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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 115)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.535
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-7930 - ISSN (Online) 2228-7949
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • The effect of nanocurcumin on the incidence of atrial fibrillation, and
           markers of inflammation and oxidative stress level after coronary artery
           bypass graft surgery: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
           clinical study

    • Abstract: Objective: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most frequent dysrhythmias observed following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of curcumin on cardiovascular diseases; however, there is no clinical trial to examine its effect on POAF. This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic effects of a nano-formulation of curcumin (SinaCurcumin™) versus placebo on POAF and levels of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 eligible patients were randomized to receive 240 mg curcumin nano-formulation or placebo three days prior to the surgery and on the first four postoperative days. The occurrence of POAF was monitored for at least 96 hr after the surgery. Also, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed at baseline and the end of the study. Results: Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. No significant difference was observed in the occurrence of POAF between the treatment (9.5%) and placebo (11.5%) groups. Also, curcumin intervention did not alter serum concentration of the hs-CRP, MDA, or GSH in comparison with placebo. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that perioperative treatment with SinaCurcumin™ did not prevent POAF after CABG surgery.
       
  • Anti-inflammatory response to curcumin supplementation in chronic kidney
           disease and hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to determine the association curcumin has on pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD (and in those receiving hemodialysis (HD). Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. An extensive systematic review was undertaken until 10/11/2021 using PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), and Scopus databases. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the overall effect size of curcumin on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in patients with CKD and those receiving HD. Results: Overall, ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprising 523 patients were incorporated into the systematic review and meta-analysis. The results showed that when compared with control groups, there was no significant effect observed linking curcumin and IL-6 (SMD = 0.24%, 95% CI = -0.14 to 0.62, p = 0.221), TNF-α (SMD = 0.11%, 95% CI = -0.19 to 0.40, p = 0.480) or hs-CRP (SMD = -0.17%, 95% CI = -0.36 to 0.03, p = 0.093). The analysis determined no publication bias related to the influence of curcumin on IL-6, TNF-α or acute phase reactant, hs-CRP. The Egger’s and Begg’s test results were not statistically significant (p˃0.20). Conclusion: In patients with CKD and those receiving HD, the use of curcumin supplementation has no statistically significant effect on the anti-inflammatory biomarkers reviewed in this study.
       
  • Effects of a polyherbal formulation on inflammation and histopathological
           alterations in mice with ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma

    • Abstract: Objective: Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disorder that affects the airways. As an ancient medical system, Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) recommends a polyherbal formula called “Monzej-e-balgham” for the treatment of asthma. In the present investigation, the antiasthmatic effects of “Monzej-e-balgham” were examined in a murine model of allergic asthma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Balb/c mice weighing 15-20 g were allocated into 4 groups. As negative and positive controls, groups I and II received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and ovalbumin (OVA) solutions, respectively. Groups III and IV were first sensitized with OVA and then respectively treated with “Monzej-e-balgham” (63 mg/kg) and budesonide. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues of the animals were collected and used for eosinophil counting, Th2 type interleukins (IL-5, IL-13, and IL-33) measurement, and histological examinations. Results: “Monzej-e-balgham” significantly reduced the number of eosinophils and the levels of IL-5, IL-13, and IL-33 in BALF specimens compared to OVA-sensitized group (p<0.05). It also ameliorated histopathological changes of the lung tissues such as goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus overproduction in comparison to group II. Interestingly, the results of the “Monzej-e-balgham”-treated group were comparable with those obtained for budesonide-inhaled mice. Conclusion: The present data indicated a mechanism that involves Th2 inflammatory responses in allergic asthma and suggested a polyherbal mixture for the treatment of this disease.
       
  • Nigella sativa supplementation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A
           systematic review of clinical trials

    • Abstract: Objective: Based on the results of previous studies, the effects of N. sativa on some of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease's (NAFLD) biomarkers were positive; however, there were conflicting results regarding other variables. Therefore, the present systematic review of clinical trials was designed to clarify whether N. sativa effectively prevents the progression of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: A search of four databases (Scopus, PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar) was conducted to identify the clinical trials that assessed the effects of N. sativa supplementation on NAFLD. The outcome variables of interest were biomarkers of hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Results: Overall, four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. In three studies, hepatic steatosis grade decreased significantly after N. sativa supplementation. Serum levels of liver enzymes reduced significantly in three of four included trials. In the only study that examined the effect of N. sativa on insulin resistance parameters, all variables related to this factor were significantly reduced. In two included studies that measured biomarkers of inflammation, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) decreased significantly after intaking N. sativa supplements. Conclusion: Although the efficacy of N. sativa on liver enzymes and the grade of hepatic steatosis was reported in some of the included studies, more well-designed clinical trials are needed to determine the definitive effects of N. sativa on NAFLD. The present study provides suggestions that help to design future studies in this field.
       
  • Meticulous parade on naringin respecting its pharmacological activities
           and novel formulations

    • Abstract: Objective: Medicinal plants having antioxidant potential possess numerous constituents which are responsible for different beneficial effects and are used as an alternative resource of medicine to lessen diseases linked with oxidative stress. Flavonoids are identified in the plants since ages and display wide spectrum of biological actions that might be able to stimulate the steps which are disturbed in different diseases. Flavonoids are significant natural compounds with various biologic properties, among which the most common is the anti-oxidant potential.Citrus flavonoids establish an important stream of flavonoids. Naringin, very common flavonoids present in the diet, belongs to the family of flavanone. It is the principal constituent of citrus family that contains flavonoids for example tomatoes, grapefruits and oranges. Materials and Methods: In this article, we reviewed naringin with respect to sources, chemical property, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activity, and novel formulations. The literature survey has been done by searching different databases such as Psyc INFO, Science Direct, PubMed, EMBASE, Google, Google Scholar, Medline. Results: Naringin is known to behave as an antioxidant and possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-atherosclerotic, neuroprotective, anti-psychotic, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-tussive, cardioprotective, and anti-obesity activity. Further clinical studies using large sample sizes remain essential to obtain the appropriate dose and form of naringin for averting diseases. Furthermore, the therapeutic approach of these bioflavonoids is significantly inappropriate due to the lack of clinical evidence. Different plants must be explored further to find these bioflavonoids in them. Conclusion: The results of this exploration provides biological actions of bioflavonoid (naringin), predominantly on pharmacological and novel dosage forms of naringin.
       
  • Carvacrol attenuated neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and depression
           and anxiety like behaviors in lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The beneficial effect of carvacrol on neuroinflammation, oxidative damage of brain tissue, and depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in rats. Materials and Methods: Vehicle (1% Tween 80), 1 mg/kg of LPS, and carvacrol (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg administered prior to LPS) were injected and behavioral and biochemical tests were done. Results: The results of forced swim test revealed that carvacrol attenuated immobility time and increased activity and climbing times (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The results of elevated plus maze also revealed that treatment by carvacrol prolonged the open arms time and entries and decreased the time and entries in the closed arms (p<0.05 to p<0.01). Carvacrol enhanced crossing, time, and traveled distance in the central segment of the open field and increased total crossing and distance while attenuating the peripheral zone time (p<0.05 to p<0.001). All doses of carvacrol attenuated TNF- α (tumor necrosis factor α) and NO (nitric oxide) in the brain (p<0.01 to p<0.001). The 50 and the 100 mg/kg doses of carvacrol decreased malondialdehyde (p<0.001 for both), and the 100 mg/kg dose of carvacrol increased the content of the thiol (p<0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, carvacrol improved the behavioral consequences of LPS challenge and attenuated neuroinflammation and brain tissue oxidative stress in rats.
       
  • Effects of some anti-diabetic herbal extracts on the insulin-degrading
           enzyme in human colon cancer Caco-2 cell line

    • Abstract: Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a condition characterized by insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance. The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is responsible for degrading insulin and is a potential drug target for T2DM treatment. Numerous activities have been proposed for plant extracts, but research on the effects of plant extracts on IDE expression and activity is riddled with drawbacks. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa, Portulaca oleracea, Cinnamomum verum, and Citrullus colocynthis extracts on the expression and activity of IDE in the Caco-2 cell line. Results: Findings of RT-PCR showed that IDE gene expression was reduced following treatment with P. vulgaris, C. colocynthis, and C. verum extracts. The results of IDE activity with fluorogenic peptide substrate V also indicated that P. vulgaris, C. colocynthis, and P. oleracea extracts reduced IDE activity in a significant and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extracts studied, except for A. cepa, can prevent insulin degradation by reducing the expression and activity of the IDE enzyme. This new insight into the effects of herbal medicines on IDE activity can help future studies.
       
  • Effects of gallic acid on intraperitoneal adhesion bands in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Gallic acid (GA) is an organic acid that possesses anti-inflammatory effects as it inhibits the production of metalloproteinases, tissue plasminogen activator, growth factors and adhesion molecules. Since formation of abdominal surgery-induced adhesion bands is accompanied by inflammation, angiogenesis and cell proliferation, in the current study, we assessed potential beneficial properties of GA against adhesion bands formation in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male rats were assigned into six groups of six animals. After induction of anesthesia, peritoneal injury was induced using a standard method and animals received either GA (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), or normal saline, while a group of rats remained intact. Seven days after the surgery, animals were decapitated and samples were collected for pathology evaluations. Also, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were determined in serum samples. Results: Our results showed that GA significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in serum samples but had no effect on TNF-α levels. Furthermore, microscopic and macroscopic injuries reduced significantly in GA-treated animals. Conclusion: Since GA reduced adhesion bands formation at microscopic and macroscopic levels, it could be considered a treatment against adhesion bands formation.
       
  • Comparative effects of Curcuma longa and curcumin on paraquat-induced
           systemic and lung oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Comparative effect of Curcuma longa (C. longa) ethanolic extract and curcumin on paraquat (PQ)-induced systemic and lung oxidative stress and inflammation were evaluated in the present study. Materials and Methods: Control animals were exposed to normal saline and PQ group to 54 mg/m3 PQ aerosols (8 times, each time for 30 min). Treatment groups were exposed to PQ and treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg/day C. longa, or 30 and 120 mg/kg/day curcumin after PQ exposure period for 16 days. Total and differential white blood cells (WBC) and oxidative markers were measured both in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and blood at the end of the study. Results: Total and differential WBC counts as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) level were significantly increased but total thiol content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were reduced in both the BALF and blood of the PQ group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Both doses of C. longa and curcumin diminished MDA level, total and differential WBC counts in the blood and BALF but increased CAT and SOD activities in both of them compared to PQ group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The effects of C. longa and curcumin high dose on most variables were markedly more than low dose (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Furthermore, the effects of curcumin on some variables were markedly more than C. longa (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: Both C. longa and curcumin improved PQ-induced systemic and lung inflammation and oxidative stress, but the effect of curcumin was more prominent.
       
  • The effect of gallic acid on memory and anxiety-like behaviors in rats
           with bile duct ligation-induced hepatic encephalopathy: Role of AMPK
           pathway

    • Abstract: Objective: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neurological syndrome which is caused by acute and chronic liver diseases. In this study, the effect of gallic acid (GA) as an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on memory and anxiety-like behaviors in rats with HE caused by bile duct ligation (BDL) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The rats were randomly divided into the following eight groups (n=7): sham; BDL; BDL+GA 20 mg/kg; BDL+GA 30 mg/kg; sham+dorsomorphin or compound C (CC) (as AMPK inhibitors); BDL+CC; BDL+GA 20 mg/kg+CC; and BDL+GA 30 mg/kg+CC. The rats received GA once daily by gavage for four weeks, and dorsomorphin 6.2 µg per rat was administered on a daily basis via bilateral intraventricular injection for four weeks. Behavioral tests including novel object recognition (NOR), open field and Morris water maze (MWM) were used to evaluate anxiety and memory in the rats. Results: Examining some parameters of NOR and MWM tests showed that memory performance was significantly reduced in the BDL versus the sham group, and in the BDL+CC versus the sham+CC group (p<0.05). GA intake improved memory in the GA-receiving groups compared with the BDL and BDL+CC groups (p<0.05). Examining some parameters of open field test showed that anxiety was significantly increased in the BDL versus the sham group, and the BDL+CC versus the sham+CC group (p<0.05). GA intake reduced anxiety in GA-receiving groups compared with the BDL+BDL+CC group (p<0.05). Conclusion: GA was effective in improving cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors through activating AMPK.
       
  • Pomegranate seed oil protects against tacrolimus-induced toxicity in the
           heart and kidney by modulation of oxidative stress in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The clinical use of tacrolimus is limited due to its side effects. This research investigated the protective activities of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) against TAC toxicity. Materials and Methods: The groups are included normal (1 ml of corn oil), TAC (2 mg/kg), and co-treatment of PSO (0.4 and 0.8 ml/kg) and TAC. All administrations were carried out intraperitoneally for 14 days. After the last injection, blood was collected from the heart. Results: TAC increased creatinine and urea. Increased malondialdehyde, reduced thiol content and superoxide dismutase. The elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine kinase-MB and creatinine phosphokinase that confirmed cardiac toxicity. PSO reduced TAC toxicity. PSO decreased TAC-induced pathology injury. Conclusion: PSO reduced TAC toxicity in renal and heart via scavenging free radicals.
       
  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized fraction of
           Oenothera rosea L'Hér. ex Aiton and its possible mechanism of action in
           mice

    • Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Oenothera rosea (EAOr) and the mechanism involved, in mice. Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive activity was tested using chemical- and heat-induced nociception models. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using carrageenan-induced edema and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results: EAOr reduced the licking time on the second phase of the formalin test (100 and 177 mg/kg). The antinociception of EAOr was prevented by L-NAME (10 mg/kg), 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo [4, 3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 0.1 mg/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and bicuculline (1 mg/kg), but not by naloxone (2 mg/kg). Also, EAOr decreased licking time in capsaicin induced-nociception. EAOr did not have effect on withdrawal latency in tail-flick test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was reduced by EAOr, and TNF-α and IL-1β levels were reduced in mice treated with EAOr by 72.2 and 32.8%, respectively. Furthermore, EAOr did not present side effects as sedation nor gastric injury. Chemical analysis of this fraction showed the presence of glycosylated quercetin derivatives such as quercetin glucoside and quercetin rhamnoside in a 2.5% concentration. Conclusion: This study demonstrates antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of an organic fraction of O. rosea and its possible interaction with the NO-cGMP-K+ channels and GABAergic system and thus, it could be considered a therapeutic alternative.
       
  • Nephroprotective activity of naringin against chemical-induced toxicity
           and renal ischemia/reperfusion injury: A review

    • Abstract: Objective: The kidney is well-known as the vital organ which is responsible for maintaining body homeostasis and secretion of toxic metabolites. Renal injury is accompanied by oxidative stress which results in cellular apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and reduction of antioxidant levels. Plant extracts and their phytoconstituents, owing to free radical scavenging properties, seem to be valuable against modern synthetic and chemical drugs. Naringin is a flavonoid present in citrus fruits with pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. This review summarizes the renoprotective effects of naringin and discusses mechanisms of its action against renal injury. Materials and Methods: For this paper, original subject-related articles published up to October 2020 have been reviewed in the databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Results: Naringin increases antioxidant enzyme activity, and glutathione content, reduces lipid peroxidation and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. In the molecular investigation, naringin activates the Nrf-2 signaling, prevents apoptosis signaling, and inhibits the autophagy pathway. Besides, naringin could protect the kidney through modulating microRNA-10a in the kidney tissue in an acute kidney injury model. Conclusion: This review recommends that naringin can be considered a promising candidate to treat kidney dysfunction induced by oxidative stress in the future.
       
  • Neuroprotective effects of carvacrol against Alzheimer’s disease and
           other neurodegenerative diseases: A review

    • Abstract: Objective: Neurodegenerative diseases are considered an important cause of cognitive deficit and morbidity in old ages. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of these disorders affecting about 40 million people in the world at the present time. Available drug therapy is mostly symptomatic and does not modify or stop disease progression. Recently, biologically active chemicals from herbs have been studied to develop new therapeutic drugs. Carvacrol has shown positive properties on many neurological diseases. This compound is expected to have the ability to affect AD pathogenesis and therefore, it is considered an anti-AD agent. Materials and Methods: This review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct bibliographic databases until November 2021. For data collection, the following keywords were used: carvacrol, neuroprotective, cognition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, Acetylcolinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), Alzheimer's, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, stroke, ischemic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Results: This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies on protective potential of carvacrol in neurodegenerative disorders and various underlying mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase effects.  Conclusion: We gave an overview of available literature concerning neuroprotective effects of carvacrol in ameliorating the neurodegenerative diseases symptoms in vivo and in vitro. Particular attention is given to AD. Several neuro-pharmacological actions of carvacrol have been summarized in the current review article including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and AChEI properties.
       
  • Hepatoprotective effect of β-myrcene pretreatment against
           acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    • Abstract: Objective: In the present study, the hepatoprotective effects of β-myrcene (MYR) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 Balb/c mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: 1) Normal control group which received only carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), the vehicle used to dissolve acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP, paracetamol) and MYR; 2) APAP group which received a single dose of acetaminophen (250 mg/kg) orally on day 7; 3) Silymarin group which received 200 mg/kg/day of silymarin; and 4 and 5) pretreatment groups in which, mice were treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day of MYR. Liver and blood samples were collected to analyze serum aminotransferases, inflammatory response, oxidative stress markers, and histopathological insults. Results: Our results showed that MYR pretreatment attenuated liver damage and restored liver cells function and integrity as it decreased the leakage of serum aminotransferases (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively)) into the blood (p<0.01). MYR treatment also reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) (p<0.001). In addition, MYR pretreatment demonstrated significant antioxidant activity by decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels (p<0.001). Furthermore, it restored the hepatic level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (p<0.001).  Conclusion: For the first time, our results showed that MYR treatment significantly improved liver function by reducing oxidative stress and the inflammatory response induced by APAP.
       
  • Curcumin as an effective suppressor of miRNA expression in patients with
           knee osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: Objective: Osteoarthritis is the most common disease in the group of joint diseases, and its incidence is directly related to aging. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin as an active ingredient of turmeric, we aimed to investigate the effects of this compound in a new curcumin nanomicelle formula named SinaCurcumin® on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in immune responses of patients with osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: We divided 30 patients with osteoarthritis into two groups namely, nano curcumin-receiving (15 patients) and placebo-receiving (15 patients) and we studied them for 3 months. The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) approved our study with the IRCT registry No. IRCT20151028024760N4. We evaluated the rates of the expression of microRNAs 146, 155, 16, and 138 employing SYBR Green Real-Time PCR method. Results: The expression of miRNAs 155, 138, and 16 revealed a significant reduction in the curcumin-receiving group (p=0.002, p=0.024 and p=0.0001 respectively). Conclusion: Our research data indicated that the consumption of curcumin in patients with osteoarthritis could affect the immune system partially via altering the expression of microRNAs and cytokines.
       
  • The neuropsychotropic effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron): an overview
           of systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating its clinical
           efficacy in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    • Abstract: Objective: Saffron is a spice derived from the Crocus sativus L. with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. This study aims to systematically review the systematic reviews (SRs) investigating the clinical neuropsychotropic effects of saffron.Materials and Methods: The protocol of this SR was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021268446). Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and PROSPERO were searched up to June 6, 2021, to find SRs investigating the neuropsychotropic effects of saffron. The primary outcome was a report on whether or not saffron was effective in each study. AMSTAR was checked for the included reviews.Results: Twenty-three studies were reviewed with a mean AMSTAR score of 6.08 (ranging from 1 to 10). Thirteen SRs investigated the effects of saffron on depression. Six of the SRs studied its impact on sexual dysfunction. Each of the anxiety and cognitive disorders was discussed in three distinct reviews. Furthermore, possible effects of saffron on some other disorders, like premenstrual syndrome, postpartum depression, sleep disorders, and snacking behavior, have been reported.Conclusion: Saffron is beneficial, safe, and tolerable in treating the mentioned neurological and psychiatric disorders. Further high-quality, large-scale studies are recommended to rectify the shortcomings.
       
 
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