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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 114)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Journal Cover
Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.482
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0312-5963 - ISSN (Online) 1179-1926
Published by Adis Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Liver Cirrhosis Affects the Pharmacokinetics of the Six Substrates of the
           Basel Phenotyping Cocktail Differently

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      Abstract: Background Activities of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are relevant for hepatic clearance of drugs and known to be decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. Several studies have reported the effect of liver cirrhosis on CYP activity, but the results are partially conflicting and for some CYPs lacking. Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the CYP activity in patients with liver cirrhosis with different Child stages (A-C) using the Basel phenotyping cocktail approach. Methods We assessed the pharmacokinetics of the six compounds and their CYP-specific metabolites of the Basel phenotyping cocktail (CYP1A2: caffeine, CYP2B6: efavirenz, CYP2C9: flurbiprofen, CYP2C19: omeprazole, CYP2D6: metoprolol, CYP3A: midazolam) in patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 16 Child A cirrhosis, n = 15 Child B cirrhosis, n = 5 Child C cirrhosis) and matched control subjects (n = 12). Results While liver cirrhosis only marginally affected the pharmacokinetics of the low to moderate extraction drugs efavirenz and flurbiprofen, the elimination rate of caffeine was reduced by 51% in patients with Child C cirrhosis. For the moderate to high extraction drugs omeprazole, metoprolol, and midazolam, liver cirrhosis decreased the elimination rate by 75%, 37%, and 60%, respectively, increased exposure, and decreased the apparent systemic clearance (clearance/bioavailability). In patients with Child C cirrhosis, the metabolic ratio (ratio of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 to 24 h of the metabolite to the parent compound), a marker for CYP activity, decreased by 66%, 47%, 92%, 73%, and 43% for paraxanthine/caffeine (CYP1A2), 8-hydroxyefavirenz/efavirenz (CYP2B6), 5-hydroxyomeprazole/omeprazole (CYP2C19), α-hydroxymetoprolol/metoprolol (CYP2D6), and 1′-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam (CYP3A), respectively. In comparison, the metabolic ratio 4-hydroxyflurbiprofen/flurbiprofen (CYP2C9) remained unchanged. Conclusions Liver cirrhosis affects the activity of CYP isoforms differently. This variability must be considered for dose adjustment of drugs in patients with liver cirrhosis. Clinical Trial Registration NCT03337945.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Predictive Performance of Pharmacokinetic Model-Based Virtual Trials of
           Vancomycin in Neonates: Mathematics Matches Clinical Observation

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      Abstract: Background and Objective Vancomycin is frequently used to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections in neonates. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal initial dosing regimen. This study aimed to assess the performance of pharmacokinetic model-based virtual trials to predict the dose–exposure relationship of vancomycin in neonates. Methods The PubMed database was searched for clinical trials of vancomycin in neonates that reported the percentage of target attainment. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling to predict the dose–exposure relationship, and the differences in outcomes between virtual trials and real-world data in clinical studies were calculated. Results A total of 11 studies with 14 dosing groups were identified from the literature to evaluate dose–exposure relationships. For the ten dosing groups where the surrogate marker for exposure was the trough concentration, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the target attainment between original studies and virtual trials was 3.0 ± 7.3%. Deviations between − 10 and 10% accounted for 80% of the included dosing groups. For the other four dosing groups where the surrogate marker for exposure was concentration during continuous infusion, all deviations were between − 10 and 10%, and the mean ± SD value was 2.9 ± 4.5%. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic model-based virtual trials of vancomycin exhibited good predictive performance for dose–exposure relationships in neonates. These results might be used to assist the optimization of dosing regimens in neonatal practice, avoiding the need for trial and error.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Dose–Exposure–Response Analysis of the Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid
           Receptor Antagonist Finerenone on UACR and eGFR: An Analysis from
           FIDELIO-DKD

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      Abstract: Background and Objective Finerenone reduces the risk of kidney failure in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are surrogates for kidney failure. We performed dose–exposure–response analyses to determine the effects of finerenone on these surrogates in the presence and absence of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) using individual patient data from the FIDELIO-DKD study. Methods Non-linear mixed-effects population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were used to quantify disease progression in terms of UACR and eGFR during standard of care and pharmacodynamic effects of finerenone in the presence and absence of SGLT2i use. Results The population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models adequately described effects of finerenone exposure in reducing UACR and slowing eGFR decline over time. The reduction in UACR achieved with finerenone during the first year predicted its subsequent effect in slowing progressive eGFR decline. SGLT2i use did not modify the effects of finerenone. The population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model demonstrated with 97.5% confidence that finerenone was at least 94.1% as efficacious in reducing UACR in patients using an SGLT2i compared with patients not using an SGLT2i based on the 95% confidence interval of the SGLT2i-finerenone interaction from 94.1 to 122%. The 95% confidence interval of the SGLT2i-finerenone interaction for the UACR-mediated effect on chronic eGFR decline was 9.5–144%. Conclusions We developed a model that accurately describes the finerenone dose–exposure–response relationship for UACR and eGFR. The model demonstrated that the early UACR effect of finerenone predicted its long-term effect on eGFR decline. These effects were independent of concomitant SGLT2i use.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Determining the Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease on Organic Anion
           Transporter1/3 Activity Through Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic
           Modeling

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      Abstract: Background and Objective The renal excretion of drugs via organic anion transporters 1 and 3 (OAT1/3) is significantly decreased in patients with renal impairment. This study uses physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to quantify the reduction in OAT1/3-mediated secretion of drugs throughout varying stages of chronic kidney disease. Methods Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were constructed for four OAT1/3 substrates in healthy individuals: acyclovir, meropenem, furosemide, and ciprofloxacin. Observed data from drug–drug interaction studies with probenecid, a potent OAT1/3 inhibitor, were used to parameterize the contribution of OAT1/3 to the renal elimination of each drug. The models were then translated to patients with chronic kidney disease by accounting for changes in glomerular filtration rate, kidney volume, renal blood flow, plasma protein binding, and hematocrit. Additionally, a relationship was derived between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the reduction in OAT1/3-mediated secretion of drugs based on the renal extraction ratios of ƿ-aminohippuric acid in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. The relationship was evaluated in silico by evaluating the predictive performance of each final model in describing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs across stages of chronic kidney disease. Results OAT1/3-mediated renal excretion of drugs was found to be decreased by 27–49%, 50–68%, and 70–96% in stage 3, stage 4, and stage 5 of chronic kidney disease, respectively. In support of the parameterization, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of four OAT1/3 substrates were able to adequately characterize the PK in patients with different degrees of renal impairment. Total exposure after intravenous administration was predicted within a 1.5-fold error and 85% of the observed data points fell within a 1.5-fold prediction error. The models modestly under-predicted plasma concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. However, results should be interpreted with caution because of the limited number of molecules analyzed and the sparse sampling in observed chronic kidney disease pharmacokinetic studies. Conclusions A quantitative understanding of the reduction in OAT1/3-mediated excretion of drugs in differing stages of renal impairment will contribute to better predictive accuracy for physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in drug development, assisting with clinical trial planning and potentially sparing this population from unnecessary toxic exposures.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Correction to: Comment on: “Preterm Physiologically Based
           Pharmacokinetic Model, Part I and Part II”

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      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Caspofungin Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Plasma and Peritoneal
           Fluid in Septic Patients with Intra-Abdominal Infections: A Prospective
           Cohort Study

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      Abstract: Objectives The aim of this study was to report the pharmacokinetics (PK) of caspofungin in plasma and peritoneal fluid and to identify optimal dosing strategies in septic patients with intra-abdominal infections. Methods Eleven patients with secondary peritonitis with septic shock received the standard dosing regimen of caspofungin. Total caspofungin plasma and peritoneal concentrations were subject to a population PK analysis using Pmetrics®. Monte Carlo simulations were performed considering the ratio of 24-h total drug exposure above the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24/MIC) in plasma and comparing simulated concentrations versus MIC in peritoneal fluid. Results Fat-free mass (FFM) was retained in the final model of caspofungin, reporting a total clearance (standard deviation) of 0.78 (0.17) L/h and a central volume of distribution of 9.36 (2.61) L. The peritoneal fluid/plasma ratio of caspofungin was 33% on the first day of therapy (AUC24 73.92 (21.93) and 26.03 (9.88) mg*h/L for plasma and peritoneal data, respectively). Dosing simulations supported the use of standard dosing regimens for patients with an FFM < 50 kg for the most susceptible candida species (C. albicans and C. glabrata). For higher FFM, a loading dose of 70 or 100 mg, with a maintenance dose of 70 mg, reached AUC24/MIC ratios for these species. Conclusions There is moderate penetration of caspofungin into the peritoneal cavity (33%). For empirical treatment, a dose escalation of 100 mg loading dose on the first day is suggested for higher FFM to ensure adequate concentrations into the abdominal cavity for the most susceptible candida species.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • “De-Shrinking” EBEs: The Solution for Bayesian Therapeutic
           Drug Monitoring

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      Abstract: Background Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims at individualising a dosage regimen and is increasingly being performed by estimating individual pharmacokinetic parameters via empirical Bayes estimates (EBEs). However, EBEs suffer from shrinkage that makes them biased. This bias is a weakness for TDM and probably a barrier to the acceptance of drug dosage adjustments by prescribers. Objective The aim of this article is to propose a methodology that allows a correction of EBE shrinkage and an improvement in their precision. Methods As EBEs are defined, they can be seen as a special case of ridge estimators depending on a parameter usually denoted λ. After a bias correction depending on λ, we chose λ so that the individual pharmacokinetic estimations have minimal imprecision. Our estimate is by construction always better than EBE with respect to bias (i.e. shrinkage) and precision. Results We illustrate the performance of this approach with two different drugs: iohexol and isavuconazole. Depending on the patient’s actual pharmacokinetic parameter values, the improvement given by our approach ranged from 0 to 100%. Conclusion This innovative methodology is promising since, to the best of our knowledge, no other individual shrinkage correction has been proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Microdosing as a Potential Tool to Enhance Clinical Development of Novel
           Antibiotics: A Tissue and Plasma PK Feasibility Study with Ciprofloxacin

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      Abstract: Background and Objective In microdose studies, drug pharmacokinetics is measured in humans after administration of subtherapeutic doses. While previous microdose studies focused primarily on plasma pharmacokinetics, we set out to evaluate the feasibility of microdosing for a pharmacokinetic assessment in subcutaneous tissue and epithelial lining fluid. Methods Healthy subjects received a single intravenous bolus injection of a microdose of [14C]ciprofloxacin (1.1 µg, 7 kBq) with (cohort A, n = 9) or without (cohort B, n = 9) a prior intravenous infusion of a therapeutic dose of unlabeled ciprofloxacin (400 mg). Microdialysis and bronchoalveolar lavage were applied for determination of subcutaneous and intrapulmonary drug concentrations. Microdose [14C]ciprofloxacin was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry and therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The pharmacokinetics of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin (cohort A) in plasma, subcutaneous tissue, and epithelial lining fluid was in accordance with previous data. In plasma and subcutaneous tissue, the dose-adjusted area under the concentration–time curve of microdose ciprofloxacin was similar in cohorts A and B and within an 0.8-fold to 1.1-fold range of the area under the concentration–time curve of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin. Penetration of microdose ciprofloxacin into subcutaneous tissue was similar in cohorts A and B and comparable to that of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin with subcutaneous tissue-to-plasma area under the concentration–time curve ratios of 0.44, 0.44, and 0.38, respectively. Penetration of microdose ciprofloxacin into epithelial lining fluid was highly variable and failed to predict the epithelial lining fluid penetration of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin. Conclusions Our study confirms the feasibility of microdosing for pharmacokinetic measurements in plasma and subcutaneous tissue. Microdosing combined with microdialysis is a potentially useful tool in clinical antimicrobial drug development, but its applicability for the assessment of pulmonary pharmacokinetics with bronchoalveolar lavage requires further studies. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03177720 (registered 6 June, 2017).
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Prediction of Maternal and Fetal Acyclovir, Emtricitabine, Lamivudine, and
           Metformin Concentrations during Pregnancy Using a Physiologically Based
           Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach

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      Abstract: Background Concerns over maternal and fetal drug exposure during pregnancy highlight the need for improved understanding of drug distribution to the fetus through the placental barrier. Objective Our objective was to predict maternal and fetal drug disposition using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach. Methods We used the detailed maternal–placental–fetal PBPK model within the Simcyp Simulator V20 to predict the maternal and fetal drug exposure of acyclovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and metformin during pregnancy and at delivery. The dynamic model includes gestational changes to the maternal, fetal, and placental physiological parameters. Placental kinetics were parameterized using published ex vivo data for these four compounds. Amniotic data were included where available. PBPK predictions were compared with the observed data using twofold criteria. Results Maternal–fetal PBPK models were developed completely from the bottom up without any parameter adjustments. The PBPK model-predicted exposures matched the observed maternal and umbilical exposure for acyclovir (six maternal studies, all of which all reported umbilical exposure), emtricitabine (six maternal studies, of which four reported umbilical exposure), lamivudine, (five maternal studies, of which four reported umbilical exposure), and metformin (seven studies, of which six reported umbilical exposure). Predicted pharmacokinetic parameters were within twofold of the observed values. Conclusion Integration of fetal and maternal system parameters within PBPK models, together with experimental data from ex vivo placental perfusion studies, facilitated and extended the application of the pregnancy PBPK model. Such models can also be used inform clinical trials and maternal/fetal risk assessment following maternally administered drugs or unintended exposure to environmental toxicants.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Comparative Plasma and Interstitial Tissue Fluid Pharmacokinetics of
           Meropenem Demonstrate the Need for Increasing Dose and Infusion Duration
           in Obese and Non-obese Patients

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      Abstract: Background and Objectives A quantitative evaluation of the PK of meropenem, a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic, in plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients is lacking as of date. The objective of this study was the characterisation of meropenem population pharmacokinetics in plasma and ISF in obese and non-obese patients for identification of adequate dosing regimens via Monte-Carlo simulations. Methods We obtained plasma and microdialysate concentrations after administration of meropenem 1000 mg to 15 obese and 15 non-obese surgery patients from a prospective clinical trial. After characterizing plasma- and microdialysis-derived ISF pharmacokinetics via population pharmacokinetic analysis, we simulated thrice-daily (TID) meropenem short-term (0.5 h), prolonged (3.0 h), and continuous infusions. Adequacy of therapy was assessed by the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment (PTA) analysis based on time unbound concentrations exceeded minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on treatment day 1 (%fT > MIC) and the sum of PTA weighted by relative frequency of MIC values for infections by pathogens commonly treated with meropenem. To avoid interstitial tissue fluid concentrations below MIC for the entire dosing interval during continuous infusions, a more conservative PK/PD index was selected (%fT > 4 × MIC). Results Adjusted body weight (ABW) and calculated creatinine clearance (CLCRCG_ABW) of all patients (body mass index [BMI] = 20.5–81.5 kg/m2) explained a considerable proportion of the between-patient pharmacokinetic variability (15.1–31.0% relative reduction). The ISF:plasma ratio of %fT > MIC was relatively similar for MIC ≤ 2 mg/L but decreased for MIC = 8 mg/L over ABW = 60–120 kg (0.50–0.20). Steady-state concentrations were 2.68 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.11–3.37) higher in plasma than in ISF, supporting PK/PD targets related to four times the MIC during continuous infusions to avoid suspected ISF concentrations constantly below the MIC. A 3000 mg/24 h continuous infusion was sufficient at MIC = 2 mg/L for patients with CLCRCG_ABW ≤ 100 mL/min and ABW < 90 kg, whereas 2000 mg TID prolonged infusions were adequate for those with CLCRCG_ABW ≤ 100 mL/min and ABW > 90 kg. For MIC = 2 mg/L and %fT> MIC = 95, PTA was adequate in patients over the entire investigated range of body mass and renal function using a 6000 mg continuous infusion. A prolonged infusion of meropenem 2000 mg TID was sufficient for MIC ≤ 8 mg/L and all investigated ABW and CLCRCG_ABW when employing the PK/PD target %fT > MIC = 40. Short-term infusions of 1000 mg TID were sufficient for CLCRCG_ABW ≤ 130 mL/min and distributions of MIC values for Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions This analysis indicated a need for higher doses (≥ 2000 mg) and prolonged infusions (≥ 3 h) for obese and non-obese patients at MIC ≥ 2 mg/L. Higher PTA was achieved with prolonged infusions in obese patients and with continuous infusions in non-obese patients. Trial Registration EudraCT: 2012-004383-22.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Transition from Syringe to Autoinjector Based on Bridging Pharmacokinetics
           and Pharmacodynamics of the P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist Selatogrel in
           Healthy Subjects

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      Abstract: Background and Objectives Selatogrel is a potent, reversible, and selective antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor currently developed for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the completed Phase I/II studies, selatogrel was subcutaneously (s.c.) administered as a lyophilizate-based formulation by syringe by a healthcare professional. In the Phase III study, selatogrel will be self-administered s.c. as a liquid formulation with an autoinjector at the onset of AMI symptoms to shorten treatment delay. This clinical bridging study compared the pharmacokinetics (PK) of selatogrel between the different formulations. Methods This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, three-period, cross-over Phase I study in 24 healthy subjects. In each period, a single subcutaneous dose of 16 mg selatogrel was administered as (1) a Phase III liquid formulation by autoinjector (Treatment A), (2) a Phase III liquid formulation by prefilled syringe (Treatment B), or (3) a Phase I/II reconstituted lyophilizate-based formulation by syringe (Treatment C). PK parameters including area under the plasma concentration–time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0–∞), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax(tmax), and terminal half-life (t1/2) were determined using noncompartmental analysis. Pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters were estimated using PK/PD modeling, including the time of first occurrence of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) ≥ 80% (tonset), duration of IPA above 80% (tduration), and responder rate defined as the percentage of subjects with tonset ≤ 30 min and tduration ≥ 3 h. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results Comparing Treatment A to Treatment C, the exposure (AUC0–∞) was bioequivalent with a geometric mean ratio (GMR) (90% confidence interval) of 0.95 (0.92–0.97) within the bioequivalence range (0.80–1.25). Absorption following Treatment A was slightly slower with a tmax occurring approximately 30 min later and a 20% lower Cmax. The autoinjector itself had no impact on the PK of selatogrel, as similar values of Cmax and AUC0–∞ were determined after administration as a Phase III liquid formulation by autoinjector or by prefilled syringe (i.e., GMR [90% confidence interval] of 1.06 [0.97–1.15] and 0.99 [0.96–1.03] for Cmax and AUC0–∞, respectively). PK/PD modeling predicted that the median tonset will occur slightly later for Treatment A (7.2 min) compared to Treatment C (4.2  min), while no relevant differences in tduration and responder rate were estimated between the two treatments. Selatogrel was safe and well tolerated following all three treatments. Conclusions PK and simulated PD effects of selatogrel were similar across treatments. Clinical Trial Registration NCT04557280.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Population Pharmacokinetics of Abrocitinib in Healthy Individuals and
           Patients with Psoriasis or Atopic Dermatitis

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      Abstract: Background and Objective Abrocitinib is a Janus kinase 1 inhibitor in development for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). This work characterized orally administered abrocitinib population pharmacokinetics in healthy individuals, patients with psoriasis, and patients with AD and the effects of covariates on abrocitinib exposure. Methods Abrocitinib concentration measurements (n = 6206) from 995 individuals from 11 clinical trials (seven phase I, two phase II, and two phase III) were analyzed, and a non-linear mixed-effects model was developed. Simulations of abrocitinib dose proportionality and steady-state accumulation of maximal plasma drug concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) were conducted using the final model. Results A two-compartment model with parallel zero- and first-order absorption, time-dependent bioavailability, and time- and dose-dependent clearance best described abrocitinib pharmacokinetics. Abrocitinib coadministration with rifampin resulted in lower exposure, whereas Asian/other race coadministration with fluconazole and fluvoxamine, inflammatory skin conditions (psoriasis/AD), and hepatic impairment resulted in higher exposure. After differences in body weight are accounted for, Asian participants demonstrated a 1.43- and 1.48-fold increase in Cmax and AUC, respectively. The overall distribution of exposures (Cmax and AUC) was similar in adolescents and adults after accounting for differences in total body weight. Conclusions A population pharmacokinetics model was developed for abrocitinib that can be used to predict abrocitinib steady-state exposure in the presence of drug–drug interaction effects or intrinsic patient factors. Key covariates in the study population accounting for variability in abrocitinib exposures are Asian race and adolescent age, although these factors are not clinically meaningful. Clinical Trial Numbers NCT01835197, NCT02163161, NCT02201524, NCT02780167, NCT03349060, NCT03575871, NCT03634345, NCT03637790, NCT03626415, NCT03386279, NCT03937258.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Biomarkers Predicting Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials in Sepsis:
           A Review

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      Abstract: The pathophysiology of sepsis alters drug pharmacokinetics, resulting in inadequate drug exposure and target-site concentration. Suboptimal exposure leads to treatment failure and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, we seek to optimize antimicrobial therapy in sepsis by selecting the right drug and the correct dosage. A prerequisite for achieving this goal is characterization and understanding of the mechanisms of pharmacokinetic alterations. However, most infections take place not in blood but in different body compartments. Since tissue pharmacokinetic assessment is not feasible in daily practice, we need to tailor antibiotic treatment according to the specific patient’s pathophysiological processes. The complex pathophysiology of sepsis and the ineffectiveness of current targeted therapies suggest that treatments guided by biomarkers predicting target-site concentration could provide a new therapeutic strategy. Inflammation, endothelial and coagulation activation markers, and blood flow parameters might be indicators of impaired tissue distribution. Moreover, hepatic and renal dysfunction biomarkers can predict not only drug metabolism and clearance but also drug distribution. Identification of the right biomarkers can direct drug dosing and provide timely feedback on its effectiveness. Therefore, this might decrease antibiotic resistance and the mortality of critically ill patients. This article fills the literature gap by characterizing patient biomarkers that might be used to predict unbound plasma-to-tissue drug distribution in critically ill patients. Although all biomarkers must be clinically evaluated with the ultimate goal of combining them in a clinically feasible scoring system, we support the concept that the appropriate biomarkers could be used to direct targeted antibiotic dosing. Graphical ADAMTS-13 a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif no. 13, ALAT alanine amino transferase, APACHE IV Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV, aPPT activated partial thromboplastin time, ASAT aspartate amino transferase, AT antithrombin, Ca-V-O2 oxygen content difference, arterial-venous, CRP C-reactive protein, ELAM endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule, ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule, IL interleukin, INR international normalized ratio, LBP lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, MCP monocyte chemoattractant protein, mHLA monocytic human leukocyte antigen, MIF migration inhibitory factor, MIP macrophage inflammatory protein, PAI plasminogen activator inhibitor, PCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide, PT prothrombin time, RRT renal replacement therapy, SAPSS III Simplified Acute Physiology Score-III, sO2 oxygen saturation, SOFA Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment, sTREM soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1, TLR toll-like receptor, TNF tumor necrosis factor, VCAM vascular cell adhesion molecule, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, vWf von Willebrand factor
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Avelumab Dose Selection for Clinical Studies in Pediatric Patients with
           Solid Tumors

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      Abstract: Background and Objective A phase I/II trial evaluated the safety, antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetics of avelumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody) in pediatric patients with refractory/relapsed solid tumors (NCT03451825). This study aimed to inform avelumab dose selection in pediatric populations using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations. Methods Patients aged < 18 years with refractory/relapsed solid tumors enrolled in phase I received avelumab 10 or 20 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. A pediatric population pharmacokinetic model was developed via the frequentist prior approach. Results Pharmacokinetic parameters from 21 patients who received avelumab 10 mg/kg (n = 6) or 20 mg/kg (n = 15) were analyzed. Patients had a wide range of weights and ages (medians, 37.3 kg and 12 years). Exposures with 10-mg/kg dosing were lower vs adult dosing, particularly in patients weighing < 40 kg, whereas 20-mg/kg dosing achieved or exceeded adult exposures, irrespective of body weight. A two-compartment linear model with time-varying clearance using body weight as a covariate, with the frequentist prior approach, best described pediatric data. In this model, optimal overlap in exposure with adult data was achieved with 800 mg every 2 weeks for patients aged ≥ 12 years and weighing ≥ 40 kg, and 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks for patients aged < 12 years or weighing < 40 kg. Conclusions Based on exposure matching, the recommended doses for further avelumab studies, including combination studies, are 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks for pediatric patients aged < 12 years or weighing < 40 kg and the adult flat dose of 800 mg every 2 weeks for pediatric patients aged ≥ 12 years and weighing ≥ 40 kg. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03451825.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Implications of Bariatric Surgery on the Pharmacokinetics of
           Antiretrovirals in People Living with HIV

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      Abstract: Abstract Bariatric surgery is increasingly applied among people living with HIV to reduce obesity and the associated morbidity and mortality. In people living with HIV, sufficient antiretroviral exposure and activity should always be maintained to prevent development of resistance and disease progression. However, bariatric surgery procedures bring various gastrointestinal modifications including changes in gastric volume, and acidity, gastrointestinal emptying time, enterohepatic circulation and delayed entry of bile acids. These alterations may affect many aspects of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics. Some drug characteristics may result in subtherapeutic exposure and the potential related risk of treatment failure and resistance. Antiretrovirals that require low pH, administration of fatty meals, longer intestinal exposure, and an enterohepatic recirculation for their absorption may be most impacted by bariatric surgery procedures. Additionally, some antiretrovirals can interact with the polyvalent cations in supplements or drugs inhibiting gastric acid, thereby preventing their use as these comedications are commonly prescribed post-bariatric surgery. Predicting pharmacokinetics on the basis of drug characteristics solely proved to be challenging, therefore pharmacokinetic studies remain crucial in this population. Here, we discuss general implications of bariatric surgery on antiretroviral outcomes in people living with HIV as well as drug properties that are relevant for the choice of antiretroviral treatment in this special patient population. Additionally, we summarise studies that evaluated the pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals post-bariatric surgery. Finally, we performed a comprehensive analysis of theoretical considerations and published pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data to provide recommendations on antiretrovirals for people living with HIV undergoing bariatric surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
       
  • Hyperinflammation Reduces Midazolam Metabolism in Critically Ill Adults
           with COVID-19

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      Abstract: Background and Objective Many patients treated for COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit are sedated with the benzodiazepine midazolam. Midazolam undergoes extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes, which may be inhibited by hyperinflammation. Therefore, an exaggerated proinflammatory response, as often observed in COVID-19, may decrease midazolam clearance. To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for midazolam in adult intensive care unit patients infected with COVID-19 and to assess the effect of inflammation, reflected by IL-6, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. Methods Midazolam blood samples were collected once a week between March 31 and April 30 2020. Patients were excluded if they concomitantly received CYP3A4 inhibitors, CYP3A4 inducers and/or continuous renal replacement therapy. Midazolam and metabolites were analyzed with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed, using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. IL-6 and CRP, markers of inflammation, were analyzed as covariates. Results The data were described by a one-compartment model for midazolam and the metabolites 1-OH-midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam-glucuronide. The population mean estimate for midazolam clearance was 6.7 L/h (4.8–8.5 L/h). Midazolam clearance was reduced by increased IL-6 and IL-6 explained more of the variability within our patients than CRP. The midazolam clearance was reduced by 24% (6.7–5.1 L/h) when IL-6 increases from population median 116 to 300 pg/mL. Conclusions Inflammation, reflected by high IL-6, reduces midazolam clearance in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This knowledge may help avoid oversedation, but further research is warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
       
  • An Integral Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Piperacillin and Tazobactam in
           Plasma and Urine in Critically Ill Patients

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      Abstract: Background and Objectives Although dose optimization studies have been performed for piperacillin and tazobactam separately, a combined integral analysis is not yet reported. As piperacillin and tazobactam pharmacokinetics are likely to show correlation, a combined pharmacokinetic model should be preferred to account for this correlation when predicting the exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics and evaluate different dosing regimens of piperacillin and tazobactam in critically ill patients using an integral population pharmacokinetic model in plasma and urine. Methods In this observational study, a total of 39 adult intensive care unit patients receiving piperacillin–tazobactam as part of routine clinical care were included. Piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations in plasma and urine were measured and analyzed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to predict the concentrations for different dosing strategies and different categories of renal function. Results A combined two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model for both piperacillin and tazobactam was developed, with an output compartment for the renally excreted fraction. The addition of 24-h urine creatinine clearance significantly improved the model fit. A dose of 12/1.5 g/24 h as a continuous infusion is sufficient to reach a tazobactam concentration above the target (2.89 mg/L) and a piperacillin concentration above the target of 100% f T>1×MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤ 16 mg/L). To reach a target of 100% f T>5×MIC with an MIC of 16 mg/L, piperacillin doses of up to 20 g/24 h are inadequate. Potential toxic piperacillin levels were reached in 19.6% and 47.8% of the population with a dose of 12 g/24 h and 20 g/24 h, respectively. Conclusions A regular dose of 12/1.5 g/24 h is sufficient in > 90% of the critically ill population to treat infections caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ≤ 8 mg/L. In case of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an MIC of 16 mg/L, there is a fine line between therapeutic and toxic exposure. Dosing guided by renal function and therapeutic drug monitoring could enhance target attainment in such cases. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03738683.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
       
  • Correction to: Population Pharmacokinetics of Abrocitinib in Healthy
           Individuals and Patients with Psoriasis or Atopic Dermatitis

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      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Pharmacokinetics of Clavulanic Acid in the Pediatric Population: A
           Systematic Literature Review

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      Abstract: Background and Objective Clavulanic acid is a commonly used β-lactam inhibitor in pediatrics for a variety of infections. Clear insight into its mode of action is lacking, however, and a target has not been identified. The dosing of clavulanic acid is currently based on that of the partner drug (amoxicillin or ticarcillin). Still, proper dosing of the compound is needed because clavulanic acid has been associated with adverse effects. In this systematic review, we aim to describe the current literature on the pharmacokinetics of clavulanic acid in the pediatric population Methods We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase.com, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. We included all published studies reporting pharmacokinetic data on clavulanic acid in neonates and children 0–18 years of age. Results The search resulted in 18 original studies that met the inclusion criteria. In general, the variation in drug exposure was large, which can be partly explained by differences in disease state, route of administration, or age. Unfortunately, the studies’ limited background information hampered in-depth assessment of the observed variability. Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of clavulanic acid in pediatric patients is highly variable, similar to reports in adults, but more pronounced. Significant knowledge gaps remain with regard to the population-specific explanation for this variability. Model-based pharmacokinetic studies that address both maturational and disease-specific changes in the pediatric population are therefore needed. Furthermore, additional pharmacodynamic studies are needed to define a clear target. The combined outcomes will eventually lead to pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of clavulanic acid and targeted exposure. Clinical Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42020137253.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
       
  • Correction to: Unbound Plasma, Total Plasma and Whole-Blood Tacrolimus
           Pharmacokinetics Early After Thoracic Organ Transplantation

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      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
 
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