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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Medical, Pharmaceutical and Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Al-Azhar Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.063
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2079-6382
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1646: Performance and Impact on Antibiotic
           Prescriptions of a Multiplex PCR in a Real-Life Cohort of Critically Ill
           Patients with Suspected Ventilated Pneumonia: A Retrospective Monocentric
           Observational Study

    • Authors: Emma Chambe, Perrine Bortolotti, Rémy Diesnis, Caroline Laurans, Rozenn Héquette-Ruz, Sophie Panaget, Patrick Herbecq, Anne Vachée, Agnès Meybeck
      First page: 1646
      Abstract: Pulmonary multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) allows rapid pathogen detection. We aimed to assess its impact on initial antibiotic prescriptions in ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia. Between November 2020 and March 2022,ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia hospitalized in our ICU who benefited from respiratory sampling simultaneously tested using conventional microbiological methods and m-PCR were included. The proportion of appropriate changes in the initial antibiotic therapy following m-PCR results was assessed. We analyzed 104 clinical samples. Of the 47 negative m-PCR results, 16 (34%) led to an appropriate antibiotic strategy: 8 cessationsand 8 lack of initiation. Of the 57 positive m-PCR results, 51 (89%) resulted in an appropriate antibiotic strategy: 33 initiations, 2 optimizations, and 9 de-escalations. In the multivariate analysis, a positive m-PCR was associated with an appropriate antibiotic change (OR: 96.60; IC95% [9.72; 960.20], p < 0.001). A higher SAPS II score was negatively associated with an appropriate antibiotic change (OR: 0.96; IC95% [0.931; 0.997], p = 0.034). In our cohort, a positive m-PCR allowed for early initiation or adjustment of antibiotic therapy in almost 90% of cases. A negative m-PCR spared antibiotic use in onethird of cases. The impact of m-PCR results was reduced in the most severe patients.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121646
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1647: In Vivo-Acquired Resistance to
           Daptomycin during Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    • Authors: Adeline Boutet-Dubois, Chloé Magnan, Alexi Lienard, Cassandra Pouget, Flavien Bouchet, Hélène Marchandin, Romaric Larcher, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Alix Pantel
      First page: 1647
      Abstract: Daptomycin (DAP) represents an interesting alternative to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Different mechanisms of DAP resistance have been described; however, in vivo-acquired resistance is uncharacterized. This study described the phenotypic and genotypic evolution of MRSA strains that became resistant to DAP in two unrelated patients with bacteremia under DAP treatment, in two hospitals in the South of France. DAP MICs were determined using broth microdilution method on the pairs of isogenic (DAP-S/DAP-R) S. aureus isolated from bloodstream cultures. Whole genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina MiSeq Sequencing system. The two cases revealed DAP-R acquisition by MRSA strains within three weeks in patients treated by DAP. The isolates belonged to the widespread ST5 (patient A) and ST8 (patient B) lineages and were of spa-type t777 and t622, respectively. SNP analysis comparing each DAP-S/DAP-R pair confirmed that the isolates were isogenic. The causative mutations were identified in MprF (Multiple peptide resistance Factor) protein: L826F (Patient A) and S295L (Patient B), and in Cls protein: R228H (Patient B). These proteins encoded both proteins of the lipid biosynthetic enzymes. The resistance to DAP is particularly poorly described whereas DAP is highly prescribed to treat MRSA. Our study highlights the non-systematic cross-resistance between DAP and glycopeptides and the importance of monitoring DAP MIC in persistent MRSA bacteremia.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121647
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1648: Characterization of Riemerella
           anatipestifer Strains Isolated from Various Poultry Species in Poland

    • Authors: Anna Nowaczek, Marta Dec, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Jarosław Wilczyński, Renata Urban-Chmiel
      First page: 1648
      Abstract: Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer) is one of the common pathogens found in poultry flocks, resulting in serious economic losses for the poultry industry due to high mortality, reduced growth rate, poor feed conversion, increased condemnations, and high treatment costs. The aim of this study was to phenotypically characterize phylogenetic relationships and assess the presence of resistance gene strains of R. anatipestifer obtained from various poultry species in Poland. A total of 57 isolates of Riemerella were included in this study. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were used for identification of the strains. The phylogenetic relationship of the R. anatipestifer isolates was determined by analysing the rpoB gene sequence. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in liquid media. All of the field strains of R. anatipestifer were grouped into one of two clades resulting from rpoB gene sequencing. High MIC50 and MIC90 values were obtained for gentamycin, amikacin, and colistin. Low MIC50 and MIC90 values were obtained for amoxicillin cefuroxime, cefoperazone, piperacillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the resistance genes, tet(X) and ermF were identified most frequently. This is the first phenotypic characterization of R. anatipestifer strains obtained from poultry flocks in Poland.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121648
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1649: The GDP-Mannose Dehydrogenase of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An Old and New Target to Fight against Antibiotics
           Resistance of Mucoid Strains

    • Authors: Christian Hulen
      First page: 1649
      Abstract: Alginates play an important role in the resistance of mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics, as well as their persistence by escaping the immune defense system. GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (GMD) is the key enzyme in alginate biosynthesis by catalyzing the irreversible double oxidation of GDP-mannose to GDP-mannuronate. GDP-mannose dehydrogenase purified from mucoid strains exhibits strong negative cooperativity for its substrate, the GDP-mannose, with a KM of 13 µM for the site of strong affinity and 3 mM for this weak of a binding. The presence of a nucleotide strongly associated with the enzyme was detected, confirming the fact that the substrate oxidation reaction takes place in two distinct steps, with the substrate blocked on the enzyme in a half-oxidation state in the form of a hemiacetal. As the GMD polypeptide has only one site for substrate binding, our results tend to confirm the fact that the enzyme functions in a dimer form. The GDP-mannose dehydrogenase inhibition strategy that we developed a few years ago, based on the synthesis of substrate analogs, has shown its effectiveness. The addition of an alkynyl radical on carbon 6 of the mannose grafted to an amino-sulfonyl-guanosine allows, at a concentration of 0.5 mM, to inhibit GMD by 90%. As we had previously shown the effectiveness of these analogs on the sensitivity of mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to aminoglycosides, this revives the interest in the synthesis of new inhibitors of GDP-mannose dehydrogenase.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121649
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1650: Editorial for the Special Issue
           “Antiprotozoal Activity of Natural Products”

    • Authors: Cecilia Baldassarri, Eleonora Spinozzi, Marta Ferrati, Paolo Rossi, Filippo Maggi, Riccardo Petrelli
      First page: 1650
      Abstract: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a diverse group of infectious diseases, represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the world’s low-income populations [...]
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121650
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1651: Benzothiazole-Phthalimide Hybrids as
           Anti-Breast Cancer and Antimicrobial Agents

    • Authors: Alexia Barbarossa, Jessica Ceramella, Alessia Carocci, Domenico Iacopetta, Antonio Rosato, Francesco Limongelli, Antonio Carrieri, Daniela Bonofiglio, Maria Stefania Sinicropi
      First page: 1651
      Abstract: The benzothiazole nucleus is a major heterocyclic scaffold whose therapeutic potential has been thoroughly explored due to its structural simplicity and ease of synthesis. In fact, several benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized over time, demonstrating numerous pharmacological properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Herein, we propose a new series of benzothiazole-phthalimide hybrids obtained by linking the phthalimide moiety to differently substituted benzothiazole nuclei through the N atom. These compounds have been screened for their anticancer properties against two human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we delved into the mechanism of action of the most active hybrid, compound 3h, by assessing its capability to damage the nuclear DNA, trigger the apoptotic process in the high metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, and prevent cellular migration. Moreover, in view of the documented antimicrobial activities of the two scaffolds involved, we explored the antibacterial and antifungal effects of the studied compounds by means of the broth microdilution method. Among the studied compounds, 3h showed the highest antimicrobial activity, both against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains belonging to the ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) and against fungal strains of the Candida species with MICs values ranging from 16 to 32 µg/mL.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121651
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1652: Assessing the Effect of Oxytetracycline
           on the Selection of Resistant Escherichia coli in Treated and Untreated
           Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Ekaterina Pokrant, María Belén Vargas, María José Navarrete, Karina Yévenes, Lina Trincado, Paula Cortés, Aldo Maddaleno, Lisette Lapierre, Javiera Cornejo
      First page: 1652
      Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is administered in the poultry industry for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases. The use of OTC may contribute to the selection of resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of birds or in the environment. To determine the effect of OTC on the selection of resistant Escherichia coli strains post-treatment, bacteria were isolated from droppings and litter sampled from untreated and treated birds. Bacterial susceptibility to tetracyclines was determined by the Kirby–Bauer test. A total of 187 resistant isolates were analyzed for the presence of tet(A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (M) genes by PCR. Fifty-four strains were analyzed by PFGE for subtyping. The proportion of tetracycline-resistant E. coli strains isolated was 42.88%. The susceptibility of the strains was treatment-dependent. A high clonal diversity was observed, with the tet(A) gene being the most prevalent, followed by tet(C). Even at therapeutic doses, there is selection pressure on resistant E. coli strains. The most prevalent resistance genes were tet(A) and tet(C), which could suggest that one of the main mechanisms of resistance of E. coli to tetracyclines is through active efflux pumps.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121652
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1653: Intravenous Fosfomycin for Systemic
           Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    • Authors: Giuseppe Pipitone, Stefano Di Bella, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Guido Granata, Milo Gatti, Luigi Principe, Alessandro Russo, Andrea Gizzi, Rita Pallone, Antonio Cascio, Chiara Iaria
      First page: 1653
      Abstract: Human Pseudomonas infections have high morbidity and mortality rates. Pseudomonas bacteria can cause sepsis or septic shock; they produce biofilm and commonly exhibit a multidrug-resistant phenotype. The choice of antimicrobial therapy in many cases is challenging, and deep knowledge of clinical, microbiological, and pharmacological issues is required. Intravenous fosfomycin is being repurposed in a combination given its favorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (a small molecule with favorable kinetic both in bloodstream infection and in deep-seated infections), antibiofilm activity, and its interesting synergistic effects with other antimicrobials. Recent literature on epidemiological, microbiological, pharmacological, and clinical data on intravenous fosfomycin therapy against Pseudomonas is herein reviewed and discussed.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121653
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1654: Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance
           Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Public Database from a One
           Health Perspective—Sample Origin and Geographical Distribution of

    • Authors: Francesca Zaghen, Valerio Massimo Sora, Gabriele Meroni, Giulia Laterza, Piera Anna Martino, Alessio Soggiu, Luigi Bonizzi, Alfonso Zecconi
      First page: 1654
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus are commensal bacteria that are found in food, water, and a variety of settings in addition to being present on the skin and mucosae of both humans and animals. They are regarded as a significant pathogen as well, with a high morbidity that can cause a variety of illnesses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has listed them among the most virulent and resistant to antibiotics bacterial pathogens, along with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium. Additionally, S. aureus is a part of the global threat posed by the existence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Using 26,430 S. aureus isolates from a global public database (NPDIB; NCBI Pathogen Detection Isolate Browser), epidemiological research was conducted. The results corroborate the evidence of notable variations in isolate distribution and ARG (Antimicrobial Resistance Gene) clusters between isolate sources and geographic origins. Furthermore, a link between the isolates from human and animal populations is suggested by the ARG cluster patterns. This result and the widespread dissemination of the pathogens among animal and human populations highlight how crucial it is to learn more about the epidemiology of these antibiotic-resistance-related infections using a One Health approach.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121654
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1655: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in a Case of
           Chronic Urticaria following Omalizumab Therapy

    • Authors: Alberto Zolezzi, Gina Gualano, Maria A. Licata, Silvia Mosti, Paola Mencarini, Roberta Papagni, Antonella Vulcano, Angela Cannas, Alberta Villanacci, Fabrizio Albarello, Franca Del Nonno, Daniele Colombo, Fabrizio Palmieri
      First page: 1655
      Abstract: In Italy, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the last decade has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants. In the Philippines, TB annual incidence is greater than 500 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. We report the case of a 32-year-old Filipino woman who suffered from chronic urticaria, treated with topic steroids since June 2022 and systemic steroids for 2 weeks. In November 2022, she started omalizumab therapy at a monthly dose of 300 mg; she was not screened for TB infection. In the same month, a left laterocervical lymphadenopathy arose, which worsened in February 2023 (diameter: 3 cm). The patient recovered in April 2023 in INMI “Lazzaro Spallanzani” in Rome for suspected TB. Chest CT showed a “tree in bud” pattern at the upper-right pulmonary lobe. The patient tested positive for lymph node biopsy molecular tuberculosis. The patient started standard antituberculosis therapy. She discontinued omalizumab. To our knowledge, this is the second diagnosed TB case during omalizumab treatment, which suggests that attention should be paid to the known risk of TB during biotechnological treatments. Even if current guidelines do not recommend screening for TB before starting anti-IgE therapy, further data should be sought to assess the relationship between omalizumab treatment and active TB. Our experience suggests that screening for TB should be carried out in patients from highly tuberculosis-endemic countries before starting omalizumab therapy.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121655
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1656: Atomic Layer Deposition of Antibacterial
           Nanocoatings: A Review

    • Authors: Denis Nazarov, Lada Kozlova, Elizaveta Rogacheva, Ludmila Kraeva, Maxim Maximov
      First page: 1656
      Abstract: In recent years, antibacterial coatings have become an important approach in the global fight against bacterial pathogens. Developments in materials science, chemistry, and biochemistry have led to a plethora of materials and chemical compounds that have the potential to create antibacterial coatings. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the analysis of the techniques and technologies used to apply these coatings. Among the various inorganic coating techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is worthy of note. It enables the successful synthesis of high-purity inorganic nanocoatings on surfaces of complex shape and topography, while also providing precise control over their thickness and composition. ALD has various industrial applications, but its practical application in medicine is still limited. In recent years, a considerable number of papers have been published on the proposed use of thin films and coatings produced via ALD in medicine, notably those with antibacterial properties. The aim of this paper is to carefully evaluate and analyze the relevant literature on this topic. Simple oxide coatings, including TiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, MgO, and ZrO2, were examined, as well as coatings containing metal nanoparticles such as Ag, Cu, Pt, and Au, and mixed systems such as TiO2-ZnO, TiO2-ZrO2, ZnO-Al2O3, TiO2-Ag, and ZnO-Ag. Through comparative analysis, we have been able to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of various antibacterial coatings of different compositions, including key characteristics such as thickness, morphology, and crystal structure. The use of ALD in the development of antibacterial coatings for various applications was analyzed. Furthermore, assumptions were made about the most promising areas of development. The final section provides a comparison of different coatings, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and prospects of using ALD for the industrial production of antibacterial coatings.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121656
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1657: GPs’ Perspective on a Multimodal
           Intervention to Enhance Guideline-Adherence in Uncomplicated Urinary Tract
           Infections: A Qualitative Process Evaluation of the Multicentric RedAres
           Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Angela Schuster, Paula Tigges, Julianna Grune, Judith Kraft, Alexandra Greser, Ildikó Gágyor, Mandy Boehme, Tim Eckmanns, Anja Klingeberg, Andy Maun, Anja Menzel, Guido Schmiemann, Christoph Heintze, Jutta Bleidorn
      First page: 1657
      Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common reasons patients seeking health care and antibiotics to be prescribed in primary care. However, general practitioners’ (GPs) guideline adherence is low. The RedAres randomised controlled trial aims to increase guideline adherence by implementing a multimodal intervention consisting of four elements: information on current UTI guidelines (1) and regional resistance data (2); feedback regarding prescribing behaviour (3); and benchmarking compared to peers (4). The RedAres process evaluation assesses GPs’ perception of the multimodal intervention and the potential for implementation into routine care. We carried out 19 semi-structured interviews with GPs (intervention arm). All interviews were carried out online and audio recorded. For transcription and analysis, Mayring’s qualitative content analysis was used. Overall, GPs considered the interventions helpful for knowledge gain and confirmation when prescribing. Information material and resistance were used for patient communication and teaching purposes. Feedback was considered to enhance reflection by breaking routines of clinical workup. Implementation into routine practice could be enhanced by integrating feedback loops into patient management systems and conveying targeted information via trusted channels or institutions. The process evaluation of RedAres intervention was considered beneficial by GPs. It confirms the convenience of multimodal interventions to enhance guideline adherence.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121657
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1658: Brazilian Clinical Strains of
           Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida: Capsular
           Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility (In Vitro) and Proof of Concept
           for Prevention of Natural Colonization by Multi-Doses Protocol of

    • Authors: Suzana Satomi Kuchiishi, Simone Ramos Prigol, Eduarda Bresolin, Bianca Fernandes Lenhard, Caroline Pissetti, María-José García-Iglesias, César-Bernardo Gutiérrez-Martín, Sonia Martínez-Martínez, Luiz Carlos Kreutz, Rafael Frandoloso
      First page: 1658
      Abstract: One hundred Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and sixty Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida serogroup A (PmA) isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected from eight central or southern states of Brazil between 2014 and 2018 (App) or between 2017 and 2021 (PmA). A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates were typed by multiplex PCR and the most prevalent serovars were 8, 7 and 5 (43, 25% and 18%, respectively). In addition, three virulence genes were assessed in P. multocida isolates, all being positive to capA (PmA) and kmt1 genes, all negative to capD and toxA, and most of them (85%) negative to pfhA gene. The susceptibility of both pathogens to tildipirosin was investigated using a broth microdilution assay. The percentage of isolates susceptible to tildipirosin was 95% for App and 73.3% for PmA. The MIC50 values were 0.25 and 1 μg/mL and the MIC90 values were 4 and >64 μg/mL for App and PmA, respectively. Finally, a multiple-dose protocol of tildipirosin was tested in suckling piglets on a farm endemic for both pathogens. Tildipirosin was able to prevent the natural colonization of the tonsils by App and PmA and significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced the burden of Glaesserella parasuis in this tissue. In summary, our results demonstrate that: (i) tildipirosin can be included in the list of antibiotics to control outbreaks of lung disease caused by App regardless of the capsular type, and (ii) in the case of clinical strains of App and PmA that are sensitive to tildipirosin based on susceptibility testing, the use of this antibiotic in eradication programs for A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida can be strongly recommended.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121658
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1659: Identification of IncA Plasmid,
           Harboring blaVIM-1 Gene, in S. enterica Goldcoast ST358 and C. freundii
           ST62 Isolated in a Hospitalized Patient

    • Authors: Alessandra Piccirilli, Sascia Di Marcantonio, Venera Costantino, Omar Simonetti, Marina Busetti, Roberto Luzzati, Luigi Principe, Marco Di Domenico, Antonio Rinaldi, Cesare Cammà, Mariagrazia Perilli
      First page: 1659
      Abstract: In the present study, we analyzed the genome of two S. enterica strains TS1 and TS2 from stool and blood cultures, respectively, and one strain of C. freundii TS3, isolated from a single hospitalized patient with acute myeloid leukemia. The S. enterica Goldcoast ST358 (O:8 (C2-C3) serogroup), sequenced by the MiSeq Illumina system, showed the presence of β-lactamase genes (blaVIM-1, blaSHV-12 and blaOXA-10), aadA1, ant(2″)-Ia, aac(6′)-Iaa, aac(6′)-Ib3, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qnrVC6, parC(T57S), and several incompatibility plasmids. A wide variety of insertion sequences (ISs) and transposon elements were identified. In C. freundii TS3, these were the blaVIM-1, blaCMY-150, and blaSHV-12, aadA1, aac(6′)-Ib3, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, mph(A), sul1, dfrA14, ARR-2, qnrVC6, and qnrB38. IncA plasmid isolated from E.coli/K12 transconjugant and C. freundii exhibited a sequence identity >99.9%. The transfer of IncA plasmid was evaluated by conjugation experiments.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1660: Clinical Impact of Rapid Bacterial
           Microbiological Identification with the MALDI-TOF MS

    • Authors: Miriam Uzuriaga, José Leiva, Francisco Guillén-Grima, Marta Rua, José R. Yuste
      First page: 1660
      Abstract: Rapid microbiological reports to clinicians are related to improved clinical outcomes. We conducted a 3-year quasi-experimental design, specifically a pretest–posttest single group design in a university medical center, to evaluate the clinical impact of rapid microbiological identification information using MALDI-TOF MS on optimizing antibiotic prescription. A total of 363 consecutive hospitalized patients with bacterial infections were evaluated comparing a historical control group (CG) (n = 183), in which the microbiological information (bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility) was reported jointly to the clinician between 18:00 h and 22:00 h of the same day and a prospective intervention group (IG) (n = 180); the bacterial identification information was informed to the clinician as soon as it was available between 12:00 h and 14:00 h and the antibiotic susceptibility between 18:00 h and 22:00 h). We observed, in favor of IG, a statistically significant decrease in the information time (11.44 h CG vs. 4.48 h IG (p < 0.01)) from the detection of bacterial growth in the culture medium to the communication of identification. Consequently, the therapeutic optimization was improved by introducing new antibiotics in the 10–24 h time window (p = 0.05) and conversion to oral route (p = 0.01). Additionally, we observed a non-statistically significant decrease in inpatient mortality (global, p = 0.15; infection-related, p = 0.21) without impact on hospital length of stay. In conclusion, the rapid communication of microbiological identification to clinicians reduced reporting time and was associated with early optimization of antibiotic prescribing without worsening clinical outcomes.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121660
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1661: Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as an
           Etiologic Agent of Ovine Mastitis, with a Focus on Subclinical Forms

    • Authors: Marios Lysitsas, Vassiliki Spyrou, Charalambos Billinis, George Valiakos
      First page: 1661
      Abstract: The objective of this review is to investigate the distribution and the characteristics of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) implicated in ovine mastitis, and especially in subclinical cases, in order to provide a global perspective of the current research data and analyze specific critical aspects of the issue. PRISMA guidelines were implemented in the search of the last 20 years of the related literature in two databases. In total, 139 studies were included in this review. Relevant data were tracked down, assembled, and compared. Regarding the geographical distribution, most studies originated from Europe (68), followed by South America (33). Lacaune was the most examined breed, while S. epidermidis was the predominantly identified species, representing approximately 39% of the obtained isolates. Antibiotic resistance in the relevant bacteria was documented mostly for Penicillin (32.8%) and Amoxicillin (32.1%), while biofilm- and toxin-associated genes were encountered in variable rates because significant inequalities were observed between different articles. Significantly higher rates of antimicrobial resistance were detected in Asia and South America compared to Europe. Finally, the diagnostic procedures carried out in the respective studies were evaluated. Conventional culture and biochemical tests were mostly performed for simple strain identification; therefore, further molecular investigation of isolates should be pursued in future studies, as this will provide important data regarding specific aspects of the implication of CoNS in ovine mastitis.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121661
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1662: Serovars, Virulence and Antimicrobial
           Resistance Genes of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains from Dairy Systems in

    • Authors: Stephany Barrera, Sonia Vázquez-Flores, David Needle, Nadia Rodríguez-Medina, Dianella Iglesias, Joseph L. Sevigny, Lawrence M. Gordon, Stephen Simpson, W. Kelley Thomas, Hectorina Rodulfo, Marcos De Donato
      First page: 1662
      Abstract: Salmonella isolated from dairy farms has a significant effect on animal health and productivity. Different serogroups of Salmonella affect both human and bovine cattle causing illness in both reservoirs. Dairy cows and calves can be silent Salmonella shedders, increasing the possibility of dispensing Salmonella within the farm. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic characteristics of Salmonella isolates from dairy farms and to detect the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. A total of 377 samples were collected in a cross-sectional study from calves, periparturient cow feces, and maternity beds in 55 dairy farms from the states of Aguascalientes, Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Mexico, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tlaxcala, and Zacatecas. Twenty Salmonella isolates were selected as representative strains for whole genome sequencing. The serological classification of the strains was able to assign groups to only 12 isolates, but with only 5 of those being consistent with the genomic serotyping. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Montevideo followed by Salmonella Meleagridis. All isolates presented the chromosomal aac(6′)-Iaa gene that confers resistance to aminoglycosides. The antibiotic resistance genes qnrB19, qnrA1, sul2, aph(6)-Id, aph(3)-ld, dfrA1, tetA, tetC, flor2, sul1_15, mph(A), aadA2, blaCARB, and qacE were identified. Ten pathogenicity islands were identified, and the most prevalent plasmid was Col(pHAD28). The main source of Salmonella enterica is the maternity areas, where periparturient shedders are contaminants and perpetuate the pathogen within the dairy in manure, sand, and concrete surfaces. This study demonstrated the necessity of implementing One Health control actions to diminish the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant and virulent pathogens including Salmonella.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121662
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1663: Temporary Root Canal Obturation with a
           Calcium Hydroxide-Based Dressing: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Johannes-Simon Wenzler, Wolfgang Falk, Roland Frankenberger, Andreas Braun
      First page: 1663
      Abstract: Successful bacterial inactivation or elimination is essential for successful outcomes in endodontics. This study investigated the efficacy of a calcium hydroxide paste (Ca(OH)2) as a temporary medical dressing for 1 week after chemomechanical root canal treatment (CMRCT). Microbiological samples from 26 patients were collected after endodontic emergency treatment as follows: (1) removal of the provisional filling material; (2) CMRCT; (3) irrigation with sodium hypochlorite I (3%); (4) medicinal insertion of Ca(OH)2; and (5) irrigation with sodium hypochlorite II (3%). A microbiological examination was carried out after the specimens had been taken from the root canals via saline and sterile paper points. CMRCT resulted in a significant reduction in total bacterial load (TBL) in the root canal (p < 0.05). Additional irrigation (3) resulted in a further significant reduction in TBL (p < 0.05). In contrast, Ca(OH)2 medication did not prevent the bacterial load from returning to the previous level immediately after CMRCT, but did not increase above that level either (p < 0.05). However, the increase in TBL was significant (p < 0.05) in comparison with the disinfection groups (I/II). Administration of Ca(OH)2 for 1 week shows that in combination with an additional disinfection procedure, an increase in TBL must be expected, but not above the level of conditions after CMRCT.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121663
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1664: Analysis of Resistance Gene Diversity in
           the Intestinal Microbiome of Broilers from Two Types of Broiler Farms in
           Hebei Province, China

    • Authors: Chuncai Liang, Yujie Wei, Xiaolan Wang, Jinduo Gao, Huan Cui, Cheng Zhang, Juxiang Liu
      First page: 1664
      Abstract: The crucial reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) within the chicken intestinal microbiome poses a serious threat to both animal and human health. In China, the overuse of antibiotics has significantly contributed to the proliferation of ARGs in the chicken intestinal microbiome, which is a serious concern. However, there has been relatively little research on the diversity of resistance genes in the chicken intestinal microbiome since the implementation of the National Pilot Work Program for Action to Reduce the Use of Veterinary Antimicrobial Drugs in China. The objective of this study was to analyze the diversity of antibiotic resistance genes carried by the chicken intestinal microbiome in both standard farms (SFs), which implement antibiotic reduction and passed national acceptance, and nonstandard farms (NSFs), which do not implement antibiotic reductions, in Hebei Province. Fresh fecal samples of broiler chickens were collected from SFs (n = 4) and NSF (n = 1) and analyzed using high-throughput qPCR technology. Our findings revealed that all five farms exhibited a wide range of highly abundant ARGs, with a total of 201 ARGs and 7 MGEs detected in all fecal samples. The dominant ARGs identified conferred resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolide-lincosamide-streptomycin B (MLSB), and tetracycline antibiotics. Cellular protection mechanisms were found to be the primary resistance mechanism for these ARGs. The analysis of the co-occurrence network demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the abundance of MGEs and ARGs. The SF samples showed a significantly lower relative abundance of certain ARGs than the NSF samples (p < 0.05). The results of this study show that the abundance of ARGs demonstrated a downward trend after the implementation of the National Pilot Work Program for Action to Reduce the Usage of Veterinary Antimicrobial Drugs in Hebei Province, China.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121664
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1665: The Outcome of Antibiotic Overuse before
           and during the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    • Authors: Nenad Pandak, Hilal Al Sidairi, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Zakariya Al Balushi, Shabnam Chhetri, Muna Ba’Omar, Sultan Al Lawati, Seif S. Al-Abri, Faryal Khamis
      First page: 1665
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a serious global public health challenge, may have accelerated development during the COVID-19 pandemic because antibiotics were prescribed for COVID-19. This study aimed to assess antibiotics use before and during the pandemic and correlate the results with the rate of resistant microorganisms detected in hospitalized patients during the study period. This single-center study looked retrospectively at four years of data (2018–2021) from Royal Hospital, Muscat, which is the biggest hospital in Oman with approximately 60,000 hospital admissions yearly. The consumption rate of ceftriaxone, piperacillin tazobactam, meropenem, and vancomycin was presented as the antibiotic consumption index, the ratio of defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed days. Analyses were performed using the nonparametric test for trend across the study period. Correlation between antibiotic consumption indexes and the isolated microorganisms in the four-year study period was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. We compared data from the pre-COVID-19 to the COVID-19 period. Though more patients were admitted pre-COVID-19 (132,828 versus 119,191 during COVID-19), more antibiotics were consumed during the pandemic (7350 versus 7915); vancomycin and ceftriaxone had higher consumption during than before the pandemic (p-values 0.001 and 0.036, respectively). Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Candida auris were detected more during the COVID-19 period with p-values of 0.026 and 0.004, respectively. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., and C. auris were detected more often during the pandemic with p-values of 0.011, 0.002, and 0.03, respectively. Significant positive correlations between antibiotic consumption and drug-resistant isolates were noted. This study confirms that the overuse of antibiotics triggers the development of bacterial resistance; our results emphasize the importance of antibiotic control.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121665
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1666: The Impact of Cefepime and
           Ampicillin/Sulbactam on Preventing Post-Cesarean Surgical Site Infections,
           Randomized Controlled Trail

    • Authors: Mona A. Abdelrahman, Asmaa Zaki, Sara A. M. Salem, Heba F. Salem, Ahmed R. N. Ibrahim, Ahmed Hassan, Marwa O. Elgendy
      First page: 1666
      Abstract: Over the previous three decades, the rate of caesarean sections performed worldwide has grown exponentially. In comparison to a vaginal birth, the risk of all postpartum infections is higher with a cesarean section. One of the key factors contributing to maternal morbidity is the development of infectious complications in the surgical site after a caesarean section. The primary goal of the research was to compare the efficiency of using ampicillin/sulbactam (AMS) and cefepime (CEF) to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) following caesarean delivery. This prospective randomized study was conducted among 200 pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section. They were collected from the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Beni-Suef University Hospital, and then they were randomly assigned into two groups. Group (A) received cefepime 30 min before and 12 h after cesarean delivery, while group (B) received ampicillin/sulbactam 30 min before and 12 h after cesarean delivery. The groups were matched regarding the baseline women characteristics. Comparing the cefepime to the ampicillin/sulbactam revealed that the cefepime significantly decreased superficial SSI from 27% to 14% (0.023). A significant decrease was observed in deep SSI with cefepime compared to ampicillin/sulbactam from 24% to 13% (p-value 0.045). Interestingly, when the cefepime was compared to the ampicillin/sulbactam, we noted that the incidence of endometritis significantly decreased from 13% to 5% (p = 0.048). A noted decrease in post-operative fever in cefepime as compared to ampicillin/sulbactam from 18% to 13% (p-value = 0.329). Receiving prophylactic cefepime pre- and post-cesarean delivery significantly decreases post-operative wound infection and endometritis.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121666
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1667: High Diversity but Monodominance of
           Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients with
           Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Developing GVHD Are Not Associated with
           Changes in Gut Mycobiome

    • Authors: Sara Sardzikova, Kristina Andrijkova, Peter Svec, Gabor Beke, Lubos Klucar, Gabriel Minarik, Viktor Bielik, Alexandra Kolenova, Katarina Soltys
      First page: 1667
      Abstract: Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a severe complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our study focused on identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR) gut bacteria associated with GvHD-prone guts and association with gut microbiota (GM) diversity, bacteriome, and mycobiome composition in post-HSCT patients. We examined 11 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including six with GvHD, within three time points: seven days pre-HSCT, seven days post-, and 28 days post-HSCT. The gut microbiome and its resistome were investigated using metagenomic sequencing, taxonomically classified with Kraken2, and statistically evaluated for significance using appropriate tests. We observed an increase in the abundance of MDR bacteria, mainly Enterococcus faecium strains carrying msr(C), erm(T), aac(6′)-li, dfrG, and ant(6)-la genes, in GvHD patients one week post-HSCT. Conversely, non-GvHD patients had more MDR beneficial bacteria pre-HSCT, promoting immunosurveillance, with resistance genes increasing one-month post-HSCT. MDR beneficial bacteria included the anti-inflammatory Bacteroides fragilis, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Turicibacter, while most MDR bacteria represented the dominant species of GM. Changes in the gut mycobiome were not associated with MDR bacterial monodominance or GvHD. Significant α-diversity decline (Shannon index) one week and one month post-HSCT in GvHD patients (p < 0.05) was accompanied by increased Pseudomonadota and decreased Bacteroidota post-HSCT. Our findings suggest that MDR commensal gut bacteria may preserve diversity and enhance immunosurveillance, potentially preventing GvHD in pediatric ALL patients undergoing HSCT. This observation has therapeutic implications.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121667
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1668: High Incidence of
           Multiple-Drug-Resistant Pheromone-Responsive Plasmids and Transmissions of
           VanA-Type Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis between Livestock and
           Humans in Taiwan

    • Authors: Haruyoshi Tomita, Jang-Jih Lu, Yasuyoshi Ike
      First page: 1668
      Abstract: A total of seventy VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates obtained in Taiwan in the early 2000s were retrospectively characterized. Forty isolates were obtained from human patients and thirty from livestock. Of these VRE isolates, twenty-three (57.5%) of the human VRE and thirty (100%) of the livestock VRE were Enterococcus faecalis, and the remaining seventeen (42.5%) of the human VRE were E. faecium. Of the 53 E. faecalis isolates, twenty-two (96%) of the human VRE and thirty (100%) of the livestock VRE exhibited a high level of resistance to vancomycin and sensitivity to teicoplanin. They also had three amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of the deduced VanS sequence. The vancomycin resistance of all of the 22 human isolates, and 20 of the 30 livestock isolates, transferred to E. faecalis FA2-2 at a frequency of 10−5 to 10−3 per donor cell in broth. Each of the transconjugants responded to E. faecalis pheromone (i.e., E. faecalis FA2-2 culture filtrate), indicating that the conjugative plasmids were pheromone-responsive plasmids. Three of the conjugative plasmids originated from human isolates, and five plasmids from livestock isolates were corresponded and classified as type A plasmid. Two plasmids originated from human isolates and six plasmids from livestock isolates were corresponded and classified as type B plasmid. E. faecalis FA2-2 containing either the type A or type B plasmid responded to the synthetic pheromone cAD1. The type A and type B plasmids transferred between E. faecalis FA2-2 and JH2SS at a frequency of about 10−2 per donor cell and conferred vancomycin, bacitracin, and erythromycin resistances. The complete DNA sequence of the representative type A plasmid pTW9 (85,068 bp) showed that the plasmid carried a Tn1546-like element encoding vanA-type resistance, erythromycin resistance (ermB), and bacitracin resistance (bcrABDR). The plasmid contained the regulatory region found in the pheromone-responsive plasmid and encoded the genes traA, traD and iad1, which are the key negative regulatory elements, and traE1, a key positive regulator of plasmid pAD1, indicating that plasmid pTW9 was pAD1-type pheromone-responsive plasmid. PFGE analysis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNAs showed that several E. faecalis strains harboring an identical type A pheromone-responsive plasmid were indistinguishable, and that these were identified both in human and livestock isolates, indicating the transmissions of the VRE strains between livestock and humans. These data showed that the multiple-drug-resistant pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids have been widely spread in both human and livestock VRE, and there was high potential for transfers of VRE from food animals to humans in Taiwan in the early 2000s.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121668
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1669: Antibiotic Resistance and Therapy for
           Helicobacter pylori Infection

    • Authors: Stella I. Smith, Yoshio Yamaoka
      First page: 1669
      Abstract: Approximately half of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with Helicobacter pylori [...]
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121669
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1670: Management and Prognosis of Acute
           Post-Cataract Surgery Endophthalmitis: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in
           Eastern China

    • Authors: Xiuwen Zhang, Zhi Chen, Xiaoxia Li, Zimei Zhou, Maureen Boost, Taomin Huang, Xingtao Zhou
      First page: 1670
      Abstract: Acute post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis (APSE) is a serious vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Analysis of the management and prognosis in cases of APSE may provide better guidance for future treatment. Fifty-six patients (56 eyes) diagnosed with APSE between 2013 and 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of APSE rate was 0.020% (95% CI: 0.011–0.029%). Intraocular cultures were positive in 18 (32.1%) cases, with 21 organisms isolated. Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the predominant isolate (12/21; 57.1%). The time from surgery to the onset of endophthalmitis was 7 days (interquartile range: 3–16) in patients with good best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (≥20/70) and 3 days (interquartile range: 1–8) in those with poor BCVA (<20/70). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that initial BCVA (logMAR) (p < 0.001), time from onset to initial intravitreal antibiotics (IVAs) (p < 0.001), and positive culture of highly virulent pathogens (p = 0.018) displayed significantly positive associations with the final BCVA (logMAR). Adjunctive use of intravitreal corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics were unrelated to a favorable final BCVA. In conclusion, the severity of the visual condition at baseline, as well as delayed treatment, are risk factors for poor visual outcomes in APSE.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121670
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1671: Effect of Camel Peptide on the Biofilm
           of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Formed on
           Orthopedic Implants

    • Authors: Joanna Nowicka, Adriana Janczura, Magdalena Pajączkowska, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Patrycja Szymczyk-Ziółkowska, Urszula Walczuk, Grażyna Gościniak
      First page: 1671
      Abstract: The increasing bacterial drug resistance and the associated challenges in the treatment of infections warrant the search for alternative therapeutic methods. Hope is placed in antimicrobial peptides, which have a broad spectrum of action and are effective against strains which are resistant to conventional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides are also tested for their efficacy in the treatment of infections associated with the formation of biofilm. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of Camel peptide on S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus adhesion to and formation of biofilm on steel cortical bone screws and also on the process of reducing mature biofilm in orthopedic implants. The tests were performed on steel implants for osteosynthesis. The MIC value and MBEC values of the peptide were determined using the microdilution method in microtiter plates. The effect of the peptide on adhesion and biofilm formation, as well as on the activity on the preformed biofilm, was evaluated using quantitative methods and confocal microscopy. The presented research results indicate that the peptide exhibits very good antimicrobial properties against the analyzed strains. Concentrations above MIC reduced biofilm in the range of 90–99%.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121671
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1672: Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter
           pylori Isolates from Northwestern and Central Romania Detected by
           Culture-Based and PCR-Based Methods

    • Authors: Carmen Costache, Horațiu Alexandru Colosi, Simona Grad, Anamaria Ioana Paștiu, Mariela Militaru, Anca Paula Hădărean, Dan Alexandru Țoc, Vlad Sever Neculicioiu, Alina Mihaela Baciu, Razvan Vlad Opris, Dan Lucian Dumitrașcu, Ioana Alina Colosi
      First page: 1672
      Abstract: Little evidence has been published regarding the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains in Northwestern and Central Romania. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of H. pylori isolates from gastric biopsies collected from patients living in Romania using ETEST® and GenoType HelicoDR. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 148 adult patients, 87 women and 61 men, the majority (131 patients) from Northwestern and Central Romania. Sixty-nine H. pylori strains were detected by both culture and PCR; sixty-three biopsies were negative by both techniques; one biopsy was positive by culture but negative by PCR; and fifteen biopsies were negative by culture but positive by PCR. Primary resistance against clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, and metronidazole was found in 16.7%, 11.1%, and 13.3% of strains, respectively. No primary resistance has been detected against amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin. Secondary resistance against clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin was found in 75.8%, 30.3%, 65.5%, 1.8%, 1.8%, and 7.3% of the strains, respectively. The most frequent clarithromycin-resistant genotype detected by GenoType HelicoDR was A2147G (62.3%). Concordances between ETEST® and PCR for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones were 85.5% and 78.3%, respectively. Further investigation of H. pylori resistance should be conducted to ensure proper eradication schemes.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121672
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1673: Antifungal Biofilm Inhibitory Effects of
           Combinations of Diclofenac and Essential Oils

    • Authors: Alexia Barbarossa, Antonio Rosato, Antonio Carrieri, Roberta Tardugno, Filomena Corbo, Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Giuseppe Fracchiolla, Alessia Carocci
      First page: 1673
      Abstract: Systemic fungal infections have risen in recent decades and most of them are caused by Candida species, which are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antifungal drugs. Biofilm production has been considered the most common growth form of Candida cells and is associated with a high level of antifungal resistance. At present, international research reports on the antifungal activity of non-traditional antimicrobial drugs and their potential use against life-threatening resistant fungal infections. Indeed, drug repurposing has led to the consideration of well-known compounds as a last-line therapy. The goal of this work is to evaluate the potential synergistic antifungal biofilm activity of new combinations between diclofenac sodium salt (DSS), a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with the essential oils (EOs) of Mentha piperita, Pelargonium graveolens, and Melaleuca alternifolia, whose antifungal activity has been well documented over the years. The in vitro antifungal activity of DSS and EOs was determined on different Candida strains. Susceptibility testing and the synergism of DSS and EOs versus biofilm cells was performed by using the broth microdilution assay and checkerboard methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (sMIC50) of DSS alone ranged from 1.25 to 2.05 mg/mL for all the strains considered. These values significantly decreased when the drug was used in combination with the EOs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was lower than 0.5 for almost all the associations, thus indicating a significant synergism, particularly for the DSS–Pelargonium graveolens combination towards the Candida strains examined. These preliminary results show that the combination of the EOs with DSS improves the antifungal activity on all the tested Candida strains, significantly lowering the concentrations of the components used and thus allowing any toxic effects to be overcome.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121673
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1674: Predicting Beta-Lactam Target
           Non-Attainment in ICU Patients at Treatment Initiation: Development and
           External Validation of Three Novel (Machine Learning) Models

    • Authors: André Wieringa, Tim M. J. Ewoldt, Ravish N. Gangapersad, Matthias Gijsen, Nestor Parolya, Chantal J. A. R. Kats, Isabel Spriet, Henrik Endeman, Jasper J. Haringman, Reinier M. van Hest, Birgit C. P. Koch, Alan Abdulla
      First page: 1674
      Abstract: In the intensive care unit (ICU), infection-related mortality is high. Although adequate antibiotic treatment is essential in infections, beta-lactam target non-attainment occurs in up to 45% of ICU patients, which is associated with a lower likelihood of clinical success. To optimize antibiotic treatment, we aimed to develop beta-lactam target non-attainment prediction models in ICU patients. Patients from two multicenter studies were included, with intravenous intermittent beta-lactam antibiotics administered and blood samples drawn within 12–36 h after antibiotic initiation. Beta-lactam target non-attainment models were developed and validated using random forest (RF), logistic regression (LR), and naïve Bayes (NB) models from 376 patients. External validation was performed on 150 ICU patients. We assessed performance by measuring discrimination, calibration, and net benefit at the default threshold probability of 0.20. Age, sex, serum creatinine, and type of beta-lactam antibiotic were found to be predictive of beta-lactam target non-attainment. In the external validation, the RF, LR, and NB models confirmed good discrimination with an area under the curve of 0.79 [95% CI 0.72–0.86], 0.80 [95% CI 0.73–0.87], and 0.75 [95% CI 0.67–0.82], respectively, and net benefit in the RF and LR models. We developed prediction models for beta-lactam target non-attainment within 12–36 h after antibiotic initiation in ICU patients. These online-accessible models use readily available patient variables and help optimize antibiotic treatment. The RF and LR models showed the best performance among the three models tested.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121674
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1675: Unexpected Inhibitory Effect of
           Octenidine Dihydrochloride on Candida albicans Filamentation by Impairing
           Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Disrupting Cell Membrane Integrity

    • Authors: Ting Fang, Juan Xiong, Li Wang, Zhe Feng, Sijin Hang, Jinhua Yu, Wanqian Li, Yanru Feng, Hui Lu, Yuanying Jiang
      First page: 1675
      Abstract: Candida albicans filamentation plays a significant role in developing both mucosal and invasive candidiasis, making it a crucial virulence factor. Consequently, exploring and identifying inhibitors that impede fungal hyphal formation presents an intriguing approach toward antifungal strategies. In line with this anti-filamentation strategy, we conducted a comprehensive screening of a library of FDA-approved drugs to identify compounds that possess inhibitory properties against hyphal growth. The compound octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) exhibits potent inhibition of hyphal growth in C. albicans across different hyphae-inducing media at concentrations below or equal to 3.125 μM. This remarkable inhibitory effect extends to biofilm formation and the disruption of mature biofilm. The mechanism underlying OCT’s inhibition of hyphal growth is likely attributed to its capacity to impede ergosterol biosynthesis and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), compromising the integrity of the cell membrane. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCT demonstrates protective attributes against invasive candidiasis in Galleria mellonella larvae through its proficient eradication of C. albicans colonization in infected G. mellonella larvae by impeding hyphal formation. Although additional investigation is required to mitigate the toxicity of OCT in mammals, it possesses considerable promise as a potent filamentation inhibitor against invasive candidiasis.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121675
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1676: Application of Different Wavelengths of
           LED Lights in Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of
           Periodontal Disease

    • Authors: Yasuo Takeuchi, Akira Aoki, Koichi Hiratsuka, Chanthoeun Chui, Akiko Ichinose, Nay Aung, Yutaro Kitanaka, Sakura Hayashi, Keita Toyoshima, Takanori Iwata, Shinich Arakawa
      First page: 1676
      Abstract: Therapeutic light has been increasingly used in clinical dentistry for surgical ablation, disinfection, bio-stimulation, reduction in inflammation, and promotion of wound healing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a type of phototherapy, has been used to selectively destroy tumor cells. Antimicrobial PDT (a-PDT) is used to inactivate causative bacteria in infectious oral diseases, such as periodontitis. Several studies have reported that this minimally invasive technique has favorable therapeutic outcomes with a low probability of adverse effects. PDT is based on the photochemical reaction between light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen, which affects its efficacy. Low-power lasers have been predominantly used in phototherapy for periodontal treatments, while light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have received considerable attention as a novel light source in recent years. LEDs can emit broad wavelengths of light, from infrared to ultraviolet, and the lower directivity of LED light appears to be suitable for plaque control over large and complex surfaces. In addition, LED devices are small, lightweight, and less expensive than lasers. Although limited evidence exists on LED-based a-PDT for periodontitis, a-PDT using red or blue LED light could be effective in attenuating bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. LEDs have the potential to provide a new direction for light therapy in periodontics.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121676
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1677: Characterization and Determination of
           the Antibacterial Activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia Essential-Oil

    • Authors: Erika da Silva Monteiro, Franklyn Santos da Silva, Karolina Oliveira Gomes, Bruno Alcântara do Prado, Rebeca Dias dos Santos, Claudio Augusto Gomes da Camara, Marcilio Martins de Moraes, Izabel Cristina Rodrigues da Silva, Vinicius Teixeira de Macêdo, Guilherme Martins Gelfuso, Lívia Cristina Lira de Sá Barreto, Daniela Castilho Orsi
      First page: 1677
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of nanoemulsions of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil. The volatile compounds of the essential oil were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The properties of the nanoemulsions (droplet size, polydispersity index, pH, and electrical conductivity) were determined. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil and its nanoemulsions were evaluated using MIC, MBC, and disk diffusion. The microorganisms used were: Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-1706, Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The major volatile compounds of the B. dracunculifolia essential oil were limonene (19.36%), (E)-nerolidol (12.75%), bicyclogermacrene (10.76%), and β-pinene (9.60%). The nanoemulsions had a mean droplet size between 13.14 and 56.84 nm. The nanoemulsions presented lower and statistically significant MIC values compared to the essential oil, indicating enhancement of the bacteriostatic action. The disk diffusion method showed that both the nanoemulsions and the essential oil presented inhibition zones only for Gram-positive bacteria, while there were no results against Gram-negative bacteria, indicating that B. dracunculifolia essential oil has a better antimicrobial effect on Gram-positive microorganisms.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121677
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1678: Antibiotic Resistance in Metal-Tolerant
           Microorganisms from Treatment Facilities

    • Authors: Leonid Perelomov, Olga Sizova, Maria Gertsen, Irina Perelomova, Vyacheslav Arlyapov, Yury Atroshchenko
      First page: 1678
      Abstract: The study examines the antibiotic resistance of metal-tolerant bacteria isolated from the wastewater treatment plant of a large city to six antibiotics belonging to the β-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and amphenicols. Resistance of bacteria from sewage sludge multitolerant to heavy metals to 18 antibiotics of the β-lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, diaminopyrimidines, amphenicols and ansamycins was studied also. Out of 10, the metal-tolerant microorganisms isolated from wastewater treatment facilities only the Klebsiella pneumonia strain (tolerant to 3 mM Cu) from the sludge of a secondary settling tank did not show resistance to the studied antibiotics at the concentrations considered. Resistance to the maximum amount of antibiotics was typical for strains Serratia fonticola SS0-1, isolated from fresh sewage sludge and resistant to 5 mmol Cu and 3 mmol Pb, or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SS0-5, also isolated from fresh sludge and resistant to 3 mmol Zn and Cu. It is possible that bacterial resistance to antibiotics develops not only as a result of the use of antibiotics themselves, but also as a result of environmental pollution with heavy metals, and vice versa.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121678
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1679: Antimicrobial Resistance in Papua New
           Guinea: A Narrative Scoping Review

    • Authors: Brady Page, Simeon Adiunegiya
      First page: 1679
      Abstract: Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections are a known threat to the public health of low-income countries and are undercharacterized in Papua New Guinea. A scoping literature review of scientific peer-reviewed publications on antimicrobial resistance in Papua New Guinea was conducted, and their results were summarized. Many of the available data on resistant bacteria in Papua New Guinea have come from Port Moresby and Goroka and have been focused on Staphylococcus aureus, as well as important pediatric pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Progressive resistance to the commonly used antibiotics penicillin and chloramphenicol among most clinically important bacterial pathogens has prompted healthcare workers to adopt expensive broad-spectrum antibiotics. There is already evidence of resistance to newly adopted antibiotics among several Gram-negative organisms. Drivers of antimicrobial resistance in Papua New Guinea include a high burden of infectious diseases, inappropriate antibiotic prescription practices, poor regulation of antibiotics, incomplete adherence, substandard drug quality, and overcrowding of healthcare facilities. There is a lack of information on antimicrobial resistance among priority pathogens and from several important regions of Papua New Guinea.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121679
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1680: Antibiotic Guideline Adherence at the
           Emergency Department: A Descriptive Study from a Country with a
           Restrictive Antibiotic Policy

    • Authors: Mariana B. Cartuliares, Sara N. Søgaard, Flemming S. Rosenvinge, Christian B. Mogensen, Mathias Amdi Hertz, Helene Skjøt-Arkil
      First page: 1680
      Abstract: Background: Denmark has a low level of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Patients hospitalized with suspected infection often present with unspecific symptoms. This challenges the physician between using narrow-spectrum antibiotics in accordance with guidelines or broad-spectrum antibiotics to compensate for diagnostic uncertainty. The aim of this study was to investigate adherence to a restrictive antibiotic guideline for the most common infection in emergency departments (EDs), namely community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Method: This multicenter descriptive cross-sectional study included adults admitted to Danish EDs with a suspected infection. Data were collected prospectively from medical records. Results: We included 954 patients in the analysis. The most prescribed antibiotics were penicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitor at 4 h (307 (32.2%)), 48 h (289 (30.3%)), and day 5 after admission (218 (22.9%)). The empirical antibiotic treatment guidelines for CAP were followed for 126 (31.3%) of the CAP patients. At 4 h, antibiotics were administered intravenously to 244 (60.7%) of the CAP patients. At day 5, 218 (54.4%) received oral antibiotics. Conclusion: Adherence to CAP guidelines was poor. In a country with a restrictive antibiotic policy, infections are commonly treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics against recommendations.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121680
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1681: Molecular Epidemiology of
           Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Patients Diagnosed with
           Surgical Site Infection at Four Hospitals in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Seble Worku, Tamrat Abebe, Berhanu Seyoum, Ashenafi Alemu, Yidenek Shimelash, Marechign Yimer, Alemseged Abdissa, Getachew Tesfaye Beyene, Göte Swedberg, Adane Mihret
      First page: 1681
      Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of severe surgical site infections (SSI). The molecular epidemiology of MRSA is poorly documented in Ethiopia. This study is designed to determine the prevalence of MRSA and associated factors among patients diagnosed with SSI. A multicenter study was conducted at four hospitals in Ethiopia. A wound culture was performed among 752 SSI patients. This study isolated S. aureus and identified MRSA using standard bacteriology, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and cefoxitin disk diffusion test. The genes mecA, femA, vanA, and vanB were detected through PCR tests. S. aureus was identified in 21.6% of participants, with 24.5% of these being methicillin-resistant Staphylococci and 0.6% showing vancomycin resistance. Using MALDI-TOF MS for the 40 methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, we confirmed that 31 (77.5%) were S. aureus, 6 (15%) were Mammaliicoccus sciuri, and the other 3 (2.5%) were Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The gene mecA was detected from 27.5% (11/40) of Staphylococci through PCR. Only 36.4% (4/11) were detected in S. aureus, and no vanA or vanB genes were identified. Out of 11 mecA-gene-positive Staphylococci, 8 (72.7%) were detected in Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections were associated with the following risk factors: age ≥ 61 years, prolonged duration of hospital stay, and history of previous antibiotic use, p-values < 0.05. Hospitals should strengthen infection prevention and control strategies and start antimicrobial stewardship programs.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121681
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1682: Applications of Romanian Propolis in
           Phyto-Inhibitory Activity and Antimicrobial Protection: A Comparative

    • Authors: Ramona Cristina Heghedűş-Mîndru, Mirel Glevitzky, Gabriel Heghedűş-Mîndru, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel, Maria Popa, Doriana Maria Popa, Isidora Radulov, Mihaela Laura Vică
      First page: 1682
      Abstract: Propolis use in medicine, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries is well known. This study aimed to investigate propolis’ phyto-inhibitory and antimicrobial potential. Nine propolis samples obtained from distinct Romanian regions and characterized in terms of physical–chemical parameters, phenols and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant properties were prepared as dry propolis and aqueous extracts. The phyto-inhibitory effect was comparatively tested on different cereals: hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), while their in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated against bacterial and fungal strains specific to cereals: Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Proteus mirabilis, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus niger. All propolis samples showed a phyto-inhibitory effect on the cereals, the most pronounced being corn and oats. Propolis powder samples displayed a lower phyto-inhibitory activity than propolis extracts. Also, all tested products showed inhibitory efficacy against both bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, principal component analysis showed differences between the samples’ phyto-inhibitory and antimicrobial properties depending on the geographical origin. Positive correlations were found between the polyphenols, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity, respectively. These data support propolis’ phyto-pharmaceutical potential related to its use in plant crop management as an alternative in ecological agriculture.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121682
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1683: Editorial for the Special Issue:
           “The Issue of Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Nosocomial

    • Authors: Alberto Enrico Maraolo
      First page: 1683
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem; in 2019, before the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it was responsible of more deaths than any other infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus and malaria [...]
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121683
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1684: The Safety and Efficacy of Phage Therapy
           for Infections in Cardiac and Peripheral Vascular Surgery: A Systematic

    • Authors: Emily A. Simpson, Caitlin S. MacLeod, Helen J. Stacey, John Nagy, Joshua D. Jones
      First page: 1684
      Abstract: New approaches to managing infections in cardiac and peripheral vascular surgery are required to reduce costs to patients and healthcare providers. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy is a promising antimicrobial approach that has been recommended for consideration in antibiotic refractory cases. We systematically reviewed the clinical evidence for phage therapy in vascular surgery to support the unlicensed use of phage therapy and inform future research. Three electronic databases were searched for articles that reported primary data about human phage therapy for infections in cardiac or peripheral vascular surgery. Fourteen reports were eligible for inclusion, representing 40 patients, among which an estimated 70.3% of patients (n = 26/37) achieved clinical resolution. A further 10.8% (n = 4/37) of patients showed improvement and 18.9% (n = 7/37) showed no improvement. Six of the twelve reports that commented on the safety of phage therapy did not report adverse effects. No adverse effects documented in the remaining six reports were directly linked to phages but reflected the presence of manufacturing contaminants or release of bacterial debris following bacterial lysis. The reports identified by this review suggest that appropriately purified phages represent a safe and efficacious treatment option for infections in cardiac and peripheral vascular surgery.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121684
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1685: Primary Care Antibiotic Prescribing and
           Infection-Related Hospitalisation

    • Authors: Stein Gerrit Paul Menting, Enya Redican, Jamie Murphy, Magda Bucholc
      First page: 1685
      Abstract: Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics has been widely recognised as a leading cause of antimicrobial resistance, which in turn has become one of the most significant threats to global health. Given that most antibiotic prescriptions are issued in primary care settings, investigating the associations between primary care prescribing of antibiotics and subsequent infection-related hospitalisations affords a valuable opportunity to understand the long-term health implications of primary care antibiotic intervention. A narrative review of the scientific literature studying associations between primary care antibiotic prescribing and subsequent infection-related hospitalisation was conducted. The Web of Science database was used to retrieve 252 potentially relevant studies, with 23 of these studies included in this review (stratified by patient age and infection type). The majority of studies (n = 18) were published in the United Kingdom, while the remainder were conducted in Germany, Spain, Denmark, New Zealand, and the United States. While some of the reviewed studies demonstrated that appropriate and timely antibiotic prescribing in primary care could help reduce the need for hospitalisation, excessive antibiotic prescribing can lead to antimicrobial resistance, subsequently increasing the risk of infection-related hospitalisation. Few studies reported no association between primary care antibiotic prescriptions and subsequent infection-related hospitalisation. Overall, the disparate results in the extant literature attest to the conflicting factors influencing the decision-making regarding antibiotic prescribing and highlight the necessity of adopting a more patient-focussed perspective in stewardship programmes and the need for increased use of rapid diagnostic testing in primary care.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121685
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1686: Candida krusei M4CK Produces a
           Bioemulsifier That Acts on Melaleuca Essential Oil and Aids in Its
           Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity

    • Authors: Jéssica Mayra Mendes Araujo, Joveliane Melo Monteiro, Douglas Henrique dos Santos Silva, Amanda Karoline Veira, Maria Raimunda Chagas Silva, Fernanda Avelino Ferraz, Fábio H. Ramos Braga, Ezequias Pessoa de Siqueira, Andrea de Souza Monteiro
      First page: 1686
      Abstract: Surface-active compounds (SACs) of microbial origin are an active group of biomolecules with potential use in the formulation of emulsions. In this sense, the present study aimed to isolate and select yeasts from fruits that could produce SACs for essential oil emulsions. The Candida krusei M4CK was isolated from the Byrsonima crassifolia fruit to make SACs. This emulsification activity (E24) was equal to or greater 50% in all carbon sources, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, kerosene, hexane, and hexadecane. E24 followed exponential growth according to the growth phase. The stability of emulsions was maintained over a wide range of temperatures, pH, and salinity. The OMBE4CK (melaleuca essential oil emulsion) had better and more significant inhibitory potential for biofilm reduction formation. In addition, bioemulsifier BE4CK alone on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm showed few effective results, while there was a significant eradication for Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The biofilms formed by S. aureus were eradicated in all concentrations of OMBE4CK. At the same time, the preformed biofilm by E. coli and P. aeruginosa were removed entirely at concentrations of 25 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL, and 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the bioemulsifier BE4CK may represent a new potential for antibiofilm application.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121686
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1687: Cannabinoids in Periodontology: Where
           Are We Now'

    • Authors: Yésica Carmona Rendón, Hernán Santiago Garzón, Bruno Bueno-Silva, Roger M. Arce, Lina Janeth Suárez Londoño
      First page: 1687
      Abstract: Introduction: Cannabinoids are a well-documented treatment modality for various immune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn’s disease, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. However, limited information is available regarding the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in treating periodontal disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the current evidence on the antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects of cannabis and its role in the healing and regeneration processes within periodontal tissues. Results: This review discusses the potential role of cannabinoids in restoring periodontal tissue homeostasis. Conclusions: The examination of the endocannabinoid system and the physiological effects of cannabinoids in the periodontium suggests that they possess immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties, which could potentially promote proper tissue healing and regeneration.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121687
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1588: Traditional Cultures versus Next
           Generation Sequencing for Suspected Orthopedic Infection: Experience
           Gained from a Reference Centre

    • Authors: Sara Giordana Rimoldi, Davide Brioschi, Daniele Curreli, Federica Salari, Cristina Pagani, Alessandro Tamoni, Concetta Longobardi, Raffaella Bosari, Alberto Rizzo, Simona Landonio, Massimo Coen, Matteo Passerini, Maria Rita Gismondo, Andrea Gori, Alfonso Manzotti
      First page: 1588
      Abstract: (Background) The diagnosis and the antimicrobial treatment of orthopedic infection are challenging, especially in cases with culture-negative results. New molecular methods, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), promise to overcome some limitations of the standard culture, such as the detection of difficult-to-grow bacteria. However, data are scarce regarding the impact of molecular techniques in real-life scenarios. (Methods) We included cases of suspected orthopedic infection treated with surgery from May 2021 to September 2023. We combined traditional cultures with NGS. For NGS, we performed a metagenomic analysis of ribosomal 16s, and we queried dedicated taxonomic libraries to identify the species. To avoid false positive results, we set a cut-off of 1000 counts of the percentage of frequency of reads. (Results) We included 49 patients in our study. Our results show the presence of bacteria in 36/49 (73%) and 29/49 (59%) cases studied with NGS and traditional cultures, respectively. The concordance rate was 61%. Among the 19/49 discordant cases, in 11/19 cases, cultures were negative and NGS positive; in 4/19, cultures were positive and NGS negative; and in the remaining 4/19, different species were detected by traditional cultures and NGS. (Conclusions) Difficult-to-grow microorganisms, such as slow-growing anaerobic bacteria, were better detected by NGS compared to traditional culture in our study. However, more data to distinguish between true pathogens and contaminants are needed. NGS can be an additional tool to be used for the diagnosis of orthopedic infections and the choice of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111588
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1589: Early Staphylococcal Periprosthetic
           Joint Infection (PJI) Treated with Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant
           Retention (DAIR): Inferior Outcomes in Patients with Staphylococci
           Resistant to Rifampicin

    • Authors: Hannah K. Eriksson, Stergios Lazarinis, Josef D. Järhult, Nils P. Hailer
      First page: 1589
      Abstract: It is unknown how rifampicin resistance in staphylococci causing a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) affects outcomes after debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR). We thus aimed to compare the risk of relapse in DAIR-treated early PJI caused by staphylococci with or without rifampicin resistance. In total, 81 patients affected by early PJI were included, and all patients were treated surgically with DAIR. This was repeated if needed. The endpoint of relapse-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression models were fitted to assess the risk of infection relapse for patients infected with rifampicin-resistant bacteria, adjusted for age, sex, type of joint, and type of index surgery. In patients with rifampicin-resistant staphylococci, relapse was seen in 80% after one DAIR procedure and in 70% after two DAIR procedures. In patients with rifampicin-sensitive bacteria, 51% had an infection relapse after one DAIR procedure and 33% had an infection relapse after two DAIR procedures. Patients with rifampicin-resistant staphylococcal PJI thus had an increased adjusted risk of infection relapse of 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.6, p = 0.04) after one DAIR procedure compared to patients with rifampicin-sensitive bacteria and a 4.1-fold (95% CI: 1.2–14.1, p = 0.03) increase in risk of infection relapse after two DAIR procedures. Staphylococcal resistance to rifampicin is associated with inferior outcomes after DAIR. These findings suggest that DAIR may not be a useful strategy in early PJI caused by rifampicin-resistant staphylococci.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111589
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1590: Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance
           Mechanisms in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    • Authors: Anusha Gauba, Khondaker Miraz Rahman
      First page: 1590
      Abstract: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are exponentially increasing, posing one of the most urgent global healthcare and economic threats. Due to the lack of new therapies, the World Health Organization classified these bacterial species as priority pathogens in 2017, known as ESKAPE pathogens. This classification emphasizes the need for urgent research and development of novel targeted therapies. The majority of these priority pathogens are Gram-negative species, which possess a structurally dynamic cell envelope enabling them to resist multiple antibiotics, thereby leading to increased mortality rates. Despite 6 years having passed since the WHO classification, the progress in generating new treatment ideas has not been sufficient, and antimicrobial resistance continues to escalate, acting as a global ticking time bomb. Numerous efforts and strategies have been employed to combat the rising levels of antibiotic resistance by targeting specific resistance mechanisms. These mechanisms include antibiotic inactivating/modifying enzymes, outer membrane porin remodelling, enhanced efflux pump action, and alteration of antibiotic target sites. Some strategies have demonstrated clinical promise, such as the utilization of beta-lactamase inhibitors as antibiotic adjuvants, as well as recent advancements in machine-based learning employing artificial intelligence to facilitate the production of novel narrow-spectrum antibiotics. However, further research into an enhanced understanding of the precise mechanisms by which antibiotic resistance occurs, specifically tailored to each bacterial species, could pave the way for exploring narrow-spectrum targeted therapies. This review aims to introduce the key features of Gram-negative bacteria and their current treatment approaches, summarizing the major antibiotic resistance mechanisms with a focus on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Additionally, potential directions for alternative therapies will be discussed, along with their relative modes of action, providing a future perspective and insight into the discipline of antimicrobial resistance.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111590
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1591: Antimicrobial Activities of
           Aztreonam-Avibactam and Comparator Agents against Enterobacterales
           Analyzed by ICU and Non-ICU Wards, Infection Sources, and Geographic
           Regions: ATLAS Program 2016–2020

    • Authors: Denis Piérard, Elizabeth D. Hermsen, Michal Kantecki, Francis F. Arhin
      First page: 1591
      Abstract: Increasing antimicrobial resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE), in particular metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-positive strains, has led to limited treatment options in these isolates. This study evaluated the activity of aztreonam-avibactam (ATM-AVI) and comparator antimicrobials against Enterobacterales isolates and key resistance phenotypes stratified by wards, infection sources and geographic regions as part of the ATLAS program between 2016 and 2020. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The susceptibility of antimicrobials were interpreted using CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. A tentative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic breakpoint of 8 µg/mL was considered for ATM-AVI activity. ATM-AVI inhibited ≥99.2% of Enterobacterales isolates across wards and ≥99.7% isolates across infection sources globally and in all regions at ≤8 µg/mL. For resistance phenotypes, ATM-AVI demonstrated sustained activity across wards and infection sources by inhibiting ≥98.5% and ≥99.1% of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, ≥98.6% and ≥99.1% of ESBL-positive isolates, ≥96.8% and ≥90.9% of carbapenem-resistant (CR) isolates, and ≥96.8% and ≥97.4% of MBL-positive isolates, respectively, at ≤8 µg/mL globally and across regions. Overall, our study demonstrated that ATM-AVI represents an important therapeutic option for infections caused by Enterobacterales, including key resistance phenotypes across different wards and infection sources.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111591
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1592: Genome Mining Uncovers NRPS and PKS
           Clusters in Rothia dentocariosa with Inhibitory Activity against Neisseria

    • Authors: Elvis Achondou Akomoneh, Zina Gestels, Saïd Abdellati, Katleen Vereecken, Koen Bartholomeeusen, Dorien Van den Bossche, Chris Kenyon, Sheeba Santhini Manoharan-Basil
      First page: 1592
      Abstract: The growing global threat of antimicrobial resistance is reaching a crisis point as common bacterial infections, including those caused by pathogenic Neisseria species, are becoming increasingly untreatable. This is compelling the scientific community to search for new antimicrobial agents, taking advantage of computational mining and using whole genome sequences to discover natural products from the human microbiome with antibiotic effects. In this study, we investigated the crude extract from a Rothia dentocariosa strain with demonstrated antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Neisseria spp. by spot-on-lawn assay. The genomic DNA of the R. dentocariosa strain was sequenced, and bioinformatic evaluation was performed using antiSMASH and PRISM to search for biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). The crude extract with potential antimicrobial activity was run on Tricine-SDS-PAGE, and the putative peptides were characterised using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The crude extract inhibited the growth of the pathogenic Neisseria spp. Six BGCs were identified corresponding to non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs), polyketide synthases (PKSs), and ribosomally synthesised and post-translationally modified peptides. Three peptides were also identified corresponding to Actinorhodin polyketide putative beta-ketoacyl synthase 1. These findings serve as a useful reference to facilitate the research and development of NRPS and PKS as antimicrobial products against multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111592
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1593: Bibliometric Examination of Global
           Scientific Research about Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii

    • Authors: Himanshu Jangid, Deepak Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Raj Kumar, Narsimha Mamidi
      First page: 1593
      Abstract: This review paper presents a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the global scientific research pertaining to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) from the years 1996 to 2023. The review employs a systematic approach to evaluate the trends, patterns, and collaborative networks within the CRAB research landscape, shedding light on its substantial global health implications. An analysis of the Scopus database reveals that the earliest publication within the CRAB research domain dates back to 1996. By conducting a meticulous examination of publication output, citation trends, author affiliations, and keyword distributions, this paper provides valuable insights into the evolution of research themes and the emergence of new areas of interest concerning CRAB. The findings of this bibliometric analysis prominently feature the most influential author within this field, namely, Higgins PG, who has contributed a remarkable 39 documents to CRAB research. It is noteworthy that China leads in terms of the quantity of published research articles in this domain, whereas the United States occupies the foremost position about citations within the CRAB research sphere. Furthermore, a more profound exploration of the data yields a heightened understanding of the current status of CRAB research, emphasizing potential avenues for future investigations and underscoring the imperative need for collaborative initiatives to address the challenges posed by this antibiotic-resistant pathogen.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111593
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1594: Occurrence and Antimicrobial Resistance
           among Staphylococci Isolated from the Skin Microbiota of Healthy Goats and

    • Authors: Maria Wesołowska, Ewa Szczuka
      First page: 1594
      Abstract: Staphylococci colonize the skin and mucous membranes of different animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the staphylococcal composition of the skin microbiota of healthy, non-vet visiting, and antimicrobially non-treated sheep and goats. In total, 83 strains (44 from goats and 39 from sheep) were isolated and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The diversity of the isolated Staphylococcus species was relatively high, and only coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated. In sheep, S. vitulinus (9/39, 23.1%) was the most common species, followed by S. equorum (8/39, 20.5%), S. lentus (7/39, 17.9%), S. sciuri (6/39, 15.4%), S. xylosus (6/39, 15.4%), S. warneri (1/39, 2.6%), S. simulans (1/39, 2.6%), and S. nepalensis (1/39, 2.6%). In the goats, the most common species was S. sciuri, which was detected in 13 (29.5%) animals. The goat skin was also inhabited by S. equorum (7/44, 15.9%), S. vitulinus (6/44, 13.6%), S. cohnii (5/44, 11.4%), S. lentus (4/44, 9.1%), S. suscinus (3/44, 6.8%), S. caprae, (2/44, 4.5%), S. auricularis (2/44, 4.5%), S. warneri (1/44, 2.3%), and S. xylosus (1/44, 2.3%). Only one S. xylosus strain of goat origin carried the enterotoxin gene (sea). Antimicrobial resistance was not common among the isolated staphylococci. Only 31 (37.3%) strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, with the highest frequency of resistance to penicillin (16.8%), followed by clindamycin (9.6%), erythromycin (8.4%), moxifloxacin (8.4%), and tetracycline (7.2%). All isolates were susceptible to eight antibiotics (amikacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tigecycline), representing six different classes. Three isolates displayed a multi-resistance phenotype (MDR): the goat isolates S. cohnii and S. sciuri, as well as the ewe isolate S. xylosus. The MDR S. cohnii isolate was found to be methicillin-resistant and carried the mecA gene. Moreover, the staphylococci isolated from the healthy animals carried genes conferring resistance to β-lactams (mecA, blaZ), tetracyclines (tetL, tetK), macrolides (ermB, ermC), lincosamides (lnu), and fluoroquinolones (grlA). However, the prevalence of these genes was low.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111594
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1595: Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance
           and Multidrug Resistance Prevalence of Clinical Isolates in a Regional
           Hospital in Northern Greece

    • Authors: Maria Tsalidou, Theodouli Stergiopoulou, Ioannis Bostanitis, Christina Nikaki, Kalypso Skoumpa, Theofani Koutsoukou, Paraskevi Papaioannidou
      First page: 1595
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is a global health threat resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study aimed to estimate antimicrobial susceptibility and multidrug resistance prevalence of clinical isolates in a regional hospital in Northern Greece during the last 6 years by analyzing the annual reports of the Laboratory of Microbiology. A total of 12,274 strains of certain bacteria were isolated from both hospitalized and ambulatory patients from biological products, mainly urine (range 63–78% during the study period). E. coli was the most frequent pathogen found (37.4%). A significant increase in the number of the main pathogens causing hospital-acquired infections (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium) was found in the time period of 2021–2023 compared to 2018–2020 (p < 0.0001). In total, 1767 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, most of them belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii (36.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.6%), and were located in the intensive care unit (ICU) (59.8%). Extensively drug resistance (XDR) and pan drug resistance (PDR) were significantly higher in 2021–2023 than in 2018–2020 (XDR: 641/1087 in 2021–2023 vs. 374/680 in 2018–2020 and PDR: 134/1087 in 2021–2023 vs. 25/680 in 2018–2020, p < 0.0001), resulting in an urgent need to establish certain strategies in order to eliminate this threatening condition.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111595
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1596: Pharmacoepidemiological Analysis of
           Antibacterial Agents Used in a Provisional Hospital in Aktobe, Kazakhstan,
           in the Context of COVID-19: A Comparison with the Pre-Pandemic Period

    • Authors: Aigerim A. Balapasheva, Gaziza A. Smagulova, Aigul Z. Mussina, Liliya E. Ziganshina, Zhansulu Zh. Nurgalieva
      First page: 1596
      Abstract: In the context of the global spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the issue of evaluating and optimizing the use of antibacterial drugs becomes especially relevant. The coronavirus pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the consumption of antibacterial agents and their impact on public health. The rational use of antibiotics is a key aspect of the fight against antimicrobial resistance, which makes this study particularly important. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the consumption of antibacterial drugs among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the peak of the 2020 pandemic and compare them with data from 2019 prior to the pandemic. This study collated data on antibacterial drug consumption in a regional hospital in Aktobe, which served a large population of patients during the pandemic. A pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) methodology. The pharmacoepidemiological study using the international ATC/DDD methodology revealed a concerning pattern of irrational consumption of antibacterial drugs, including cephalosporins, azalides, second-generation fluoroquinolones, and systemic aminoglycosides in Aktobe. Among antibacterial drugs during the pandemic, the most significant increase in consumption was from the group of cephalosporins (19,043 DDD/100 bed-days). The share of their consumption was 35.4% of the total consumption of antibacterial drugs. Pharmacoepidemiological studies using the international methodology ATC/DDD showed an alarming picture of irrational consumption of antibacterial drugs of the group of cephalosporins, azalides, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides in Aktobe, and, in this case, excessive use of the identified antibiotics raises concerns about the possibility of increasing the problem of resistance to microbes.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111596
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1597: A Review of Resistance to Polymyxins and
           Evolving Mobile Colistin Resistance Gene (mcr) among Pathogens of Clinical

    • Authors: Shakeel Shahzad, Mark D. P. Willcox, Binod Rayamajhee
      First page: 1597
      Abstract: The global rise in antibiotic resistance in bacteria poses a major challenge in treating infectious diseases. Polymyxins (e.g., polymyxin B and colistin) are last-resort antibiotics against resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but the effectiveness of polymyxins is decreasing due to widespread resistance among clinical isolates. The aim of this literature review was to decipher the evolving mechanisms of resistance to polymyxins among pathogens of clinical significance. We deciphered the molecular determinants of polymyxin resistance, including distinct intrinsic molecular pathways of resistance as well as evolutionary characteristics of mobile colistin resistance. Among clinical isolates, Acinetobacter stains represent a diversified evolution of resistance, with distinct molecular mechanisms of intrinsic resistance including naxD, lpxACD, and stkR gene deletion. On the other hand, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are usually resistant via the PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB pathways. Molecular evolutionary analysis of mcr genes was undertaken to show relative relatedness across the ten main lineages. Understanding the molecular determinants of resistance to polymyxins may help develop suitable and effective methods for detecting polymyxin resistance determinants and the development of novel antimicrobial molecules.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111597
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1598: Transcriptional Profiling of the Effect
           of Coleus amboinicus L. Essential Oil against Salmonella Typhimurium
           Biofilm Formation

    • Authors: Arpron Leesombun, Sivapong Sungpradit, Ladawan Sariya, Jarupha Taowan, Sookruetai Boonmasawai
      First page: 1598
      Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cause infections primarily through foodborne transmission and remains a significant public health concern. The biofilm formation of this bacteria also contributes to their multidrug-resistant nature. Essential oils from medicinal plants are considered potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, this study assessed the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Coleus amboinicus essential oil (EO-CA) against S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028. Seventeen chemical compounds of EO-CA were identified, and carvacrol (38.26%) was found to be the main constituent. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO-CA for S. Typhimurium planktonic growth was 1024 µg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration was 1024 µg/mL. EO-CA at sub-MIC (≥1/16× MIC) exhibited antibiofilm activity against the prebiofilm formation of S. Typhimurium at 24 h. Furthermore, EO-CA (≥1/4× MIC) inhibited postbiofilm formation at 24 and 48 h (p < 0.05). Transcriptional profiling revealed that the EO-CA-treated group at 1/2× MIC had 375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 106 of which were upregulated and 269 were downregulated. Five significantly downregulated virulent DEGs responsible for motility (flhD, fljB, and fimD), curli fimbriae (csgD), and invasion (hilA) were screened via quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This study suggests the potential of EO-CA as an effective antimicrobial agent for combating planktonic and biofilm formation of Salmonella.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111598
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1599: Role of a Real-Time TDM-Based Expert
           Clinical Pharmacological Advice Program in Optimizing the Early
           Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment of Continuous Infusion
           Beta-Lactams among Orthotopic Liver Transplant Recipients with Documented
           or Suspected Gram-Negative Infections

    • Authors: Milo Gatti, Matteo Rinaldi, Cristiana Laici, Antonio Siniscalchi, Pierluigi Viale, Federico Pea
      First page: 1599
      Abstract: (1) Objectives: To describe the attainment of optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients treated with continuous infusion (CI) beta-lactams optimized using a real-time therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided expert clinical pharmacological advice (ECPA) program during the early post-surgical period. (2) Methods: OLT recipients admitted to the post-transplant intensive care unit over the period of July 2021–September 2023, receiving empirical or targeted therapy with CI meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam optimized using a real-time TDM-guided ECPA program, were retrospectively retrieved. Steady-state beta-lactam (BL) and/or beta-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) plasma concentrations (Css) were measured, and the Css/MIC ratio was selected as the best PK/PD target for beta-lactam efficacy. The PK/PD target of meropenem was defined as being optimal when attaining a fCss/MIC ratio > 4. The joint PK/PD target of the BL/BLI combinations (namely piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam, and meropenem-vaborbactam) was defined as being optimal when the fCss/MIC ratio > 4 of the BL and the fCss/target concentration (CT) ratio > 1 of tazobactam or avibactam, or the fAUC/CT ratio > 24 of vaborbactam were simultaneously attained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for testing potential variables that were associated with a failure in attaining early (i.e., at first TDM assessment) optimal PK/PD targets. (3) Results: Overall, 77 critically ill OLT recipients (median age, 57 years; male, 63.6%; median MELD score at transplantation, 17 points) receiving a total of 100 beta-lactam treatment courses, were included. Beta-lactam therapy was targeted in 43% of cases. Beta-lactam dosing adjustments were provided in 76 out of 100 first TDM assessments (76.0%; 69.0% decreases and 7.0% increases), and overall, in 134 out of 245 total ECPAs (54.7%). Optimal PK/PD target was attained early in 88% of treatment courses, and throughout beta-lactam therapy in 89% of cases. Augmented renal clearance (ARC; OR 7.64; 95%CI 1.32–44.13) and MIC values above the EUCAST clinical breakpoint (OR 91.55; 95%CI 7.12–1177.12) emerged as independent predictors of failure in attaining early optimal beta-lactam PK/PD targets. (4) Conclusion: A real-time TDM-guided ECPA program allowed for the attainment of optimal beta-lactam PK/PD targets in approximately 90% of critically ill OLT recipients treated with CI beta-lactams during the early post-transplant period. OLT recipients having ARC or being affected by pathogens with MIC values above the EUCAST clinical breakpoint were at high risk for failure in attaining early optimal beta-lactam PK/PD targets. Larger prospective studies are warranted for confirming our findings.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1600: Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on
           Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Usman Abubakar, Ahmed Awaisu, Amer Hayat Khan, Khurshid Alam
      First page: 1600
      Abstract: This study investigated how the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the rate of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched to identify potentially eligible studies published from December 2019 to September 2022. A random effect model was used to determine the changes in the rate of HAIs during the pandemic. Thirty-seven studies, mostly from the United States (n = 13), were included. Fifteen studies described how the pandemic affected the rate of CLABSIs and CAUTIs, and eight of them showed a significant increase in CLABSIs. The risk of CLABSIs and CDIs was 27% (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 0.73; confidence interval [CI]: 0.61–0.89; p < 0.001) and 20% (pooled OR: 1.20; CI: 1.10–1.31; p < 0.001) higher during the pandemic compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic period, respectively. However, the overall risk of HAIs was unaffected by the pandemic (pooled OR: 1.00; 95 CI: 0.80–1.24; p = 0.990). Furthermore, there were no significant changes in the risk of CAUTIs (pooled OR: 1.01; 95 CI: 0.88–1.16; p = 0.890), and SSIs (pooled OR: 1.27; CI: 0.91–1.76; p = 0.16) between the two periods. The COVID-19 pandemic had no effect on the overall risk of HAIs among hospitalized patients, but an increased risk of CLABSIs and CDI were observed during the pandemic. Therefore, more stringent infection control and prevention measures and prudent interventions to promote the rational use of antibiotics are warranted across all healthcare facilities to reduce the burden of HAIs.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1601: Evaluation of the Antioxidant,
           Antimicrobial, and Anti-Biofilm Effects of the Stem Bark, Leaf, and Seed
           Extracts from Hymenaea courbaril and Characterization by
           UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS Analysis

    • Authors: Jhonatas Emílio Ribeiro da Cruz, Hellyssa Cataryna Saldanha, Andressa Moreira do Nascimento, Rafaela Barbosa Borges, Marcos de Souza Gomes, Guilherme Ramos Oliveira e Freitas, Carla Monteiro Leal, Everton Allan Ferreira, Ademar Alves da Silva Filho, Enyara Rezende Morais
      First page: 1601
      Abstract: Currently, biofilm-forming bacteria are difficult to treat by conventional antibiotic therapy and are, thus, becoming a clinical and epidemiological problem worldwide. Medicinal plants have been identified as novel alternative treatments due to their therapeutic and antimicrobial effects. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of nine extracts of Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae), popularly known as Jatobá. Furthermore, extracts that exhibited biofilm inhibitory activity against S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were selected for UPLC-HRMS/MS chemical analysis. Our results showed a high total phenolic content, mainly in the stem bark extract, and that the plant is rich in compounds with antioxidant activity. In the anti-biofilm analysis, leaf extracts stood out in comparison with chloramphenicol, with inhibition percentages of 78.29% and 78.85%, respectively. Through chemical analysis by UPLC-HRMS/MS, chrysoeriol-7-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and 3,7-di-O-methylquercetin were annotated for the first time in the leaves of H. courbaril. Therefore, these results showed the potential use of H. courbaril as an antioxidant and point to its use in antimicrobial therapy with an anti-biofilm effect.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1602: Prevalence and Transmission of
           Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin (ESC) Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli
           Isolated from Poultry Production Systems and Slaughterhouses in Denmark

    • Authors: Meiyao Che, Tina Birk, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
      First page: 1602
      Abstract: The emergence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli is a global concern. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and transmission of ESC-resistant E. coli in the Danish broiler production system. Samples from two vertically integrated Production Systems (1 and 2) and two slaughterhouses (A and B) were analyzed (n = 943) for the occurrence of ESC-resistant E. coli from 2015 to 2018. ESC-resistant E. coli isolates were whole-genome sequenced (WGS) for characterization of the multi-locus sequence type (MLST), antibiotic resistance genes, virulence genes, and plasmid replicon types. An ad hoc core genome (cg) MLST based on 2513 alleles was used to examine the genetic relatedness among isolates. The prevalence of ESC-resistant E. coli in the conventional Production System 1 was 2.7%, while in Production System 2 the prevalence was 26.7% and 56.5% for samples from the conventional and organic production, respectively. The overall prevalence of ESC-resistant E. coli in broiler thigh and fecal samples ranged from 19.3% in Slaughterhouse A to 22.4% in Slaughterhouse B. In total, 162 ESC-resistant E. coli were isolated and shown to belong to 16 different sequence types (STs). The most prevalent STs were ST2040 (n = 85) and ST429 (n = 22). Seven ESC resistance genes were detected: blaCMY-2 (n = 119), blaTEM-52B (n = 16), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 5), blaTEM-52C (n = 3), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 1), blaSHV-12 (n = 1), and up-regulation of ampC (n = 16), with an unknown resistance gene in one isolate (n = 1). The carriage of blaCMY-2 in 119 isolates was primarily associated with IncI1 (n = 87), and IncK plasmids (n = 31). Highly similar blaCMY-2 carrying E. coli isolates from ST429 were found in production systems as well as in slaughterhouses. In conclusion, findings from this study indicate that ESC-resistant E. coli are transferred vertically from farms in the production systems to slaughterhouses with the potential to enter the food supply.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111602
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1603: Natural Compounds with Antifungal
           Properties against Candida albicans and Identification of Hinokitiol as a
           Promising Antifungal Drug

    • Authors: Louis Camaioni, Bastien Ustyanowski, Mathys Buisine, Dylan Lambert, Boualem Sendid, Muriel Billamboz, Samir Jawhara
      First page: 1603
      Abstract: Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast that causes most fungal infections. C. albicans has become increasingly resistant to antifungal drugs over the past decade. Our study focused on the identification of pure natural compounds for the development of antifungal medicines. A total of 15 natural compounds from different chemical families (cinnamic derivatives, aromatic phenols, mono- and sesquiterpenols, and unclassified compounds) were screened in this study. Among these groups, hinokitiol (Hi), a natural monoterpenoid extracted from the wood of the cypress family, showed excellent anti-C. albicans activity, with a MIC value of 8.21 µg/mL. Hi was selected from this panel for further investigation to assess its antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Hi exhibited significant antifungal activity against clinically isolated fluconazole- or caspofungin-resistant C. albicans strains. It also reduced biofilm formation and hyphal growth. Treatment with Hi protected Caenorhabditis elegans against infection with C. albicans and enhanced the expression of antimicrobial genes in worms infected with C. albicans. Aside from its antifungal activities against C. albicans, Hi challenge attenuated the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and CCL-2) in macrophages. Overall, Hi is a natural compound with antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties, making Hi a promising platform with which to fight against fungal infections.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111603
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1604: Silicon versus Superbug: Assessing
           Machine Learning’s Role in the Fight against Antimicrobial

    • Authors: Tallon Coxe, Rajeev K. Azad
      First page: 1604
      Abstract: In his 1945 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Sir Alexander Fleming warned of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) if the necessary precautions were not taken diligently. As the growing threat of AMR continues to loom over humanity, we must look forward to alternative diagnostic tools and preventive measures to thwart looming economic collapse and untold mortality worldwide. The integration of machine learning (ML) methodologies within the framework of such tools/pipelines presents a promising avenue, offering unprecedented insights into the underlying mechanisms of resistance and enabling the development of more targeted and effective treatments. This paper explores the applications of ML in predicting and understanding AMR, highlighting its potential in revolutionizing healthcare practices. From the utilization of supervised-learning approaches to analyze genetic signatures of antibiotic resistance to the development of tools and databases, such as the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD), ML is actively shaping the future of AMR research. However, the successful implementation of ML in this domain is not without challenges. The dependence on high-quality data, the risk of overfitting, model selection, and potential bias in training data are issues that must be systematically addressed. Despite these challenges, the synergy between ML and biomedical research shows great promise in combating the growing menace of antibiotic resistance.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111604
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1605: Antibiotic Resistance of Haemophilus
           influenzae in Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Children with Acute Otitis Media
           and in Middle Ear Fluid from Otorrhea

    • Authors: Zein Assad, Robert Cohen, Emmanuelle Varon, Corinne Levy, Stéphane Bechet, François Corrard, Andreas Werner, Naïm Ouldali, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Alexis Rybak
      First page: 1605
      Abstract: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is one of the leading bacteria implicated in childhood acute otitis media (AOM). Recent concerns have been raised about the emergence of Hi-resistant strains. We aimed to analyze the evolution of β-lactam resistance to Hi among strains isolated from nasopharyngeal carriage in children with AOM and in mild ear fluid (MEF) after the spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane (SPTM) in France. In this national ambulatory-based cohort study over 16 years, we analyzed the rate of Hi nasopharyngeal carriage and the proportion of β-lactam-resistant Hi strains over time using a segmented linear regression model. Among the 13,865 children (median [IQR] age, 12.7 [9.3–17.3] months; 7400 [53.4%] male) with AOM included from November 2006 to July 2022, Hi was isolated in 7311 (52.7%) children by nasopharyngeal sampling. The proportion of β-lactamase-producing and β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Hi strains in nasopharyngeal carriage remained stable during the study period. Among the 783 children (median [IQR] age, 20 [12.3–37.8] months; 409 [52.2%] male) with SPTM included from October 2015 to July 2022, Hi was isolated in 177 (22.6%) cases by MEF sampling. The proportions of β-lactamase-producing and BLNAR Hi strains did not significantly differ between nasopharyngeal (17.6% and 8.8%, respectively) and MEF (12.6% and 7.4%) samples. Accordingly, amoxicillin remains a valid recommendation as the first-line drug for AOM in France.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111605
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1606: Impact of Erythromycin as a Prokinetic
           on the Gut Microbiome in Children with Feeding Intolerance—A Pilot

    • Authors: Aravind Thavamani, Senthilkumar Sankararaman, Hilmi Al-Shakhshir, Mauricio Retuerto, Sujithra Velayuthan, Thomas J. Sferra, Mahmoud Ghannoum
      First page: 1606
      Abstract: Background: Studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome changes upon exposure to systemic antibiotics. There is a paucity of literature regarding impact on the gut microbiome by long-term usage of erythromycin ethyl succinate (EES) when utilized as a prokinetic. Methods: Stool samples from pediatric patients with feeding intolerance who received EES (N = 8) as a prokinetic were analyzed for both bacteriome and mycobiome. Age-matched children with similar clinical characteristics but without EES therapy were included as controls (N = 20). Results: In both groups, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Ascomycota was the most abundant fungal phyla, followed by Basidiomycota. There were no significant differences in richness between the groups for both bacterial and fungal microbiome. Alpha diversity (at genus and species levels) and beta diversity (at the genus level) were not significantly different between the groups for both bacterial and fungal microbiome. At the species level, there was a significant difference between the groups for fungal microbiota, with a p-value of 0.029. We also noted that many fungal microorganisms had significantly higher p-values in the EES group than controls at both genera and species levels. Conclusions: In this observational case-control study, the prokinetic use of EES was associated with changes in beta diversity between the groups for mycobiome at the species level. Many fungal microorganisms were significantly higher in the EES group when compared to the controls. Confirmation of these results in larger trials will provide further evidence regarding the impact of EES on gut microbiota when utilized as a prokinetic agent.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111606
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1607: Targeting FMN, TPP, SAM-I, and glmS
           Riboswitches with Chimeric Antisense Oligonucleotides for Completely
           Rational Antibacterial Drug Development

    • Authors: Nikolet Pavlova, Martina Traykovska, Robert Penchovsky
      First page: 1607
      Abstract: Antimicrobial drug resistance has emerged as a significant challenge in contemporary medicine due to the proliferation of numerous bacterial strains resistant to all existing antibiotics. Meanwhile, riboswitches have emerged as promising targets for discovering antibacterial drugs. Riboswitches are regulatory elements in certain bacterial mRNAs that can bind to specific molecules and control gene expression via transcriptional termination, prevention of translation, or mRNA destabilization. By targeting riboswitches, we aim to develop innovative strategies to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria and enhance the efficacy of antibacterial treatments. This convergence of challenges and opportunities underscores the ongoing quest to revolutionize medical approaches against evolving bacterial threats. For the first time, this innovative review describes the rational design and applications of chimeric antisense oligonucleotides as antibacterial agents targeting four riboswitches selected based on genome-wide bioinformatic analyses. The antisense oligonucleotides are coupled with the cell-penetrating oligopeptide pVEC, which penetrates Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and specifically targets glmS, FMN, TPP, and SAM-I riboswitches in Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. The average antibiotic dosage of antisense oligonucleotides that inhibits 80% of bacterial growth is around 700 nM (4.5 μg/mL). Antisense oligonucleotides do not exhibit toxicity in human cell lines at this concentration. The results demonstrate that these riboswitches are suitable targets for antibacterial drug development using antisense oligonucleotide technology. The approach is fully rational because selecting suitable riboswitch targets and designing ASOs that target them are based on predefined criteria. The approach can be used to develop narrow or broad-spectrum antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains for a short time. The approach is easily adaptive to new resistance using targeting NGS technology.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1608: Mechanisms and Applications of
           Citral’s Antimicrobial Properties in Food Preservation and
           Pharmaceuticals Formulations

    • Authors: María Melissa Gutiérrez-Pacheco, Heriberto Torres-Moreno, María Liliana Flores-Lopez, Norma Velázquez Guadarrama, J. Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Luis Alberto Ortega-Ramírez, Julio César López-Romero
      First page: 1608
      Abstract: Citral is a monoterpene constituted by two isomers known as neral and geranial. It is present in different plant sources and recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In recent years, investigations have demonstrated that this compound exhibited several biological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antiparasitic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, by in vitro and in vivo assays. Additionally, when incorporated into different food matrices, citral can reduce the microbial load of pathogenic microorganisms and extend the shelf life. This compound has acceptable drug-likeness properties and does not present any violations of Lipinski’s rules, which could be used for drug development. The above shows that citral could be a compound of interest for developing food additives to extend the shelf life of animal and vegetable origin foods and develop pharmaceutical products.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111608
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1609: Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial
           Use and Resistance during the COVID-19 Era among Hospitals in Saudi Arabia
           and the Implications

    • Authors: Abdul Haseeb, Safa S. Almarzoky Abuhussain, Saleh Alghamdi, Shahad M. Bahshwan, Ahmad J. Mahrous, Yazeed A. Alzahrani, Albaraa Faraj Alzahrani, Abdullmoin AlQarni, Manal AlGethamy, Asem Saleh Naji, Asim Abdulaziz Omar Khogeer, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Brian Godman, Zikria Saleem
      First page: 1609
      Abstract: The inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials increases antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which poses an appreciable threat to public health, increasing morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing includes their prescribing in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite limited evidence of bacterial infections or coinfections. Knowledge of current antimicrobial utilization in Saudi Arabia is currently limited. Consequently, the objective of this study was to document current antimicrobial prescribing patterns among Saudi hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study included patients with or without COVID-19 who were admitted to five hospitals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered using the Global PPS methodology and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Out of 897 hospitalized patients, 518 were treated with antibiotics (57.7%), with an average of 1.9 antibiotics per patient. There were 174 culture reports collected, representing 36.5% of all cases. The most common indication for antibiotics use was community-acquired infections, accounting for 61.4% of all cases. ‘Watch’ antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, with the cephalosporins and carbapenems representing 38.7% of all antibiotics prescribed, followed by the penicillins (23.2%). Notably, Piperacillin/Tazobactam and Azithromycin were prescribed at relatively higher rates for COVID-19 patients. These findings highlight the need for continuous efforts to optimize the rational use of antibiotics through instigating appropriate antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospitals and, as a result, reduce AMR in the country.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111609
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1610: The Microbiome of Peri-Implantitis: A
           Systematic Review of Next-Generation Sequencing Studies

    • Authors: Koay Chun Giok, Rohit Kunnath Menon
      First page: 1610
      Abstract: (1) Introduction: Current evidence shows that mechanical debridement augmented with systemic and topical antibiotics may be beneficial for the treatment of peri-implantitis. The microbial profile of peri-implantitis plays a key role in identifying the most suitable antibiotics to be used for the treatment and prevention of peri-implantitis. This systematic review aimed to summarize and critically analyze the methodology and findings of studies which have utilized sequencing techniques to elucidate the microbial profiles of peri-implantitis. (2) Results: Fusobacterium, Treponema, and Porphyromonas sp. are associated with peri-implantitis. Veillonella sp. are associated with healthy implant sites and exhibit a reduced prevalence in deeper pockets and with greater severity of disease progression. Streptococcus sp. have been identified both in diseased and healthy sites. Neisseria sp. have been associated with healthy implants and negatively correlate with the probing depth. Methanogens and AAGPRs were also detected in peri-implantitis sites. (3) Methods: The study was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42023459266). The PRISMA criteria were used to select articles retrieved from a systematic search of the Scopus, Cochrane, and Medline databases until 1 August 2023. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full-text review of the included articles. Thirty-two articles were included in the final qualitative analysis. (4) Conclusions: A distinct microbial profile could not be identified from studies employing sequencing techniques to identify the microbiome. Further studies are needed with more standardization to allow a comparison of findings. A universal clinical parameter for the diagnosis of peri-implantitis should be implemented in all future studies to minimize confounding factors. The subject pool should also be more diverse and larger to compensate for individual differences, and perhaps a distinct microbial profile can be seen with a larger sample size.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1611: Urinary Tract Infections in Men in
           Primary Care in Catalonia, Spain

    • Authors: Silvia Fernández-García, Ana Moragas Moreno, Maria Giner-Soriano, Rosa Morros, Dan Ouchi, Ana García-Sangenís, Mònica Monteagudo, Ramon Monfà, Carl Llor
      First page: 1611
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is a major global problem that is primarily driven by the excessive and inappropriate utilization of antibiotics. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent in primary health care (PHC) and are typically treated with antibiotics. There is ample evidence on the management of this condition in women but not in men. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of UTIs in men in Catalonia, Spain. We conducted a population-based observational cohort study that included male patients diagnosed with UTI within our SIDIAP and CMBD database during the period from 2012 to 2021. UTI diagnoses were grouped into five main groups (cystitis, prostatitis, orchitis and epididymitis, urethritis, and pyelonephritis). Of the 316,762 men with at least one recorded UTI episode, the majority were registered with a diagnosis of cystitis in PHC (212,958 patients). Quinolones were the most commonly recorded treatment for UTIs (between 18.3% and 38.6%, depending on the group), except for urethritis in which a combination of antibiotics (36.7%) was most frequently used. The treatment duration period was between 9 days and 18 days, except for the prostatitis group, in which treatment was extended to 21 days. Urine cultures were documented in up to 30% in the cystitis group. Pyelonephritis was the category linked to most septicemia cases (3.0%). Conclusions: This is the first study to assess UTIs in men using a large PHC database in Spain. The sociodemographic characteristics of our sample are similar to other studies in the literature. In our setting, the use of quinolones for the treatment of UTIs is the most registered, and its duration was between 9 days and 18 days, despite the fact that resistance to quinolones exceeds 20% of the strains in our area.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1612: Meropenem/Vaborbactam:
           β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combination, the Future in
           Eradicating Multidrug Resistance

    • Authors: Anna Duda-Madej, Szymon Viscardi, Ewa Topola
      First page: 1612
      Abstract: Due to the fact that there is a steadily increasing trend in the area of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms, there is a need to look for new treatment alternatives. One of them is the search for new β-lactamase inhibitors and combining them with β-lactam antibiotics, with the aim of increasing the low-dose efficacy, as well as lowering the resistance potential of bacterial strains. This review presents the positive effect of meropenem in combination with a vaborbactam (MER-VAB). This latest antibiotic-inhibitor combination has found particular use in the treatment of infections with the etiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), Gram-negative bacteria, with a high degree of resistance to available antimicrobial drugs.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111612
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1613: Education and Awareness on Antimicrobial
           Resistance in the WHO African Region: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Walter Fuller, Otridah Kapona, Aaron Oladipo Aboderin, Adeyemi Temitayo Adeyemo, Oluwadamilare Isaiah Olatunbosun, Laetitia Gahimbare, Yahaya Ali Ahmed
      First page: 1613
      Abstract: This review documents the status of AMR education and awareness in the WHO African region, as well as specific initiatives by its member states in implementing education and awareness interventions, as a strategic objective of the Global Action Plan on AMR, i.e., improve knowledge and understanding on AMR through effective communication, education, and training. A systematic search was conducted in Google Scholar, PubMed, and African Journals Online Library according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, for articles published in English. Retrieval and screening of articles was performed using a structured search protocol following a pre-set inclusion/exclusion criterion. Eighty-five published articles reporting 92 different studies from 19 Member States met inclusion criteria and were included in the final qualitative synthesis. Nigeria (21) and Ethiopia (16) had most of the studies, while the rest were distributed across the remaining 17 Member States. The majority of the articles were on knowledge, attitude, and practices with regard to AMR and antimicrobial use and most of them documented a general lack and suboptimal knowledge, poor attitude and practices, and widespread self-medication. This review shows low levels of knowledge of AMR coupled with extensive misuse of antimicrobial medicines by different target audiences. These findings underscore the urgent need for enhanced and context-specific educational and positive behavioural change interventions.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111613
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1614: Distribution of
           Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Diarrheagenic Escherichia
           coli Clonal Complex 10 Isolates from Patients with Diarrhea in the
           Republic of Korea

    • Authors: Jungsun Park, Eunkyung Shin, Joohyun Han, Wooju Kang, Jaeil Yoo, Jung-Sik Yoo, Dong-Hyun Roh, Junyoung Kim
      First page: 1614
      Abstract: ESBL-producing E. coli is a public health concern in healthcare settings and the community. Between 2009 and 2018, a total of 187 ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli isolates were identified, and clonal complex (CC) 10 was the predominant clone (n = 57). This study aimed to characterize the ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli CC10 strains obtained from patients with diarrhea to improve our understanding of CC10 distribution in the Republic of Korea. A total of 57 CC10 strains were selected for comprehensive molecular characterization, including serotype identification, the analysis of antibiotic resistance genes, the investigation of genetic environments, the determination of plasmid profiles, and the assessment of genetic correlations among CC10 strains. Among the CC10 isolates, the most prevalent serotype was O25:H16 (n = 21, 38.9%), followed by O6:H16 (10, 19.6%). The most dominant ESBL genes were blaCTX-M-15 (n = 31, 55%) and blaCTX-M-14 (n = 15, 27%). Most blaCTXM genes (n = 45, 82.5%) were located on plasmids, and these incompatibility groups were confirmed as IncB/O/K/Z, IncF, IncI1, and IncX1. The mobile elements located upstream and downstream mainly included ISEcp1 (complete or incomplete) and IS903 or orf477. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CC10 strains were genetically diverse and spread among several distinct lineages. The results of this study show that ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli CC10 has been consistently isolated, with CTX-M-15-producing E. coli O25:H16 isolates being the major type associated with the distribution of CC10 clones over the past decade. The identification of ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli CC10 isolates underscores the possible emergence of resistant isolates with epidemic potential within this CC. As a result, continuous monitoring is essential to prevent the further dissemination of resistant ESBL-producing E. coli CC10 strains.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111614
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1615: Protective Effect of Procyanidin-Rich
           Grape Seed Extract against Gram-Negative Virulence Factors

    • Authors: Roberta Maria Nicolosi, Graziana Bonincontro, Elena Imperia, Camilla Badiali, Daniela De Vita, Fabio Sciubba, Laura Dugo, Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Annamaria Altomare, Giovanna Simonetti, Gabriella Pasqua
      First page: 1615
      Abstract: Biofilm formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Grape seeds, wine industry by-products, have antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the protective effect of procyanidin-rich grape seed extract (prGSE), from unfermented pomace of Vitis vinifera L. cv Bellone, on bacterial LPS-induced oxidative stress and epithelial barrier integrity damage has been studied in a model of Caco-2 cells. The prGSE was characterized at the molecular level using HPLC and NMR. The in vitro activity of prGSE against formation of biofilm of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. In vivo, prGSE activity using infected Galleria mellonella larvae has been evaluated. The results show that the prGSE, if administered with LPS, can significantly reduce the LPS-induced permeability alteration. Moreover, the ability of the extract to prevent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production induced by the LPS treatment of Caco-2 cells was demonstrated. prGSE inhibited the biofilm formation of E. coli and S. Typhimurium. In terms of in vivo activity, an increase in survival of infected G. mellonella larvae after treatment with prGSE was demonstrated. In conclusion, grape seed extracts could be used to reduce GI damage caused by bacterial endotoxin and biofilms of Gram-negative bacteria.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111615
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1616: Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal
           Escherichia coli of the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    • Authors: Lorcan O’Neill, Edgar García Manzanilla, Daniel Ekhlas, Finola C. Leonard
      First page: 1616
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli of animal origin presents a threat to human health. Although animals are not the primary source of human infections, humans may be exposed to AMR E. coli of animal origin and their AMR genes through the food chain, direct contact with animals, and via the environment. For this reason, AMR in E. coli from food producing animals is included in most national and international AMR monitoring programmes and is the subject of a large body of research. As pig farming is one of the largest livestock sectors and the one with the highest antimicrobial use, there is considerable interest in the epidemiology of AMR in E. coli of porcine origin. This literature review presents an overview and appraisal of current knowledge of AMR in commensal E. coli of the porcine gastrointestinal tract with a focus on its evolution during the pig lifecycle and the relationship with antimicrobial use. It also presents an overview of the epidemiology of resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and colistin in pig production. The review highlights the widespread nature of AMR in the porcine commensal E. coli population, especially to the most-used classes in pig farming and discusses the complex interplay between age and antimicrobial use during the pig lifecycle.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111616
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1617: The Importance of a Healthy Microbiome
           in Pregnancy and Infancy and Microbiota Treatment to Reverse Dysbiosis for
           Improved Health

    • Authors: Herbert L. DuPont, Madeleine Mary Hines Salge
      First page: 1617
      Abstract: Background: The microbiome of newborn infants during the first 1000 days, influenced early on by their mothers’ microbiome health, mode of delivery and breast feeding, orchestrates the education and programming of the infant’s immune system and determines in large part the general health of the infant for years. Methods: PubMed was reviewed for maternal infant microbiome health and microbiota therapy in this setting with prebiotics, probiotics, vaginal seeding and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Results: A healthy nonobese mother, vaginal delivery and strict breast feeding contribute to microbiome health in a newborn and young infant. With reduced microbiome diversity (dysbiosis) during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, prematurity, and formula feeding contribute to dysbiosis in the newborn. Microbiota therapy is an important approach to repair dysbiosis in pregnant women and their infants. Currently available probiotics can have favorable metabolic effects on mothers and infants, but these effects are variable. In research settings, reversal of infant dysbiosis can be achieved via vaginal seeding or FMT. Next generation probiotics in development should replace current probiotics and FMT. Conclusions: The most critical phase of human microbiome development is in the first 2–3 years of life. Preventing and treating dysbiosis during pregnancy and early life can have a profound effect on an infant’s later health.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111617
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1618: Chalcogen-Varied Imidazolone Derivatives
           as Antibiotic Resistance Breakers in Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    • Authors: Karolina Witek, Aneta Kaczor, Ewa Żesławska, Sabina Podlewska, Małgorzata Anna Marć, Kinga Czarnota-Łydka, Wojciech Nitek, Gniewomir Latacz, Waldemar Tejchman, Markus Bischoff, Claus Jacob, Jadwiga Handzlik
      First page: 1618
      Abstract: In this study, a search for new therapeutic agents that may improve the antibacterial activity of conventional antibiotics and help to successfully overcome methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has been conducted. The purpose of this work was to extend the scope of our preliminary studies and to evaluate the adjuvant potency of new derivatives in a set of S. aureus clinical isolates. The study confirmed the high efficacy of piperazine derivatives of 5-arylideneimidazol-4-one (7–9) tested previously, and it enabled the authors to identify even more efficient modulators of bacterial resistance among new analogs. The greatest capacity to enhance oxacillin activity was determined for 1-benzhydrylpiperazine 5-spirofluorenehydantoin derivative (13) which, at concentrations as low as 0.0625 mM, restores the effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA strains. In silico studies showed that the probable mechanism of action of 13 is related to the binding of the molecule with the allosteric site of PBP2a. Interestingly, thiazole derivatives tested were shown to act as both oxacillin and erythromycin conjugators in S. aureus isolates, suggesting a complex mode of action (i.e., influence on the Msr(A) efflux pump). This high enhancer activity indicates the high potential of imidazolones to become commercially available antibiotic adjuvants.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111618
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1619: Role of Relebactam in the Antibiotic
           Resistance Acquisition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Maria Paz Ventero, Jose M. Haro-Moreno, Carmen Molina-Pardines, Antonia Sánchez-Bautista, Celia García-Rivera, Vicente Boix, Esperanza Merino, Mario López-Pérez, Juan Carlos Rodríguez
      First page: 1619
      Abstract: Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows resistance to several antibiotics and often develops such resistance during patient treatment. Objective: Develop an in vitro model, using clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, to compare the ability of the imipenem and imipenem/relebactam to generate resistant mutants to imipenem and to other antibiotics. Perform a genotypic analysis to detect how the selective pressure changes their genomes. Methods: The antibiotics resistance was studied by microdilution assays and e-test, and the genotypic study was performed by NGS. Results: The isolates acquired resistance to imipenem in an average of 6 days, and to imipenem/relebactam in 12 days (p value = 0.004). After 30 days of exposure, 75% of the isolates reached a MIC > 64 mg/L for imipenem and 37.5% for imipenem/relebactam (p value = 0.077). The 37.5% and the 12.5% imipenem/relebactam mutants developed resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime, respectively, while the 87.5% and 37.5% of the imipenem mutants showed resistance to these drugs (p value = 0.003, p value = 0.015). The main biological processes altered by the SNPs were the glycosylation pathway, transcriptional regulation, histidine kinase response, porins, and efflux pumps. Discussion: The addition of relebactam delays the generation of resistance to imipenem and limits the cross-resistance to other beta-lactams. The clinical relevance of this phenomenon, which has the limitation that it has been performed in vitro, should be evaluated by stewardship programs in clinical practice, as it could be useful in controlling multi-drug resistance in P. aeruginosa.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111619
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1620: Antibiofilm Effect of Nitric
           Acid-Functionalized Carbon Nanotube-Based Surfaces against E. coli and S.

    • Authors: Marisa Gomes, Rita Teixeira-Santos, Luciana C. Gomes, Francisca Sousa-Cardoso, Fábio M. Carvalho, Andreia R. Tomé, Olívia S. G. P. Soares, Kathryn A. Whitehead, Filipe J. Mergulhão
      First page: 1620
      Abstract: Chemically modified carbon nanotubes are recognized as effective materials for tackling bacterial infections. In this study, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs) were functionalized with nitric acid (f-MWCNTs), followed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, and incorporated into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. The materials’ textural properties were evaluated, and the roughness and morphology of MWCNT/PDMS composites were assessed using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The antibiofilm activity of MWCNT/PDMS surfaces was determined by quantifying culturable Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after 24 h of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibacterial mechanisms of MWCNT materials were identified by flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity of MWCNT/PDMS composites was tested against human kidney (HK-2) cells. The results revealed that the antimicrobial activity of MWCNTs incorporated into a PDMS matrix can be efficiently tailored through nitric acid functionalization, and it can be increased by up to 49% in the absence of surface carboxylic groups in f-MWCNT samples heated at 600 °C and the presence of redox activity of carbonyl groups. MWCNT materials changed the membrane permeability of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, while they only induced the production of ROS in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the synthesized composites did not impact HK-2 cell viability, confirming the biocompatibility of MWCNT composites.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111620
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1621: Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A
           Narrative Review of Antibiogram Interpretation and Emerging Treatments

    • Authors: Federico Giovagnorio, Andrea De Vito, Giordano Madeddu, Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Nicholas Geremia
      First page: 1621
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium renowned for its resilience and adaptability across diverse environments, including clinical settings, where it emerges as a formidable pathogen. Notorious for causing nosocomial infections, P. aeruginosa presents a significant challenge due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. This comprehensive review aims to delve into the intricate resistance mechanisms employed by P. aeruginosa and to discern how these mechanisms can be inferred by analyzing sensitivity patterns displayed in antibiograms, emphasizing the complexities encountered in clinical management. Traditional monotherapies are increasingly overshadowed by the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, necessitating a paradigm shift towards innovative combination therapies and the exploration of novel antibiotics. The review accentuates the critical role of accurate antibiogram interpretation in guiding judicious antibiotic use, optimizing therapeutic outcomes, and mitigating the propagation of antibiotic resistance. Misinterpretations, it cautions, can inadvertently foster resistance, jeopardizing patient health and amplifying global antibiotic resistance challenges. This paper advocates for enhanced clinician proficiency in interpreting antibiograms, facilitating informed and strategic antibiotic deployment, thereby improving patient prognosis and contributing to global antibiotic stewardship efforts.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1622: Assessing the Potential of Gallic Acid
           and Methyl Gallate to Enhance the Efficacy of β-Lactam Antibiotics
           against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Targeting
           β-Lactamase: In Silico and In Vitro Studies

    • Authors: Pimsumon Jiamboonsri, Chatchakorn Eurtivong, Sompit Wanwong
      First page: 1622
      Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global health concern, has prompted research into antibiotic adjuvants as a potential solution. Although our group previously reported the enhancing effects of gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) on penicillin G activity against MRSA, the synergistic potential with other β-lactam antibiotics and the underlying mechanism have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study primarily aimed to investigate the antibacterial synergism with β-lactam antibiotics through disc diffusion, checkerboard, and time–kill assays. The β-lactamase inhibition was also examined through both molecular modeling and in vitro experiments. Additionally, bacterial morphology changes were studied using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that both GA and MG exhibited anti-MRSA activity and showed indifferent effects when combined with β-lactam antibiotics against methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Interestingly, MG demonstrated synergism with only the β-lactamase-unstable antibiotics against MRSA with the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes of ≤3.75. However, GA and MG exhibited weak β-lactamase inhibition. Furthermore, GA, MG, and the combination with ampicillin induced the morphological changes in MRSA, suggesting a possible mechanism affecting the cell membrane. These findings suggest that MG could potentially serve as an adjunct to β-lactam antibiotics to combat MRSA infections.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1623: Characteristics of the Mycoplasma
           pneumoniae Epidemic from 2019 to 2020 in Korea: Macrolide Resistance and
           Co-Infection Trends

    • Authors: Soyoun Shin, Sunhoe Koo, Yong-Jin Yang, Ho-Jae Lim
      First page: 1623
      Abstract: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a major etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia, exhibits distinct cyclic epidemic patterns recurring every three to five years. Several cases of co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been reported globally, resulting in unfavorable clinical manifestations. This study investigated the epidemiological features of the recent M. pneumoniae outbreak (May 2019–April 2020) using retrospective data from the last five years. Molecular test data for macrolide resistance and co-infection were obtained from the Seegene Medical Foundation. National medical expenditure and hospitalization rates were analyzed using data from The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. The macrolide resistance rate was 69.67%, peaking at 71.30% during the epidemic period, which was considerably higher than the 60.89% rate during non-epidemic periods. The co-infection rate with other respiratory pathogens was 88.49%; macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains showed a 2.33% higher co-infection rate than the susceptible strains. The epidemic period had 15.43% higher hospitalization and 78.27% higher medical budget expenditure per patient than non-epidemic periods. The increased rates of macrolide resistance and co-infection observed in macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae during the epidemic period highlight the importance of monitoring future outbreaks, especially considering macrolide resistance and the risk of co-infection with other pathogens.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111623
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1624: Impacts of Hydrophobic Mismatch on
           Antimicrobial Peptide Efficacy and Bilayer Permeabilization

    • Authors: Steven Meier, Zachary M. Ridgway, Angela L. Picciano, Gregory A. Caputo
      First page: 1624
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a major threat to world health, with the continued emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as an attractive option for the development of novel antimicrobial compounds in part due to their ubiquity in nature and the general lack of resistance development to this class of molecules. In this work, we analyzed the antimicrobial peptide C18G and several truncated forms for efficacy and the underlying mechanistic effects of the sequence truncation. The peptides were screened for antimicrobial efficacy against several standard laboratory strains, and further analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate binding to model lipid membranes and bilayer disruption. The results show a clear correlation between the length of the peptide and the antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, there is a correlation between peptide length and the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer, indicating that hydrophobic mismatch is likely a contributing factor to the loss of efficacy in shorter peptides.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111624
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1625: Molecular Characterization of
           Escherichia coli Producing Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase and
           MCR-1 from Sick Pigs in a Greek Slaughterhouse

    • Authors: Ermioni Avgere, Christos Zafeiridis, Kassandra A. Procter, Apostolos Beloukas, Panagiota Giakkoupi
      First page: 1625
      Abstract: The first prospective surveillance of ESBL and colistin-resistant Escherichia coli recovered from sick pigs from a slaughterhouse in Central Greece aimed to investigate the spread of relevant genetic elements. In February 2021, 25 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. PCR screening was conducted to identify ESBLs and mcr genes. Additional assays, encompassing mating-out procedures, molecular typing utilizing Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing analysis, and plasmid typing, were also conducted. A 40% prevalence of ESBLs and an 80% prevalence of MCR-1 were identified, with a co-occurrence rate of 32%. The predominant ESBL identified was CTX-M-3, followed by SHV-12. Resistance to colistin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazol, and ciprofloxacin was detected in twenty (80%), fifteen (60%), twelve (48%), and four (16%) isolates, respectively. All blaCTX-M-3 harboring plasmids were conjugative, belonging to the incompatibility group IncI1, and approximately 50 kb in size. Those carrying blaSHV-12 were also conjugative, classified into incompatibility group IncI2, and approximately 70 kb in size. The mcr-1 genes were predominantly located on conjugative plasmids associated with the IncX4 incompatibility group. Molecular typing of the ten concurrent ESBL and MCR-1 producers revealed seven multilocus sequence types. The heterogeneous population of E. coli isolates carrying resistant genes on constant plasmids implies that the dissemination of resistance genes is likely facilitated by horizontal plasmid transfer.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111625
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1626: Increase in Incidence Rates and Risk
           Factors for Multidrug Resistant Bacteria in Septic Children: A Nationwide
           Spanish Cohort Study (2013–2019)

    • Authors: María Slocker-Barrio, Jesús López-Herce-Cid, Amaya Bustinza-Arriortúa, Elena Fresán-Ruiz, Iolanda Jordán-García, Juan Carlos de Carlos-Vicente, Elvira Morteruel-Arizcuren, Patricia García-Soler, Montserrat Nieto-Moro, Cristina Schüffelmann, Sylvia Belda-Hofheinz, Laura Ximena Herrera-Castillo, Sonia María Uriona-Tuma, Laia Pinós-Tella, Yolanda Peña-López, on behalf of the Pediatric-ENVIN-HELICS Study Group
      First page: 1626
      Abstract: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in children is a growing concern, particularly among septic patients, given the need for first-right dosing. Our aim was to determine the incidence rates and factors associated with MDR-sepsis in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), using data from the Spanish ENVIN-HELICS PICU registry between 2013 and 2019. The rate of MDR bacteria among septic children ranged between 5.8 and 16.2% throughout this study period, with a significant increase since 2015 (p = 0.013). MDR-gram-negative bacteria (92%), particularly EBL-Enterobacterales (63.7%), were the most frequent causative microorganisms of MDR-sepsis. During this study period, sixteen MDR-sepsis (32.6%) corresponded to intrahospital infections, and 33 (67.4%) had community-onset sepsis, accounting for 10.5% of the overall community-onset sepsis. Independent risk factors associated with MDR-sepsis were antibiotics 48 h prior to PICU admission (OR 2.38) and PICU onset of sepsis (OR 2.58) in >1 year-old children, and previous malnourishment (OR 4.99) in <1 year-old children. Conclusions: There was an alarming increase in MDR among septic children in Spain, mainly by gram-negative (ESBL-Enterobacterales), mostly coming from the community setting. Malnourished infants and children on antibiotics 48 h prior to PICU are at increased risk and therefore require closer surveillance.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1627: Effects of the Fibrous Root of
           Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua on Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Immunity,
           Antioxidant Capacity, and Intestinal Morphology of White-Feathered

    • Authors: Tianlu Zhang, Dong Zhou, Miaofen Chen, Hui Zou, Qi Tang, Ying Lu, Yajie Zheng
      First page: 1627
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different doses of the fibrous roots of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua on the growth performance, slaughter parameters, meat quality, immune function, cytokines, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal morphology of white-feathered broilers. Also, the mechanism to improve immune functions of broilers was explored through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. A total of 360 AA-white-feathered broilers were randomly divided into six groups (not separated by sex), with six repetitions per group (n = 10). The groups were as follows: basal diet (CON group), basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg aureomycin (ANT group), basal diet supplemented with 2%, 3%, and 4% fibrous root raw powder (LD, MD, and HD group), or basal diet supplemented with 3% fibrous root processed powder (PR group), in a 42-day experiment. The dietary inclusion of P. cyrtonema fibrous roots increased slaughter performance (p < 0.05), reduced the fat rate (p < 0.05), improved intestinal morphology (p < 0.05), and improved the immune organ index to varying degrees. It also significantly improved pH reduction, drip loss, and pressure loss of breast muscle and leg muscle (p < 0.05). Furthermore, it significantly improved immune and antioxidant functions including decreased MDA content of serum (p < 0.01), increased GSH-Px content (p < 0.01), IgG, IgA, and C4 contents (p < 0.05), and increased expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ (p < 0.01). Additionally, the mechanism by which fibrous roots improve immune function in broilers was explored using network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Network pharmacology and molecular docking revealed that flavonoids such as baicalein, 4′,5-Dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-3-(4′-hydroxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one, and 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxybenzyl)-6,8-dimethyl-chroman-4-one were key components that enhanced immune function through the MAPK1 and other key targets involved in regulating the MAPK signaling pathway. From the findings, it can be concluded that incorporating P. cyrtonema Hua fibrous root as a natural feed supplement and growth promoter in broiler diets had a positive impact on bird health and performance.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111627
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1628: Methicillin Resistance Increased the
           Risk of Treatment Failure in Native Joint Septic Arthritis Caused by
           Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Jungok Kim, So Yeon Park, Kyung Mok Sohn, Bomi Kim, Eun-Jeong Joo
      First page: 1628
      Abstract: This study aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with native joint septic arthritis (NJSA) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in comparison to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and identify treatment failure risk factors. We conducted a multi-center retrospective study on adult NJSA patients at three teaching hospitals in South Korea from 2005 to 2017. Among 101 patients diagnosed with S. aureus NJSA, 39 (38.6%) had MRSA strains. Compared to MSSA, patients with MRSA had a higher prevalence of nosocomial infections (17.9% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.005) and received inappropriate antibiotics within 48 h more frequently (74.4% vs. 0%; p < 0.001). In total, twenty patients (19.8%) experienced treatment failure, which encompassed five patients (5.0%) who passed away, nine (8.9%) requiring repeated surgical drainage after 30 days of antibiotic therapy, and seven (6.9%) with relapse. The MRSA group showed a higher rate of overall treatment failure (33.3% vs. 11.3%; p = 0.007) with a notably increased frequency of requiring repeated surgical interventions after 30 days of antibiotic therapy (17.9% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.026), in contrast to the MSSA group. Independent risk factors for treatment failure included Charlson comorbidity score, elevated CRP levels, and methicillin resistance. Methicillin resistance is an independent risk factor for treatment failure, emphasizing the need for vigilant monitoring and targeted interventions in MRSA-related NJSA cases.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111628
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1629: Racial Disparities in Periprosthetic
           Joint Infections after Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Retrospective

    • Authors: Jodian A. Pinkney, Joshua B. Davis, Jamie E. Collins, Fatma M. Shebl, Matthew P. Jamison, Jose I. Acosta Julbe, Laura M. Bogart, Bisola O. Ojikutu, Antonia F. Chen, Sandra B. Nelson
      First page: 1629
      Abstract: In the United States, racial disparities have been observed in complications following total joint arthroplasty (TJA), including readmissions and mortality. It is unclear whether such disparities also exist for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The clinical data registry of a large New England hospital system was used to identify patients who underwent TJA between January 2018 and December 2021. The comorbidities were evaluated using the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI). We used Poisson regression to assess the relationship between PJI and race by estimating cumulative incidence ratios (cIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We adjusted for age and sex and examined whether ECI was a mediator using structural equation modeling. The final analytic dataset included 10,018 TJAs in 9681 individuals [mean age (SD) 69 (10)]. The majority (96.5%) of the TJAs were performed in non-Hispanic (NH) White individuals. The incidence of PJI was higher among NH Black individuals (3.1%) compared with NH White individuals (1.6%) [adjusted cIR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.16–3.89; p = 0.015]. Comorbidities significantly mediated the association between race and PJI, accounting for 26% of the total effect of race on PJI incidence. Interventions that increase access to high-quality treatments for comorbidities before and after TJA may reduce racial disparities in PJI.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111629
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1630: Effect of Hygiene Protocols on the
           Mechanical and Physical Properties of Two 3D-Printed Denture Resins
           Characterized by Extrinsic Pigmentation as Well as the Mixed Biofilm
           Formed on the Surface

    • Authors: Adriana Barbosa Ribeiro, Beatriz Marcatto Tinelli, Lorena Mosconi Clemente, Beatriz de Camargo Poker, Viviane de Cássia Oliveira, Evandro Watanabe, Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato
      First page: 1630
      Abstract: To assess the effect of hygiene protocols and time on the physical–mechanical properties and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans on 3D-printed denture resins (SmartPrint and Yller) with extrinsic pigmentation compared to conventional resin (CR). The protocols were evaluated: brushing (B), brushing and immersion in water (W), 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (SH), and 0.15% triclosan (T), simulating 0, 1, 3, and 5 years. The data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurements, ANOVA (Three-way) and Tukey’s post-test, generalized linear model with Bonferroni adjustment, and ANOVA (Two-way) and Tukey’s post-test (α = 0.05). The protocols influenced color (p = 0.036) and Knoop hardness (p < 0.001). Surface roughness was influenced by protocols/resin (p < 0.001) and time/resin (p = 0.001), and flexural strength by time/protocols (p = 0.014). C. albicans showed interactions with all factors (p = 0.033). Staphylococcus aureus was affected by protocols (p < 0.001). Streptococcus mutans exhibited no count for SH and T (p < 0.001). Yller resin showed more color changes. The 3D-printed resins displayed lower microhardness, increased roughness, and decreased flexural strength compared to CR with all protocols in a simulated period of 5 years. The indication of printed resins should be restricted to less than 3 years.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111630
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1631: Exploring the Accessory Genome of
           Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi Clone 2287

    • Authors: Sonsiray Alvarez Narvaez, Susan Sanchez
      First page: 1631
      Abstract: Decades of antimicrobial overuse to treat respiratory disease in foals have promoted the emergence and spread of zoonotic multidrug-resistant (MDR) Rhodococcus equi worldwide. Three main R. equi MDR clonal populations—2287, G2106, and G2017—have been identified so far. However, only clones 2287 and G2016 have been isolated from sick animals, with clone 2287 being the main MDR R. equi recovered. The genetic mechanisms that make this MDR clone superior to the others at infecting foals are still unknown. Here, we performed a deep genetic characterization of the accessory genomes of 207 R. equi isolates, and we describe IME2287, a novel genetic element in the accessory genome of clone 2287, potentially involved in the maintenance and spread of this MDR population over time. IME2287 is a putative self-replicative integrative mobilizable element (IME) carrying a DNA replication and partitioning operon and genes encoding its excision and integration from the R. equi genome via a serine recombinase. Additionally, IME2287 encodes a protein containing a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain that may inhibit TLR-mediated NF-kB signaling in the host and a toxin–antitoxin (TA) system, whose orthologs have been associated with antibiotic resistance/tolerance, virulence, pathogenicity islands, bacterial persistence, and pathogen trafficking. This new set of genes may explain the success of clone 2287 over the other MDR R. equi clones.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111631
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1632: Tackling Antibiotic and Antifungal
           Resistance in Domestic Animals, Synanthropic Species, and Wildlife: A
           Global Health Imperative

    • Authors: Tamara Pasqualina Russo, Antonio Santaniello
      First page: 1632
      Abstract: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) and antifungal resistance (AFR) arise when microorganisms evolve mechanisms to resist pharmacological treatments [...]
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1633: Cemented versus Cementless Stem Fixation
           in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Ali Darwich, Andrea Jovanovic, Franz-Joseph Dally, Asseel Abd El Hai, Tobias Baumgärtner, Elio Assaf, Sascha Gravius, Svetlana Hetjens, Mohamad Bdeir
      First page: 1633
      Abstract: The number of revision knee arthroplasties (rTKA) is growing significantly as is the use of intramedullary stems for optimized stability. The choice of the most appropriate stem fixation method is still controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare cemented versus cementless stem fixation in rTKA. Publications with patients undergoing rTKA with a follow-up > 24 months were systemically reviewed. Extracted parameters included total revision and failure rates for any reason, incidence of aseptic loosening, periprosthetic infection, and radiolucent lines, as well as the clinical outcome. A statistical regression analysis was then performed on all extracted clinical and radiological outcome data. A total of 35 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included and analyzed. Overall, 14/35 publications compared cementless versus cemented stem fixation, whereas 21/35 publications investigated only one stem fixation method. There were no significant differences in revision (p = 0.2613) or failure rates (p = 0.3559) and no differences in the incidence of aseptic loosening (p = 0.3999) or periprosthetic infection (p = 0.1010). The incidence of radiolucent lines was significantly higher in patients with cemented stems (26.2% versus 18.6%, p < 0.0001). However, no differences in clinical outcomes were observed. No superiority of a specific stem fixation method in rTKA was found. Rates of revision or failure for any reason as well as incidence of aseptic loosening and periprosthetic infection in cemented versus cementless stem fixation showed no significant difference. A higher incidence of radiolucent lines was observed in cemented stem fixation; however, no effect was observed on the clinical outcome.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1634: Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Ni(II)
           and Zn(II) Complexes with (E)-2-((5-Bromothiazol-2-yl)imino)methyl)phenol
           Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization and Molecular Docking Studies

    • Authors: Inas Al-Qadsy, Waseem Sharaf Saeed, Ahmad Abdulaziz Al-Owais, Abdelhabib Semlali, Ali Alrabie, Lena Ahmed Saleh Al-Faqeeh, Mohammed ALSaeedy, Arwa Al-Adhreai, Abdel-Basit Al-Odayni, Mazahar Farooqui
      First page: 1634
      Abstract: In order to address the challenges associated with antibiotic resistance by bacteria, two new complexes, Ni(II) and Zn(II), have been synthesized using the conventional method based on Schiff base ligand (E)-2-((5-bromothiazol-2-yl) imino) methyl) phenol. The Schiff base ligand (HL) was synthesized using salicylaldehyde and 5-(4-bromophenyl)thiazol-2-amine in both traditional and efficient, ecologically friendly, microwave-assisted procedures. The ligand and its complexes were evaluated by elemental analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and magnetic susceptibility. The ligand and its complexes were tested for antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603). The findings demonstrate the potent activity of the ligand and its complexes against selective bacteria but the Ni(II) complex with MIC values ranging from 1.95 to 7.81 µg/mL outperformed all other compounds, including the widely used antibiotic Streptomycin. Furthermore, the docking study provided evidence supporting the validity of the antimicrobial results, since the Ni complex showed superior binding affinity against to E. coli NAD synthetase, which had a docking score (−7.61 kcal/mol).
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111634
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1635: Antibacterial Efficiency of Tanacetum
           vulgare Essential Oil against ESKAPE Pathogens and Synergisms with

    • Authors: Horațiu Roman, Adelina-Gabriela Niculescu, Veronica Lazăr, Mihaela Magdalena Mitache
      First page: 1635
      Abstract: Medicinal plants with multiple targets of action have become one of the most promising solutions in the fight against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy) is one of the medicinal plants with antibacterial qualities that deserve to be studied. Thus, this research takes a closer look at tansy extract’s composition and antibacterial properties, aiming to highlight its potential against clinically relevant bacterial strains. In this respect, the antibacterial test was performed against several drug-resistant pathogenic strains, and we correlated them with the main isolated compounds, demonstrating the therapeutic properties of the extract. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation, and its composition was characterized via gas chromatography. The main isolated compounds known for their antibacterial effects were α-Thujone, β-Thujone, Eucalyptol, Sabinene, Chrysanthenon, Camphor, Linalool oxide acetate, cis-Carveol, trans-Carveyl acetate, and Germacrene. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was carried out using the Kirby–Bauer and binary microdilution methods on Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR strains belonging to the ESKAPE group (i.e., Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.). Tansy essential oil showed MIC values ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg/mL against the tested strains. Synergistic activity with different classes of antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones) has also been noted. The obtained results demonstrate that tansy essential oil represents a promising lead for developing new antimicrobials active against MDR alone or in combination with antibiotics.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1636: Vancomycin Elution Kinetics of Four
           Antibiotic Carriers Used in Orthopaedic Surgery: In Vitro Study over 42

    • Authors: Maria Anna Smolle, Hana Murtezai, Tobias Niedrist, Florian Amerstorfer, Nina Hörlesberger, Lukas Leitner, Sebastian Martin Klim, Reingard Glehr, Raju Ahluwalia, Andreas Leithner, Mathias Glehr
      First page: 1636
      Abstract: This study aimed to analyse and compare the vancomycin elution kinetics of four biodegradable, osteoconductive antibiotic carriers used in clinical practice within a 42-day in vitro setting. Carriers A and D already contained vancomycin (1.1 g and 0.247 g), whereas carriers B and C were mixed with vancomycin according to the manufacturer’s recommendations (B: 0.83 g and C: 0.305 g). At nine time points, 50% (4.5 mL) of the elution sample was removed and substituted with the same amount of PBS. Probes were analysed with a kinetic microparticle immunoassay. Time-dependent changes in vancomycin concentrations for each carrier and differences between carriers were analysed. Mean initial antibiotic levels were highest for carrier A (37.5 mg/mL) and lowest for carrier B (5.4 mg/mL). We observed time-dependent, strongly negative linear elution kinetics for carriers A (−0.835; p < 0.001), C (−0.793; p < 0.001), and D (−0.853; p < 0.001). Vancomycin concentrations increased from 48 h to 7 d and dropped thereafter in carriers C and D whilst constantly decreasing at any time point for carrier A. Carrier B showed a shallower decrease. Mean antibiotics levels at 42 d were 1.5 mg/mL, 2.6 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL for carriers A, B, C, and D. Differences in mean initial and final vancomycin concentrations for carrier A were significantly larger in comparison to C (p = 0.040). A carrier consisting of allogenic bone chips showed the highest vancomycin-to-carrier ratio and the largest elution over the study period. Whilst vancomycin concentrations were still measurable at 42 days for all carriers, carrier A provided a higher drug-to-carrier ratio and a more consistent antibiotic-releasing profile.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111636
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1637: Genomic Diversity, Antimicrobial
           Resistance, Plasmidome, and Virulence Profiles of Salmonella Isolated from
           Small Specialty Crop Farms Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    • Authors: Menuka Bhandari, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Michael Kauffman, Binta Varghese, Yosra A. Helmy, Joy Scaria, Gireesh Rajashekara
      First page: 1637
      Abstract: Salmonella is the leading cause of death associated with foodborne illnesses in the USA. Difficulty in treating human salmonellosis is attributed to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the pathogenicity of Salmonella strains. Therefore, it is important to study the genetic landscape of Salmonella, such as the diversity, plasmids, and presence antimicrobial resistance genes (AMRs) and virulence genes. To this end, we isolated Salmonella from environmental samples from small specialty crop farms (SSCFs) in Northeast Ohio from 2016 to 2021; 80 Salmonella isolates from 29 Salmonella-positive samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico serotyping revealed the presence of 15 serotypes. AMR genes were detected in 15% of the samples, with 75% exhibiting phenotypic and genotypic multidrug resistance (MDR). Plasmid analysis demonstrated the presence of nine different types of plasmids, and 75% of AMR genes were located on plasmids. Interestingly, five Salmonella Newport isolates and one Salmonella Dublin isolate carried the ACSSuT gene cassette on a plasmid, which confers resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline. Overall, our results show that SSCFs are a potential reservoir of Salmonella with MDR genes. Thus, regular monitoring is needed to prevent the transmission of MDR Salmonella from SSCFs to humans.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1638: Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli
           Strains to Last Resort Human Antibiotics Isolated from Healthy Companion
           Animals in Valencia Region

    • Authors: Ana Marco-Fuertes, Jaume Jordá, Clara Marin, Laura Lorenzo-Rebenaque, Laura Montoro-Dasi, Santiago Vega
      First page: 1638
      Abstract: Failure in antibiotic therapies due to the increase in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria is one of the main threats to public and animal health. In recent decades, the perception of companion animals has changed, from being considered as a work tool to a household member, creating a family bond and sharing spaces in their daily routine. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the current epidemiological situation regarding the presence of AMR and multidrug resistance (MDR) in companion animals in the Valencia Region, using the indicator bacteria Escherichia coli as a sentinel. For this purpose, 244 samples of dogs and cats were collected from veterinary centres to assess antimicrobial susceptibility against a panel of 22 antibiotics with public health relevance. A total of 197 E. coli strains were isolated from asymptomatic dogs and cats. The results showed AMR against all the 22 antibiotics studied, including those critically important to human medicine. Moreover, almost 50% of the strains presented MDR. The present study revealed the importance of monitoring AMR and MDR trends in companion animals, as they could pose a risk due to the spread of AMR and its resistance genes to humans, other animals and the environment they cohabit.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111638
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1639: Long-Term Suppressive
           Therapeutic-Drug-Monitoring-Guided Dalbavancin Therapy for Cardiovascular
           Prosthetic Infections

    • Authors: Altea Gallerani, Milo Gatti, Andrea Bedini, Stefania Casolari, Gabriella Orlando, Cinzia Puzzolante, Erica Franceschini, Marianna Menozzi, Antonella Santoro, Nicole Barp, Sara Volpi, Alessandra Soffritti, Federico Pea, Cristina Mussini, Marianna Meschiari
      First page: 1639
      Abstract: Dalbavancin represents a promising treatment for cardiovascular prosthetic infections due to its prolonged half-life, bactericidal activity, large spectrum of activity, and excellent biofilm penetration. However, the use of dalbavancin in this setting is limited, and only a few cases have performed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) analysis to optimize dosage in suppressive treatments longer than 4 weeks. Our retrospective case series reports the use of dalbavancin in a small cohort of patients with cardiovascular prosthetic infections (cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CEDIs), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), prosthetic vascular graft infections (PVGIs)) treated with dalbavancin as sequential therapy. From May 2019 to May 2023, 14 patients were included: eight cases of PVE (57.1%), seven cases of PVGI (50%), three cases of CEDI (21.4%), and four cases with overlap of infection sites (28.6%). The main pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (35.7%). Prosthesis replacement was obtained in four patients (28.6%). The median time between symptom onset and the end of treatment was 15 weeks (IQR 7–53), with a median duration of dalbavancin therapy of 8 weeks (IQR 1 to 45 weeks) and 3.5 doses per patient. Among patients managed with TDM-guided strategy, dalbavancin infusion intervals ranged from 4 to 9 weeks. The median length of follow-up was 65 weeks (IQR 23 to 144 weeks). Clinical success was achieved in 10 cases (76.9%); all clinical failures occurred in patients with the implant retained. Among patients monitored by TDM, clinical success was 87.5% vs. 60% in patients treated without TDM. Because of pharmacokinetic individual variability, dalbavancin TDM-guided administration could improve clinical outcomes by individualizing dosing and selecting dosing intervals. This case series seems to suggest a promising role of long-term suppressive dalbavancin treatment for difficult-to-treat cardiovascular prosthesis infection, also with limited surgical indications.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111639
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1640: The Antibacterial Properties of Polish
           Honey against Streptococcus mutans—A Causative Agent of Dental

    • Authors: Dorota Grabek-Lejko, Tomasz Hyrchel
      First page: 1640
      Abstract: Streptococcus mutans is considered the main pathogen responsible for dental caries, one of the major infectious diseases, affecting more than 4 billion people worldwide. Honey is a natural product with well-known antibacterial potential against several human pathogens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Polish honey against S. mutans and analyze the role of some bioactive substances on its antibacterial action. The antibacterial potential of different honey varieties (goldenrod, buckwheat, honeydew, and lime) was analyzed using a microdilution assay. Manuka and artificial honey were used as controls. The content of GOX, hydrogen peroxide, total polyphenols, and antioxidant potential was assayed in honey. The influence of catalase and proteinase K on antibacterial activity as well as antibiofilm action was also determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was observed for buckwheat, honeydew, and manuka honey, which were also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity and polyphenols content. Catalase treatment decreases the antibacterial activity of honey, while proteinase K treatment influences the antibacterial potential of honey slightly less. Obtained results suggest that honey can be a good natural product against S. mutans, and hydrogen peroxide was identified as a crucial contributor to its antimicrobial action.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111640
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1641: Rapid Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
           (MIC) Analysis Using Lyophilized Reagent Beads in a Novel Multiphase,
           Single-Vessel Assay

    • Authors: Tejas Suresh Khire, Wei Gao, Brian Bales, Kuangwen Hsieh, Greg Grossmann, Dong Jin M. Park, Christine O’Keefe, Arnyah Brown-Countess, Sara Peterson, Fan-En Chen, Ralf Lenigk, Alex Trick, Tza-Huei Wang, Christopher Puleo
      First page: 1641
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat fueled by incorrect (and overuse) of antibiotic drugs, giving rise to the evolution of multi- and extreme drug-resistant bacterial strains. The longer time to antibiotic administration (TTA) associated with the gold standard bacterial culture method has been responsible for the empirical usage of antibiotics and is a key factor in the rise of AMR. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other nucleic acid amplification methods are rapidly replacing traditional culture methods, their scope has been restricted mainly to detect genotypic determinants of resistance and provide little to no information on phenotypic susceptibility to antibiotics. The work presented here aims to provide phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) information by pairing short growth periods (~3–4 h) with downstream PCR assays to ultimately predict minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of antibiotic treatment. To further simplify the dual workflows of the AST and PCR assays, these reactions are carried out in a single-vessel format (PCR tube) using novel lyophilized reagent beads (LRBs), which store dried PCR reagents along with primers and enzymes, and antibiotic drugs separately. The two reactions are separated in space and time using a melting paraffin wax seal, thus eliminating the need to transfer reagents across different consumables and minimizing user interactions. Finally, these two-step single-vessel reactions are multiplexed by using a microfluidic manifold that allows simultaneous testing of an unknown bacterial sample against different antibiotics at varying concentrations. The LRBs used in the microfluidic system showed no interference with the bacterial growth and PCR assays and provided an innovative platform for rapid point-of-care diagnostics (POC-Dx).
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111641
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1642: Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of
           Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Breeder Poultry Farm Sources in
           China, 2020–2021

    • Authors: Zijing Ju, Lulu Cui, Changwei Lei, Mengze Song, Xuan Chen, Ziwei Liao, Tiejun Zhang, Hongning Wang
      First page: 1642
      Abstract: Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is a dangerous foodborne disease that causes enormous economic loss and threatens public health worldwide. The consumption of food, especially poultry or poultry products, contaminated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is the main cause of human salmonellosis. To date, no research has identified the molecular epidemiological characteristics of NTS strains isolated from breeder chicken farms in different provinces of China. In our study, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance, phylogenetic relationships, presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and plasmids of NTS isolates recovered from breeder chicken farms in five provinces of China between 2020 and 2021 by using a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) approach and phenotypic methods. All sequenced isolates belonged to six serovars with seven sequence types. Nearly half of the isolates (44.87%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobials. Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky harbored more antimicrobial resistance genes than the others, which was highly consistent with phenotypic resistance. Furthermore, the carried rate of 104 out of 135 detected virulence genes was 100%. Overall, our WGS results highlight the need for the continuous monitoring of, and additional studies on, the antimicrobial resistance of NTS.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111642
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1643: Terminalia petiolaris A.Cunn ex Benth.
           Extracts Have Antibacterial Activity and Potentiate Conventional
           Antibiotics against β-Lactam-Drug-Resistant Bacteria

    • Authors: Muhammad Jawad Zai, Matthew James Cheesman, Ian Edwin Cock
      First page: 1643
      Abstract: Terminalia petiolaris A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (genus: Terminalia, family: Combretaceae) is native to Australia. Terminalia spp. have traditionally been used to treat various ailments, including bacterial infections. Solvents of varying polarity were used to extract compounds from leaves of this species, and the extracts were tested against a panel of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains. The methanolic and water extracts showed substantial inhibitory activity against several bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains in both disc diffusion and liquid dilution assays. Combining these extracts with selected conventional antibiotics enhanced the inhibition of bacterial growth for some combinations, while others showed no significant interaction. In total, two synergistic, twenty-five additive, twenty-three non-interactive and one antagonistic interaction were observed. The methanolic and ethyl acetate plant extracts were found to be non-toxic in Artemia franciscana nauplii toxicity assays. A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis identified several flavonoid compounds, including miquelianin, trifolin and orientin, which might contribute to the observed activities. The potential modes of these active extracts are further discussed in this study.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111643
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1644: Stachys Species: Comparative Evaluation
           of Phenolic Profile and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential

    • Authors: Daniela Benedec, Ilioara Oniga, Daniela Hanganu, Brîndușa Tiperciuc, Adriana Nistor, Ana-Maria Vlase, Laurian Vlase, Cristina Bischin Pușcaș, Mihaela Duma, Cristian Cezar Login, Mihaela Niculae, Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu
      First page: 1644
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six Romanian Stachys species: S. officinalis, S. germanica, S. byzantina, S. sylvatica, S. palustris, and S. recta. The LC-MS/MS method was used to analyze the polyphenolic profile, while the phenolic contents were spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the following methods: DPPH, FRAP, nitrite-induced autooxidation of hemoglobin, inhibition of cytochrome c-catalyzed lipid peroxidation, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties were assessed using agar-well diffusion, broth microdilution, and antibiofilm assays. Fifteen polyphenols were identified using LC-MS and chlorogenic acid was the major component in all the samples (1131.8–6761.4 μg/g). S. germanica, S. palustris, and S. byzantina extracts each displayed an intense antiradical action in relation to high contents of TPC (6.40 mg GAE/mL), flavonoids (3.90 mg RE/mL), and caffeic acid derivatives (0.89 mg CAE/mL). In vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties were exhibited towards Candida albicans, Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, with the most intense efficacy recorded for S. germanica and S. byzantina when tested against S. aureus. These results highlighted Stachys extracts as rich sources of bioactive compounds with promising antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacies and important perspectives for developing phytopharmaceuticals.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111644
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Antibiotics, Vol. 12, Pages 1645: Study of the Antibacterial Activity of
           Rich Polyphenolic Extracts Obtained from Cytisus scoparius against
           Foodborne Pathogens

    • Authors: Calvo, Castillo, Villarino, Rama, Abril, de Miguel
      First page: 1645
      Abstract: Natural extracts containing high polyphenolic concentrations may act as good antimicrobials for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. The present research characterizes two hydro-organic extracts with high polyphenolic content, obtained from the shrub Cytisus scoparius as antipathogenic candidates. As a result of their own composition, both extracts, LE050 and PG050, have shown pronounced bioactivities with potential uses, especially in agricultural, livestock production, food manufacturing, and pharmaceutical industries. Polyphenolic compounds were extracted by using adjusted hydro-organic solvent mixtures. These extracts’ in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated on Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, giving special attention to those involved in food contamination. Due to this, the biofilm dispersion was assessed on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic species tested, presenting IC50 values between 0.625–20% v/v. Different behaviors have been detected between both extracts, probably linked to their distinct polyphenol composition, being LE050 extract the one with most promising bioactive applications. Finally, the results from the biofilm dispersion assays reveal that the extracts exhibit a good antibiofilm activity against the pathogenic bacteria tested.
      Citation: Antibiotics
      PubDate: 2023-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12111645
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
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