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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 318)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Pain and Therapy
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2193-8237 - ISSN (Online) 2193-651X
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • A Response to: Letter to the Editor Regarding “The Effect of
           Ultrasound-Guided Erector Spinae Plane Block Combined with Dexmedetomidine
           on Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Modified Radical
           Mastectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

    • PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Pain and Therapy in the Realm of a Storm

    • PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Letter to the Editor Regarding “The Effect of Ultrasound-Guided Erector
           Spinae Plane Block Combined with Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative
           Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial”

    • PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Letter to the Editor Regarding: “Neurophysiological Assessments During
           Continuous Sedation Until Death Put Validity of Observational Assessments
           Into Question: A Prospective Observational Study”

    • PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Perioperative Dexmedetomidine or Lidocaine Infusion for the Prevention of
           Chronic Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain After Gynecological Surgery: A
           Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study

    • Abstract: Introduction The transition of acute to chronic postoperative pain (CPP) remains a significant burden to the rehabilitation of patients. The research for adjuvants to prevent CPP continues; among others, dexmedetomidine and lidocaine seem promising agents. Methods This is a long-term follow-up of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study on women who underwent open abdominal gynecological surgery and received dexmedetomidine or lidocaine or placebo infusion perioperatively (n = 81). The effect of these adjuvants on the development of CPP and neuropathic pain was assessed during a 12-month follow-up. Eighty-one (81) women ASA I–II, aged between 30 and 70 years, were randomly assigned to receive either dexmedetomidine (DEX group) or lidocaine (LIDO group) or placebo (CONTROL group) perioperatively. Before anesthesia induction, all patients received a loading intravenous dose of either 0.6 μg/kg dexmedetomidine or 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine or placebo, followed by 0.6 μg/kg/h dexmedetomidine or 1.5 mg/kg/h lidocaine or placebo until last suture. Patients were followed up to obtain the long-term outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months. At these time-points, pain intensity was assessed with the Numerical Rating Scale, (NRS: 0–10) and the development of neuropathic elements with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) score. Prognostic parameters that could affect chronic pain and its components were also identified. Results Data from 74 women were analyzed. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced NRS scores comparing to placebo at 3 months (p = 0.018), while at 6 months, lidocaine was found superior to placebo (p = 0.02), but not to dexmedetomidine, in preventing neuropathic pain (DN4 < 4). Regarding secondary endpoints, higher NRS cough scores at 48 h were associated with statistically significant NRS and DN4 scores at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.02). At 6 months, a statistically significant correlation was also found between higher NRS values and older age (p = 0.020). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine was superior to placebo regarding the duration and severity of CPP, while lidocaine exhibited a protective effect against neuropathic elements of CPP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03363425.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy Using
           Selective Nerve Root Block (SNRB): Where are We Now'

    • Abstract: Abstract Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is one of the most common degenerative diseases of the spine that is commonly treated with surgery. The primary goal of surgery is to relieve symptoms through decompression or relieving pressure on compressed cervical nerves. Nevertheless, cutaneous pain distribution is not always predictable, making accurate diagnosis challenging and increasing the likelihood of inadequate surgical outcomes. With the widespread application of minimally invasive surgical techniques, the requirement for precise preoperative localization of the affected segments has become critical, especially when treating patients with multi-segmental CSR. Recently, the preoperative use of a selective nerve root block (SNRB) to localize the specific nerve roots involved in CSR has increased. However, few reviews discuss the currently used block approaches, risk factors, and other aspects of concern voiced by surgeons carrying out SNRB. This review summarized the main cervical SNRB approaches currently used clinically and the relevant technical details. Methods that can be used to decrease risk during cervical SNRB procedures, including choice of steroids, vessel avoidance, guidance with radiographs or ultra-sound, contrast agent usage, and other concerns, also are discussed. We concluded that a comprehensive understanding of the current techniques used for cervical SNRB would allow surgeons to perform cervical SNRB more safely.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Physical Activity is Associated with Less Analgesic Use in Women Reporting
           Headache—A Cross-Sectional Study of the German Migraine and Headache
           Society (DMKG)

    • Abstract: Introduction The aim of this analysis is to determine whether regular physical activity is associated with less analgesic use in men and women suffering from headache disorders based on population-based cross-sectional data. Methods We used data from a random general population sample in Germany that comprised 2477 participants aged ≥ 14 years. A standardized questionnaire addressing headache and headache treatment was filled in during the face-to-face survey. Results Thirty-nine percent of the participants reported headache. Of these, 37.5% of men and 33.6% of women were physically active. Of the participants with headache, 43.3% reported taking analgesics on < 2 days a month, 40.7% on 2–5 days a month, 10.1% on 6–10 days a month, and 5.9% on > 10 days a month. Frequent headache, severe impact of headache on daily life, and depressive symptoms were associated with higher analgesic use in both men and women. For women, physical inactivity was associated with the frequency of analgesic use adjusted for sociodemographic and headache-related variables. For men, results did not suggest any association between physical inactivity and frequency of analgesic use. Conclusions There are both sex-unspecific and sex-specific factors associated with analgesic use among men and women with headache. In women with increased analgesic use, promoting physical activity may reduce analgesic use. For men, education about the therapeutic effects of physical activity for headaches is an important resource.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • The Intraoperative Adherence to Multimodal Analgesia of Anesthesiologists:
           A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Introduction Multimodal analgesia (MMA) is a critical component of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). However, little research revealed its intraoperative implementation by anesthesiologists, who are on the front line defending against surgical pain. Therefore, the objective of our study is to assess the adherence of anesthesiologists to MMA comprehensively. Methods A retrospective study was conducted involving patients undergoing lung resection, knee arthroplasty, and radical mastectomy from pre/post-implementation year of MMA (Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, vs. 2019). Intraoperative analgesia regimens (analgesic mode) and hourly rated morphine milligram equivalents (MME) were compared. In addition, patient characteristics associated with continued opioid use after surgery, surgical types, and position level of anesthesiologists (attending-junior; above attending-senior) were also analyzed. Results After MMA initiation, the rate of multimodal analgesic regimen (mode ≥ 2) was significantly increased (post- vs. pre-implementation, 31.57 vs. 21.50%, p < 0.05). However, MME did not show significant difference (post- vs. pre-implementation, 0.402 vs. 0.456, p > 0.05). Patient-level predictors of persistent opioid use after surgery were not related to increased analgesic mode. Lung resection [coefficient, − 0.538; 95% confidence interval (CI), − 0.695 to − 0.383, p < 0.001] and knee arthroplasty (coefficient, − 1.143; 95% CI, − 1.366 to − 0.925, p < 0.001) discouraged multiple analgesic mode, while senior anesthesiologists (coefficient, 0.674; 95% CI 0.548–0.800, p < 0.001) promoted it. Conclusions Although anesthesiologists used more analgesics after promoting MMA, the “opioid-sparing” principle was not followed properly. The analgesic mode was not instructed by patients’ characteristics appropriately. In addition, surgeries with cumbersome preparation/process impeded the use of multiple analgesic modes, while senior anesthesiologists preferred multiple analgesic modes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • The Effect of M-Health-Based Core Stability Exercise Combined with
           Self-Compassion Training for Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back
           Pain: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Introduction Nonspecific chronic low back pain (NCLBP) is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide, and the management of NCLBP has always been a problem. This study is designed to explore the feasibility and efficacy of m-health-based core stability exercise (CSE) combined with self-compassion training (SCT) and compare it with m-health-based CSE alone for the management of NCLBP. Methods This study is a pilot, patient-blinded randomized controlled trial. Participants with NCLBP were randomized into an intervention group and a control group. All the participants received m-health-based CSE, but those in the intervention group also received SCT before CSE. The intervention took place weekly on Saturday or Sunday for 4 weeks in total. Patients self-assessed their outcomes by filling out electronic questionnaires at 4 and 16 weeks after the start of the study. The primary outcome metrics for these questionnaires were back pain disability (based on the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire, RMDQ) and Pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale, NRS; current pain, worst pain, average pain). The secondary outcome metrics were anxiety (GAD-7,7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale), Depression Symptoms (PHQ-9,Patient Health Questionnaire-9), pain catastrophizing (PCS, Pain Catastrophizing Scale) and Self-efficiency (PSEQ, Pain Self-Efficiency Questionnaire). Results A total of 37 patients comprising 28 (75.7%) females completed the study, with 19 patients in the intervention group and 18 in the control group. The mean (SD) patient age was 35.2 (11.1) years. For all primary outcomes, although there were no significant differences between groups, we found that participants in the intervention group improved function and pain earlier. The RMDQ score changed by − 1.771 points (95% CI − 3.768 to 0.227) from baseline to 4 weeks in the control group and by − 4.822 points (95% CI − 6.752 to − 2.892) in the intervention group (difference between groups, − 3.052 [95% CI − 5.836 to − 0.267]). Also, the RMDQ score changed by − 3.328 points (95% CI − 5.252 to − 1.403) from baseline to 16 weeks in the control group and by − 5.124 points (95% CI − 7.014 to − 3.233) in the intervention group (difference between groups − 1.796 [95% CI − 4.501 to 0.909]). A similar pattern was found in the NRS scores. For secondary outcomes, the intervention group was superior to the control group in for GAD-7 (intervention difference from CSE along at week 16, − 2.156 [95% CI − 4.434 to − 0.122; P value for group effect was 0.030]). At the end of treatment, the improvement in PCS in the intervention group was significant (difference in PCS score at week 4, − 6.718 [95% CI − 11.872 to − 1.564]). We also found significant changes in PCS in the control group (− 6.326 [95% CI, − 11.250 to − 1.401]) at the 16-week follow-up. As for PSEQ, there were no apparent differences between the two groups. There were no adverse events relented to study participation. Conclusions The pilot study is feasible to deliver, and our results indicate that participants in the group of m-health-based CSE combined with SCT may experience faster relief from pain intensity and back disability than those in the group of m-health-based CSE alone. Trial Registration ChiCTR2100042810.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Abnormalities of Thalamic Functional Connectivity in Patients with
           Migraine: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    • Abstract: Introduction Migraine is a common headache disorder. Many studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to explore the possible pathogenesis of migraine, but they have not reached consistent conclusions and lack rigorous multiple comparison correction. Thus, this study investigates the mechanisms of migraine development from the perspective of altered functional connectivity (FC) in brain regions by using data-driven and regions of interest (ROI)-based approaches. Methods Resting-state functional MRI data were collected from 30 patients with migraine and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender, and years of education. For the data-driven method, we used a voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach to compare the FC between the patients and HCs. For the ROI-based method, significant differences in VMHC maps between the patients and HCs were defined as ROI. The seed-based approach further revealed significant differences in FC between the seeds and the other brain regions. Furthermore, the correlations between abnormal FC and clinical characteristics of patients were investigated. A rigorous multiple comparison correction was used with false discovery rate and permutation test (5000 times). Results In comparison with the controls group, patients showed enhanced VMHC in the bilateral thalamus. We also observed enhanced FC between the left thalamus and the left superior frontal gyrus, and increased FC between the right thalamus and the left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 45 and Brodmann area 8) in patients. Further analysis showed that the FC values in the left superior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus were negatively corrected with visual analogue scale scores or attack times for headaches. Conclusions Patients with migraine showed altered VMHC in the bilateral thalamus, and abnormal FC of bilateral thalamus and other brain regions. The abnormalities in thalamic FC are a likely mechanism for the development of migraine. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000033995. Registered on 20 June 2020.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Lasmiditan for Patients with Migraine and Contraindications to Triptans: A
           Post Hoc Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction As 5-HT1B receptor agonists, triptans produce vasoconstriction and have cardiovascular contraindications and precautions. Lasmiditan, a selective 5-HT1F receptor agonist, has a low affinity for 5-HT1B receptors, does not cause vasoconstriction, and is free of cardiovascular contraindications and precautions. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lasmiditan in patients with and without at least one triptan contraindication. Methods Patient subgroups, with and without triptan contraindications, were analyzed from pooled patient data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (SAMURAI, SPARTAN, CENTURION, and MONONOFU). Patients experiencing a single migraine attack of moderate or severe intensity were treated with lasmiditan 50 mg (SPARTAN and MONONOFU only), 100 mg, 200 mg, or placebo, and efficacy data were recorded in an electronic diary. Results Of 5704 patients, 207 (3.6%) patients had at least one contraindication to triptans. Overall subgroup analysis revealed that the effects of lasmiditan on pain freedom, pain relief, freedom from most bothersome symptom, disability freedom, and Patient Global Impression of Change at 2 h post-dose did not differ in patient groups with and without triptan contraindications. These outcomes generally showed a similar benefit pattern for lasmiditan in both subgroups, with all results being statistically significant in patients without contraindications, and pain relief being statistically significant in patients with contraindications. The safety and tolerability profiles of patients with triptan versus without triptan contraindications were similar, including dizziness in 18.3 to 22.8% and somnolence in 7.9 to 9.9% of patients at the highest dose of lasmiditan. Conclusions In pooled analyses from four trials, patients with and without triptan contraindications did not differ in their patterns of lasmiditan efficacy. Lasmiditan may be a treatment option in patients with contraindications to triptans. Trial Registration Numbers SAMURAI, NCT:02439320; SPARTAN, NCT:02605174; CENTURION, NCT:03670810; and MONONOFU, NCT:03962738.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
  • Deep Brain Stimulation, Stereotactic Radiosurgery and High-Intensity
           Focused Ultrasound Targeting the Limbic Pain Matrix: A Comprehensive

    • Abstract: Abstract Chronic pain (CP) represents a socio-economic burden for affected patients along with therapeutic challenges for currently available therapies. When conventional therapies fail, modulation of the affective pain matrix using reversible deep brain stimulation (DBS) or targeted irreversible thalamotomy by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) appear to be considerable treatment options. We performed a literature search for clinical trials targeting the affective pain circuits (thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], ventral striatum [VS]/internal capsule [IC]). PubMed, Ovid, MEDLINE and Scopus were searched (1990–2021) using the terms “chronic pain”, “deep brain stimulation”, “stereotactic radiosurgery”, “radioneuromodulation”, “MR-guided focused ultrasound”, “affective pain modulation”, “pain attention”. In patients with CP treated with DBS, SRS or MRgFUS the somatosensory thalamus and periventricular/periaquaeductal grey was the target of choice in most treated subjects, while affective pain transmission was targeted in a considerably lower number (DBS, SRS) consisting of the following nodi of the limbic pain matrix: the anterior cingulate cortex; centromedian-parafascicularis of the thalamus, pars posterior of the central lateral nucleus and internal capsule/ventral striatum. Although DBS, SRS and MRgFUS promoted a meaningful and sustained pain relief, an effective, evidence-based comparative analysis is biased by heterogeneity of the observation period varying between 3 months and 5 years with different stimulation patterns (monopolar/bipolar contact configuration; frequency 10–130 Hz; intensity 0.8–5 V; amplitude 90–330 μs), source and occurrence of lesioning (radiation versus ultrasound) and chronic pain ethology (poststroke pain, plexus injury, facial pain, phantom limb pain, back pain). The advancement of neurotherapeutics (MRgFUS) and novel DBS targets (ACC, IC/VS), along with established and effective stereotactic therapies (DBS–SRS), increases therapeutic options to impact CP by modulating affective, pain-attentional neural transmission. Differences in trial concept, outcome measures, targets and applied technique promote conflicting findings and limited evidence. Hence, we advocate to raise awareness of the potential therapeutic usefulness of each approach covering their advantages and disadvantages, including such parameters as invasiveness, risk–benefit ratio, reversibility and responsiveness.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
  • Clinical Observation of the Effects of Oral Opioid on Inflammatory
           Cytokines and Gut Microbiota in Patients with Moderate to Severe Cancer
           Pain: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Introduction Recent studies have revealed that inflammation is a key factor in the causation of opioid analgesic tolerance. Opioids can induce a massive release of inflammatory cytokines and disruption of intestinal barrier function by activating Toll-like receptors 2/4 (TLR2/4), eventually resulting to sustained bacterial transmission and persistent systemic inflammation. However, most of the relevant analyses available were conducted at the level of animal experiments. It is necessary to explore the potential association between opioid tolerance and inflammatory cytokines and gut microbiota in patients with cancer pain. Methods We retrospectively analyzed cytokines, lymphocyte subsets and blood cells in 186 cancer patients to examine the effect of oral opioids on inflammatory cytokines in patients with moderate to severe cancer pain. The control group constituted tumor patients without cancer pain, while patients with moderate to severe cancer pain taking oral opioids made up the observation group. Fecal samples collected from 25 cancer patients were also analyzed for the composition and diversity of gut microbiota using 16S rRNA sequencing to explore the association between oral opioids and dynamic changes in gut microbiota. Results Patients with moderate to severe cancer pain taking oxycodone had significantly higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ than those in the control group (p < 0.001). The difference in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus (p = 0.025), Anaerostipes (p = 0.034), Megamonas (p = 0.0080), Monoglobus (p = 0.0080), and the Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group (p = 0.022) between the opioid and control group was significant. Conclusion Oral oxycodone can cause abnormal changes in cytokine levels and gut microbiota of patients with moderate to severe cancer pain, prompting chronic systemic inflammation. Analgesic tolerance induced by long-term oxycodone use could be closely related to the consistent upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α levels.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
  • Safety of Conventional and Pulsed Radiofrequency Lesions of the Dorsal
           Root Entry Zone Complex (DREZC) for Interventional Pain Management: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Study Design Systematic literature review. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to assess the clinical safety and potential complications of conventional and pulsed radiofrequency ablations targeting dorsal root entry zone complex (DREZC) components in the treatment of chronic pain. Background There is a growing popularity for the use of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) techniques targeting DREZC components by pain management physicians for an increasing variety of indications. To date, we lack a systematic review to describe the safety and the type of complications associated with these procedures. Methods This was a systematic literature review. This systematic search was limited to peer-reviewed literature using “radiofrequency ablation” as a search keyword using PubMed’s database for manuscripts published between inception and December 2020. s that involved the application of radiofrequency currents, of any modality, to DREZC components for the treatment of pain were included for full-text review. Search was limited to original data describing clinical outcomes following RFA performed for pain indications only, involving the DREZC components outlined above, in human subjects, and written in English. The primary outcomes were complications associated with conventional RFA and pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRF). Complications were categorized as type 1 (persistent neurological deficits or other serious adverse events, defined as any event that resulted in permanent of prolonged injury; type 2 (transient neuritis or neurological deficits, or other non-neurological non-minor adverse event); type 3 (minor adverse events (e.g., headache, soreness, bruising, etc.). Results Of the 62 selected manuscripts totaling 3157 patients, there were zero serious adverse events or persistent neurological deficits reported. A total of 36 (1.14%) transient neurological deficits, cases of transient neuritis, or non-minor adverse events like uncomplicated pneumothorax were reported. A total of 113 (3.58%) minor adverse events were reported (bruising, transient site soreness, headache). Conclusions This systematic review indicates that the use of RFA lesion of the DREZC for interventional pain management is very safe. There were no serious adverse effects with a sizable sample of randomized controlled trial (RCT), prospective observational, and retrospective studies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
  • Radiofrequency Ablation of the Superior Cluneal Nerve: A Novel Minimally
           Invasive Approach Adopting Recent Anatomic and Neurosurgical Data

    • Abstract: Objectives/Introduction Superior cluneal neuralgia (SCN) is a distinct cause of lower back and/or leg pain related to pathology of the superior cluneal nerve (SCn). SCN has been termed pseudo-sciatica and is an overlooked differential diagnosis when patients are otherwise presenting with low back and/or radicular pain. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is commonly used for denervation of the medial branches of the dorsal root for facet joint syndrome for sacroiliac joint; however, RFA has not been described to ablate the SCn for SCN. Herein, we present a novel interventional minimally invasive approach using RFA of the SCn for SCN in a series of 46 patients. Methods Institutional review board approved retrospective chart review was used to collect data for all SCn RFA cases from January 1, 2018, to February 8, 2021. Fluoroscopically guided SCn ablations were performed for patients with a positive “iliac crest point sign,” reproductive of their back and leg pain during physical examination. Sensory stimulation was utilized to confirm RF cannula-probe placement adjacent to the SCn, and motor testing was used to confirm no distal motor response prior to monopolar RF ablation with a Halyard RF Generator (100 mm curved 22G 10 mm active tip RF cannulae). Charts were reviewed for time of analgesia follow-up, duration and degree of analgesia, improvements in patients’ functional capacity, and changes in medication. Results Data were reviewed for 51 patients who underwent Scn RFA, 5 of which were lost to follow-up. The remaining 46 patients consisted of 29 women and 17 men with a mean age of 59.4 years; 78.3% (n = 36) had ongoing relief at a mean of 92.1 days follow-up, ranging from 13 to 308 days, with a mean of 92.3% analgesia (SD 15.0%). At a mean of 111.2 days of follow-up, ranging from 42–201 days, 21.7% (n = 10) of patients reported that their pain had returned and had 95% analgesia during that time period (SD 6.7%); 41.3% (n = 19) reported improved activity/gait, 17.4% reported improved mood (n = 8), and 8.7% reported decreased medication use (n = 4). Five patients had minor complications including bruising (1), 2–3 days of soreness on site (2), myofascial pain (1), and quadratus lumborus muscle spasm relieved with trigger point injection (1). Conclusions This is the first report of both technique and outcomes for radiofrequency ablation of superior cluneal neuralgia. This series suggests that RFA of the SCn is a suitable intervention for the treatment of SCN; 21.7% of patients reported a mean of 95% analgesia for a mean duration of 111.2 days, and the remaining 78.3% of patients reported ongoing relief with a mean of 92.3% analgesia at last follow-up (mean 92.1 days). There were no serious adverse events.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
  • Progress, Challenges, and Prospects of Research on the Effect of Gene
           Polymorphisms on Adverse Reactions to Opioids

    • Abstract: Abstract The abuse of opioids has become one of the most serious concerns in the world. Opioid use can cause serious adverse reactions, including respiratory depression, postoperative nausea and vomiting, itching, and even death. These adverse reactions are also important complications of clinical application of opioid drugs that may affect patient safety and recovery. Due to the fear of adverse reactions of opioids, clinicians often do not dare to use opioids in an adequate or appropriate amount, thus affecting the clinical medication strategy and the quality of treatment for patients. The prediction of adverse reactions to opioids is one of the most concerned problems in clinical practice. At present, the correlation between gene polymorphism and the efficacy of opiates has been widely studied and preliminarily confirmed, but the research on the effect of gene polymorphism on the adverse reactions of opiates is relatively limited. Existing studies have made encouraging progress in predicting the incidence and severity of adverse opioid reactions and clinical management by using genetic testing, but most of these studies are single-center, small-sample clinical studies or animal experiments, which have strong limitations. When the same receptor or enzyme is studied by different experimental methods, different or even opposite conclusions can be drawn. These phenomena indicate that the correlation between gene polymorphism and adverse opioid reaction still needs further research and demonstration. At present, it is still too early to use genetic testing to predict opioid adverse reactions in clinic. In this paper, the correlation between gene polymorphism and adverse opioid reactions and a small number of clinical applications were reviewed in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in order to provide some suggestions for future research and clinical drug decision making.
      PubDate: 2022-04-16
  • Multimodal Analgesia with Extended-Release Dinalbuphine Sebacate for
           Perioperative Pain Management in Upper Extremity Trauma Surgery: A
           Retrospective Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Introduction Patients undergoing upper extremity fracture surgery (UEFS) commonly suffer from unbearable acute pain. Opioids remain the mainstay of moderate to severe pain alleviation, although there is a growing concern regarding the increasing trend in misuse and abuse. This study aimed to observe the safety and efficacy of dinalbuphine sebacate (DS), a novel extended-release analgesic, along with multimodal analgesia (MMA) for post-UEFS pain control. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing UEFS between August 2020 and January 2021. Eligible patients were included and divided into two groups, depending on the analgesic regimen. In the DS group, 150 mg DS was administered intramuscularly at least 12 h pre-operatively, while in the conventional analgesia (CA) group, 40 mg parecoxib was given within 3 h before surgery. Intraoperative fentanyl administration was guided by the Analgesia Nociception Index System in both groups. For breakthrough pain, fentanyl was used as rescue medicine in the postanaesthesia care unit while tramadol and parecoxib were administered in the ward. Results Forty-nine patients were allocated to the DS group and 60 patients were allocated to the CA group. In comparison with the CA group, the proportion of patients requiring opioids for breakthrough pain post-operatively was significantly lower in the DS group (fentanyl: 31% vs. 68%, p < 0.001; tramadol: 27% vs. 70%, p < 0.001). The DS group also consumed lower amounts of post-operative rescue opioids. Furthermore, both mean worst and least pain scores were significantly lower in the DS group from post-operative day (POD) 1 to POD 5. There was no significant difference in intraoperative consumption of fentanyl or incidence of adverse events. Conclusion This result suggests that extended-release DS is a suitable analgesic incorporated in MMA and a promising solution to the misuse and abuse of opioids.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
  • Opioids in the Elderly Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Narrative

    • Abstract: Introduction Assessment and management of pain in elderly people with cognitive impairment is particularly challenging. Physiological changes due to aging as well as comorbidities and polypharmacy are responsible for a complex clinical approach. Concomitantly, in cognitive impairment, including advanced dementia, changes in the central nervous system along with changes in the peripheral nervous system due to aging have a significant impact on pain perception. Sometimes clinicians decide to prescribe opioids to relieve pain, also without a clear indication. This review aims to investigate the effect of opioids in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. Methods A literature search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keyword searches to generate lists of articles that were screened for relevance by title and abstract to give a final list of articles for full-text review. Further articles were identified by scanning the reference lists of the full-text articles. Discussion This review discusses the complex physiological and pharmacological changes in the elderly as well as the neurological changes that affect pain perception in this population. Additionally, it focuses on cognitive impairment and pain in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, the pain assessment in the elderly with cognitive impairment as well as the safety of opioid use in the elderly. Information regarding opioid prescription in nursing homes and recorded indications for opioid use, type and dosing of opioids, and compliance of treatment in advanced dementia are also provided. Conclusions Opioid prescription in the elderly population with cognitive impairment is particularly complex. All healthcare professionals involved in the care of such patients need to be aware of the challenges and strive to ensure analgesic use is guided by appropriate and accurate pain assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
  • Comparison the Effect of Pain Neuroscience and Pain Biomechanics Education
           on Neck Pain and Fear of Movement in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific
           Neck Pain During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Introduction Self-management education is the basis of any intervention for persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Given the biopsychosocial nature of chronic musculoskeletal pain, an educational approach based on the biopsychosocial model would seem to be an appropriate educational model for the treatment of these people during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of pain neuroscience education (PNE) and pain biomechanics education, using online and face-to-face sessions on pain and fear of movement, in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain during COVID-19. Methods In this multicenter assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial, 80 patients (both male and female) with chronic nonspecific neck pain (based on the inclusion criteria of the study) participated in educational sessions (face-to-face and online) from the beginning September until the end of October 2021. The participants were randomly divided into two groups (through the selection of numbers from 1 to 80, hidden in a box), with one group receiving PNE (treatment group) and the other group receiving pain biomechanics education (control group). Pain and fear of movement before and after the intervention were measured on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, respectively. A 2 × 2 variance analysis (treatment group × time) with a mixed-model design was applied to statistically analyze the data. Results No significant change in pain (P = 0.23) was observed between the two groups (P = 0.24, Cohen's d = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] − 0.21 to 0.35), while changes in the fear of movement variable were reported to be significant (P = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.34, 95% CI 0.11–0.51), in favor of PNE. Intra-group change was seen only in the PNE group for the fear of movement variable (P = 0.04; 14.28%↓). Conclusion In our study population PNE did not affect the pain index, leading to the conclusion that PNE should not be used as the only treatment, but possibly in combination with other active/passive therapy to enhance the results for patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain. Moreover, online treatment may help clinicians to increase their interaction with patients during COVID-19 lockdown.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
  • A Response to: Letter to the Editor Regarding “Neurophysiological
           Assessments During Continuous Sedation Until Death Put Validity of
           Observational Assessments Into Question: A Prospective Observational

    • PubDate: 2022-03-12
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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