles were evaluated via Fontana–Masson staining. SFE significantly increased melanin contents and cellular tyrosinase activity in human epidermal melanocytes. SFE also increased the phosphorylation of CREB and the protein levels of tyrosinase and MITF. Moreover, SFE attenuated oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity and depigmentation. Finally, the melanogenesis promoting effect of SFE was confirmed in both a 3D skin model and ex vivo human hair follicles. These findings suggest that SFE can induce melanogenesis via the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in human epidermal melanocytes through its hyperpigmentation activity.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040116
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 117: Efficacy of a Cosmetic Treatment in
           Decreasing the Mild-to-Moderate Atopic Dermatitis in Babies, Children, and
           Adults: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Vincenzo Nobile, Valentina Zanoletti, Marta Pisati, Enza Cestone
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory and pruritic skin disease with a worldwide progressive increase in its incidence. In this clinical study, we studied the effect of a cosmetic treatment composed of a cleanser, and a body and face cream, on subjects (babies, children, and adults) suffering from mild-to-moderate AD. The product effect on AD clinical signs was investigated by SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, subjective evaluation, skin erythema index, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The products were shown to be effective in improving the AD scoring by SCORAD in all the groups, and a trend towards the decrease of the erythema index and the TEWL in the adult population. An improvement in itching sensation, skin redness, and skin dryness scoring was also reported by the subjects. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of the tested products in decreasing the overall AD severity through 28 days of treatment. Overall, the first results occurred within 14 days of treatment.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10040117
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 68: Dermatological Bioactivities of Resveratrol
           and Nanotechnology Strategies to Boost Its Efficacy—An Updated

    • Authors: Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo, André R. T. S. Araújo, Márcio Rodrigues, Ankita Mathur, Maria Beatriz S. Gonçalves, Kalpita Tanwar, Fariba Heidarizadeh, Fereshteh Nejaddehbashi, Abbas Rahdar, Priscila Gava Mazzola, Francisco Veiga, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoalexin, whose main natural sources are red grapes, red wine, berries, and peanuts. When applied to the skin, resveratrol evidences a good penetrating capacity and low degradation compared to the oral route, allowing for a longer and improved topical effect. This bioactive molecule has been gaining interest in dermo-pharmacy and cosmetics for the prevention and treatment of skin alterations. Its inherent meritorious biomedical potentials, including anti-aging, photoprotective, estrogen-like, skin-whitening, anti-acne, wound healing, anti-scarring, antimicrobial, and anti-skin cancer properties are the most evident. However, resveratrol evidences stability hurdles, becoming an unstable molecule when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Several technological strategies have been developed to improve its stability, efficacy, and safety. We have described the main topical properties of resveratrol, and the involved mechanisms of action, and a great focus was placed on the technological strategies for the efficient application of resveratrol in dermatological and cosmetic formulations, including nanotechnology.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 69: In Silico Evaluation of the Antioxidant,
           Anti-Inflammatory, and Dermatocosmetic Activities of Phytoconstituents in
           Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)

    • Authors: Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Adeyemi Oladapo Aremu
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The global demand for herbal cosmetics is vastly increasing due to their health benefits and relative safety. Glycyrrhiza spp. extracts are used in cosmetic preparations due to their skin-whitening, antisensitizing, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this work is to computationally evaluate the bioactive constituents of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and dermatocosmetic activities, and elucidate the dynamics of their molecular targets. The used methods are skin permeability prediction, target prediction, molecular docking, and molecular dynamic simulation (MDS). The results show that, at a skin permeation cut-off value of −6.0 cm/s, nine phytoconstituents of licorice (furfuraldehyde, glucoliquiritin apioside, glycyrrhizin, isoliquiritin, licopyranocoumarin, licuraside, liquiritigenin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside) were workable. Molecular target prediction results indicate probability for tyrosinase, 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), monoamine oxidase B, steroid 5-alpha-reductase 1, and cyclo-oxygenase-1. On the basis of molecular docking, glucoliquiritin apioside and glycyrrhizin had the best antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and dermatocosmetic activities. MDS results show that the complexes had good stability, and MMGBSA results indicate that the complexes had satisfactory binding energy. Overall, this study demonstrates that licorice extracts are potential antioxidants that could enhance histological dermal and epidermal properties, and reduce the level of inflammatory and wrinkling markers.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 70: Comparison of Analytical Methods for the
           Detection of Residual Crosslinker in Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Films

    • Authors: Fatimah Rashid, Stephen Childs, Kalliopi Dodou
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Cosmetic skincare products often consist of residual chemical ingredients which are by-products of the manufacturing process that may cause side effects such as skin irritation or allergic dermatitis; investigating the safety of these products to protect the consumer is an important part in the quality control of formulations intended for skin application. Acrylates are a type of polymer widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications as copolymers, emulsifiers, and cross-linkers. Due to the acrylates being strong skin irritants and sensitizers, it is essential to quantify the levels of residual acrylate monomers in the formulation; these levels must be within the accepted value to be safe. Our previously reported novel hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel films were formulated using pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PT) as the crosslinker. Therefore, it was crucial to analyze the residual PT in these hydrogel films. Gas chromatography (GC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used as analytical methods to detect the residual PT monomers in the HA hydrogel samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to investigate structural changes due to the PT monomers leaching out from the HA hydrogel films. The results from the GC method validation (linearity R² > 0.99, RSD for intra-day precision = 1.78%, inter-day precision = 2.52%, %recovery = 101.73%, %RSD = 1.59% for robustness, LOD, LOQ values 0.000032% m/m, 0.00013% m/m for sensitivity) revealed its suitability for such studies. NMR analysis results agreed with the GC results confirming the correct quantification of the extracted residual acrylate monomer. The maximum safe concentration of PT crosslinker in the formulation was determined to be 2.55% m/m.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030070
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 71: History of Natural Ingredients in Cosmetics

    • Authors: Roger L. McMullen, Giorgio Dell’Acqua
      First page: 71
      Abstract: There has been interest in the history of cosmetics for the last several decades. In part, this renewed curiosity is probably due to the revolutionizing natural movement in the cosmetic industry. In this article, we provide an overview of the historical aspects of the use of natural ingredients in cosmetics, which mostly come from botanical and mineral sources. We begin with an introduction to the art and science of cosmetics in the ancient world, which includes accounts of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, and Roman cosmetics as well as Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine. These dermatological and cosmetic practices, which were advanced for the time, paved the way for the current revolution of natural ingredients in cosmetic products. Without providing a comprehensive historical account, we surveyed selected cultures during different periods of time to provide some perspective of our current understanding of natural ingredients in cosmetics. Attention is also given to the rich contributions of body art by tribal societies to our knowledge base, especially in the areas of dyes and pigments. Finally, we offer some perspective of natural ingredient cosmetics in the Information Age.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030071
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 72: The Effect of Cysteine Peptide Ingestion on
           Skin Brightness, a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled,
           Parallel-Group Human Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Yoshiaki Uchida, Tomomi Kaneda, Mio Ono, Masao Matsuoka, Utano Nakamura, Akiko Ishida, Yoshimitsu Yamasaki, Hiroki Takeo, Takanobu Sakurai
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is present in almost all human cells and has a beneficial effect on human skin brightness. Cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly) and γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-Glu-Cys) are GSH synthesis components. In this study, we defined glutathione (GSH), cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly), and γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-Glu-Cys) as cysteine peptide and performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of orally administered cysteine peptide on human skin brightness using a CM-26d portable spectrophotometer in healthy males and females aged between 20 and 65 years old. Eligible participants were randomly allocated into three groups (cysteine peptide 45 mg: n = 16, 90 mg: n = 15, and placebo: n = 16). Each subject ingested six tablets every day for 12 weeks, and skin brightness was measured at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. As a result, the 45 mg group exhibited arm brightening in a time-dependent manner, and a significant difference was observed compared to the placebo at week 12 (p = 0.028). Moreover, no serious adverse events and changes related to 270 mg study food were observed in the safety trial. Here, we suggest that cysteine peptide is a promising and safe compound for human skin brightness.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030072
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 73: The Assessment of the Skin-Whitening and
           Anti-Wrinkling Effects of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge Root Extracts
           and the Identification of Nyasol in a Developed Cream Product

    • Authors: Myoung Hee Lee, Dong IL Jang, Jongkeun Choi
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (A. asphodeloides Bunge) root extract contains nyasol as its main ingredient. Nyasol was extracted and prepared as a cosmetic raw material in 95% ethanol. To identify nyasol as a marker compound qualitative analysis was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatographyi coupled with electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Below a nyasol content of 12 μg/mL, the root extract exhibited negligible cytotoxicity. In this concentration range, melanin production in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells decreased as the concentration of nyasol increased, indicating a skin-whitening effect. In addition, an antiwrinkling effect was confirmed by evaluating the inhibition of MMP-1 protein expression in TNF-α-treated HaCaT cells by either A. asphodeloides Bunge root extract (>0.31 μg/mL) or nyasol (>0.25 μg/mL). High-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with a photodiode detector array was used to show that our extract contained 5.06 ± 0.01% nyasol. Furthermore, when this analysis method was applied for the quality control of a cream product containing 2 wt.% of A. asphodeloides Bunge root extract, the measured content of nyasol (0.1%) was over 90% of the nominal quantity. Therefore, the product was deemed to be within the required quality standards.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 74: Fluorescent Light Energy (FLE) Generated
           through Red LED Light and a Natural Photoconverter Gel as a New,
           Non-Invasive Approach for Facial Age Control: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Giuseppe Scarcella, Roberta Tardugno, Pasquale Crupi, Marilena Muraglia, Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Filomena Corbo
      First page: 74
      Abstract: This study, for the first time, evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new natural-based topical gel containing a spirulina extract. This photoconverter gel generates fluorescent light energy (FLE) via a red LED light device, which is proven to be effective for age control of facial skin. This was a one-centre, observational, uncontrolled pilot trial. Eight healthy female subjects aged 35 to 65 years old, with Fitzpatrick skin types II–V were recruited. The duration of the study was five treatment sessions of one treatment every seven days, with a final follow-up at one month after the last treatment session. The images and the related data were acquired with the SONY® Mod. DSCRX10M3, the Canfield VISIA Facial Imaging System®, and QUANTIFICARE 3D® analysis. Patient compliance was excellent (100%) and the treatment was described as warm and pleasant by the patients. After 30 days, VISIA parameters such as wrinkles, texture, red areas, and Trueskin Age® had improved. The safety and efficacy of the FLE treatment assessed in this trial were achieved for overall rejuvenation of facial skin, focusing on wrinkles evaluated via the specific VISIA algorithms.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 75: The Cosmeceutical Potential of the
           Yellow-Green Alga Trachydiscus minutus Aqueous Extract: Preparation of a
           Natural-Based Dermal Formula as a Proof of Concept

    • Authors: Nikolaos D. Georgakis, Elisavet Ioannou, Marianna Chatzikonstantinou, Marián Merino, Evangelia G. Chronopoulou, José Luis Mullor, Panagiotis Madesis, Nikolaos E. Labrou
      First page: 75
      Abstract: In the present study, selected cosmeceutical properties of aqueous extracts from the microalgae strain Trachydiscus minutus were assessed and compared with those obtained using three widely used Chlorella strains (C. vulgaris, C. sorokiniana, and C. minutissima). Among all extracts, T. minutus extracts showed the highest total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and inhibitory potency towards elastase, suggesting potential activity in controlling skin aging. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory activity and UVA protection of T. minutus extract were evaluated employing normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results showed that the T. minutus extract was able to significantly inhibit the transcription of selected marker genes involved in inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)]. In addition, treatment of NHDF and HaCaT cells with T. minutus extract ameliorate the UVA-induced cell damage by decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Extracts from T. minutus were formulated into a skin care cream and an aqueous gel. Both formulas exhibited excellent compatibility and stability. Comprehensively, all these results suggest that T. minutus extract displays promising cosmeceutical properties by providing antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory activities, and therefore has potential for cosmeceutical use.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 76: Preparation and Investigation of the SPF and
           Antioxidant Properties of O/W and W/O Emulsions Containing Vitamins A, C
           and E for Cosmetic Applications

    • Authors: Nikolaos D. Bikiaris, Ioanna Koumentakou, Katerina Hatzistamatiou, Smaro Lykidou, Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Nikolaos Nikolaidis
      First page: 76
      Abstract: In the current work, Oil in Water (O/W) and Water in Oil (W/O) emulsions containing Vitamins A, C and E in 0.5, 1 and 2% wt concentrations were prepared. The pH and viscosity stability over storage, as well as the sunscreen and antioxidant properties of the obtained emulsions, were investigated. The results obtained showed that vitamins slightly increased the pH of the blank emulsions; however, their pH values were within the acceptable values (pH = 4–6). Nevertheless, all emulsions presented excellent pH stability during storage for up to 90 days. Similar results were observed by rheological measurements as the prepared emulsions did not exhibit viscosity instabilities deriving during storage. Moreover, emulsions containing Vitamin A exhibited higher UV protection than the other emulsions, as the W/O emulsion containing 2% wt Vitamin A presented the highest SPF value at 22.6.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 77: Acne Vulgaris Topical Therapies: Application
           of Probiotics as a New Prevention Strategy

    • Authors: Ieva Dapkevicius, Vânia Romualdo, Ana Camila Marques, Carla M. Lopes, Maria Helena Amaral
      First page: 77
      Abstract: The skin microbiome is an essential barrier for preventing the invasion of pathogens and regulating the immune responses. When this barrier is disrupted, several dermatoses, including acne vulgaris, may arise. Most people will experience acne starting at the onset of puberty and continuing into adolescence; a significant percentage of those individuals continue to suffer from it into adulthood. Although common, this dermatosis usually has an enormous impact on the self-esteem and quality of life of individuals who suffer from it. An increase in consumer literacy regarding skincare leads buyers to seek out innovative products containing ingredients with proven benefits for their concerns. Probiotics have proven to be an alternative to the use of antibiotics, often associated with undesirable effects, in the treatment and prevention of dermatological disorders such as acne. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiology, risk factors, symptoms, conventional treatment recommendations and main studies emphasizing innovative topical products for acne-prone skin based on probiotics. In addition, the potential advantages, and limitations/challenges associated with the implementation and manufacturing of these innovative skin products are also highlighted.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030077
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 78: Use of Cosmetic Creams and Perception of
           Natural and Eco-Friendly Products by Women: The Role of Sociodemographic

    • Authors: Marina Leite Mitterer-Daltoé, Vaniele B. Martins, Cristiane R. B. Parabocz, Mário A. A. da Cunha
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The present work seeks to understand the use of cosmetic creams and the perception of natural and eco-friendly products by women and to explore the impacts of their personal characteristics. The study was designed using two approaches: (i) an investigation into the role of personal characteristics on the frequency of use and amount spent on cosmetic creams; and (ii) an understanding of the perception of natural and eco-friendly cosmetic creams by the use of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions. Results showed that scholarity has a strong influence on the use of cosmetic creams; women with a postgraduate education reported higher frequency of use and spending on cosmetic creams and showed an awareness of natural and eco-friendly cosmetics. The subject of natural and eco-friendly cosmetic creams is not something that most of the women that participated were aware of, and the CATA technique proved to be a valuable tool to discover this.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030078
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 79: Profiling and Evaluation of the Effect of
           Guarana-Loaded Liposomes on Different Skin Cell Lines: An In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Isabel Roggia, Patrícia Gomes, Ana Julia Figueiró Dalcin, Aline Ferreira Ourique, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Euler E. Ribeiro, Montserrat Mitjans, Maria Pilar Vinardell
      First page: 79
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro stability and toxicity of liposomes containing guarana in skin cell lines. The liposomes were produced by the reverse phase evaporation method containing 1 mg/mL guarana. The stability of the liposomes was evaluated by physical-chemical parameters for up to 90 days using three different storage conditions. The cytotoxicity of guarana (GL), liposomes (B-Lip), and guarana-loaded liposomes (G-Lip) was evaluated on spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT), murine Swiss albino fibroblasts (3T3), and human fibroblasts (1BR.3.G). The evaluation was performed using cellular viability analysis. The techniques used were 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red capturing (NRU), and the analyses were conducted after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure of these cells to the different treatments. The G-Lip exhibited physical-chemical stability for 60 days when the samples were stored in a refrigerator. The GL, B-Lip, and G-Lip demonstrated low cytotoxicity in the three different cell cultures tested since a small reduction in cell viability was only observed at the highest concentrations. In addition, greater cell damage was observed for B-Lip; however, guarana protected the cells from this damage. Thus, G-Lip structures can be considered promising systems for topical applications.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 80: Special Issue “Anti-Oxidant and
           Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Natural Compounds”

    • Authors: Othmane Merah
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Throughout history, humans have utilized plants as conscious or unconscious sources of molecules for food, health and well-being [...]
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030080
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Hot Springs Cyanobacteria Endowed with
           Biological Activities for Cosmetic Applications: Evaluation of On-Site
           Collected Communities and Isolated Strains

    • Authors: Natascia Biondi, Maria Raffaella Martina, Marisanna Centini, Cecilia Anselmi, Mario R. Tredici
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Microbial communities growing around hot springs (bioglea), of which cyanobacteria are the main components, contribute to beneficial properties of thermal muds and often enter cosmetic treatment products. Bioglea is obtainable via alternative approaches to harvesting from nature: direct cultivation of whole communities and isolation and cultivation of the isolated strains. Cultivation represents a step towards industrial production, guaranteeing higher availability, quality and safety. In this work, the biochemical composition of natural and cultivated bioglea collected in different hot springs and of cyanobacterial strains isolated thereof was analysed. Lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts were tested for antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities and toxicity against Artemia salina. Higher antimicrobial activity was found in lipophilic than hydrophilic bioglea extracts and the opposite in isolates’ extracts. Thermal water extracts also showed some activity. No toxicity was observed. Bioglea radical scavenging activity positively correlated with carotenoids (lipophilic extracts) and phycobiliproteins (hydrophilic extracts). No correlation was observed for isolated strains. Cultivation at the 10 L scale of Chroococcidiopsis BIOG3 evidenced bioactivity changes with the growth phase and life cycle stage. From activity comparison, communities showed higher potential over single strains cultivation; however, further investigations should elucidate isolates’ full potential also by combining them into synthetic communities to simplify production and standardisation.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030081
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 82: Optimization of the Composition of a
           Cosmetic Formulation Containing Tremella fuciformis Extract (Fungi)

    • Authors: Bartosz Woźniak, Jagoda Chudzińska, Paulina Szczyglewska, Izabela Nowak, Agnieszka Feliczak-Guzik
      First page: 82
      Abstract: According to recent trends, people are more interested in cosmetic products based on natural raw materials, known to be safe for humans, including extracts obtained from selected plants, rich in active ingredients, such as proteins, vitamins, micro- and macro-elements, phospholipids, antioxidants, and natural preservatives. An example of such raw materials is Tremella fuciformis extract, which is a natural alternative to hyaluronic acid. It retains water deep in the skin cells and stimulates the skin to fight free radicals, which are responsible for the premature aging of the skin. The aim of this study was to optimize the composition of cosmetic formulations based on natural substitutes for the synthetic substances, as well as their characterization, which included the determination of the physicochemical and skin care properties. Formulations containing Tremella fuciformis extract had the effect of reducing TEWL by 12.4%, compared to a formulation that did not contain this active ingredient, and allowed adequate hydration of the epidermis, which was confirmed by apparatus methods. Additionally, dermatological tests were also conducted for the formulations obtained, which showed that no erythema or swelling/irritation was observed in any of the test volunteers 48 and 72 h after the application of the product.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030082
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 83: Food Supplements for Skin Health: In Vitro
           Efficacy of a Combination of Rhodiola rosea, Tribulus terrestris, Moringa
           oleifera and Undaria pinnatifida on UV-Induced Damage

    • Authors: Alessia Paganelli, Alessandra Pisciotta, Giulia Bertani, Rosanna Di Tinco, Nadia Tagliaferri, Giulia Orlandi, Paola Azzoni, Laura Bertoni
      First page: 83
      Abstract: An increasing number of people seek treatment for aging-related conditions. Plant-derived nutraceuticals are currently of great interest in the setting of dermo-cosmetic studies for their preventive role in photoaging. We conducted an in vitro study on the possible preventive properties against photoaging of a commercially available product (Venerinase®). A mixture of Rhodiola rosea, Tribulus terrestris, Moringa oleifera, Undaria pinnatifida, folic acid and vitamin B12 (Venerinase®) was tested for its potential anti-aging effects on the skin in vitro. Conventional histology, immunofluorescence and real time PCR were employed in the research protocol. The tested product was proven to prevent UV-induced morphological changes both in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Moreover, senescence-related and proinflammatory pathways commonly triggered by UV exposure were demonstrated to be inhibited by Venerinase® pretreatment. Our results support the potential clinical benefits of oral supplements for the treatment and/or prevention of cutaneous photodamage.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030083
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 84: Vitiligo: A Review of Aetiology,
           Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Psychosocial Impact

    • Authors: Khadeejeh AL-smadi, Mohammad Imran, Vania R. Leite-Silva, Yousuf Mohammed
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Vitiligo is an acquired, chronic condition characterised by depigmentation of the epidermis or by destruction/loss of melanin. Skin cells (melanocytes) are responsible for producing melanin, the substance that gives pigmentation to the skin. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge about vitiligo. Although there is no specific ethnic group, gender, or skin type that is more prone to vitiligo than others, it can affect anyone. The most commonly prescribed treatments for vitiligo are systemic and topical phototherapy and immunomodulators such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and vitamin D analogues, in addition to cosmetics that can camouflage and improve the quality of life. Even though vitiligo is typically thought of as a cosmetic disorder, its effects on the physical and psychosocial health of sufferers cannot be ignored.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030084
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 85: Beneficial Bio-Extract of Camellia sinensis
           var. assamica Fermented with a Combination of Probiotics as a Potential
           Ingredient for Skin Care

    • Authors: Netnapa Makhamrueang, Araya Raiwa, Jutamas Jiaranaikulwanitch, Ekkachai Kaewarsar, Widawal Butrungrod, Sasithorn Sirilun
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Biotechnology, cosmetics, and aesthetic remedies are now inextricably intertwined due to the production of alternative, more effective, and safer active ingredients. Additionally, there has been an increase in demand for natural cosmetic ingredients across the globe. Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Miang tea) is a good alternative because of several biological activities, and is commercially cultivated as a resource in northern Thailand. The process of fermentation mediated by probiotics can enhance the bioavailability of compounds, transform bioactive compounds, and decrease chemical solvent use for sustainability. This study aims to apply the functional evaluation of Miang tea bio-extracts to promote skin health. On the basis of their bioactive enzymes, β-glucosidase, and antioxidant properties, the strains Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (previously Lactobacillus rhamnosus), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously Lactobacillus plantarum), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as mixed probiotic starter cultures. The activities of white, green, and black Miang tea bio-extracts, including ferric reducing antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition, collagenase inhibition (MMP-1 and MMP-2), and antimicrobial activity, were all considerable after 7 days of fermentation time. Additionally, phenolic antioxidant compounds (gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, caffeic acid, caffeine, and p-coumaric acid) were identified. The current study’s findings can determine the most effective fermentation time and dose of bio-extract, as well as suggest improvements in bioactive compounds for use in skin care formulations. These results will be used for testing on human participants in further work.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030085
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Cosmetic and Pharmaceutic Products with
           Selected Natural and Synthetic Substances for Melasma Treatment and
           Methods of Their Analysis

    • Authors: Agata Wawrzyńczak
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Melasma is a fairly common condition that is the result of hyperpigmentation caused by increased melanin secretion. In the course of melasma, certain areas of the skin become darker than the rest of the epidermis. Although the pathogenesis remains incompletely clarified, several contributing factors have been identified, namely exposure to ultraviolet and visible light, family predisposition, pregnancy, and the use of exogenous hormones. Since current beauty standards associate healthy skin with its flawless and uniform color, people strive to eliminate any unaesthetic discoloration. Cosmetic and pharmaceutical products containing active substances with a whitening effect then become helpful. The most commonly used for this purpose are hydroquinone, arbutin, retinoids, organic acids (e.g., kojic, azelaic, and ellagic), and vitamins (B3, C, and E). However, the undesirable side effects they cause and the drive to replace synthetic chemicals with their natural counterparts have resulted in numerous reports on extracts of natural origin that exhibit skin-whitening effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent scientific literature, which presents active substances of natural and synthetic origin with potential for the treatment of melasma. In addition, analytical techniques that can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of these substances present in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products will also be presented.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030086
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 87: Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and
           Anti-Tyrosinase Activities of Durio zibethinus Murray and Value Added for
           Cosmetic Product Formulation

    • Authors: Lapatrada Mungmai, Chanapa Kanokwattananon, Supawadee Thakang, Arkhanut Nakkrathok, Pawalee Srisuksomwong, Patcharawan Tanamatayarat
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Durio zibethinus Murray, or durian fruit, is considered the “King of fruit” in various parts of Southeast Asia. It is classified in the Durio genus, which has been reported to be beneficial in the medical and pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties, biological activities, and cosmetic applications of the polysaccharide extractions from the green (GH) and white (WH) fruit-hulls and the ethanolic extracts from the pulp (P) and seeds (S) of D. Zibethinus. The extracts were developed as cosmetic products, and skin irritation was assessed by volunteers. P, S, GH, and WH extracts gave percentage yields of 12.13, 4.01, 1.60, and 1.18, respectively. The morphological structure of GH was highly porous, while the surface of WH was flattened, with no porosity observed. The seed extract showed the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (DPPH) of 0.33 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g and IC50 0.08 ± 0.00 mg/mL, respectively, while no anti-tyrosinase activity was detected in any individual extract. The total phenolic content, DPPH assay, and anti-tyrosinase activity after blending the extracts were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in the individual extracts. Combining extracts such as SGH and SGWH gave IC50 values of anti-tyrosinase activity at 8.69 ± 1.82 mg/mL and 0.067 ± 0.00 mg/mL, respectively. No durian extracts exhibited growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Cutibacterium acnes. A gel formulation containing durian extract was prepared by a cold process. It had good stability, with no skin irritation reported by the volunteers. Both crude durian and polysaccharide extracts showed promise as active ingredients in cosmetic products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030087
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 88: Protective Effects of Naringenin against UVB
           Irradiation and Air Pollution-Induced Skin Aging and Pigmentation

    • Authors: Christina Österlund, Nina Hrapovic, Virginie Lafon-Kolb, Nahid Amini, Sandra Smiljanic, Lene Visdal-Johnsen
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Both UVB irradiation and air pollution are major extrinsic factors causing premature aging of the skin, including sagging, wrinkles, and pigmentation spots. Naringenin, a naturally occurring flavanone, found in citrus fruits, and known for its good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, was investigated for protective effects in human skin cells and reconstructed epidermis. The results showed that naringenin inhibits UVB-induced inflammation markers MMP1, MMP3, IL6, and GM-CSF, as well as pollution-induced MMP1 in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, naringenin inhibited the pollution-induced expression of the CYP1A1 gene in human skin keratinocytes. In melanocytes and pigmented reconstructed epidermis, naringenin significantly downregulated several genes involved in melanogenesis, such as MITF, MLPH, and MYO5A. Additionally topical treatment with naringenin on pigmented reconstructed epidermis significantly decreased melanin production. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that naringenin could be a valuable ingredient in skincare products, protecting against the detrimental effects of both UVB and pollution on the skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030088
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 89: Acne-like Eruptions: Disease Features and
           Differential Diagnosis

    • Authors: Ena Parać, Bruno Špiljak, Liborija Lugović-Mihić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos
      First page: 89
      Abstract: The term “acne-like eruptions” encompasses a variety of skin conditions resembling acne vulgaris. While both acne-like dermatoses and true acne are frequently observed in clinical settings, differentiating between the two might be challenging. Similar to acne, the lesions of acne-like eruptions may exhibit papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts. However, contrary to acne, comedones are uncommon but may still be observed in certain types of acne-like eruptions. Moreover, acne-like eruptions can be differentiated from acne based on their sudden onset, the propensity to occur across all age groups, the monomorphic appearance of lesions, and the distributions extending outside the seborrheic regions. The development of acne-like eruptions cannot be attributed to a single underlying mechanism; nevertheless, various factors such as patient age, infections, occupation, habits, cosmetics, and medications may be involved. The observed lesions may not respond to standard acne therapy, necessitating that treatment strategies are tailored in accordance with the identified causative agents. The following review aims to outline distinct entities of acne-like eruptions and present features that set them apart from true acne. Acne-like eruptions in the adult population, infectious diseases resembling acne, and acne-like eruptions resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents are addressed in this paper. An understanding of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of this group of dermatoses is pivotal for a precise diagnosis and provision of appropriate care.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030089
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 90: Development and Functionality of Sinami
           (Oenocarpus mapora) Seed Powder as a Biobased Ingredient for the
           Production of Cosmetic Products

    • Authors: Frank L. Romero-Orejon, Jorge Huaman, Patricia Lozada, Fernando Ramos-Escudero, Ana María Muñoz
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Sinami (Oenocarpus mapora H. Karst), a native fruit found in the Amazon region of South America, has high nutritional value and is rich in lipids. However, the processing of sinami generates a large volume of agro-industrial waste, mainly composed of seeds. Our research comprises a proximal analysis of the sinami seed and its phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. The chemical analysis revealed high moisture but low protein, fiber, and lipid content. Furthermore, the extracts showed high in vitro antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical IC50 (0.34 ± 0.001 mg/mL) and ABTS IC50 (0.10 ± 0.0002 mg/mL) free radicals. Based on this previous assessment, a gel exfoliant was developed. Since sinami seed powder is a novel ingredient, different formulations were evaluated to determine future incorporation into the cosmetic market. The best exfoliant gel prototype was studied under normal and stressed conditions (40 °C) for 3 months, maintaining a pH value of 5.25 and final viscosities of 700–800 mPa.s and 600–500 mPa.s under normal and stress conditions, respectively. Although unexplored, the sinami seed could be considered a raw material for the cosmetic industry.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030090
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 91: Optimization of a Gas
           Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) Method for Detecting 28
           Allergens in Various Personal Care Products

    • Authors: Adnan S. AL-Mussallam, Abdullah T. Bawazir, Rawan S. Alshathri, Omniyah Alharthi, Fahad S. Aldawsari
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Fragrances are among the most common ingredients in cosmetics products. Importantly, exposure to fragrances on a daily basis might pose a health risk, leading to serious effects, such as contact dermatitis or contact eczema. Annex III of the European Union Directive on Cosmetic Products and Gulf Cooperation Council standardization organization (GSO) introduced restrictions for 26 allergens, with their concentrations exceeding 0.001% and 0.01% in leave-on products and rinse-off products, respectively. In the current study, we aimed to expand the scope of the analytical method (EN16274, 2012) to include a broader range of matrices. The optimized method was validated by examining a statistical approach, including selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and measurement of uncertainty. Successfully, the validated data demonstrated acceptable limits according to validation protocols, with linearity showing satisfactory regression of r > 0.995. During method performance assessment, samples were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction to extract allergens that yielded relatively high recoveries. Studies on matrices spiked with allergens at different levels showed insignificant bias as an average of 0.07 µg/g. Method performance was assessed by analyzing 140 cosmetics samples, including perfumes, deodorants, aftershave, baby wet wipes, shampoos, lotions, and lip care products. The new optimized analytical method is believed to be a valuable analytical tool to be used in surveillance studies covering a wide range of cosmetic matrices.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030091
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 92: Phenolic Composition and Wound Healing
           Potential Assessment of Moroccan Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Aqueous Extracts

    • Authors: Soukaina El Massoudi, Abdellah Zinedine, João Miguel Rocha, Meryem Benidir, Ilham Najjari, Lahsen El Ghadraoui, Meryem Benjelloun, Faouzi Errachidi
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The present study aims at valorizing Moroccan Henna (Lawsonia inermis) by developing healing formulations for cosmetic and therapeutic uses. For such a goal, the plant was collected from three locations in southeastern Morocco (Alnif, Tafraoute Sidi Ali and Tazarine). Phytochemical analysis of Henna leaves was performed by determining phenolic compound contents, and flavonoids and tannins in it, through its aqueous extracts. Then, specific formulations were prepared using aqueous extracts of L. inermis to assess their in vivo wound healing potential in Swiss albino mice used as animal models. Results disclosed that phenolic compounds (13.48%), as well as flavonoid (9.25%) and tannin (2.57%) contents are higher in Henna leaf extracts from Alnif, while Tazarine Henna aqueous extract was found to be richer in saponins (0.32%). Exclusion chromatographic analysis on Sephadex G50 gel corroborates the obtained results and shows that Lawsone levels (Henna coloring agent) are higher in Henna collected from Alnif. Aqueous Henna leaf extracts, at a dose of 10% in petroleum jelly, have been assessed for their ability to heal induced burns in mice. Healing monitoring, carried-out with Henna extracts on mice batches and those of two control batches (mice batch treated with petroleum jelly alone and batch treated with petroleum jelly containing 1% (flamazine), showed a great reduction in burnt surface with an accentuated contraction percentage (CP) and complete re-epithelialization duration (CRD) at 21 days in the 3 studied Henna-based formulations. These findings suggest the interest of potential development of Henna-based formulations, as a source of phenolic compounds, for further dermatological, cosmetic and therapeutic applications.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030092
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 93: The Tolerability and Effectiveness of
           Marine-Based Ingredients in Cosmetics: A Split-Face Clinical Study of a
           Serum Spray Containing Fucus vesiculosus Extract, Ulva lactuca Extract,
           and Ectoin

    • Authors: Ciska Janssens-Böcker, Karin Wiesweg, Claudia Doberenz
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Introduction: Marine-derived compounds, such as seaweed extracts, fucoidan and ulvans, and ectoin, have gained attention in recent years due to their unique structural and functional characteristics, which make them attractive ingredients for skincare products. In this study, we developed a serum spray based on fucoidan, Ulva lactuca extract, and ectoin and evaluated its efficacy on facial skin. Materials and Methods: A split-face design dermatological evaluation of the serum spray was conducted on 33 subjects with visible signs of skin aging, with 29 subjects completing the study according to its protocol. The subjects had a mean age of 50 years and 16 had sensitive skin. The instrumental efficacy and subjective efficacy of the spray were measured on facial skin by evaluating the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), skin pH, skin roughness/wrinkle reduction, and skin hydration at baseline, 20 min after its application and 28 days after its continuous use. Results: We found that the application of the serum spray did not significantly affect the TEWL. The hydration in the area treated with Moisturizer + Spray was 17% higher than that in the area treated with Moisturizer alone after 20 min of application (p < 0.001) and 5% higher after 28 days of use (p < 0.05). Twenty minutes after the application of the product, the average roughness in the area treated with Moisturizer + Spray decreased significantly, with an average of 7% compared to baseline (p < 0.001). With regard to the long-term antiwrinkle effect, 28 days after the continuous use of the product, the average roughness in the area treated with Moisturizer + Spray decreased significantly, with an average of 17% in relation to baseline (p < 0.001). The skin pH was significantly lowered by 6% after 28 days of use of the moisturizer + spray (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the marine-derived compounds fucoidan, ulvans, and ectoin have hydrating and anti-wrinkle properties that make them effective ingredients for skincare products. The serum spray developed in this study was demonstrated to be safe and increase hydration, showing a reduction in wrinkles and maintenance of the skin barrier function after 28 days of its continuous use. Therefore, it could be a promising addition to skincare products for improving skin health.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10030093
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Therapeutic Values of Exosomes in Cosmetics,
           Skin Care, Tissue Regeneration, and Dermatological Diseases

    • Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Disheet Shah, Deepika Rai, Diana Carolina Parra, Spoorthy Pathikonda, Svetlana Kurilova, Alma Cili
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Exosomes are small extracellular nanovesicles that are released by cells, and their potential has been explored for use in cosmetics, skin care, tissue regeneration, and dermatological diseases. The therapeutic value of exosomes lies in their ability to modulate the microenvironment of cells, regulate gene expression, and induce cell differentiation, which can have a positive impact on skin health. In terms of cosmetics, exosomes have been used to reduce wrinkles, improve skin texture and hydration, and enhance skin elasticity, as well as to reduce inflammation and damage caused by UV radiation. Furthermore, exosomes have been used to promote tissue regeneration in skin wounds and to treat dermatological diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, systemic sclerosis, pigment regulation, vitiligo, and hair growth. In this review, the therapeutic value of exosomes in the field of cosmetics, skin care, tissue regeneration, and dermatological diseases, has been elaborated. The existing literature demonstrated that with further research, exosomes may become a viable therapeutic option for many skin conditions.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10020065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 66: In Vitro Models for Anti-Aging Efficacy
           Assessment: A Critical Update in Dermocosmetic Research

    • Authors: Ana M. Cruz, Margarida C. Gonçalves, Matilde S. Marques, Francisco Veiga, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos, Patrícia C. Pires
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The skin is the human body’s largest organ and serves as a crucial boundary between the body and the external environment. As a natural process, skin aging cannot be avoided, and it causes changes in the skin’s strength, structure, elasticity, and integrity. Many approaches have been developed over the years to study the skin, including in vivo and in vitro methods. Nevertheless, animal assays have ethical issues and a lack of reproducibility. Hence, in vitro skin models have been increasingly developed and used. For the assessment of the potential of the anti-aging activity of compounds of different origins, the most commonly used in vitro assays are the ones evaluating antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, antiglycation, or moisturizing activity, and the induction of skin cell proliferation/anti-senescence effects or the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase production. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most commonly used in vitro models for the evaluation of skin aging and cometic products’ anti-aging efficacy, providing a useful guide for researchers in the field. Overall, these assays provide important data on the safety and efficacy of anti-aging compounds, and a foundation for research on and the eventual introduction of formulations into the cosmetics market.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10020066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2023)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Compositions of Abrasive Cosmetics from
           Polish Manufacturers

    • Authors: Martyna Guzik, Olga Czerwińska-Ledwig, Anna Piotrowska
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Microplastics have been widely used in cosmetics and, among other things, very often as an abrasive component in peelings. This type of additive is not the main cause of environmental microplastic contamination, but it can pose a significant threat to the environment and to people. Manufacturers are increasingly taking the decision to withdraw microplastics from cosmetics, replacing them with alternatives, and this is also happening because of legal requirements. The European Chemicals Agency, in 2019, presented a proposal to limit the use of polymer plastics in cosmetic products due to the fact that they may be a potential source of primary microplastics. The final form of the EU regulation is planned for the years 2023–2024. The aim of this study was to analyze the compositions of widely available rinse-off abrasive cosmetics from Polish manufacturers and to identify the most common natural raw materials replacing microplastics. Fifty randomly selected rinse-off products were analyzed for abrasive ingredients in INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients) formulations. Among the tested cosmetics, 13 contained microplastics and 49 contained natural abrasive particles, and polyethylene did not appear in any product. The most common vegetable raw material substitute for microplastics was sugar, and sodium chloride was the most common mineral substitute. Compared to previous years, there has been an improvement in the Polish cosmetics market, where manufacturers are increasingly opting for plant-based substitutes for microplastics, but relevant legal regulation is still needed.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics10020067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2023)
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