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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 311)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2230-973X - ISSN (Online) 2230-9713
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [448 journals]
  • An Extensive Review on Hydrogels in Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery
           Applications

    • Authors: Subashini Rajaram, Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Vignesh Natarajan, Kaveena Ravi, Nivetha Shanmugam
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: In recent years pharmaceutical companies are directing towards designing new pharmaceutical dosage forms of existing medications. Recent breakthroughs have been the inclusion of pharmaco-therapeutic characteristics of drug substances. Hydrogels have grown in popularity as a result of their distinct characteristics, such as structures and properties, and have demonstrated a great potential for medicinal, therapeutic, and diagnostic applications. They are semisolid gel-like preparation constitute with two or multi component system consisting of a three-dimensional network structures and hydrogels have unique property able to pick up copious amounts of water or biological fluid. Hydrogels are classified as soft materials by material scientist being prepared from natural materials such as polysaccharides and polypeptides, along with different types of synthetic hydrogels. They offer a wide range of biomedical uses due to their resemblance to biological tissue. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as their regulated release profile, hydrogels can be employed as a drug delivery vehicle. It has been used in many branches of medicine, including cardiology, oncology, immunology, wound healing and pain management. Other than as drug delivery system currently hydrogels are used for manufacturing contact lenses, hygiene products and tissue engineering scaffolds. It reviews various hydrogel drug delivery like oral, ocular, topical, transdermal, subcutaneous, orthotopic, rectal and intraperitonial. The principles of hydrogels, as well as current breakthroughs in the design, synthesis, functionalisation, and application of hydrogels in pharmaceutical drug delivery systems, were covered in this review. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the subject as well as a prognosis of future trends to the reader.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Plumbago indica L.: An
           Overview

    • Authors: Bhatia Hemant, Kumar Dinesh, Ahuja Dharmendra
      Pages: 113 - 116
      Abstract: Plumbago indica L. is a remedial herb species in the genus of Plumbago described by Linnaeus of the species of Plantarum, extensively in the hot and humid areas to use in the conventional structure of herbs. The distinct division of that plant is used to heal rheumatism, menstrual irregularities, tumors, leprotic infections, acquired immune disease, numbness, immobility, swollen glands, eczema, conjunctivitis, flatulence, extravagated, piles, anorexia, etc. The plant contains a variety of Phytoconstituents including sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, and gums. Numerous categories of research were supported out in distinct kingdoms on the pharmacology of that remedial herb. Methodologically and biologically demonstrate data were concluded on that paper to clear the way for well-founded convenience detailed sources and invigorate further research.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Biological Potentials of Dibenzopyrrole Scaffolds: A Review

    • Authors: Purushotham K N, TY Pasha, B Ramesh
      Pages: 117 - 122
      Abstract: Numerous bioactive heterocyclic products containing carbazole nucleus showed pharmacological and biological significance. Carbazole have been found in several of significant drug like fragments which provided a precious indication for action and in emerging new valuable derivatives. Carbazole possess several biological activities, i.e., action against viral infection, inflammation, cancer, HIV, microbial infection, tubercular infection, diabetes mellitus, malarial parasite infection, cholinesterase related disorders, etc. which made attention among research scholars to produce variety of carbazole molecules. This review revealed that carbazole molecules have different pharmacological actions and have a vast possible to be discovered for therapeutic potentials.
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Novel Strategies in the Treatment of Acne: A Review

    • Authors: Sujata Sharma, Shweta Vashist, Avneet Kaur Lamba, Saahil Arora, Sucheta S
      Pages: 123 - 128
      Abstract: Skin break out and eruptions is a typical incendiary issue among people of all age groups, but most common in adolescents. Skin break out development is reliant upon mechanisms, including follicular hyper keratinization, excess sebum secretion, colonization of pathogenic bacteria like Propionibacterium acnes and an incendiary course. Treatment strategies predominantly include the use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of acne is associated with certain side effects like imbalance of skin and gut microbiome and multidrug resistance. This article explains the use of probiotics as a promising tool for the treatment of acne rather than antibiotics. Likewise talk about the favorable conditions and extra advantages offered by probiotics for stability enhancement of topical formulations. This review focuses on the use of bacteriocins in antiacne formulations, use of natural surfactant having additional antiacne properties and bacteriocins having anti-microbial and preservative action. Recent advancements in this field along with the patents are also enlisted
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The Structure and Mechanism of Spike Protein, as Well as its Role in
           Numerous Viral Diseases

    • Authors: Pranay Wal, Ankita Wal, Himangi Vig, Ashish Srivastava, Avnesh Kumar
      Pages: 129 - 135
      Abstract: A spike protein is a protein that builds a huge spike that ejects from an enveloped virus’s membrane. The spike protein is the only virus membrane protein that enables the virus to penetrate through the cell. Spike Protein has three potential methods of action. Most common viral illnesses have relatively similar virus structures, which are predominantly made up of dimers or trimers of the spike glycoprotein, as well as analogous mechanisms of host cell invasion. The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure of the spike protein and its cell invasion method. The prevalence of spike protein in distinct viruses, as well as their similar invasion mechanisms, are also highlighted in the paper. We observed that many infectious viruses have very identical structures, predominantly constituted of spike glycoprotein, as well as similar processes of invasion into host cells. There are diverse sorts of pathogenesis that have been identified, especially those relating to host cell contamination and the means wherein the infection spreads and produces disease. The Spike protein must be operational for the virus to penetrate the host organism, and variations in the protein’s activation techniques are thought to have an influence in viral pathogenesis. Vaccines struggle to prevent the transmission of all virus variants due to variances in the spike protein in different viral versions, as well as modifications in them. More research into the structure of spike glycoproteins, as well as the creation of more effective vaccines to inhibit spike protein invasion and infection, are required.
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Carbon Dot – An Updated Review

    • Authors: Payel Mukherjee, Arindam Chakraborty, Manas Chakraborty, Goutam Mukhopadhyay
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: These days, carbon dots (CDs) are the rising stars of nanomaterials. Carbon dots (CDs) are small carbon nanoparticles with the same type of surface passivation (less than 10 nm in size). Researchers found C-dots by accident while purifying single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) manufactured using the arc-discharge process. Toxic metal-based quantum dots are being replaced with carbon dots (QDs). Carbon dots are currently being prepared from a variety of natural resources in order to obtain self-passivated products at a reasonable cost. Because of their superior photo physical characteristics, biocompatibility, and low toxicity, carbon dots have prospective applications in bio sensing, bio imaging, and drug administration. Different synthetic processes, precursors, salient properties, and applications were reviewed in this review, as well as some future prospects, obstacles, and possible solutions for future development. Because of their tunable optical characteristics and better biocompatibility, luminous carbon-based nanomaterials have sparked a lot of scientific interest. Different light emission properties of carbon are discussed in this review. Distinct synthesis procedures have resulted in different carbon dots (CDs). Summarized here. The optical properties of CDs that haven’t been synthesized yet surface doping and element doping can be used to further control it. CDs are being functionalized for an adjustable band gap. As a result of their luminescent with reduced cytotoxicity and tunable optical characteristics CDs have been thoroughly investigated in terms of their potential uses in biomedicine, such as analytical sensors, and instruments for bioimaging. Fluorescent carbon dots are a new type of nanomaterial from the carbon family. Green CDs, which have attracted a lot of attention from researchers because of their better water solubility, high biocompatibility, and eco-friendly nature when compared to chemically generated CDs, can be made from a variety of inexpensive and renewable resources. The presence of heteroatoms on the surface of green CDs in the form of amine, hydroxyl, carboxyl, or thiol functional groups, which can improve their physicochemical qualities, quantum yield, and likelihood of visible light absorption, eliminates the need for additional surface passivation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comprehensions keen on the biology of Brain tumors: Possibilities and
           Challenges

    • Authors: Alaa Hamed Habib
      Pages: 141 - 144
      Abstract: The word “tumor” is a Greek term that refers to a swelling or a lump. In modern medical terms, a tumor is usually an abnormal mass of cells and tissues, which grows due to the abnormal division of cells. The unnatural division of cells occurs due to the cancerous nature of these cells, which no longer obey standard checkpoints that prevent healthy or non-cancerous cells from uncontrolled cell divisions. Tumors may be circumscribed or diffuse depending on whether they remain localized to a part of the brain or spread to other parts aggressively by metastasis; in 2016, WHO has classified tumors of the brain or central nervous system by taking into account the latest molecular genetic data along with classic histopathological features characteristic of each kind of tumor. The new classification system makes diagnosis more precise, but a better analysis of prognosis is now possible since genotype is far more determinative and accurate than histological phenotype. Modern technologies like high throughput gene sequencing, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, and personalized medicine approaches have improved the prognosis of brain tumor patients. They have also revolutionized our understanding of the biology of brain tumors and how they are now being treated. In this review, we will discuss the latest knowledge about the biology of brain tumors and how modern technologies are helping to understand the molecular basis of these pathologies and develop better treatment options to improve patient survival.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Nanotechnology-based Therapeutic Strategies for Breast Cancer

    • Authors: Majidah Aljadani
      Pages: 145 - 150
      Abstract: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and is considered a societal burden. The current treatment strategies are limited to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, governed by the tumor’s size, stage, and properties of biomarkers. Nanotechnology can be used as an alternative and focused approach for treating various cancers. It provides a more effective and less toxic treatment regime than other conventional methods. It has gained enormous attention to precisely diagnose and treat cancers. Nanocarriers are ideally engineered to target the cancer cells specifically, thus improving the drug’s efficacy. They can overcome the problems associated with conventional drug delivery, non-specific to cancer cells, and have severe side effects. Since these nanocarriers have higher biocompatibility and therapeutic efficiency, they have shown promising results in cancer therapy. Although several nanocarriers are being developed and validated, only a few have been approved for clinical trials in cancer treatment. This review focuses on nanocarriers used in the drug delivery system and their applications in breast cancer treatment. The conventional biomarkers for early diagnosis of breast cancer and their molecular profiling by nanoparticles are also discussed. This review helps understand the promising use of nanoparticle-based technology in breast cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemical Based Nano Design for Cancer: A Recent Update

    • Authors: Najat Binothman
      Pages: 151 - 159
      Abstract: Despite exponential advancements in medical research, various types of cancer are increasing day by day and becoming a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The worldwide cancer burden has increased to 19.3 million new cases and 10 million cancer deaths in 2020. Changes in food habits, lifestyle, different types of food additives, synthetic chemicals, environmental pollutants, different types of radiation, and limited physical activities have led to a severe increment in this disease. Healthy nutritive foods and phytochemicals play an essential role in supporting the immune system, which is beneficial in combating various types of cancer. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive non-nutrient compounds derived from various plant sources, reducing the risk of major chronic diseases. It can be easily classified and categorized into different groups based on its chemical nature and mode of biological action. These bioactive compounds are effective against various types of cancers. Recently the role of several novel phytochemicals and nanoformulations has been explored and extensively applied in cancer therapeutics. This review provides insight into various traditional phytochemicals and novel nanoformulations used in cancer management.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Spectroscopic Analysis of Lagos spinach- seed (Celosia argentea Linn.)

    • Authors: Falguni Saraswat, Mukeshkumar Nariya, Vinay J Shukla
      Pages: 160 - 164
      Abstract: Background: Celosia argentea Linn. (C. argentea) commonly known as Cock’s Comb. It’s a leading leafy vegetable used for treatment of antiinflammatory, antioxidant and possessing immunostimulating activities. This species contains a surplus of phytochemicals including terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids and tannins. The full complement of bioactive chemicals has yet to be identified, which is a critical step in explaining its medical use. The Celosia genus contains around 30 species, the majority of which have had little phytochemical or pharmacological research done on them. The aim of this study is to get a better chemosemantics of Celosia species, large-scale multi-targeted metabolic profiling and fingerprinting approaches was used. Methods: FTIR, GC-MS and LC-MS spectra of extracted components were analyzed with multivariate data from C. argentea. The crude extract was examined at different wavelengths from 4000 cm-1 and 400 cm-1 by using Shimadzu 8400 Spectrophotometry system and the distinctive peaks were detected. For GC-MS analysis, sample was extracted with methanol (as per API procedure), filtered in ashless filter paper and extract was concentrated. The NIST Ver. 2.0 - Year 2005 library was used for chemical detection. Results: The FTIR profile showed different peaks ranging from 4000 cm-1 and 400 cm-1 and spectrum with confirmed presence of alcohols and phenols, amines, alkanes, alkynes aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids functional groups in methanol extract of C. argentea. Analysis of the mass spectrum GC-MS analysis provides different peaks determining presence of Pentadeconic acid, n-Hexadecoic acid, 9-12-Octadecadienoic acid, Cis-vaccenic acid, Octadecanoic acid. The results of LC-MS analysis provide specific data of bioactive components which may suggest the Butralin, Fulvine, Dihydrocapsaicin, Lisinopril, 9Z-Octadecen-12-yonic acid, N-Hexadecanoylpyrrodine etc. The phytoconstituents may use to treat diseases and further insight in future researches on Celosia argentea. Conclusion: The molecules reported through above exploration of spectral techniques may justify traditional therapeutic manifestation of C. argentea and useful in activity guided isolation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A Novel Prognostic Biomarker with Potential of High Diagnostic Accuracy in
           Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An in silico Study

    • Authors: Bashir Ahmad Sheikh, Basharat Ahmad Bhat, Rakeeb Ahmad Mir, Zahoor Ahmad, Manzoor Ahmad Mir
      Pages: 165 - 172
      Abstract: Background: Due to the fact that pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a highly infectious disease characterized by high herd susceptibility and hard to be treated. Cytokines have a crucial role in eliciting protective and pathologic consequences in infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. This study aimed to investigate the gene expression dataset of tuberculosis patients to identify the novel cytokine biomarkers in pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The expression dataset (GSE19435) having comparative study of drug treatment at 0-month (control), 2-months and 12 months was retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) geo datasets for bioinformatic analysis. Differential gene expression (DEGs) analysis of immune-related genes with treatment progression was performed which was further followed by Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network construction. Further, functional enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were also performed. Finally, Receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) analysis was performed for selected biomarkers. Results: A total of 210 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, out of which 59 were upregulated, while 151 were downregulated. Gene ontology results revealed that the deregulated genes were enriched in immune response-regulation, cytokine pathways, and response to the bacterium. Also, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that deregulated genes are involved in the fork head box transcription factors (FOXO) signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, and osteoclast differentiation pathways. Based on the combined score and degree of connectedness, novel genes like amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), Transmembrane Immune Signaling Adaptor (TYROBP), Annexin A2 (ANXA2), Proteasome 20S Subunit Beta 2 (PSMB2), CD58 Molecule (CD58) (upregulated genes), and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interactor 12 (TRIP12), RNA Polymerase III Subunit A (POLR3A), Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells 5 (NFAT5), DEADBox Helicase 17 (DDX17), DNA Topoisomerase III (TOP3A) (downregulated genes) were identified as hub genes of which TRIP12 and POLR3A are cytokines (type1) biomarkers. Further analysis through ROC divulged TRIP12 as a potential diagnostic biomarker. Conclusion: Overall findings revealed that TRIP12 is a novel cytokine biomarker in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected patients with the highest diagnostic accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis and Study of Antibacterial Effect of 3,4 -Diaryl-6-oxo-
           1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile

    • Authors: Kailas Rangnath Labhade
      Pages: 173 - 177
      Abstract: Objectives: The present study was focused on environment friendly synthesis of cynopyridone compounds. New improved, three component, one-pot, solvent-free method was successfully developed for the synthesis of 3,4 -diaryl-6-oxo-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine- 5-carbonitrile using ammonium acetate as a green catalyst. Materials and Methods: Use of multicomponent, one pot synthetic approach in organic synthesis is becoming popular due their simple procedure and high yield of the product. This approach requires less time and minimum raw materials as compared to stepwise synthetic methods. Aromatic aldehyde, ethyl cyanoacetate and 3-aryl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine (or 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine) in presence of ammonium acetate at elevated temperature produce title compound in good yield. Structure determination of newly synthesized compounds were done by using IR and NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and gram-negative (K. pneumoniae, E. coli) bacteria by using the disc diffusion method. Results: The results of the antibacterial study showed that many substituted cynopyridone compounds have good to moderate antibacterial activity. Compounds having two halogen substituents showed better activity as compare to other compounds. Conclusion: This new improved method offers many advantages like easy workup, mild reaction conditions, good quality product and improvement in product yield as compared to earlier methods. By using this multi-component approach, we can significantly reduce the production cost and environmental pollution.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Efficient Euphorbia hirta Phytosomes for in vitro Antiasthmatic Activity

    • Authors: Poonam Karekar, Suresh Killedar
      Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the antiasthmatic activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and Euphorbia hirta phytosomes in an in vitro anti-asthmatic model. Materials and Methods: The phytosomes were tested for entrapment efficiency, solubility studies, and in vitro drug release. The in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation paradigm was used to test the Euphorbia hirta extract and Euphorbia hirta phytosomes. Results: Histamine-induced contraction in an isolated goat tracheal chain revealed that both Euphorbia hirta extract and Euphorbia hirta phytosomes decreased histamine’s contractile effect. The entrapment efficiency was observed well at 60°C and a 1:2 ratio of extract: phospholipids. The solubility studies and in vitro drug release studies depicted a rise in the lipophilic nature of extract by formulating it in the form of phytosomes. The antiasthmatic activity of the extract and phytosomes increased as the concentration was raised. Conclusion: The presence of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, glycosides, and saponine may play a role in the antiasthmatic activity observed. Moreover, enhanced lipophilicity might have enabled phytosomes to show a better antiasthmatic profile as compared to extract.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Simultaneous Estimation of Lamivudine, Didanosine and Efavirenz in Bulk
           and their Formulation by UPLC

    • Authors: Srivani Mallepelli, Sreelatha Kamera, Achaiah Garlapati
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: Objectives: To develop a simple, rapid, reliable and precise RP-UPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved by using Zorbax SB Cyano (150x4.6mm ID) 1.7μm column, isocratic mobile phase consists; Ammonium acetate Buffer pH 4.5: Acetonitrile (55:45) %v/v with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 274 nm. The current method was validated according to the ICH guidelines for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity, robustness and ruggedness. Results: The retention times obtained for lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz were 2.584, 4.228 and 5.206 min respectively. The calibration curves of peak area versus concentration, were linear from 15-45μg/mL, 30-90μg/ mL and 20-60μg/mL for lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz and had regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. Limit of detection were found to be 1.7, 3.3, 3.8 μg/ml and limit of quantification were found to be 5.1, 6.7, 11.5 μg/ ml respectively for lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz. The % assay of the marketed dosage form was found to be 100.2, 100.4 and 100.6 for lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz. Conclusion: The experimental study results revealed the suitability of proposed method that can be used for simultaneous estimation of lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz in bulk and their pharmaceutical formulations for routine quality control analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Formulation Development of Sustain Release Tablets of Lornoxicam using
           Chemically Modified Xanthan Gum

    • Authors: Sandip Ashok Murtale, Prakash Goudanavar, Ankit Acharya, Jayatheertha Lokapur
      Pages: 191 - 198
      Abstract: Background: In the medical and pharmaceutical fields, man has made successful use of natural origin things for millennia. Natural medications and excipients have piqued the interest of the entire globe today. Obtained from plant polymers have flashed a lot of attention in current decades because of their various pharmacological applications, such as gelling agents in gels as well as in, cosmo products, tablets, oral fluids, suspensions, and bases in a suppository. Objectives: Polymers are biocompatible, inexpensive, readily existing, and they are chosen over semisynthetic and artificial excipients. However, they have some drawbacks, including microbial contamination, lot to lot variation, reduced viscosity throughout storage, inappropriate mechanical properties, low strew and uninhibited rate of hydration. Materials and Methods: The thiolesterification technique, which uses thioglycolic acid (TGA) in the presence of a catalytic quantity of hydrochloric acid, was used to modify xanthan gum chemically. Microwave irradiated thiolated xanthan gum was also made by irradiating thiolated xanthan gum with a 750W frequency after it had been microwave irradiated. Modified and crude xanthan gum was used to make the sustained release tablet of Lornoxicam. Pre-compression and post-compression tests were performed on compressed tablets. Results: FT-IR, DSC, and X-ray diffraction investigations all show that grafting was successful. Additional peaks were identified in thiolated Xanthan gum and microwave irradiated gum, which were not present in pure Xanthan gum, according to FT-IR research. The presence of the SH stretch of the thiol group may be seen in the bands closer to 2568.00 cm-1 and 2584.70 cm- 1. Modified xanthan gum had a high swelling index. When compared to tablets made from crude xanthan gum, an in-vitro release study utilizing a pH 6.8 phosphate buffer indicated a sustain release of Lornoxicam from modified xanthan gum. Conclusion: Chemically modified xanthan gum sustains the drug over a prolonged period and could be a promising carrier in oral delivery to enhance anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A Novel Approach of Leflunomide Nanoemulgel for Topical Drug Delivery
           System

    • Authors: Vivek Verma, T S Easwari
      Pages: 199 - 204
      Abstract: Objectives: This research’s primary goals are Leflunomide (LFD) nanoemulgel formulation and characterization for topical administration. Materials and Methods: A pseudo ternary phase diagram was created utilizing castor oil, Tween 20 as the surfactant, PEG 300 as a co-surfactant, and ethanol as the cosolvent. Spontaneous emulsification was used to create LFD-nanoemulgel, which is now commercially available. Gel matrix Carbopol 934 was employed to generate nanoemulgel in the prepared nanoemulsion. Studies on the LFD-globule nanoemulgel’s size, physical appearance, viscosity, spreadability, TEM, FTIR drug content, release kinetics, and stability contributed to its characterization and assessment. Optimum nanoemulgel formulation contained 6% castor oil, 36% Tween 80 and PEG 300 as Smix (surfactant and co-surfactant mixture), 46% water, and 12% w/w carbopol 934. Results: The produced nanoemulgel was translucent and had a zeta potential of 26.12 mV and a particle size of 113.55 ± 1.73 nm. The improved formulation has a drug release rate of 98.13% ± 1.20%. They were determined to be ideal for pH, viscosity, and spreadability. According to the stability analysis, the generated nanoemulgel was shown to be stable at temperatures ranging from 25 ± 45°C, according to the stability analysis results. Conclusion: An effective formulation for topical medication delivery using LFD-loaded nanoemulgel has been developed. It may be an alternative drug therapy to the topical application of drugs to treat arthritis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Spray Dried Mucoadhesive Microparticles of Donepezil with Chitosan and
           Carbopol in Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: Sachin Manik Jadhav, Sagar Kumar Mishra
      Pages: 205 - 210
      Abstract: Background: The traditional oral formulation for Alzheimer’s disease treatment has the drawbacks of first-pass metabolism, plasma protein binding, and poor blood-brain barrier penetration. This study was conducted to establish the nasal route of administration for donepezil formulations in Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods: Donepezil mucoadhesive microparticles synthesized by spray-drying and evaluated for Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The ex vivo study was done with Franz’s diffusion cell using goat nasal mucosa. The in vivo study was performed on the Albino rat’s nasal route for determining drug concentration by HPLC analysis in brain tissue at single-point evaluation. Results: The microparticles were with optimum size with no drug-polymer interaction in Infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited morphology of spherical or ellipsoid microparticles with efficient drug entrapment. The percentage drug release for chitosan microparticles was 66.57 to 85.74 and for carbopol microparticles was 69.54 to 91.53 in the ex vivo permeability study. In vivo studies showed that drug concentrations of 110.48% to 114.92% for chitosan batches and 111.87% to 142.08% for carbopol batches were superior to controls. Conclusion: Ex vivo permeability study revealed drug release patterns with as high as 85.74% ±0.02 for DCH2 formulation and 91.53±0.3% for DC3 formulation. In in vivo study formulation DCH2 displayed drug concentration 110.87±6.87% and DC3 shown 129.51±9.82% over the control batch which is conclusive for improved drug delivery of donepezil through mucoadhesive microparticles for the nose to brain targeting in Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • In vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Gold
           Nanoparticles Generated from Stem Extract of Tinospora cordifolia

    • Authors: Koliyote Sheeja, Shaji Jessy
      Pages: 211 - 215
      Abstract: Introduction: Synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from various biological systems have been reported, but amongst them biosynthesis of GNPs from plants is considered as the most suitable method. The aim of this study was to synthesize GNPs using chloroauric acid and hydroalcoholic stem extract (HA) of Tinospora cordifolia and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of HA and the synthesised GNP followed by assessing the acute oral toxicity of the prepared herbal GNP. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the in vitro human red blood cell membrane stabilization method and gene expression of cytokine TNF-α by isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells using RT-PCR. The acute toxicity test was conducted using wistar albino rats. Results: The membrane stabilizing effect demonstrated a concentration dependent anti-inflammatory activity of both HA and GNP. GNP synthesized from hydroalcoholic stem extract of T. cordifolia inhibited production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α by inhibiting genes expression of the cytokine. GNP was found to be nontoxic at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg with no signs of mortality during the 14 days observation period. Conclusion: The results of the said evaluation proved that formation of GNP enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of T. cordifolia. The acute oral administration of GNP was found to be safe and not toxic. Hence, the GNP can be utilized for treatment of diseases associated with imbalanced cytokine production as in anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical formulations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Pharmacological Screening of Gentisic acid for Antidepressant Activity in
           Unstressed and Stressed Mice

    • Authors: Sudha Bansal, Dinesh Dhingra
      Pages: 216 - 222
      Abstract: Background: Gentisic acid has been reported to show neuroprotective effect. But its effect on depression is not available in the literature. So we evaluated the effect of this compound on depressive behavior in unstressed (normal) mice and stressed mice. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino male mice were given unpredictable mild stressors for twenty-one consecutive days to produce depressive behavior. Gentisic acid (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) were administered orally for twenty-one consecutive days. Depressive behavior was detected by tail suspension test and sucrose preference test. After behavioral testing, biochemical estimations were performed in plasma and brain. Histopathological studies on brain were also performed. Results: Immobility time of mice in tail suspension test was remarkably decreased by gentisic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg). Gentisic acid also restored decreased sucrose preference in mice subjected to stress paradigm. It remarkably lowered concentration of plasma nitrite, brain monoamine oxidase- A, malondialdehyde, TNF-α; and increased concentration of catalase and GSH in normal mice and also stressed mice. It also remarkably lowered plasma corticosterone concentration in stressed mice. Histopathological studies indicated protection by gentisic acid against hyperchromatic nuclei in brain. Conclusion: Gentisic acid produced remarkable antidepressant effect in normal mice and also stressed mice. The possible mechanisms for the observed antidepressant effect of gentisic acid might be through inhibition of brain MAO-A, amelioration of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; and protection against hyperchromatic nuclei in brain. Moreover, antidepressant effect of gentisic acid in stressed mice might be through lowering of plasma corticosterone concentration.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Hepatoprotective Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Capparis zeylanica Root
           on Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    • Authors: Raghunandan Hota, Bikash Kumar Nanda, Biswaranjan Behera, Chandan Das, Ashutosh Meher
      Pages: 223 - 227
      Abstract: Background: Capparis zeylanica (Capparaceae), a climbing shrub find its distribution throughout the different parts of India. Traditionally, it is used in the treatment of snake bite, small pox, stomach ulcers, piles, cholera, hepatitis, as liver tonics, rheumatism and inflammation. In the present investigation the hepatoprotective potential of plant was evaluated in paracetamol-induced (750 mg/kg) hepatotoxicity rats. Methods: The animals were treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of C. zeylanica root using silymarin (100 mg/kg) as reference. The liver function enzymes were determined. The estimation of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutage, catalase and glutathione were performed in liver tissue homogenate. The excised liver was also subjected to histological study. Results: The noticeable declined in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphate, bilirunin and cholesterol and elevating the level of albumin, globulin and protein were observed at 300 mg/kg of drug as compared to 200 mg/kg. The significant decrease in malondialdehyde and increase in superoxide dismutage, catalase and glutathion were noticed in treated group. The periportal hypertrophy, deterioration of hepatic parenchyma, dilation of sinusoidal capillary, central vein and portal vein noticed in hepatotoxicity rats were decreased after administration of extract. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective potential of C. zeylanica root could be assumed due to the synergistic activities of carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, steroids and the strong antioxidant activity by flavonoids, phenolics, β-carotene and rutin.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Natural Herbs against
           Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pus from Scabies

    • Authors: Smritikana Biswas, Abhijit Ghosh, Biplab Giri
      Pages: 228 - 232
      Abstract: Introduction: Mite Sarcoptes scabiei causes scabies which is a communicable skin infection and it promotes a suitable niche for microorganisms for their growth and development to cause secondary infection. This study was conducted to isolate the prevalent microorganisms collected from the pus of volunteers having scabies only, as well as to detect MRSA strains to study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Allium sativum bulbs, Olea europaea, Piper nigrum extracts against these strains. Materials and Methods: Pus samples were collected from 50 volunteers having scabies only and antibiotic susceptibility of the prevalent microorganisms as well as biofilm assay for MRSA isolates were also tested. Ethanolic extracts of Allium sativum bulbs, Olea europaea leaves, Piper nigrum berries were prepared and their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities were determined. Results: out of 290, 65% (189) of them are confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus and 47 of these Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be resistant for Methicillin. On the other hand, in the present study Allium sativum bulbs and extracts of leaves of Olea europaea had potent antimicrobial activity against the MRSA strains isolated from the scabies while Piper nigrum extract had least amount of antimicrobial activity. Present study also revealed that extracts of Allium sativum bulbs possessed more antimicrobial property than the leaf extract of Olea europaea against the said strains. Conclusion: It can be concluded that MRSA strains harbouring volunteers with scabies may act as the reservoir for secondary infection and Allium sativum bulbs are more effective against the said strain than the Olea europaea and Piper nigrum extracts.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Postmenopausal Hypertension and Blood Pressure Target Achievements using
           Monotherapy in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, South India

    • Authors: Thangamani Subramani, Saravanan Kunchithapatham, Sajeeth Chadappully Ismail
      Pages: 233 - 236
      Abstract: Background: Prevalence of hypertension and scanty of evidences related to the clinical efficacy and safety of antihypertensive regimens among post menopausal women were almost negligible in India. So, the aim of the present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antihypertensive as monotherapy in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods : A prospective observational study was conducted in Department of General Medicine at Karuna Medical College Hospital, Palakkad, Kerala for a period of November 2019 to October 2020. The patients were divided in to four groups according to the class (Angitensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) or Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) or Diuretics or Beta Blockers) as monotherapy and their BP values were noted. Results: A total of 250 post menopausal hypertensive women were enrolled in this study. The patients achieved the goal on ARBs with 78% and CCBs with 69.5% was higher compared than BB (54.3%) and Diuretics (45.7%). ARBs and CCBs treated patients showed statistically significant differences in reduction of systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse Pressure and Mean Arterial Pressure in hypertensive women. Conclusion: The twothirds of hypertensive post menopausal women are not being achieved the BP goal; those have more risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of Various Maternal Risk Factors and Treatment Approaches for
           Neonatal Jaundice in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    • Authors: Shima Ghavami, Vithya Thirumoorthi
      Pages: 237 - 241
      Abstract: Background: The study objectives were to evaluate the neonatal jaundice treatment approach and identify various risk factors associated with the occurrence of neonatal jaundice. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out for 6 months at St. Philomena‘s Hospital. Researchers reviewed patients` medication charts and collected the data for further analysis. Patients` medication charts also were monitored for the occurrence of any adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Results: A total of 100 babies met inclusion criteria. The majority of babies were male (56%). Sixteen neonates (16%) were born with low birth weight, 11% of all neonates were preterm, and 42% of babies had O +ve blood group. Maternal-related risk factors analysis showed that 58% of women were between 26-35 years, 44% were overweight, 53% of women were in their first gravida, and 52% of mothers were delivered by C-Section. Overall, 100 (82.6%), 11 (9.1%), 6 (5%), 3 (2.5%), 1 (0.8%) neonates received phototherapy, ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA), phenobarbital, exchange transfusion, and intravenous immunoglobulins respectively. We detected 15 ADRs and 14 DDIs associated with the management of neonatal jaundice. Phototherapyinduced ADR (46.6%) and interaction between UCDA-sucralfate (35.7%) were the most common identified treatment-related issues. Conclusion: Neonatal and maternal risk factors may involve in the development of neonatal jaundice. Phototherapy remained the most desirable therapeutic approach. Although the neonatal treatment approach is safe, a review of prescribed medications can give insight into the appropriate usage of medications among this vulnerable cohort.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A 4-Year Prospective Study on Anti-fungal and Reserved Antimicrobial Drugs
           under Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    • Authors: Ketan Kailash Khelwade, Shrikalp D, Bhavini S
      Pages: 242 - 246
      Abstract: Introduction: In 2018 and 2021, CIMS hospital conducted an audit to analyse the quality of antifungal use. We conducted a follow-up audit after four years of the antifungal stewardship programme (AFS) to evaluate the program’s long-term effects. We assessed antifungal usage in Medical & surgical Patients receiving systemic antifungals using a preset score. Antibiotics and its classes designated as antimicrobial reserved products are intended to be used only in the treatment of confirmed or suspected infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in a medical & surgical unit at tertiary care hospital during a four-year period. The sensitivity pattern was identified after the laboratory data were processed. Some of the newer AMs were labelled as “Reserve,” requiring the completion of an authorization form prior to prescription. Results: Patients treated with antimicrobial drugs in medical and ICU wards were assessed. The results of both the audits revealed that there was a decrease in the irrational cases of both reserved antimicrobial and antifungal cases in successive years. The year 2020 showed fewer irrational cases of antifungals. Conclusion: With time the use of correct dosage regimen, proper route of administration and proper handling of patients has led to decrease in the irrational cases of antimicrobials.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Unani Management of Recurrent Bartholin’s Gland Cyst: A Case Report

    • Authors: Farzana Mohammed Umar Ziard Noorul Farza, Tharique Isamail
      Pages: 247 - 249
      Abstract: In female reproductive system, Bartholin’s glands are one of the essential organs. In 17th century, Danish anatomist, Casper Bartholin first described about Bartholin’s cyst. at the posterior introitus of vagina two pea-sized glands of Bartholin’s glands found and secret mucus to ensure vaginal and vulval lubrication. Bartholin gland abscess or cyst is a common vulval pathology affecting the females of reproductive age group. this study was conducted in the OPD of the National Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital, Colombo-08. A 31-year-old female patient came with recurrent Bartholin cyst for one year with the complaint of left labia majora swelling, pain and difficult to walk. she was given Unani treatment Roghn e khas to apply twice a day for 2 weeks intervals for 6 weeks. the main outcome measure was to observe the resolvent of swelling and pain of Bartholin’s cyst. the patent’s swelling on labia majora and pain reduced within 4 weeks of the treatment. these Unani formulae might have as stat to resolve the swelling and pain of Bartholin’s cyst as they considered to have muhalli e warm, musakkin, daf e tafoon and daf e humma action. some of these drugs have been pharmacologically proved to its medicinal propoerties, which is reported to improve the reducing swelling and pain that may be attributed to foavinoids, saponins and alakaloids.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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