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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.156
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1735-2444
Published by Shiraz University Homepage  [12 journals]
  • In-silico Strategies of Some Selected Phytoconstituents from Rhus
           succedanea as SARS CoV-2 Main Protease and Spike protein (COVID-19)
           Inhibitors

    • Abstract: Rhus succedanea (Anacardiaceae) was used to treat multiple human afflictions. Literary works demonstrate that it has many biological activities. Today's research aims to recognise Rhus succedanea phyto-derived anti-viral compounds against main protease and spike protein of the viral agent of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), to gain insight into the molecular interactions. In the current study, 10 molecules taken from R. succedanea are analysed through docking, which is derived from the PubChem database. Docking experiments with Autodock vina and PyRx tools were conducted. AdmetSAR and DruLito servers were eventually used for drug-like prediction. Our research shows that the phytoconstituents from R. succedanea, namely, Amentoflavone, Rhoifolin and Agathisflavone acts against SARS CoV-2 main protease with the binding affinity of -9.3, -8.6 and -8.4 Kcal/mol; Hinokiflavone Robustaflavone and amentoflavone acts against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain of spike protein with a binding affinity of -10.5, -10.4 and -10.1 Kcal/mol respectively. These phyto-compounds can use contemporary strategies to develop effective medicines from natural origins. The substances identified potential anti-viral as likely. However, In-vitro studies are even more necessary to assess their effectiveness versus SARS CoV-2.
       
  • Formulation, Design and Optimization of Taste Masked Effervescent Tablet
           Containing Methocarbamol

    • Abstract: Methocarbamol is a skeletal muscle relaxant drug. In this study, we investigated the potential of developing methocarbamol effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration. Effervescent tablets containing 1000 mg methocarbamol were prepared using direct compression method. The effect of various formulations parameters such as citric acid, sodium bi-carbonate, PEG 6000, PVP k30 on different physicochemical properties of tablets were evaluated at two levels. Different formulations with various amounts of mentioned excipients along with constant amount of methocarbamol, sucralose, mannitol and different flavoring agents were prepared and their properties including hardness, friability, pH, effervescent time, CO2 content and taste were studied. Optimized formulation was B8 which contained 400 mg of citric acid, 525 mg of sodium bicarbonate, 226.5 mg of PVP k30, 113.2 mg of PEG 6000, 100 mg of mannitol and 30 mg of sucralose. This formulation had effervescent time of 112.67± 2.05 seconds, hardness of 71.10± 2.51 N and pH of 6.01±0.02. Statistical analysis by Design Expert software showed that the hardness of tablets is mostly affected by the amount of PEG 6000. Volunteers reported that sour cherry had the most pleasant taste to them. In summary, current effervescent tablets are shown to be suitable vehicles for methocarbamol with potential for use in patients with swallowing problems and will enhance patience compliance.
       
  • Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticle and L-carnitine Advantages
           on Mixed Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans/ Escherichia coli in Mice
           Models: An Experimental Study

    • Abstract: Mix vaginitis refers to the presence of at least two potential pathogenic microbes in the vagina. Recently, the popularity of nanoparticles is increasing, these materials have been widely used as an antimicrobial agent in the treatment of chronic infections in which silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are more widely considered. We aimed the established a mixed vaginitis model in adult mice with Candida albicans and Escherichia coli, then evaluated the effect of AgNPs and L. carnitine (LC) for the treatment of the vaginitis. In our study, the microdilution method and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration were used for the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs. Vaginitis was made by intra-vaginal inoculation of 107 CFU/ml of both E. coli/C. albicans in adult NMRI mice. Mice classified into 8 groups: (1) healthy mice without any treatment, (2) mice were infected intravaginally with equal volumes of C. albicans and E. coli suspensions, (3) healthy mice that received daily intraperitoneal injection of 250 mg/kg LC for two weeks, (4) infected mice that treated with a daily injection of 250 mg/kg LC for two weeks, (5) healthy mice that received daily intravaginal inoculation of 250 ppm of AgNPs for two weeks, (6) infected mice treated with daily intravaginal inoculation of 250 ppm AgNPs for two weeks, (7) healthy mice that received daily intravaginal inoculation of 250 ppm AgNPs and a daily injection of 250 mg/kg LC for two weeks, and (8) mice treated with daily intravaginal inoculation of 250 ppm AgNPs and a daily injection of 250 mg/kg LC for two weeks. All treatments with AgNPs and LC were daily for two weeks. A vaginal smear was taken throughout the experiment and tissue sections, using the hematoxylin-eosin method, were prepared. The results showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC-50) of AgNPs for E. coli, C. albicans, and the mixture of them was 96.84, 11.23, and 35.67 ppm, respectively, and their IC- 90 values were 201.77, 105.51, and 173.13 ppm, respectively. MBIC-90 % of AgNPs for E. coli, C. albicans, and the mixture of them were 500, 125, and 250 ppm, respectively. The estrus cycle in treated mice was similar to intact mice and the order of their vaginal tissue sections confirmed the treatment of mixed vaginitis. In conclusion co-administration of AgNPs and LC may eliminate the adverse effect of AgNPs and mixed vaginitis.
       
  • Evaluation of antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of Hypnea
           musiformis on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

    • Abstract: Free radicals impair the cellular and tissue homeostasis, which can cause cancer. Hypnea musiformis is a red seaweed and rich source of secondary antioxidant metabolites. These metabolites probably are effective in cancer treatment. In the present study, the phenolic and flavonoid content of the hydro-methanolic extract of Hypnea musiformis were determined respectively by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum-chloride assay. The monovalent reducing power and total radical scavenging activity of the extract were also evaluated respectively by FRAP and DPPH assay. The cytotoxic effects of the extract were evaluated by MTT assay on MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cell lines. Morphological changes of the cell lines were also examined by invert microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test in GraphPad Prism 8.0.2 software. The results of the study indicate that the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract respectively were 14.05 ± 2.39 µgGAE/mg and 39.08 ± 8.78 µgQE/mg. The monovalent reducing power of the extract was 243.32 ± 27.86 μmol Fe2+/g and its total radical scavenging activity (in 1000 µg/ml) was 18.75 ± 1.51 %. The cytotoxic effects of the extract on MDA-MB-231 were higher than MCF7 cell line, significantly (P <0.05). The IC50 value of the extract on MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells respectively was 634.5 and 826.8 µg/ml, after 72 hours of incubation. The morphological changes of treated cell line include cell granulation, cell contraction and rupture in a concentration and time dependent pattern. The cytotoxic effects of Hypnea musiformis extract were not dependent on estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors. Therefore, the hydromethanolic extract of Hypnea musiformis probably is a favorable option in drug discovery against the triple-negative tumors.
       
  • Metal(II) Complexes of some Carboxylic Group Drugs: Chelation,
           Characterization, Antibacterial, Analgesic, and Toxicology Studies

    • Abstract: The present work focuses on the synthesis and biological evaluation of metal complexes of mixed acetylsalicylic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid in ratio 1:1:1 to give a complex type: [M(ASA)(PABA)(H2O)n(Cl2)x](Cl2)y (where M = Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), or Mn(II); ASA = Acetylsalicylic acid; PABA = para-aminobenzoic acid; n = 0 or 2; x = 0 or 1; y = 0 or 1). The metal complexes were obtained by a refluxing method and characterized by elemental analysis, melting point, conductivity measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and infrared spectroscopy. The conductance measurement indicates the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. The octahedral environment has been proposed for the complexes except for Cd(II) complex. The level of toxicity of the synthesized complexes was determined in vivo. [Cu(ASA)(PABA)(H2O)2], [Cd(ASA)(PABA)]Cl2, and [Mn(ASA)(PABA)(H2O)2] exhibited higher enzymatic activities in the serum and kidney homogenates of the Wister rats investigated. The acetic acid-induced writhing model method was used in the evaluation of the analgesic activities of the prepared complexes. Metal complexes of Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), and Mn(II) exhibited percentage writhing inhibition of 67.61, 43.87, 60.42, 70.45, and 52.34 % respectively. The complexes proved to be more effective than their parent-free ligands with Fe(III) possessing the highest analgesic potentials. The in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains was studied using the agar well diffusion procedure. It was also observed that the complexes exhibited higher bacteriostatic activities than the free ligands.
       
  • Melanogenesis Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Perilla
           frutescens’s Leaves on B16 Melanoma Cells

    • Abstract: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. is a Vietnamese herb containing many polyphenol compounds potential on antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors for cosmetic applications. Natural compounds and products have got more attention as they have less undesirable side effects and satisfy the diverse needs of consumers that include anti-melanogenesis, antioxidation, etc. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, inhibition of melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells of perilla leaves ethanol extract (PEE). PEE showed the high antioxidant properties in vitro by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In addition, PEE has inhibitory activities for mushroom tyrosinase (TYR). The results showed that concentrations of 100 - 300 μg/mL of PEE were not affected on B16 cell viability. In B16 cells, melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity were significantly decreased in PEE-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. had a great potential as natural sources which could be used as agents in skincare products.
       
  • Evaluating Antibiotics Administration’s Pattern and Its Financial Burden
           in a Teaching Hospital in Iran

    • Abstract: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics frequently leads to healthcare complications, including an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms and patient hospitalization period, which subsequently results in a financial disadvantage for the patients and the country's healthcare system. Therefore, researches on causes of such malpractices could shed light on ways to prevent further impacts on health care system. The purpose of this study is to investigate antibiotics administration’s pattern and its financial burden in a teaching hospital in Iran in 2018. This descriptive cross-sectional study is based on data obtained from the hospital medicine statistics unit. The share of antibiotics in the total cost of medicine expenditure has been calculated and the cost burden of top 10 antibiotics and their administration in different hospital departments were also assessed. According to the data obtained, about 12.2% of the total cost of medication expenditure in the hospital in 2018 was attributed to the administered antibiotics. The financial burden due to the use of all medicines and antibiotics in 2018 per patient admitted in the hospital were 4,327,912 Rials (1,030 USD) and 529,400 Rials (126 USD), respectively. The total use of these antibiotics was 56.77 DDD/100Bed-Days. Financial burden of the injectable forms of antibiotics is higher than other pharmaceutical forms and the intensive care unit showed the most use of these antibiotics. The 10 most high-cost administered antibiotics included Meropenem, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, Vancomycin, Teicoplanin, Levofloxacin, Metronidazole, Azithromycin and Ceftriaxone, respectively. Compared to the other published data regarding administration of antibiotics in other hospitals, this study showed that there is a need for more surveillance on rational administration of the antibiotics in this hospital.
       
  • Fatty Acid Composition of the Kernels of Four Varieties of Pistachio
           (Pistacia Vera L.).

    • Abstract: The Oil content, fatty acid compositions of pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) samples corresponding to four different varieties (Achouri, Adjmi, Batouri and Mateur), all cultivated in Algeria were determined. The fatty acid profiles of four main commercial pistachio varieties, were determined by gas chromatography: palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), Margaric (C17:0), Margarolic (C17:1), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3), Oleic acid has been found as the most common monounsaturated fatty acid. Linoleic acid has the highest percentage among polyunsaturated fatty acids. There have been significant differences among pistachio cultivars regarding unsaturated fatty acids. Based on the oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) ratio, a quality index was determined for these four varieties: Achouri (3.39)  Batouri(3.12)  Adjmi (2.89)  Mateur (2.88). PCA analysis showed the pistachio varieties division into three distinct groups: Adjmi and Mateur (rich in C18.2), Batouri (rich in C16.1, C18.3 and C18.1), Achouri (rich in C16.0, C18.1).
       
  • The Pattern of Albumin Consumption in Teaching University Hospitals in
           Northeastern Iran

    • Abstract: Insufficient information on accurate indications of albumin administrations and the lack of acceptable protocols emphasize the importance of performing further studies on the albumin consumption. So, the current study aimed to explore the albumin administration in the teaching hospitals to not only provide the effective pattern, but also to provide low-cost strategies for rational use of this drug. Herein, one hundred patients were given albumin during the study period, who were randomly selected from hospitals affiliated with a large public university. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics (version 22). Our findings showed that 46% of the patients finally received albumin in terms of the approved guideline. In total, 777 albumin vials were used for 100 cases, for whom 414 vials (53.2%) were rationally prescribed. The albumin was frequently administrated in the ICU wards with 62% of total vials. In accordance with some previous studies, our results demonstrated that most of the albumins were prescribed inappropriately, which impose high-cost on the patients as well as on health care system. Therefore, long-term monitoring of albumin therapy implemented by trained physicians, is suggested to promote rational albumin consumption.
       
 
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