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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 101)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 152)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.535
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-7930 - ISSN (Online) 2228-7949
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Effect of misoprostol with and without evening primrose (Oenothera
           biennis) on induction of missed abortion

    • Abstract: Objective: To determine whether addition of evening primrose to a misoprostol-based abortion regimen can increase the success of abortion.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial., 148 women referring to Niknafas Hospital in Rafsanajn with diagnosis of missed abortion were randomly allocated into two 74-subject groups. The intervention group used 2000 mg vaginal evening primrose capsules the night before the hospitalization, while the control group did not receive any medication. Both groups received an initial dose of 800 μg of vaginal misoprostol after admission and the next dose was given three hours later if necessary.Results: The two groups had significant differences in terms of full abortion, consistency and dilatation of cervix, duration between the first dose of misoprostol until the ejection of fetus, the misoprostol dose administered, and the level of vaginal bleeding during the hospitalization. They had no significant differences regarding curettage, duration of hospitalization, or side effects. The mean pain score had no significant difference between the two groups, though the score was lower in the intervention group (p>0.05).Conclusion: Administration of vaginal evening primrose before vaginal misoprostol was found to be more effective compared to misoprostol alone in missed abortion.
  • The effects of cinnamon supplementation on adipokines and
           appetite-regulating hormones: A systematic review of randomized clinical

    • Abstract: Objective: Cinnamon is extracted from the inner bark of Cinnamomum trees. Recent studies have indicated that cinnamon is a safe and cost-effective treatment for improving body weight, lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. This systematic review aimed to summarize the effect of cinnamon supplementation on adipokines and appetite-regulating hormones.Materials and Methods: This comprehensive literature search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to March 2022 without any limitation. The quality of eligible studies was evaluated through the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias.Results: This systematic review included six clinical trial studies (363 participants), among which, only one study was performed on children, and two investigations were conducted on obese participants. A decreasing effect was found in the level of leptin and visfatin after cinnamon supplementation. Two out of three studies examined adiponectin levels and revealed non-significant effects of cinnamon consumption on this parameter. Two studies evaluated ghrelin levels and found an increase after cinnamon supplementation. The result of cinnamon supplementation on other biomarkers such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and resistin was inconsistent.Conclusion: The result of this systematic review indicated the increasing effect of cinnamon supplementation on ghrelin levels and decreasing effect on leptin and visfatin levels. However, more clinical data are required to clarify the beneficial effects of cinnamon on adipokines levels due to the controversial findings of the studies.
  • Morin hydrate downregulates inflammation‐mediated nitric oxide
           overproduction and potentiates antioxidant mechanism against anticancer
           drug doxorubicin oxidative hepatorenal toxicity in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a frontline antineoplastic drug that kills cancer cells through genotoxic mechanism; however, it induces organ toxicities. This study assayed whether morin hydrate (MOH) could abrogate DOX hepatorenal toxicity in rats.Materials and Methods: There were 4 groups of rats: Control, MOH, DOX and MOH + DOX. Rats were administered MOH (orally, 100 mg/kg bw) for 7 consecutive days, while DOX was injected (40 mg/kg, ip) on the 5th day only. Hepatorenal function markers, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were estimated in both organs. Hepatorenal glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were estimated with histopathology.Results: DOX significantly (p<0.05) reduced antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level, while NO and MDA levels increased (p<0.05) compared to the control. DOX prominently altered hepatorenal indices and induced histopathological alterations. MOH abrogated the DOX hepatorenal toxicity and alleviated the histological lesions in the liver and kidney.Conclusion: MOH restored the indices via antioxidant mechanism and downregulation of NO overproduction in rats.
  • Comparison of the effect of mint extract and chamomile drops on the
           gastric residual volume of traumatic patients under mechanical ventilation
           and nasogastric tube feeding in the intensive care unit: A triple -blind,
           randomized, crossover trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Mint and chamomile can effectively reduce the gastric residual volume (GRV). This study aimed to determine the effect of mint extract and chamomile drops on the GRV of trauma patients under mechanical ventilation and nasogastric tube feeding in the intensive care unit.Materials and Methods: This study was a triple-blinded randomized clinical trial with a 2×2 crossover design. Eighty patients were randomly divided to receive mint extract and chamomile drops. Five drops of mint extract and 11 drops of chamomile were gavaged every 6 hr. GRV was measured using a syringe-aspiration method before and 3 hr after each intervention. After a 24-hour washout period, the two groups changed places.Results: In the first phase of the study, before the interventions, the GRV in the mint and chamomile groups was 14.60±7.89 and 13.79±7.12 ml, and after the interventions were 8.13±6.31 and 6.61±4.68 ml, respectively. In the study's second phase, before the interventions, the GRV in the mint and chamomile groups was 10.03±4.93 and 11.46±7.17 ml and after the interventions, GRV was 4.97±4.05 and 6.98±4.60 ml, respectively. The difference in the GRV before and after the intervention was not significantly different between the two groups. Both herbal drugs effectively reduced the GRV (p=0.382).Conclusion: Mint extract and chamomile drops are similarly effective in reducing the GRV in trauma patients under mechanical ventilation and nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding in the intensive care unit.
  • Effects of Iranian herbal Zofa® syrup for the management of clinical
           symptoms in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of Iranian herbal Zofa® syrup in improving the clinical symptoms of patients with COVID-19.Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 105 patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=35) group (received 10 ml of Zofa® syrup every 8 hours/seven days plus standard treatment) or the control (n=70) group (received only standard treatment). Assessments were performed before and after treatment.Results: The groups were comparable regarding age (p=0.980), gender (p=0.584), comorbidities (p=0.318), or drug history (p=0.771). There was no difference between patients' recovery status at the time of discharge (p=0.327) or two weeks post-discharge (p=0.165) in the intervention and control groups. No patient was hospitalized to the intensive care unit (ICU) for supplemental oxygen therapy and no patient died in the intervention group. However, in the control group, three (4.5%) patients were transferred to the ICU, and two (3.03%) patients died.Conclusion: Considering the better recovery status of the patients at the time of discharge and the absence of patient deaths in the intervention group, more additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate the role of Zofa® in COVID-19.
  • Hepatoprotective effects of brown algae Sargassum boveanum on bile
           duct-ligated cholestasis in rats are mediated by modulating NF-κB/TNF-α
           and Nrf2/HO-1 gene expression

    • Abstract: Objective: The current study assessed hepatoprotective effects of Sargassum boveanum (S. boveanum) in cholestatic rats. To induce cholestasis, bile duct ligation (BDL) was utilized.Materials and Methods: Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats including Sham and four BDL groups were assigned to receive vehicle (BDL-V) or ethanolic extract of S. boveanum at 100 (BDL-SE 100), 200 (BDL-SE 200) and 500 (BDL-SE 500) mg/kg/day for seven days.Results: BDL group receiving the vehicle (BDL-V) had substantially increased blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total, and indirect bilirubin in comparison to the sham group. S. boveanum significantly decreased these variables compared to the BDL-V group. Hepatic malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level, and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and TNF-α gene expression were higher in BDL-V rats compared to the sham group but these were reduced markedly in BDL groups receiving S. boveanum in comparison to the BDL-V group. BDL-V group had a significantly lower hepatic glutathione value, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and gene expression of SOD, GPx, Nrf2, HO-1 in comparison to the sham group. S. boveanum prevented the decrease of these variables. The histopathological assay showed marked bile ducts proliferation, portal inflammation, and hepatocellular damage in the BDL-V group and S. boveanum administration remarkably reduced hepatic injury. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis revealed that S. boveanum ethanolic extract contained 39 active compounds.Conclusion: S. boveanum treatment significantly ameliorated cholestatic hepatic injury via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Zataria multiflora on

    • Abstract: Objective: Liver is an important player in regulation of body homeostasis. Study investigated the effects of hydro-alcohol extract of Zataria multiflora (ZM) on oxidative damage, level of IL-6 and enzymes of liver in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats.Materials and Methods: The rats were distributed into 5 groups: 1) Control; 2) LPS; and 3-5) ZM-Extract (Ext) 50, ZM-Ext 100, and ZM-Ext 200. ZM-Ext groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of extract 30 min before LPS. Drugs were injected intraperitoneally. The entire period of this project was 17 days. In first three days, only extract was injected and then, ZM was injected along with LPS.Results: LPS increased the level of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase), AST (Aspartate aminotransferase ), ALK-P (Alkaline Phosphatase), IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and lowered thiol, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) concentration. ZM extract not only reduced ALT, AST, ALK-P, IL-6, MDA, and NO metabolites concentrations but also increased thiol content, and SOD and CAT levels.Conclusion: Extract of ZM prevented LPS-induced hepatotoxicity. This protective effect was associated with reduction in inflammation and oxidative stress.  
  • Investigating the effect of Nigella sativa on the testicular function of
           first-generation offspring of mice treated with titanium oxide

    • Abstract: Objective: Nanoparticles include primary particles with at least one of their dimensions being less than 100 nm. The goal of this research was to determine the possible protective role of Nigella sativa (NS) against toxic effects mediated by titanium oxide nanoparticle (TNP).Materials and Methods: 30 adult mice (10 males and 20 females) were used. After mating, the pregnant female mice were randomly divided into 4 study groups (n=5 mice in each group). From the 13th day of gestation until delivery, the mice were given TNP and NS. After delivery, 10 newborn male mice were selected from each group and kept under standard conditions until puberty according to the previous grouping (4 groups). The epididymis of each mouse was removed and the sperm was collected for the evaluation of in vitro fertilization and testis for histopathology and spermatogenesis of in vitro fertilization of first-generation mice.Results: No significant difference was observed between the NS group and the control group (p>0.05). In the TNP, a degree of epithelial lysis and a significant decrease in sperm motility was observed (p<0.05) compared with the control group. In the TNP and NS group, NS had an ameliorating effect on TNP-induced testicular germ cell damage (p<0.05).Conclusion: In the present study, it was found that NS had no destructive effect on the germinal epithelium. However, NS had an ameliorating effect on TNP-induced testicular germ cell damage in mice.
  • Protective potential effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium
           L. (Lamiaceae) against paraquat-induced lung fibrosis: An experimental
           study in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide that causes pulmonary fibrosis (PF), and no specific antidote is available against it. Teucrium polium L. is a plant that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study evaluates the preventive and therapeutic effects of T. polium extract (TPE) against PQ-induced lung fibrosis in rats.Materials and Methods: We divided rats into five groups of eight. Groups one and two received saline and PQ (20 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. Groups three to five were treated with TPE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, by gavage) started one week before PQ administration and lasted three weeks after PQ administration.Results: Our findings showed that PQ significantly increased lung malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, lung index, Ashcroft score, red blood cells accumulation, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Moreover, PQ decreased catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining indicated that PQ destroyed lung parenchyma and developed PF (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Gavage with TPE significantly improved biochemical and histological abnormalities induced by PQ in rats (p<0.05 to p<0.001).Conclusion: The current survey indicated that treatment with TPE could reduce and reverse PQ-induced PF, which may be due to the phenolic compounds present in TPE.
  • Antidepressant effects of a Persian herbal formula on mice with chronic
           unpredictable mild stress

    • Abstract: Objective: Depression is a serious mental disorder. Despite numerous medications, there are still limitations in depression treatment. So, herbal medicine has been considered an alternative therapy. This survey evaluated the effects of a Persian herbal formula on mice with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS).Materials and Methods: A combination of Aloysia triphylla  citrodora, Citrus aurantium, Echium amoneum, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, Salix aegyptiaca, Valeriana officinalis, Viola odorata, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum was prepared. Except for the control group, animals were subjected to CUMS for 8 weeks in 5 groups (n=10): CUMS, vehicle (distilled water), herbal formula (0.23 ml/mouse), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), and bupropion (15 mg/kg). All administrations were performed orally daily for the last 4 weeks. The depression and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed by sucrose preference (SPT), tail suspension (TST), forced swimming (FST), and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests. Superoxidase-dismutase (SOD) activities in tissues, and serum levels of cortisol, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinine were measured. Also, histopathological changes were evaluated.Results: This formula significantly increased SPT (p<0.001) and decreased immobility time in FST and TST (p<0.01), but it was not effective on EPM vs. CUMS mice. The herbal formula did not change the serum level of creatinine or ALT, but insignificantly reduced cortisol vs. CUMS and vehicle groups. SOD activity increased in the brain vs. vehicle group (p<0.05). There were no changes in histological examination.Conclusion: The herbal formula improved depression-like behaviors which are possibly related to its anti-oxidative effect on the brain. Also, it did not cause any negative changes in the biochemical and histopathological analysis.
  • Effects of curcumin supplementation on insomnia and daytime sleepiness in
           young women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: A randomized
           clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Premenstrual syndrome and primary dysmenorrhea are common gynecological complaints that are associated with psychological disorders. There is increasing evidence for the neuroprotective properties of curcumin, a polyphenolic natural product. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on sleep complications in women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial comprised 124 patients with both premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Participants were randomly assigned to curcumin (n=57) or control (n=60) groups. Each participant received one capsule containing either 500 mg of curcumin plus piperine or placebo, daily, from 7 days before until 3 days after menstruation for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Insomnia and sleepiness were assessed using standard questionnaires. Results: Scores for insomnia and daytime sleepiness were directly correlated with the Premenstrual Syndrome Screening Tool (PSST) score (p<0.05), but not with the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at baseline (p>0.05). There was a non-significant reduction in insomnia and sleepiness scores in both curcumin and placebo groups after the study intervention. Whilst, improvement rate of insomnia status, daytime sleepiness severity, short sleep duration and difficult sleep initiation was not statistically significant between the curcumin and placebo groups. Conclusion: Curcumin does not significantly affect sleep disorders in young women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea.
  • Effect of nano-micelle curcumin on hepatic enzymes: A new treatment
           approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    • Abstract: Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes with no consumption of alcohol. Recently, curcumin is a natural polyphenol found in turmeric has been examined for the treatment of NAFLD. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 160 mg/day nano-micelle curcumin on the amelioration of NAFLD by measuring liver enzymes. Materials and Methods: Patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into curcumin (intervention group n=33) and placebo (n=33) groups and at the end of the study, the data of 56 participants who completed the 2-month intervention were analyzed. Laboratory tests and questionnaires were used to gather information. Both groups received recommendations for lifestyle modification, and were advised to other necessary advices. Patients in the curcumin group received 160 mg/day of nano-micelle curcumin in two divided doses for 60 days. The 2 groups were followed up for two months and clinical and laboratory indices were compared. Results: Our data showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the curcumin group (p<0.01) as well as a significant difference between the groups before and after the intervention in curcumin group (p<0.05). Interestingly, a meaningful decrease in AST serum level was observed in the intervention group (p<0.01).  Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that short-term supplementation with nano-micelle curcumin results in the reduction of AST and ALT and is beneficial for the treatment of NAFLD.
  • Silibinin effects on cognitive disorders: Hope or treatment'

    • Abstract: Objective: Almost all diseases of the nervous system are related to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal death, glia activation, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cognitive disorders are one of the common complications of nervous system diseases. The role of some plant compounds in reducing or preventing cognitive disorders has been determined. Silibinin is a plant bioflavonoid and exhibits various effects on cognitive functions. This article discusses the different mechanisms of the effect of silibinin on cognitive disorders in experimental studies. Materials and Methods: Databases, including ISI, , Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline  and PubMed, were investigated from 2000 to 2021, using related keywords to find required articles. Results: Silibinin can improve cognitive disorders by different pathways such as reducing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, activation of reactive oxygen species- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor- Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (ROS–BDNF–TrkB) pathway in the hippocampus, an increase of dendritic spines in the brain, inhibition of hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and increasing the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R), inhibiting inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and amygdala, and decrease of Homovanillic acid/Dopamine (HVA/DA) ratio and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + Homovanillic acid/Dopamine (DOPAC+ HVA/DA) ratio in the prefrontal cortex and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HIAA/5-HT) ratio in the hippocampus. Conclusion: These results suggest that silibinin can be considered a therapeutic agent for the symptom reduction of cognitive disorders, and it acts by affecting various mechanisms such as inflammation, programmed cell death, and oxidative stress.
  • Potential therapeutic effects of baicalin and baicalein

    • Abstract: Objective: Baicalin and baicalein are natural flavonoids reported for the first time from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Recently, attention has been paid to these valuable flavonoids due to their promising effects. This paper aims to have a comprehensive review of their pharmacological effects. Materials and Methods: An extensive search through scientific databases including Scopus, PubMed, and ISI Web of Science was established. Results: According to literature, these compounds have been mainly effective in the treatment of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, hepatic and cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome, and cancers through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Induction of apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibition of migration and metastasis are the main mechanisms for their cytotoxic and antitumor activities. Decreasing inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, regulating the metabolism of lipids, and decreasing fibrosis, apoptosis, and steatosis are their main hepatoprotective mechanisms. Inhibiting the development of cardiac fibrosis and reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are also the mechanisms suggested for cardioprotective activities. Decreasing the accumulation of inflammatory mediators and improving cognitive function and depressive-like behaviours are the main mechanisms for neurological and neurodegenerative activities. Conclusion: The findings suggest the therapeutic potential of baicalin and baicalein. However, complementary research in different in vitro and in vivo models to investigate their mechanisms of action as well as clinical trials to evaluate their efficacy and safety are suggested.
  • In vivo and in vitro effects of crocetin and its amide derivative on
           acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity

    • Abstract: Objective: Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxic agent whose damage could be attenuated by antioxidants administration. Crocetin is a saffron-derived antioxidant that has neuroprotective effects. This study evaluates the protective effects of trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) and its water-soluble derivative, Bis-N-(N-methylpyprazinyl) crocetinate (BMPC) against ACR neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were treated with TSC and BMPC (1.95, 3.9, 7.81, 15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μM) for 24 hr. ACR was then added at a concentration of 6.5 mM (IC50), and cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. In the in vivo study, male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) for 11 days alone or in combination with TSC and BMPC (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p.). Motor impairments were then evaluated. The cerebral cortex of sacrificed rats was taken for the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels measurement. Results: In vitro studies showed that TSC at a concentration of 7.81 μM and BMPC at concentrations of 3.9, 7.81, and 15.62 μM exhibited the lowest toxicity in acrylamide administration. In the in vivo study, pretreatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of TSC ameliorated behavioral impairments, but BMPC could not attenuate them. GSH and MDA were improved by 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg TSC and 2.5 mg/kg BMPC. Conclusion: TSC and BMPC administration improved behavioral index and oxidative stress injuries in Wistar rats exposed to ACR through MDA reduction and GSH content enhancement in the cerebral cortex.
  • Hormetic effects of curcumin on oxidative stress injury induced by
           trivalent arsenic in isolated rat hepatocytes

    • Abstract: Objective: Arsenic (As) poisoning is a worldwide public health problem. Arsenic can cause cancer, diabetes, hepatic problems, etc. Hence, we investigated possible hepatoprotective properties of curcumin against As3+-induced liver damages in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.Materials and Methods: Isolation of hepatocytes was done by the two-step liver perfusion method using collagenase. The EC50 concentration of As3+ was used in toxicity assessments and curcumin (2, 5, and 10 µM) was added 15 min before As3+ addition to isolated hepatocytes. Curcumin impact was assessed in terms of cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation induction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential.Results: As3+ significantly increased cytotoxicity, malondialdehyde and ROS levels and induced mitochondrial membrane damage and hepatocyte membrane lysis after 3 hr incubation. Curcumin 2 µM significantly prevented lipid peroxidation induction, ROS formation, and mitochondrial membrane damage; while curcumin 5 µM had no apparent effect on these parameters, curcumin 10 µM potentiated them.Conclusion: Curcumin only at low doses could ameliorate oxidative stress injury induced by As3+ in isolated rat hepatocytes.
  • The methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa downregulates the relative
           expression of Kiss1 gene in the hypothalamus of Wistar rats: A preliminary

    • Abstract: Objective: Kiss1 gene expression in the rat hypothalamus was investigated following administration of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (MEHS) to provide mechanistic evidence for the reproductive effect of the MEHS as a potential regulator of Kiss1 gene (which directly controls the hypogonadal axis). Materials and Methods: This experiment was done using fifteen (15) male rats with average weight of 148 g, randomly grouped into three (3) groups (A-C). Group A was the control group and received no treatment. Group B and C were orally administered with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of MEHS, respectively. The animals received the extract once a day for twenty-one (21) days. The hypothalamus was harvested on the last day of administration to investigate antioxidant levels, histopathology, and Kiss1 gene expression. Results: The relative expression of Kiss1 gene in the group C was downregulated compared to the control group (p=0.023). No significant changes were seen in the antioxidant levels of the groups treated with MEHS when compared to the control. MEHS had no histopathological effects in the hypothalamus at both low (200 mg/kg) and high (400 mg/kg) doses. Conclusions: High-dose MEHS lowers the expression of the Kiss1 gene in the hypothalamus. However, this effect could not be explained by the oxidative profile or histology of the hypothalamus.
  • Assessment of the neuroprotective effect of Cocos nucifera L. oil on
           learning and behavior impairment in ovariectomized rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The current study aimed to investigate whether Cocos nucifera L. oil (CO) is effective on menopause-related memory dysfunction in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy female Wistar rats were randomly selected and classified into five groups as control, OVX rats, and three OVX groups of rats which received three different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) of CO for five consecutive weeks by gavage. To assess the effect of CO, neurobehavioral tests such as Morris water maze (MWM) and Passive avoidance (PA) were done and then the animals were sacrificed to remove cortical and hippocampal tissues for biochemical analysis. Results: In both behavioral tests including MWM and PA, treatment with CO particularly two higher doses of 200, and 400 mg/kg demonstrated significant improvement in comparison with OVX group. Furthermore, antioxidant biomarkers such as total thiol content, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly higher in the OVX-CO groups versus the OVX group. On the contrary, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as an oxidative stress biomarker was remarkably lower in the OVX-CO200 and 400 mg groups than the OVX group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the significant improvement of CO on learning and memory impairment induced by ovariectomy. Although the exact mechanism needs further investigation, it might have occurred due to the anti-oxidative effect of CO.
  • The preventive effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on
           demyelination of corpus callosum in a cuprizone rat model of multiple

    • Abstract: Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent neurological disability among young adults. Anti-inflammatory drugs have shown to be effective in MS. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been shown and proven in many phytotherapy studies. This study aimed to evaluate effects of ginger essential oil on preventing myelin degradation in a rat model of MS. Materials and Methods: In this study, we divided 49 rats into 7 groups; 4 control and 3 experimental groups that received 3 different dose of ginger essential oil (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day) for treatment of cuprizone-induced demyelinated rats. Basket test and transmission electron microscopy were performed in this study. Olig2 and Mbp genes and proteins were respectively evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Histologically, cuprizone created demyelination in the corpus callosum fibers. Remyelination of fibers was seen in the group treated with the medium dose of ginger essence, by toluidine blue staining. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed increased thickness of the myelin of fibers in all 3 treated groups (p<0.05). Feeding by the medium dose of ginger essence significantly increased the levels of Mbp and Olig2 genes (p<0.05).  ELISA test showed that 100 mg/kg/day of ginger caused a significant difference between experimental and the cuprizone-induced groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggested that administration of ginger essential oil prevented demyelination and improved remyelination of rats` corpus callusom and can be used as an effective substance in the prevention of MS.
  • Ellagic acid alleviates motor, cognitive and hippocampal electrical
           activity deficits in the male rats with 2-vessel occlusion cerebral

    • Abstract: Objective: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) has been known as a major cause of inability and mortality worldwide. Ellagic acid (EA) has many pharmacological effects including antioxidant, antithrombotic and neurorestoration activities. The aim of this study was evaluation of the effects of EA on motor and cognitive behaviors, hippocampal local field potential (LFP), brain oxidative stress in male rats with cerebral 2-vessel occlusion ischemia/reperfusion (2VO I/R). Materials and Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were assigned into six groups. 1) The Sham: rats were treated with DMSO10%/normal saline as solvent of EA 3 times daily for 1 week; 2) I/R+Veh; I/R rats received vehicle; 3-5) EA-treated groups: I/R rats received 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg EA; and 6) Cont+EA100: intact rats received EA. The cerebral 2VO I/R was made by the bilateral common carotid arteries closing for 20 min followed by reperfusion. The behavioral tests and hippocampal LFP recording were performed after treatment with EA. The oxidative stress parameters were assayed by special ELISA kits. Results: Cerebral 2VO I/R significantly decreased motor coordination, memory and hippocampal LFP and significantly increased oxidative stress. Treatment with EA improved all I/R complications.  Conclusion: The current findings showed that treatment of I/R rats with EA could reverse cognitive and motor functions, and improve the LFP and oxidative stress markers. So, effects of EA on cognitive and motor function may at least in part, be due to its antioxidative actions.
  • Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on cisplatin-induced
           memory impairment and brain oxidative stress status in male rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Studies have shown the complications of chemotherapy on learning and memory. Empirical evidence suggests that Nigella sativa (NS) has neuroprotective activities. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of NS on cisplatin-induced memory impairment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 male rats grouped as: control (saline: 2 ml/kg, intraperitoneally (IP), once weekly/2 weeks), cisplatin (Cis, 2 mg/kg, IP, once weekly/2 weeks), NS (200 mg/kg, IP, once weekly/2 weeks), Cis +NS 200 (2 mg/kg Cis + 200 mg/kg NS, IP, once weekly/2 weeks), and Cis +NS 400 (2 mg/kg Cis + 400 mg/kg NS, IP, once weekly/2 weeks). Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess spatial learning and memory. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the brain. Results: Cis significantly enhanced the traveled distance and time spent in the target quadrant in the MWM test. Additionally, MDA levels increased in the Cis group, while thiol and SOD decreased in this group. As a result of treatment with NS, behavioral results were reversed in the groups receiving NS compared to the Cis group. Also, NS reduced MDA level but improved SOD and thiol levels in brain tissue samples. Conclusion: NS could improve memory impairment and oxidative stress in animals receiving Cis. Therefore, NS could be used as a potential food supplement to prevent neurotoxicity in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Medicinal plants and foods with metaphorical concepts in Rumi’s
           “Masnavi Manavi”: The psychosomatic approach to human health

    • Abstract: Objective: “Masnavi Manavi” is one of the most valuable texts of Persian literature. In this book, Rumi (Mevlana) with a unique method and in the form of moral stories teaches life lessons, mystical truths and even therapeutic advices to people. The aim of this study is to highlight the medicinal plants and foods that had been applied both in somatic and spiritual concept in “Masnavi Manavi’ poems.Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a library-based, descriptive and analytical method was used.Results: Some medicinal plants and food terms such as rose-water, vinegar, honey, oxymel, common reed, grape, onion, garlic and wheat are mentioned in this study to show Rumi's metaphorical and therapeutic approach as a doctor who treats both soul and body. In fact, Rumi's intention to apply these terms was to express his ideas and views about the inseparability of physical and spiritual aspects in human health and well-being.Conclusion: Rumi focus in “Masnavi Manavi” moral stories is the soul health and consider body as carrier of the soul. Therefore, because of this psychosomatic approach to human disease, he selects the most suitable herbs and foods for explaining spiritual and somatic medicine.
  • The effect of Phytopaj )Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo gum resin and
           tragacanth( in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a positive effect on respiratory diseases. Oleo-gum of Ferula assa-foetida contains this compound. This study assessed the effects of Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo gum resin and tragacanth (Phytopaj) on patients with COVID-19.  Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial (RCT) phase 2 was conducted in Mashhad on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this RCT, 122 patients were randomly assigned to either receive a 14-day oral phytopaj plus ordinary treatment or ordinary treatment only. Changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte count (LC) and blood oxygen saturation (PO2) were the endpoints. Results: Mean±SD of PO2 in Phytopaj comparison ordinary treatment before intervention was 91.86±4.62 and 91.41±9.18, after the intervention it was 93.22±4.26 and 91.91±5.92 mmHg; before intervention, mean±SD of peripheral blood lymphocyte count was 1015.90±500.55, and 1104.28±543.61, and after intervention, it was 1652.27±921.38 and 1326.12±719.28/μL respectively. Participants' age, comorbidity, gender, and stage of Conclusion: Phyopaj is most useful in moderate stages of Covid19, and it is not recommended for elderly patients and patients with comorbidity until more insight is gained.
  • Evaluation of oral nano-curcumin efficacy on respiratory function and
           quality of life in patients with bronchial non-atopic asthma: A randomized
           controlled trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Asthma is a common disease and curcumin has modest effect in inflammatory disorders. This study investigated the efficacy of nano-curcumin on asthma. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 60 patients with non-atopic bronchial asthma were randomly stratified in two groups of intervention (N=30) and control (N=30) groups. Apart from their standard treatment, the intervention group received 40 mg nano-curcumin (soft gel) three times daily while the control group received placebo. During the 60-day study, patients were assessed using spirometry to measure Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). Asthma control test (ACT) was completed every 30 days and asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) was completed at the first and end of the study. Results: Totally, 31 patients (51.7%) were male and the mean age was 51.45±12.58 years. FEV1 was improved but there was no significant difference between intervention and control groups. ACT and AQLQ domains scores significantly improved. However, it was not statistically different between control and intervention groups. Conclusion: Nano-curcumin at administered dosage had no additive effect on the standard treatment in asthmatic patients.
  • Effects of cinnamon on anthropometric indices and headache-related
           disability of patients with migraine: A randomized double-blind
           placebo-controlled trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Increased body mass index (BMI) seems to be a risk factor for migraine attacks. Cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-obesity effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of cinnamon on anthropometric indices and headache-related disability of patients with migraine. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 50 migraine patients. Patients were randomized to receive either 600 mg cinnamon powder or placebo capsules for two months. Height, body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured. Furthermore, Minimal or Infrequent Disability (MIDAS) and Headache Daily Result (HDR) Questionnaires were recorded. Results: At the end of the treatment period, BW and BMI did not change in the intervention group; however, both factors were significantly increased in the placebo group (p=0.001). The change of WC, HDR and MIDAS was significantly different between the intervention and placebo groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, HC and WHR significantly decreased (p=0.001). Conclusion: Cinnamon seems to have beneficial effects on anthropometric indices and headache disability of migraine patients. 
  • Identification of Lilium ledebourii antiproliferative compounds against
           skin, bone and oral cancer cells

    • Abstract: Objective: This study aimed at the evaluation of anti antiproliferative activity of Lonicera nummularifolia, Lilium ledebourii, Campsis radicans and Parthenocissus quinquefolia extracts. Materials and Methods: The extract was taken from the fresh leaves and bulbs of the plants by maceration method in the dark. After separating the solvent, the remaining dry matter was added to the culture medium containing G292, A431 and KB cancer and HGF-1 normal cells. Cytotoxicity tests, as well as cell cycle and apoptosis tests were performed on cells treated with dry substances and untreated cells. Finally, the most effective extract was separated into fractions by preparative HPLC and the effective fraction was characterized by Triple-Quad LC/MS connected to the UHPLC system. Results: All extracts significantly enhanced cell death rate in the three cancer cell lines more than the HGF-1 line. The Methanolic extract of L. ledebourii bulbs exhibited considerable efficacy on apoptosis induction in the cancer cell lines. It seems that the mode of action for L. ledebourii methanolic extract is mediated through increased BID/MAPK14 expression and decreased MDM2/BCL2/MYC expression, which led to activation of the p53 protein-induced apoptosis. It was also determined that the effective fraction of L. ledebourii methanolic extract consists of substances such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, coumarin acid, catechin and apigenin. Conclusion: Overall, the findings suggest that L. ledebourii is a promising source of bioactive compounds with anticancer properties.
  • Assessment of the effects of bean extract on axillary hair reduction

    • Abstract: Objective: Body hair removal plays an important role in beauty standards, particularly for women. Finding a method that is easy to use, cheap, and can be done without supervision can significantly affect long-term hair reduction and reduce the side effects of hair removal. The present study investigated the impact of a containing 20% broad bean (Vicia faba) extract cream on axillary hair removal.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five female volunteers were randomly divided into A (right axillary intervention - left axillary placebo) and B (right axillary placebo - left axillary intervention). Depending on the group, each person used a cream containing 20% broad bean extract )"The extract made from the seeds and pods of broad beans.") on one side and a placebo on the other twice a day for three months. Volunteers shaved their axillary hairs three days before each visit and took pictures of both sides on the day of the visit with a trichoscope (to check the diameter and thickness of the hairs).Results: We found a decrease in thickness on the intervention group (the axilla where a cream containing broad bean extract was applied); however, this difference was not significant between the intervention side and the placebo. In terms of the number of hairs, the difference between the two groups was significant only in the second month despite the decrease on the intervention side. Evaluation based on the personal judgment of the volunteers showed that there was a substantial difference in terms of the number of hairs (p=0.012) and thinning of hair (p=0.02).Conclusion: Our findings showed that 20% broad bean extract cream could potentially reduce axillary hair growth.
  • Protective effect of ellagic acid against high-glucose-induced injury in
           human umbilical venous endothelial cells

    • Abstract: Objective: There is escalating evidence suggesting the beneficial effects of ellagic acid (EA) on the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of EA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against high glucose (HG)- induced endothelial dysfunction and to study the potential roles of adropin and nitric oxide (NO) in this regard. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups consisted of normal and HG (30 mM, 48 hr)-treated HUVECs incubated without or with 5 or 10 μM of EA (6 groups of at least 6 replicates, each). The cell count and viability were studied. Moreover, the markers of the redox state, including malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes, and ferric reducing anti-oxidant power (FRAP), were assayed. The levels of adropin and eNOS gene expression were also studied using RT-qPCR. Results: A high concentration of glucose reduced cell count and caused lipid peroxidation, reduced anti-oxidant capacity of the cells, decreased NO levels, and downregulated the expression of NOS3 (encoding eNOS) and ENHO (encoding adropin) genes. Ellagic acid reversed all these effects. Conclusion: These results suggest a significant protective effect for EA against HG-induced injury in HUVECs. The improved redox state and upregulation of NOS3 and ENHO genes seem to play critical roles in this regard.
  • Therapeutic effects of Medicago sativa against cyclophosphamide-induced
           toxicity in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Medicago sativa (M. sativa) has been traditionally used for treating anemia; therefore, M. sativa hydro-ethanolic extract therapeutic effects against cyclophosphamide (CP) -induced hematologic and liver toxicity were examined. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided to control (saline); CP (100 mg/kg, day 1-3, subcutaneously); CP+ M. sativa 200 mg/kg (MS 200); CP+ M. sativa 400 mg/kg (MS 400); CP+ dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg), (all groups n=6). Treated animals received M. sativa or dexamethasone by gavage from days 7-14. On days 0, 7, and 14, hematologic parameters, and on the 14th day, serum and liver tissue oxidative stress markers including nitric oxide, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, serum lipids, and liver enzymes were measured. Results: Animal weight, platelet, white blood cells, and red blood cells counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit as well as thiol, SOD, and CAT activities in serum and liver tissue were significantly reduced, but serum nitric oxide, MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins levels, and liver enzymes were increased in the CP group compared to the control group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Administering M. sativa extract (400 mg/kg) significantly enhanced platelet count, and SOD and CAT activities and inhibited all of the CP toxic effects, while dexamethasone improved platelet count and oxidative stress markers compared to the CP group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: The extract of M. sativa (400 mg/kg) showed therapeutic effects against the CP-induced myelosuppression and thrombocytopenia and improved oxidative stress markers which were comparable to the effect of dexamethasone.
  • Spirulina supplement and exercise training affect lipid droplets-related
           genes expression in visceral adipose tissue

    • Abstract: Objective: Disruption of lipid droplets (LDs) is associated with many metabolic diseases. Spirulina, as a natural bioactive dietary supplement, along with exercise training, may improve lipid metabolism; however, their effects on LDs-regulated genes in visceral adipose tissue are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of six-week Spirulina supplementation along with exercise training on LDs regulating gene expression. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: saline (control), control+Spirulina (Spirulina), aerobic interval training (AIT), AIT+ Spirulina (AIT+Spirulina), resistance training and resistance+ Spirulina. The supplement groups consumed 500 mg/kg Spirulina five days per week. The training groups performed AIT (5 times per week) and resistance training (3 times per week) for 6 weeks. LDs regulating genes expression in visceral adipose tissue (Zw10, Bscl2, DFCP1, Rab18, Syntaxin 18, Acsl3, and Plin2) was analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: Spirulina and exercise training had no significant effects on the gene expression of Syntaxin18 (p=0.69) and DFCP1 (p=0. 84), ACSL3 (p=0.98), or BSCL2 (p=0.58). In addition, Spirulina was found to significantly attenuate the expression of Plin2 (p=0.01) and Rab18 (p=0.01) genes compared to the control, AIT, and resistance training groups. However, Plin2 gene expression was higher in the resistance training than the AIT. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased ZW10 (p=0.03) gene expression in visceral adipose tissue compared to the control, AIT, and resistance training groups. Unexpectedly, Spirulina supplementation decreased the expression of these genes even more when taken without exercise training Conclusion: Spirulina supplementation and exercise training have significant effects on LDs-regulated genes in visceral adipose tissue.
  • Quercetin may reduce the risk of developing the symptoms of COVID-19

    • Abstract: Objective: Recent evidence reported that some dietary compounds like quercetin and apigenin as the most well-known flavonoids with anti-inflammatory effects may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The hypothesis of the promising effects and possible mechanisms of action of quercetin against COVID-19 were assessed in this article. Materials and Methods: Related papers on the inhibitory effects of quercetin against COVID-19 were collected using the following search strategy: “corona or coronavirus or COVID or COVID-19 or viral or virus” AND “nutrient or flavonoid or Quercetin”. Results: The findings indicated that quercetin can be considered an effective agent against COVID-19 because of its SARS-CoV-2 main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitory effects. In addition, quercetin may attenuate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors leading to a reduction of SARS-CoV-2 ability to enter host cells. Moreover, the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities of quercetin have been frequently reported. Conclusion: Quercetin may be an effective agent for managing the complications of COVID-19. Further longitudinal human studies are warranted.
  • Silibinin improved the function of T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear
           cells (PBMCs) co-cultured with U-87 MG cell line

    • Abstract: Objective: Silibinin has exhibited antitumor activities. However, there are few reports about the immunomodulatory properties of silibinin on T lymphocyte function in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we determined the effects of silibinin on T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cultivated alone or with a human cell line of glioblastoma (U-87 MG). Materials and Methods: The proliferation of T lymphocytes was assessed by MTT test in the presence of silibinin (15 and 45 µM). Also, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activity of superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3), and the levels of two cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor growth beta (TGF-β) were compared between treated and untreated PBMCs alone or co-cultured with U-87 cells. Results: According to our results, silibinin raised the TAC levels and SOD3 activity in the PBMCs and in the co-culture condition. Moreover, silibinin-treated PBMCs showed higher IFN-γ levels and lower TGF-β levels. Interestingly, silibinin protected PBMCs against the U-87-induced suppression. Conclusion: Altogether, these results proposed the immunomodulatory potential of silibinin on T cells of PBMCs, as well as its partially protective effects on PBMCs against the suppression induced by U-87 MG cells.
  • Concomitant administration of resveratrol and resistance training
           ameliorates acrylamide-induced spatial learning impairment in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The present study examined effects of resistance training (RT) and resveratrol (RES) alone and together on acrylamide (AC)-induced memory impairment in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into 6 groups: (1) Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneally (ip) daily for 8 weeks; (2) Scopolamine (SCO) group which received SCO (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; (3) AC group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; (4) AC + RT group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks and performed RT (5 days a week for 8 weeks); (5) AC + RES group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) and RES (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; and (6) AC + RT + RES group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) and RES (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks and performed RT (5 days a week for 8 weeks). On day 53, animal training began in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) and 24 hr after the last training, the probe test was performed. Results: RT and RES alone did not significantly affect escape latency or traveled distance increased by AC. However, concomitant RES and RT treatment significantly reduced these parameters compared to the AC group. Co-treatment with RES and RT also significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant compared to the AC group. Lipid peroxidation was reduced in the AC+RES and AC+RT+RES groups compared to the AC group.  Conclusion: It seems that daily co-treatment with RES and RT for 8 weeks ameliorates the memory-impairing effects of AC.
  • Naringin mitigates testicular injury and associated neuronal toxicity in
           lead-exposed cockerel chicks

    • Abstract: Objective: Lead (Pb) poisoning affects multiple organs including the reproductive system. The experiment was performed to explore the protective effect of naringin on testicular apoptosis, neuronal dysfunction and markers of stress in cockerel chicks. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six cockerel chicks were used for this study, and randomly grouped into six chicks per group viz. control, Pb only (600 ppm), Pb and naringin (80 mg/kg), Pb and Naringin (160 mg/kg), naringin only (80 mg/kg) and naringin only (160 mg/kg), respectively, for eight weeks. Pb was administered via drinking water while naringin was administered via oral gavage. Oxidative stress indices in the brain and testes were assessed, and immunohistochemistry of TNF-α and caspase 3 was done in the brain and testes, respectively. Results: Lead administration induced inflammatory and testicular apoptosis cascade accompanied with increased oxidative stress and upregulation of brain and testicular antioxidant enzymes in comparison to the control and Pb-only-treated cockerels. Immunohistochemistry showed significant immunoreactivity of testicular caspase 3 and TNF-α in the brain. Conclusion: Treatment of Pb-exposed chickens with naringin offered protection to Pb acetate-induced testicular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation in cockerel chicks.
  • Britannin suppresses MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis
           and inhibiting autophagy

    • Abstract: Objective: Breast cancer is the main reason for cancer-related death in women. Britannin is a sesquiterpene lactone compound derived from Inula aucheriana with anti-tumor properties. We aimed to explore the impacts of britannin on apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic influences of britannin on MCF-7 cells were estimated by the MTT method. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes such as CASP3, BCL2, BCL2L1, STAT3, and JAK2 and transcripts of autophagy markers including ATG1, ATG4, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, BECN1, and MAP1LC3A were quantified using quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blotting method was used to evaluate the amount of caspase 3, phosphorylated JAK2, phosphorylated STAT3, ATG1, ATG4, ATG5, Beclin1, and LC-III.  Results: Treatment of MCF-7 cells with various concentrations of britannin remarkably hindered the viability of these cells compared to the controls. This compound significantly elevated the expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 but did not influence the levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 and BCL2L1. Britannin decreased the levels of phosphorylated forms of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins causing the blockage of the JAK/STAT pathway. Four autophagy factors expressions, including ATG4, ATG5, Beclin1, and LCIII, were reduced due to the effect of britannin on MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Britannin triggered apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by a mechanism that led to the blockade of the JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, britannin prohibited autophagy in these cancer cells. This may suggest britannin as an agent for the suppression of breast tumors or as an adjutant for the enhancement of anti-breast cancer drugs effect.
  • Investigation of the neuroprotective effect of crocin against
           electromagnetic field-induced cerebellar damage in male Balb/c mice

    • Abstract: Objective: Mobile devices are sources of electromagnetic fields  (EMFs) that cause increasing concern among scientists about human health, especially with the long-term use of mobile phones. With regard to this issue, the potential adverse health effects, particularly on brain function have raised public concern. There is considerable evidence that natural compounds have neuro-protective effects due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Growing evidence suggests that crocin as a natural bioactive compound can be considered a potential therapeutic agent against various neurologic disorders. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of crocin on the cerebellum after exposure to EMF. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Male Balb/c mice were divided into control group, EMF group (2100 MHZ), EMF +Crocin group (2100 MHZ+50 mg/kg), and crocin group (50 mg/kg). The animals in the EMF and EMF+Crocin groups were exposed continuously for 30 days to an EMF 120 min/day. After 30 days, cerebellar cortex was evaluated by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical methods. Results: The results showed that 30 days of exposure to EMF had no significant effect on Purkinje cell size. However, EMF reduced significantly the diameter of astrocytes and increased Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression compared to the controls (p<0.05). Our findings also indicated that crocin treatment could improve the diameter of astrocytes and normalize GFAP expression (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study concluded that 2100-MHz EMF caused adverse effects on the cerebellum through astrocyte damage and crocin could partially reverse the EMF-related adverse effects.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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