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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 135)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.494
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2042-0986 - ISSN (Online) 2042-0994
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward adverse drug reaction (ADR)
           reporting among healthcare professionals in Ghana

    • Authors: Abena Ahwianfoa Yawson, Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah, Grace Adjei Okai, Charles Gyamfi Ofori
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Spontaneous reporting systems are the commonest means of reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) worldwide. Under-reporting remains a challenge particularly in developing countries among healthcare professionals (HCPs) who are considered the primary stakeholders in the reporting of ADRs. The challenge with studies in countries such as Ghana is that the focus has been on a single professional group or health facility. This study examines the rate of reporting as well as awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward ADR reporting across professional groups (doctors, nurses, and pharmacist) and selected health facilities (ownership types: government, quasi-government, and private; hierarchy: district, regional, and teaching) in Ghana.Method:A cross-sectional survey was conducted to select and interview 424 healthcare professionals (HCPs) from 8 hospitals in the Greater Accra and Eastern regions of Ghana on issues of ADR reporting, awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Valid responses from 378 HCPs were obtained and analyzed using frequencies and percentages.Findings:The results suggest that about 82.8% of the HCPs interviewed have come across an ADR incidence, but only 52.6% of them have reported such incidence, with pharmacist (66.7%) being the most likely to report. The results further suggest that about 85.8% of HCPs are aware of ADR reporting procedures and display positive attitudes toward same. In addition, the knowledge of HCPs on ADR reporting is low with training being a major area of need.Conclusion:There is the need for healthcare managers and the regulator to pay attention to existing gaps in awareness, attitudes, and most importantly knowledge of HCPs on structures and modalities for ADR reporting.Plain Language SummaryAwareness, knowledge, and attitude toward adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among healthcare professionals in GhanaReporting of unpleasant reactions related to the use of medicinal products has been very low in less developed countries. Studies conducted in Ghana to examine the reporting of unpleasant reactions associated with the use of medicinal products have focused mainly on one health facility or health care provider group. This article examines the level of awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward the reporting of unpleasant reactions to the use of medicinal products.The authors used a quantitative method to examine the level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward reporting of unpleasant reactions to medicinal products. The study was conducted in eight hospitals in Greater Accra and Eastern regions of Ghana using a structured questionnaire. Only 378 out of 424 healthcare providers returned the completed questionnaire.The findings of the study show that 213 of the healthcare providers have encountered at least one patient with an unpleasant reaction to the use of medicinal products, although only 112 reported the unpleasant reactions. Pharmacists were found to be more likely to report unpleasant reactions as 12 out of 18 pharmacists who responded to the questionnaire indicated that they report the unpleasant reactions seen.In addition, 321 of the healthcare providers knew of the reporting procedures for unpleasant reactions to a medicinal product in Ghana. Only 219 healthcare providers knew of the reporting procedures in the facilities in which they worked, however. Furthermore, the knowledge of healthcare providers on the method of reporting is low.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T11:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221116468
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Risk communication on vaccines during the COVID19 pandemic: is there room
           for small size or private initiatives' An Israeli experience

    • Authors: Irene R. Fermont, Ayalah Livneh, Michel Benhamou
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The scientific communication landscape has undergone a significant disruption since the COVID-19 pandemic: a huge number of publications, ample use of preprint publications, a fast-spreading digitalized information. This reflected the unprecedented speed of the research on disease and vaccines. Two kinds of infodemic blew up very soon: a scientific and a tabloid one. With knowledge evolving continuously, governments and institutions deployed their communication campaigns very quickly to explain the different measures, including the vaccination strategies and to fight against infodemics. The need for a more focused population, the French-speaking community, arose spontaneously in Israel, leading to the creation of a Vaccine Task Force, independent, multidisciplinary, and composed of 20 high-level volunteers, physicians, pharmacists, and scientists, which provides evidence-based information, open and free, to healthcare professionals and the public, both most in demand, and then the experts’ meetings in Israel and abroad. Current resources: 40 webinars, all recorded and accessible on the association website, questions and answers, press and scientific literature review, and hotline; communication through the website, social media, and audio-visual media. In French, English, and Hebrew. The team undertook to explain the role of Israel in vaccine rollout and real-world data provision to the international community, both in Israel and abroad. Performance indicators are as follow: attendees’ number (~3000), website frequentation (7200 +) social media followers. In conclusion, this information campaign requires no budget; relies on volunteers who expressed their willingness to contribute to the global effort, as seen all over the world; and uses simple, cheap, and ubiquitous IT platforms. The Task Force created ERANIM, the Israel Society for Medication and Vaccines Safety. This scheme could easily apply for minorities or for medium/low-income countries, using the resources available in WHO, Vaccine Safety Net, health agencies, and academies. Key factors are multidisciplinary, influencers belonging to communities, and a network of partnerships.Plain Language SummaryRisk communication on vaccines during the COVID19 pandemic: is there room for small size or private initiatives' An Israeli experienceBackground: The scientific communication landscape has undergone a significant disruption since the COVID-19 pandemic: a huge number of publications, ample use of preprint publications, a fast-spreading digitalized information. This reflected the unprecedented speed of the research on disease and vaccines. Two kinds of infodemic blew up very soon: a scientific and a tabloid one. With knowledge evolving continuously, governments and institutions deployed their communication campaigns very quickly to explain the different measures, including the vaccination strategies and to fight against infodemics.An Israelian initiative: method: The need for a more focused population, the French-speaking community, arose spontaneously in Israel, leading to the creation of a Vaccine Task Force, independent, multidisciplinary, and composed of 20 high-level volunteers, physicians, pharmacists, and scientists, which provides science-based information, open and free, to healthcare professionals and the public, both most in demand, and then the experts’ meetings in Israel and abroad.Results: Current resources: More than 40 webinars, recorded, questions and answers, press and scientific literature review, and hotline, through the website, social media, and audio-visual media. In French, English, and Hebrew. The team undertook to explain the role of Israel in vaccine rollout and real-world data provision to the international community, both in Israel and abroad. Performance indicators are as follow: attendees number (~3000), website frequentation (7200 +) social media followers.In conclusion: This information campaign requires no budget; relies on volunteers who expressed their willingness to contribute to the global effort, as seen all over the world; and uses simple, cheap, and ubiquitous IT platforms. The Task Force created ERANIM, the Israel Society for Medication and Vaccines Safety. This scheme could easily apply for minorities or for medium/low-income countries, using the resources available in WHO, Vaccine Safety Net, health agencies, and academies. Key factors are multidisciplinary, influencers belonging to communities, and a network of partnerships.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T12:05:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221112189
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Patients’ views on Self-administration of Medication during
           hospitalisation: a mixed-methods study

    • Authors: Loes Johanna Maria van Herpen-Meeuwissen, Charlotte Linde Bekker, Nicky Cornelissen, Barbara Maat, Hendrikus Antonius Walterus van Onzenoort, Bartholemeus Johannes Fredericus van den Bemt
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Inpatient Self-administration of Medication (SAM) increases patient involvement in medication management and may increase medication safety. Its implementation is impeded. Successful and sustainable implementation of SAM strongly depends on patients’ willingness to participate. This study aimed to identify and quantify patients’ views on SAM, related (dis)advantages and prerequisites, patient’s willingness to engage in SAM schemes, and their preferences in medication management during hospitalisation.Methods:A mixed-methods study was conducted among hospitalised adult patients in four Dutch hospitals during December 2018 and March 2019. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were performed to identify patients’ views on SAM. Interview transcripts were subjected to thematic-content analysis. These outcomes were used to construct a questionnaire about patient’s willingness to engage in SAM schemes, their preferences for inpatient medication management and level of agreement with statements about SAM’s (dis)advantages and prerequisites of SAM. Data were descriptively analysed.Results:Nineteen hospitalised patients [mean (standard deviation; SD) age 61.0 (13.4) years old; 52.6% male] were interviewed. Most patients had a positive view on SAM, but some doubted the necessity to change standard care. Also, patients expressed concerns about medication safety. Prerequisites for SAM implementation were identified. These covered four main themes: information provision, accessible and safe storage, assurance of safety, and clear responsibilities. A total of 234 patients [mean (SD), age 65.3 (13.5) years; 54.7% male] participated in the questionnaire. Although 50.0% of the patients were willing to self-administer medication, patients were ambivalent as only 36.5% preferred SAM over nurse-led administration.Conclusion:The majority of patients were positive about SAM. Although half of the patients were willing to perform SAM, most patients did not prefer SAM over standard care. This ambivalent attitude may be overcome when the stated prerequisites are met and patients experience SAM in clinical practice. Based on patients’ views, it can be concluded that implementation of SAM seems possible.Plain Language SummaryResearch to identify patients’ views on Self-administration of Medication during hospitalisationBackground: Patient involvement is desired by patients. Nevertheless, currently healthcare providers take over patient’s medication management when hospitalised. Capable patients administering their own medication during hospitalisation, known as ‘Self-administration of Medication’ (SAM) is one possible way to increase patient involvement in hospital care and to improve medication safety. Understanding patients’ views on SAM, before its actual practice, could help to successfully implement it. In this research, we aimed to identify and measurepatients’ views on SAM,(dis)advantages of and requirements for SAM stated by patients,patients’ willingness to self-administrate medication,patients’ preferences in medication management during hospitalisation.Methods: Our study consisted of two parts and was conducted among hospitalised adult patients in four Dutch hospitals during December 2018 and March 2019. First, patients were interviewed to identify patients’views on SAM,requirements for SAM.Second, the outcomes of these interviews were used to construct a questionnaire aiming to identify patient’swillingness to self-administrate,preferences for self- or nurse-led medication administration,level of agreement with statements about SAM’s (dis)advantages and requirements.Results: Nineteen hospitalised patients were interviewed. Most patients had a positive view on SAM, some doubted the necessity to change nurse-led medication administration. Patients mentioned many advantages of SAM, such as increased patient empowerment and contribution to sustainability. Some patients had concerns about medication safety, for example, risking omissions or double administrations.In total, 234 patients completed the questionnaire. Half (50%) of the patients were willing to self-administer medication. However, only 37% of patients preferred SAM over nurse-led medication administration which indicates that the majority of patients were hesitant to actually self-administer medication. The most important requirements for SAM by patients were, ‘I want to be informed before my hospitalisation that I have to bring my own medication’ (80% agreed) and ‘Healthcare professionals must assess per patient whether the patient is able to manage and use his or her own medication’ (74% agreed).Conclusion: Most patients mentioned many advantages and had positive views on SAM. Although half of the patients were willing to perform SAM, most patients did not prefer SAM over nurse-led medication administration. This reservation may be overcome when the stated requirements are met and patients experience SAM when admitted to hospital.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221107804
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Could chlorophyllins improve the safety profile of
           beta-d-N4-hydroxycytidine versus N-hydroxycytidine, the active ingredient
           of the SARS-CoV-2 antiviral molnupiravir'

    • Authors: Nicole F. Clark, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson, Kirsten Heimann
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Plain Language SummaryCould natural plant pigment (chlorophyll) derivatives (chlorophyllins) improve the safety of the antiviral Molnupiravir, used to treat COVID-19 disease'Molnupiravir, a specific SARS-CoV-2 antiviral, may cause adverse genetic changes and thereby create potential host cell damage (through genotoxicity and DNA stressors). In our opinion, this side effect of treatment could be reduced if the antiviral was taken as a combined therapy with chlorophyllins. Specifically, we hypothesise that chlorophyllins might improve the overall effectiveness of molnupiravir, typically used to treat patients suffering from COVID-19. Chlorophyllins, antioxidants derived from natural plant chlorophyll, are safe, effective and non-toxic antioxidants that could combat possible genotoxic flow-on effects of molnupiravir. In addition, as they possess antiviral properties, treatment with chlorophyllins may enhance the overall antiviral effect via a mechanism different to molnupiravir.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T11:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221107753
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • The patterns and implications of potentially suboptimal medicine regimens
           among older adults: a narrative review

    • Authors: Georgie B. Lee, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Sarah M. Hosking, Julie A. Pasco, Amy T. Page
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the context of an ageing population, the burden of disease and medicine use is also expected to increase. As such, medicine safety and preventing avoidable medicine-related harm are major public health concerns, requiring further research. Potentially suboptimal medicine regimens is an umbrella term that captures a range of indicators that may increase the risk of medicine-related harm, including polypharmacy, underprescribing and high-risk prescribing, such as prescribing potentially inappropriate medicines. This narrative review aims to provide a background and broad overview of the patterns and implications of potentially suboptimal medicine regimens among older adults. Original research published between 1990 and 2021 was searched for in MEDLINE, using key search terms including polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, potentially inappropriate medication lists, medication errors, drug interactions and drug prescriptions, along with manual checking of reference lists. The review summarizes the prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of polypharmacy, underprescribing and potentially inappropriate medicines. A synthesis of the evidence regarding the longitudinal patterns of polypharmacy is also provided. With an overview of the existing literature, we highlight a number of key gaps in the literature. Directions for future research may include a longitudinal investigation into the risk factors and outcomes of extended polypharmacy, research focusing on the patterns and implications of underprescribing and studies that evaluate the applicability of tools measuring potentially inappropriate medicines to study settings.Plain Language SummaryA review on potentially inappropriate medicine regimensMedicine use in older age is common. Older adults with more than one chronic condition are likely to use multiple medicines to manage their health. However, there are times when taking multiple medicines may be unsafe and the number of medicines, or the combination of medicines used, may increase the risk of poor health outcomes. The term medicine regimens is used to describe all the medicines an individual takes. There are several ways to measure when a medicine regimen may be inappropriate and, therefore, potentially harmful. Much research has been published looking into potentially inappropriate medicine regimens. To bring together the current research, this review provides a background on the different measures of potentially inappropriate medicine regimens. It also summarizes how many people may experience potentially inappropriate medicine regimens, the impact it is having on their health and who may be at greater risk. In doing so, we found a number of gaps in the existing evidence, indicating that our understanding of potentially inappropriate medicine regimens is incomplete. This review highlights gaps in knowledge that can be addressed by future research. With an improved understanding of potentially inappropriate medicine regimens, we may be able to better identify those at greater risk to prevent or minimize the impact of poorer health outcomes related to unsafe medicine use.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T11:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221100117
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Polypharmacy and potential drug–drug interactions among
           Greenland’s care home residents

    • Authors: Nadja Albertsen, Tine Gjedde Sommer, Thomas Mikkel Olsen, Anna Prischl, Hans Kallerup, Stig Andersen
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:As lifetime expectancy in Greenland is steadily increasing, so is the proportion of elderly Greenlanders. Old age is associated with polypharmacy, and in this study, we aim to describe the prevalence and characteristics of polypharmacy among the care home residents in Greenland.Methods:Eight care homes in Greenland were visited between 2010 and 2016. Questionnaires including information on prescribed medication and comorbidities were collected and analyzed. Drugs were categorized according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) category, and potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs) were assessed using the Danish Interaction Database. Polypharmacy was defined as five or more prescribed drugs.Results:All 244 eligible residents were included in the study. The median number of prescribed drugs per resident was six, and women were prescribed more drugs than men (median six versus five). More than 60% of all residents fulfilled the criteria for polypharmacy. The residents in the polypharmacy group had a higher body mass index (26.9 versus 24.3) and more chronic diseases (median two versus one), and more often pulmonary (14% versus 1%) or endocrine disease (22% versus 2%) than in the non-polypharmacy group. The most prescribed drugs belonged to ATC category N (nervous system, 78% of the residents). Finally, pDDIs were found among 61% of the residents and were more common in the capital (77%), which also had the highest proportion of residents with polypharmacy (77%).Conclusion:This is the first study to describe the patterns of polypharmacy and pDDIs among the elderly in care homes in Greenland. Our findings indicate that polypharmacy is as common in Greenland as elsewhere in the Western world, but there are local differences in the prevalence.Plain Language SummaryPolypharmacy among the elderly in care homes in GreenlandThe lifetime expectancy of the Greenlandic population is increasing, and so is the number of elderly Greenlanders. Previous studies have shown that the elderly have a higher risk of being treated with five drugs or more which is called polypharmacy. Polypharmacy can cause unwanted interactions and side effects. In this study, we examine the characteristics of the residents in Greenlandic care homes belonging to this group.Using questionnaires, we gathered information from 244 residents from care homes in eight different towns and settlements in Greenland. Data included types of medication prescribed to the resident, age, gender, cause of stay, and medical history, which allowed us to compare the results between genders and towns.We found that among 244 residents, more than half of all residents were prescribed five or more different drugs, and women were generally prescribed more drugs than men. Those prescribed five or more drugs had a higher body mass index and more diseases than those prescribed fewer drugs. We also found that certain types of medication, mainly painkillers, were the most prescribed. Finally, residents in the care home in Greenland’s capital Nuuk were more often prescribed five or more drugs than elsewhere in Greenland, indicating local differences in Greenland.Our results give an essential insight into the health and medication of the most fragile elderly in Greenland. Polypharmacy seems to be as common here as elsewhere in the Western world and is a point of focus.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T06:03:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221103918
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Prescription for COVID-19 by non-medical professionals during the pandemic
           in Colombia: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Maria Jose Nino-Orrego, Daniela Baracaldo-Santamaría, Claudia Patricia Ortiz, Heyde Patricia Zuluaga, Sthefany Alejandra Cruz-Becerra, Franklin Soler, Andrés M. Pérez-Acosta, Daniel Ricardo Delgado, Carlos-Alberto Calderon-Ospina
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in the behavior of self-medication (SM). Given the massive release of misleading information during the pandemic, some pharmacies recommend drugs such as ivermectin, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine that are not useful for preventing or treating COVID-19 and could expose patients to unnecessary adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug-drug interactions (DDIs), disease masking, and antibiotic resistance.Rationale:SM with drugs advertised for COVID-19 can have consequences, and people should be aware of approved uses, potential contraindications, and ADRs. Thus, the aim of this study was to know the drug therapies including natural products and homeopathic drugs offered by Colombian pharmaceutical establishments for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, as well as the information provided on the safe use of the product.Methods:An observational, cross-sectional mystery shopping study was carried out to determine the pharmaceutical alternatives for the management of COVID-19 offered by pharmaceutical establishments (drugstores, pharmacies, homeopathic pharmacies, and nutritional supplements stores) in Colombia, and information related to the safe use of the product. The study included 482 pharmaceutical establishments from 16 Colombian departments. Data collection was done through telephone calls to each of the establishments following an interview protocol pretending to be a patient who presents symptoms related to COVID-19.Results:About 57.3% (276) of the establishments recommended a product for the treatment of COVID-19 infection, 66.6% (321) asked whether the caller had COVID-19 symptoms and what they are, and 44.2% (213) suggested taking a COVID-19 test. Of 59 drugs suggested by pharmacies, the most recommended were azithromycin, ivermectin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and ASA (aspirin). From the establishments that recommended a product, dosage was indicated in 85.5% (236) of the pharmaceutical establishments and 14.5% (40) of the establishments reported the most common adverse effects of this substance. About 9.4% (26) of the establishments reported possible interactions of the recommended drugs and substances with food, beverages, or supplements.Conclusion: Pharmaceutical establishments in Colombia seem to have significantly contributed to self-medication for COVID-19 in Colombia during the pandemic. This behavior is inappropriate, since the mild forms of the disease do not have a specific treatment.Plain Language SummarySelf-medication induced by pharmaceutical establishments in Colombia during the COVID-19 pandemicBackground: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in the behavior of self-medication (SM). Given the massive release of misleading information during the pandemic, some pharmacies recommend drugs such as ivermectin, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine among others, which are not useful for preventing or treating COVID-19 and could expose patients to unnecessary side effects and interactions with other medications. People should be aware of the approved and non-approved uses, and potential side effects of these drugs. Rationale: The aim of this study was to know the drugs, including natural products and homeopathic drugs, offered by Colombian pharmaceutical establishments for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, as well as the information provided on the safe use of the product. Methods: The study was done using the mystery shopping method, collecting data through telephone calls to each of the establishments by a trained individual pretending to be a patient with COVID-19 symptoms. The study included 482 pharmaceutical establishments from 16 Colombian departments. Results: Of 59 drugs suggested by pharmacies, the most recommended were azithromycin, ivermectin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin. The recommended dose was indicated in 85.5% (236) of the pharmaceutical establishments, and 14.5% (40) of them reported the most common adverse effects of the recommended product. About 9.4% (26) of the establishments reported possible interactions of the recommended drugs and substances with food, beverages, or supplements. Conclusion: The majority of the pharmaceutical establishments included in the study promoted inadequate self-medication for COVID-19 in Colombia during the pandemic.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T06:40:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221101964
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of drug-induced hand–foot syndrome using a spontaneous
           reporting system database

    • Authors: Yu Yoshida, Sayaka Sasaoka, Mizuki Tanaka, Kiyoka Matsumoto, Misaki Inoue, Riko Satake, Kazuyo Shimada, Ririka Mukai, Takaaki Suzuki, Mari Iwata, Fumiya Goto, Takayuki Mori, Koki Mori, Tomoaki Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Purpose:The aim of our study was to assess the clinical features of hand–foot syndrome (HFS) associated with certain systemic chemotherapeutic drugs in a real-world setting using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database.Methods:HFS was defined using the preferred terms from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. We used several indices, such as the reporting odds ratios (RORs) at 95% confidence interval (CI), the time-to-onset profile of HFS, and cluster analysis.Results:Of 646,779 reports (submission period: April 2004 to September 2020), 1814 reported HFS events. The RORs (95% CI) for axitinib, capecitabine, lapatinib, regorafenib, sorafenib, and sunitinib were 14.9 (11.1–20.1), 54.6 (49.2–60.6), 130.4 (110.7–153.6), 63.3 (55.2–72.6), 29.0 (25.8–32.7), and 13.9 (11.7–16.5), respectively. The analysis of time-to-onset profiles revealed that the median values (interquartile range: 25.0–75.0%) of drug-induced HFS caused by capecitabine, cisplatin, docetaxel, everolimus, regorafenib, sorafenib, and trastuzumab were 21.0 (13.0–42.0), 15.0 (10.0–82.0), 6.0 (3.0–25.0), 86.5 (67.0–90.5), 9.0 (6.0–14.0), 9.0 (6.0–14.0), and 70.0 (15.0–189.0) days, respectively. The number of clusters was set to 4. Among these, one cluster, which included capecitabine, regorafenib, and lapatinib, exhibited a higher reporting ratio and ROR of drug-induced HFS than other drugs.Conclusions:The RORs and results of time-to-onset analysis obtained in this study indicated the potential risk of HFS associated with chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results suggest that health care professionals must be aware of the potential onset of drug-induced HFS with docetaxel, regorafenib, and sorafenib for at least 4 weeks; therefore, careful observation is recommended.Plain Language SummaryElucidation of the relationship between cancer drugs and risk of hand–foot syndromePurpose: Hand–foot syndrome (HFS) is an adverse effect of some cancer drugs, which is characterized by symptoms such as redness, swelling, blistering, and pain in the area of palms and soles. HFS reduces the quality of life of patients and can sometimes interfere with anticancer treatment plans. It is important to understand the clinical manifestations of HFS and gain knowledge that will allow for early intervention by clinicians.Methods: In this study, we used a large-scale side effect database of real-world cases for a comprehensive investigation of anticancer-drug-induced HFS. The database contained 646,779 adverse event reports from April 2004 to September 2020; among which, we identified 1814 HFS events. Using these data, we could obtain information on the relationship between 19 types of anticancer drugs and HFS, and the onset time of HFS and HFS prognosis related to each anticancer drug. Results: Our results suggest that clinicians should monitor the risk of HFS with docetaxel, regorafenib, and sorafenib for at least the first 4 weeks after drug administration. Conclusion: These findings are crucial for improving the management of the adverse effects caused by anticancer drugs.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T06:37:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221101963
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • A case report of drug-induced liver injury due to the infliximab
           biosimilar CT-P13 on switching from original infliximab in a patient with
           Crohn’s disease

    • Authors: Shin Kashima, Koji Sawada, Kentaro Moriichi, Mikihiro Fujiya
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic immune disorders of unclear etiology. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are effective for IBD treatment and are cost-effective because they reduce hospital admissions and are associated with fewer surgery requirements and a better quality of life in IBD patients. A large number of clinical trials of infliximab biosimilar (CT-P13) have suggested that the administration of biosimilars provides high efficacy and safety similar to that of the originators, with a lower cost, so switching from the original to a biosimilar is considered an acceptable treatment. While several abnormalities of blood examination have been observed in patients with CT-P13 administration, no cases of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by CT-P13 has been reported. A 23-year-old woman had been diagnosed with Crohn’s disease and was treated with original infliximab (O-IFX) for 9 years. She developed severe jaundice 1 month after switching from O-IFX to CT-P13. Serologic tests of autoimmune and hepatitis viruses were negative, and ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed no abnormalities. A liver biopsy showed prominent pericentral canalicular cholestasis, without features of steatosis or sclerosing cholangitis, which was consistent with drug-induced cholestasis. The cholestasis improved 10 weeks after the discontinuation of CT-P13, and no DILI redeveloped even after re-switching from CT-P13 to O-IFX. This is the first report of DILI due to switching from O-IFX to CT-P13. While the efficacy and safety of CT-P13 are considered equal to those of O-IFX, clinicians need to be alert for certain severe DILIs when switching from O-IFX to CT-P13 with careful monitoring and appropriate treatment.Plain Language SummaryA case report of drug-induced liver injury due to switch from original infliximab to infliximab biosimilarInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the entire gastrointestinal tract, although its etiology has largely been unclear. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are effective for IBD treatment and are cost-effective because they reduce hospital admissions and are associated with fewer surgery requirements and a better quality of life in IBD patients. A biological medicinal product that contains a version of the active substance of an already authorized biological medicinal product. Biosimilars of TNF inhibitors, such as CT-P13, are thought to possess equal efficacy and safety to the original with a lower cost, so switching from the original to a biosimilar considered an acceptable treatment. While several serious adverse reactions of TNF inhibitors have been reported, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is uncommon, and liver dysfunction due to the administration of CT-P13 has not been reported in IBD patients. We herein report the first case of DILI due to CT-P13 after switching from original infliximab (O-IFX) in a patient with Crohn’s disease. While the efficacy and safety of CT-P13 are considered equal to those of O-IFX, clinicians need to be alert for certain severe DILIs when switching from O-IFX to CT-P13 with careful monitoring and appropriate treatment.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T06:33:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221100118
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Trends in potentially inappropriate opioid prescribing and associated risk
           factors among Korean noncancer patients prescribed non-injectable opioid
           analgesics

    • Authors: Yoojin Noh, Kyu-Nam Heo, Yun Mi Yu, Ju-Yeun Lee, Young-Mi Ah
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Introduction:The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the prevalence of potentially inappropriate opioid prescribing (PIOP) and identify potential risk factors among Korean noncancer patients.Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional study of annual national patient sample data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA-NPS) for the period 2012–2018. Noncancer patients who were prescribed non-injectable opioid analgesics (NIOAs) at least once were included. The proportion of patients with at least one PIOP in terms of concurrent use of benzodiazepines or gabapentinoids, substance use disorder, treatment duration, and dosage was evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors associated with PIOP.Results:Of the 9,772,503 noncancer patients, 1,583,444 (16.2%) were prescribed NIOAs at least once. Among them, 15.7% were exposed to PIOP, and the prevalence was much higher (31.6%) in the elderly group (age: ⩾65 years). The prevalence of PIOP increased 1.1-fold over 7 years (14.8–16.8%) among the total NIOA users and was more pronounced in non-tramadol NIOA users (a 1.5-fold increase, from 13.2% to 19.4%). Multivariable logistic regression indicated that older age, beneficiaries of medical aid or national meritorious service, exposure to polypharmacy, psychological disorder, chronic pain indication, and concomitant sedative use were independently associated with higher odds of PIOP.Discussion and Conclusion:We found that the prevalence of PIOP was 15.7% among Korean noncancer patients, and it increased over the 7-year study period. This increasing trend is alarming because it was more drastic with non-tramadol NIOAs compared with that with tramadol. Several patient-level risk factors associated with PIOP would be useful in targeted management strategies for the safe use of opioids.Plain Language SummaryPotentially inappropriate opioid prescribing and related risk factors among noncancer patients prescribed non-injectable opioids in KoreaIn Korea, the prevalence of non-injectable opioid analgesic (NIOA) use in noncancer patients steadily increased from 15.3% in 2012 to 17.1% in 2018.Also, the prevalence of potentially inappropriate opioid prescribing (PIOP) increased from 14.8% in 2012 to 16.8% in 2018.The following factors were associated with a markedly increased risk of PIOP: age, beneficiaries of medical aid or national meritorious service, polypharmacy, psychological disorder, chronic pain, and concomitant medications.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T12:44:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221091001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Drug safety of frequently used drugs and substances for self-medication in
           COVID-19

    • Authors: Daniela Baracaldo-Santamaría, Santiago Pabón-Londoño, Luis Carlos Rojas-Rodriguez
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, the behavior of self-medication has increased. The dissemination of misleading information regarding the efficacy of certain drugs or substances for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has been the major contributing factor for this phenomenon. Alongside with the increase in self-medication behavior, the inherent risks to this act such as drug–drug interactions, adverse events, drug toxicity, and masking of symptoms have also increased. Self-medication in the context of COVID-19 has led to drug misuse leading in some cases to the development of fatal adverse drug reactions. It is important that during this ongoing pandemic drugs with potential clinical efficacy against COVID-19 are adequately analyzed regarding their efficacy, safety, and monitoring. The aim of this review is to describe the available evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and monitoring of the drugs and substances that have been shown to be frequently used for self-medication in patients with COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ivermectin, azithromycin, vitamins, aspirin, and chlorine dioxide) to adequately characterize their risks, safe use, monitoring strategies, and to reinforce the concept that these substances should not be used for self-medication and require a medical prescription.Plain Language SummaryDrug safety of frequently used drugs and substances for self-medication in COVID-19Dissemination of information about potential COVID-19 treatments has led individuals to self-medicate and expose themselves to risks such as drug–drug interactions, side effects, antibiotic resistance, and misdiagnosis. There is a need to review the medical literature to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drugs and substances commonly used by the population for the treatment and prevention of SARS CoV-2 infection. In this review, we included drugs that are frequently used for self-medication and commonly advertised such as ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine, chlorine dioxide, azithromycin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, among others. A brief introduction of the drug and its mechanism of action, followed by a summary of the efficacy in COVID-19 and safety, will be described for each drug in order to promote their responsible use.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T12:14:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221094141
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • The response to the COVID-19 pandemic trusted in pharmacovigilance to
           diminish communication risk

    • Authors: Gustavo A. Quintero
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T09:54:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221088650
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed prenatally to
           levetiracetam

    • Authors: Bshra A. Alsfouk
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Some old antiseizure medications (ASMs) pose teratogenic risks, including major congenital malformations and neurodevelopmental delay. Therefore, the use of new ASMs in pregnancy is increasing, particularly lamotrigine and levetiracetam. This is likely due to evidence of low risk of anatomical teratogenicity for both lamotrigine and levetiracetam. Regarding neurodevelopmental effects, lamotrigine is the most frequently investigated new ASM with information available for children up to 14 years of age. However, fewer data are available for the effects of levetiracetam on cognitive and behavioral development, with smaller cohorts and shorter follow-up. The aim of the present review was to explicate neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed prenatally to levetiracetam to support clinical decision-making. The available data do not indicate an increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed prenatally to levetiracetam. Findings demonstrated comparable outcomes for levetiracetam versus controls and favorable outcomes for levetiracetam versus valproate on global and specific cognitive abilities, and behavioral problems. In addition, the available evidence shows no significant dose-effect association for levetiracetam on neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, this evidence cannot be determined definitively due to the limited numbers of exposures with relatively short follow-up. Therefore, further research is required.Plain Language SummaryAntiseizure medications (ASMs) are medicines that inhibit the occurrence of seizures. Levetiracetam is a new ASM. Some old ASMs are linked with an increased risk of physical birth abnormalities and adverse effects on the child’s brain development. Therefore, the use of new ASMs in pregnancy is increasing, especially lamotrigine and levetiracetam. This is likely due to evidence of low risk of birth abnormalities for both lamotrigine and levetiracetam. Regarding effects on development of the brain, lamotrigine is the most frequently examined new ASM with information available for children up to 14 years of age. However, fewer data are available for the effects of levetiracetam on cognitive and behavioral development. Also, levetiracetam studies were smaller and shorter compared with studies investigating lamotrigine effects. The aim of this article was to review the child’s brain development effects after exposure to levetiracetam during pregnancy. The available data do not suggest an increased risk of the child having learning or thinking difficulties. Findings demonstrated comparable outcomes for levetiracetam versus controls (i.e. children unexposed to levetiracetam), and favorable outcomes for levetiracetam versus valproate. In addition, the available evidence shows no link between the higher dose of levetiracetam and an increased risk of adverse effects on the child’s brain development. However, this evidence cannot be determined definitively due to the limited numbers of children exposed to levetiracetam with relatively short duration of follow-up. Therefore, further research is required.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T09:53:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221088419
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Corrigendum

    • Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T12:03:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221090074
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Alkalising agents in urinary tract infections: theoretical
           contraindications, interactions and synergy

    • Authors: Oisín N. Kavanagh
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Introduction:Alkalising agents have the potential to enhance the efficacy of many antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections; they also have the potential to cause significant patient harm if used incorrectly. This work seeks to illustrate and quantify these risks and synergies by modelling drug solubility and supersaturation against pharmacokinetic data for commonly used antibiotic agents.Methods:Solubility-pH relationships are employed to quantify the crystalluria risk for compounds which may be reasonably expected to be co-prescribed—or co-administered—with urinary alkalisers (amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin). These results are correlated against reports of crystalluria in the literature and in the EU Adverse Drug Reaction database.Results and Discussion:We find a correlation between the maximum theoretical supersaturation attainable and crystalluria reports for sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin. Shifts in urine pH which can be induced by alkalising agents may produce supersaturated states (and thus induce crystalluria) and may also affect antimicrobial efficacy. The importance of employing biorelevant media to improve predictive capacity of this analysis is also discussed.Conclusion:Despite their widespread use, alkalising agents have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of the most common drugs used to treat UTIs. With self-care set to increase, all OTC products should be critically re-evaluated to ensure patient safety, particularly within contexts where healthcare professionals are not involved in treatment selection. This analysis suggests a need for consistency across patient and healthcare professional documents to improve clarity.Plain Language SummaryOTC Alkalising agents need additional warning informationAlkalising agents (e.g., sodium and potassium citrate) can be purchased in many locations without the supervision of a healthcare professional.Although they are thought as innocuous agents, alkalisers can greatly influence the way some antibiotics behave in the body and this can potentially cause patient harm.This work illustrates these risks and synergies by modelling drug solubility and supersaturation against pharmacokinetic data for commonly used antibiotic agents.Manufacturers and patients should be aware that the use of alkalising agents with these drugs (and potentially many others) may cause unintended consequences.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T12:53:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221080794
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Ten-year trends in adverse drug reaction–related hospitalizations
           among people with dementia

    • Authors: Anum Saqib Zaidi, Gregory M. Peterson, Luke R.E. Bereznicki, Colin M. Curtain, Mohammed S. Salahudeen
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Aim:Trends in the incidence of adverse drug reaction (ADR)–related hospitalizations have been studied in the general population, but not specifically in people with dementia. This study aimed to investigate trends in the incidence of ADR-related hospitalizations among people with dementia, and identify the most commonly implicated drugs and diagnoses in these admissions.Methods:This study utilized the administrative data of all adults admitted to the four major public hospitals of Tasmania, Australia, with a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia from July 2010 to December 2019. ADR-related hospitalizations were identified by using diagnosis-based and external cause codes. The Cochran–Armitage test was used to examine trends in the incidence of ADR-related hospitalizations.Results:Of the 7552 people with dementia admitted to the hospital at least once within the study period, 1775 (23.5%) experienced at least one ADR-related hospitalization. The estimated annual incidence of ADR-related hospitalizations increased 18% (1484–1760 per 100,000 population with dementia, p for trend
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T12:02:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221080796
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Self-medication and the ‘infodemic’ during mandatory preventive
           isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Andrés Gaviria-Mendoza, Danny Alberto Mejía-Mazo, Carolina Duarte-Blandón, Juan Daniel Castrillón-Spitia, Manuel Enrique Machado-Duque, Luis Fernando Valladales-Restrepo, Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Aim:Quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic altered the supply and demand of health services. This, together with the ‘infodemic’ and generalized panic, could alter the patterns of self-medication in the population. The objective was to characterize the patterns of self-medication in four cities of Colombia during mandatory preventive isolation in 2020.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study done in four Colombian cities during mandatory national preventive isolation between June and September 2020. A sample of 397 adults who responded to an online survey, based on the Instrument for Systematic Data Collection for Self-medication (Instrumento de Recolección Sistemática de Datos para la Automedicación–IRIS-AM), was obtained. The use of social networks (including WhatsApp) as the source of information about medications was explored.Results:The 397 people surveyed had a median age of 31.0 years, and 58.2% were women. The prevalence of self-medication during lockdown was 34.3% (n = 136). Medications targeting the nervous system (n = 117; 86.0% of those participants with self-medication) and the musculoskeletal system (n = 68; 50.0%) were the most commonly used. Ten (7.4%) of the self-medicated patients reported doing so to prevent COVID-19, and 15 (11.0%) named social networks as the source of information.Conclusion:More than one-third of the participants reported self-medication during COVID-19 lockdown, mainly with analgesic-type nervous system medications. People who reported self-medication to prevent COVID-19 often got their information from social networks, the Internet, and WhatsApp.Plain Language SummarySelf-medication during mandatory COVID-19 isolationIntroduction: Self-medication refers to the use of medications to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, and it can lead to health problems. This habit is widely practiced by the people, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective was to characterize the patterns of self-medication in four cities of Colombia during mandatory preventive isolation in 2020 due the quarantine by COVID-19 explored pandemic. Methods: We made a cross-sectional study between June and September 2020, and a sample of 397 adults who responded to an online survey. The use of social networks (including WhatsApp) as the source of information about medications was explored. Results: The prevalence of self-medication during lockdown was 34.3% (n = 136). Medications targeting the nervous system (n = 117; 86.0% of those participants with self-medication) and the musculoskeletal system (strategies n = 68; 50.0%) were the most commonly used. Conclusion: People who reported self-medication to prevent COVID-19 often got their information from social networks, the Internet, and WhatsApp. These findings raise the possibility of designing pedagogical strategies on this topic.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T06:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986221072376
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Use of an electronic medication management support system in patients with
           polypharmacy in general practice: study protocol of a quantitative process
           evaluation of the AdAM trial

    • Authors: Robin Brünn, Dorothea Lemke, Kiran Chapidi, Juliane Köberlein-Neu, Alexandra Piotrowski, Sara Söling, Wolfgang Greiner, Petra Kellermann-Mühlhoff, Nina Timmesfeld, Marjan van den Akker, Christiane Muth
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Interventional studies on polypharmacy often fail to significantly improve patient-relevant outcomes, or confine themselves to measuring surrogate parameters. Interventions and settings are complex, with many factors affecting results. The AdAM study’s aim is to reduce hospitalization and death by requiring general practitioners (GPs) to use a computerized decision-support system (CDSS). The study will undergo a process evaluation to identify factors for successful implementation and to assess whether the intervention was implemented as intended.Objective:To evaluate our complex intervention, based on the Medical Research Council’s guideline dimensions.Research Questions:We will assess implementation (reach, fidelity, dose, tailoring) by asking: (1) Who took part in the intervention (proportion of GPs using the CDSS, proportion of patients enrolled in them)' Information on GPs’ and patients’ characteristics will also be collected. (2) How many and which medication alerts were dealt with' (3) Was the intervention implemented as intended' (4) On what days did GPs use the intervention tool'Methods:The process evaluation is part of a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Characteristics of practices, GPs and patients using the CDSS will be compared with the non-participating population. CDSS log data will be analyzed to evaluate how the number of medication alerts changed between baseline and 2 months later, and to identify the kind of alerts that were dealt with. Comparison of enrolled patients on weekdays versus weekends will shed light on GPs’ use of the CDSS in the absence or presence of patients. Outcomes will be presented using descriptive statistics, and significance tests will be used to identify associations between them. We will conduct subgroup analyses, including time effects to account for software improvements.Discussion:This study protocol is the basis for conducting analyses of the quantitative process evaluation. By providing insight into how GPs conduct medication reviews, the evaluation will provide context to the trial results and support their interpretation. The evaluation relies on the proper documentation by GPs, potentially limiting its explanatory power.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T10:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986211073215
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • Safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in older adults with type 2
           diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled
           trials

    • Authors: Katharina Doni, Stefanie Bühn, Alina Weise, Nina-Kristin Mann, Simone Hess, Andreas Sönnichsen, Dawid Pieper, Petra Thürmann, Tim Mathes
      Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Registration:PROSPERO: CRD42020210645Introduction:We aimed to assess the safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in older patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycaemic control.Methods:We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in older (⩾65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes. The intervention group was randomized to treatment with any DPP-4 inhibitors. A systematic search in MEDLINE and Embase was performed in December 2020. For assessing the risk of bias, RoB 2 tool was applied. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We pooled outcomes using random effects meta-analyses.Results:We identified 16 RCTs that included 19,317 patients with a mean age of greater than 70 years. The mean HbA1c level ranged between 7.1 and 10.0 g/dl. Adding DPP-4 inhibitors to standard care alone may increase mortality slightly [risk ratio (RR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89–1.21]. Adding DPP-4 inhibitors to standard care increases the risk for hypoglycaemia (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01–1.16), but difference in overall adverse events is negligible. DPP-4 inhibitors added to standard care may reduce mortality compared with sulfonylureas (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.75–1.04). DPP-4 inhibitors probably reduce the risk for hypoglycaemia compared with sulfonylureas (magnitude of effect not quantifiable because of heterogeneity) but difference in overall adverse events is negligible. There is insufficient evidence on hospitalizations, falls, fractures, renal impairment and pancreatitis.Conclusion:There is no evidence that DPP-4 inhibitors in addition to standard care decrease mortality but DPP-4 inhibitors increase hypoglycaemia risk. Second-line therapy in older patients should be considered cautiously even in drugs with a good safety profile such as DPP-4 inhibitors. In case second-line treatment is necessary, DPP-4 inhibitors appear to be preferable to sulfonylureas.Plain language summarySafety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in older adults with type 2 diabetesIntroduction:We performed the review to assess the safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in older type 2 diabetes patients with blood sugar outside the normal level.Methods:To answer the question, we searched various electronic databases. We included studies in older (⩾65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes that assessed the safety of DPP-4 inhibitors. The data from the different studies were quantitatively summarized using statistical methods. We assessed the quality of the data to judge the certainty of the findings.Results:We identified 16 studies that included 19,317 patients with a mean age greater than 70 years. The average blood sugar level of patients in the included studies was slightly or moderately increased. Adding DPP-4 inhibitors to standard care alone may increase mortality slightly. Adding DPP-4 inhibitors to standard care increases the risk for hypoglycaemia, but difference in overall adverse events is negligible. DPP-4 inhibitors added to standard care may reduce mortality compared with sulfonylureas. DPP-4s probably reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia compared with sulfonylureas (magnitude of effect not quantifiable because of heterogeneity) but difference in overall adverse events is negligible. There is insufficient evidence on hospitalizations, falls, fractures, renal impairment and pancreatitis.Conclusion:There is no evidence that DPP-4 inhibitors in addition to standard care decrease mortality but DPP-4 inhibitors increase the risk that blood sugar falls below normal. Adding DPP-4 inhibitorss to standard care in older patients should be considered cautiously even in drugs with a good safety profile such as DPP-4 inhibitors. In case additional treatment is necessary, DPP-4 inhibitors appear to be preferable to sulfonylureas.
      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T08:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986211072383
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
  • The 5th European pharmacovigilance congress: speaker abstracts

    • Abstract: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T12:05:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20420986211068914
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2022)
       
 
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