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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 331)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.075
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1755-5914 - ISSN (Online) 1755-5922
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Noncoding RNA in the Regulation of Acute Aortic Dissection: From Profile
           to Mechanism

    • Abstract: Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition caused by a tear in the intimal layer of the aorta or bleeding within the aortic wall, resulting in the separation of the layers of the aortic wall. As Nienaber reported, aortic dissection is most common in people 65–75 years old and has an incidence of 35 cases per 100,000 people per year in this population. Many pathogenic factors are involved in aortic dissection, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormality of the aortic intima caused by genetic variation. However, with the development of gene sequencing and transgenic technology, genetic methods are being used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, including acute aortic dissection. Genetic research on acute aortic dissection began around 2006. Recently, research on acute aortic dissection has mainly focused on microRNA (miRNA). Studies have found that miRNA plays a critical regulatory role in the occurrence and development of acute aortic dissection. By regulating miRNA expression, acute aortic dissection can be prevented and treated.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Nov 2022 08:20:02 +000
  • Knockdown of lncRNA XIST Ameliorates IL-1β-Induced Apoptosis of HUVECs
           and Change of Tissue Factor Level via miR-103a-3p/HMGB1 Axis in Deep
           Venous Thrombosis by Regulating the ROS/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    • Abstract: Background. The effect of lncRNA X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) inducing cardiovascular diseases on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and its mechanism has not been reported. In this study, we uncovered the mystery that lncRNA XIST causes DVT with HUVEC dysfunction. Method. The expression levels of lncRNA XIST and miR-103a-3p were detected by qRT-PCR, and HMGB1 expression was determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. The correlations among the expression levels of lncRNA XIST, miR-103a-3p, and HMGB1 were determined by Spearman’s rank-order correlation test. XIST siRNA (si-XIST) was transfected into HUVECs to knock down the intrinsic expression of lncRNA XIST. The influences of si-XIST on interleukin-1 beta- (IL-1β-) treated HUVEC viability and apoptosis and the level of tissue factor (TF) were detected by MTT, flow cytometry, and ELISA kit, respectively. The relationships between lncRNA XIST, miR-103a-3p, and HMGB1 were predicted by the Encyclopedia of RNA Interactomes (ENCORI) database and verified by dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of lncRNA XIST and miR-103a-3p on HMGB1 expression were detected by qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. The levels of ROS/NF-κB pathway-related proteins were detected to study the regulatory mechanism of lncRNA XIST/miR-103a-3p/HMGB1 on IL-1β-treated HUVECs apoptosis and change of TF level. Results. The upregulated expression levels of lncRNA XIST and HMGB1 and downregulated level of miR-103a-3p were found in the plasma of DVT patients and IL-1β-treated HUVECs. Si-XIST promoted cell viability and inhibited HUVEC apoptosis and ameliorated the change of TF level triggered by IL-1β. lncRNA XIST sponged miR-103a-3p and miR-103a-3p targeted HMGB1. Si-XIST inhibited the ROS/NF-κB pathway to suppress HUVEC apoptosis and ameliorate the change of TF level induced by IL-1β via the miR-103a-3p/HMGB1 axis. Conclusion. lncRNA XIST sponged miR-103a-3p improving HMGB1 expression to exacerbate DVT by activating the ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that lncRNA XIST can be used as a potential therapeutic target in DVT.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Nov 2022 05:20:01 +000
  • Inflammatory Response and Immune Regulation in Brain-Heart Interaction
           after Stroke

    • Abstract: Cerebrocardiac syndrome (CCS) is one of the secondary myocardial injuries after stroke. Cerebrocardiac syndrome may result in a poor prognosis with high mortality. Understanding the mechanism of the brain-heart interaction may be crucial for clinical treatment of pathological changes in CCS. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammatory response is involved in the brain-heart interaction after stroke. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) evoked by stroke may injure myocardial cells directly, in which the interplay between inflammatory response, oxidative stress, cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic dysfunction, and splenic immunoregulation may be also the key pathophysiology factor. This review article summarizes the current understanding of inflammatory response and immune regulation in brain-heart interaction after stroke.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 07:50:01 +000
  • Potential Roles of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists (GLP-1 RAs)
           in Nondiabetic Populations

    • Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been observed in several large cardiovascular outcome trials to significantly reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular event (MACE) with type 2 diabetic patients. The clinical trials of GLP-1 RAs, including lixisenatide, exenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide, are associated with a significantly 14% lower risk of MACE in patients with T2DM and a history of CV disease, and with a nonsignificantly 6% lower risk in patients without history of CV disease. Some of the interpretation with GLP-1 RA trials suggested the possible role of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in nondiabetic individual, echoed by a recent editorial redefining the role of GLP-1 RAs being beyond glycaemic control. The narrative review provides an in-depth insight into GLP-1 RA use guideline in different countries and regions of the world and examines the safety and concern of GLP-1 RA use. The narrative review draws the comparison of GLP-1 RA use between diabetic and nondiabetic individual in terms of cardiovascular and metabolic benefits and points out the direction of future clinical trials of GLP-1 RAs in nondiabetic individuals. The focus of the review is on GLP-1 RAs’ preventive roles in nondiabetic individuals with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney diseases, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and perioperative complications of bariatric surgery, albeit in small studies and subset analysis of clinical trials of diabetic patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 05:35:00 +000
  • HSPB1 Regulates Autophagy and Apoptosis in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in
           Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

    • Abstract: Objective. Small heat shock protein-1 (HSPB1) is a small heat shock protein that participates in many cellular processes and alleviates stress-induced cell injury. Autophagy protects cells from many types of stress and plays a key role in preventing stress in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). However, the roles of HSPB1 in autophagy and apoptosis in the context of ASO pathogenesis remain unclear. Methods. In vivo and in vitro studies were used to determine whether HSPB1 is associated with ASO progression. The expression of HSPB1 was measured in normal and sclerotic blood vessels. The role of HSPB1 and its potential downstream signaling pathway were determined in VSMCs by overexpressing and silencing HSPB1. Results. A total of 91 ASO patients admitted to and treated at our hospital from Sep. 2020 to Sep. 2021 were selected, and plasma HSPB1 expression was assessed. We divided the patients with ASO into the grade I (), II (), III (), and IV () groups according to Fontaine’s classification. Plasma HSPB1 levels were markedly decreased in patients with grade III () and IV () ASO compared with patients with grade I ASO. Furthermore, HSPB1 expression was significantly decreased, and p62 and cleaved caspase-3 were increased in the sclerotic vasculature compared to the normal vasculature (). Overexpression of HSPB1 promoted apoptosis of VSMCs following ox-LDL treatment. Knockdown of HSPB1 led to a marked increase in the expression of LC3II and Beclin-1 in ox-LDL-stimulated VSMCs, whereas knockdown of HSPB1 attenuated these changes (). Importantly, overexpression of HSPB1 promoted the dephosphorylation of JNK in ox-LDL-stimulated VSMCs. Conversely, downregulation of HSPB1 induced the opposite change. Conclusion. Loss of HSPB1 promotes VSMC autophagy and inhibits VSMC apoptosis, which are associated with ASO. HSPB1 and its downstream signaling pathways could be potential therapeutic targets for ASO treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2022 06:35:01 +000
  • Positive Association of Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Atherosclerosis
           in Patient with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    • Abstract: Aim. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) which is a significant contributor to both morbidity and mortality in the world. The microbiome-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has aroused great interest and controversy as a risk factor of atherosclerosis. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating whether plasma TMAO can be a risk factor of atherosclerosis in coronary artery of patients with ACS and how this relates to lipids and proinflammatory cytokines in plasma. Methods. We enrolled consecutive patients with ACS who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Gensini scoring was used to evaluate angiographic atherosclerosis in the coronary artery of the patients. 13 patients were divided into low (), 33 into intermediate (Gensini score 25-50), and 81 into severe atherosclerosis (Gensini score ≥50). Plasma TMAO, vasculitis factors, and cardiovascular biomarkers were measured by clinical biochemistry, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery was determined by the Color Doppler ultrasound, and the atherosclerotic lesion in coronary artery was assessed in PCI. Results. Plasma TMAO concentrations were positively associated with Gensini score (,) and Gensini subgroup (,01). Plasma TMAO concentrations in patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis were higher than those of patients with moderate coronary atherosclerosis, and the plasma TMAO concentrations of patients with moderate coronary atherosclerosis were higher than those of patients with mild coronary atherosclerosis, the difference was statistically significant [4.73 (3.13, 4.62) versus 1.13 (0.63, 3.34) versus 0.79 (0.20, 1.29), ], respectively. Furthermore, ROC analysis showed that plasma TMAO could identify the severity of atherosclerosis (). The AUC of TMAO for severe atherosclerosis was 0.852 (). The sensitivity and specificity of TMAO for identifying severe atherosclerosis are 96.3% and 63.0% when the cut-off value of TMAO was set at 1.2715 pg/ml. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis showed plasma TMAO concentrations were positively associated with severity of atherosclerosis in coronary artery (,,). For all that, negatively association was observed between TMAO and age (,), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (,), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (,), while positive association was observed between TMAO and nitric oxide (NO) (,). However, there is no obvious association was observed between Gensini score and cardiovascular biomarkers, vasculitis factors, and carotid IMT, respectively. Conclusion. Our cross-sectional observation suggested that plasma TMAO concentrations positively associated with coronary atherosclerosis in ACS patients and serve as a risk factor for severe atherosclerosis. Plasma TMAO also correlated with age, BNP, IL-8, and NO. However, no obvious association was found between atherosclerosis with vasculitis factors and cardiovascular biomarkers in this study, and there was no conclusive evidence showing TMAO enhance atherosclerosis via regulation of inflammation or lipid.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Nov 2022 07:05:00 +000
  • A Clinical Nomogram Based on the Triglyceride-Glucose Index to Predict
           Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury after Percutaneous Intervention in
           Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome with Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the factors influencing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 1073 patients with ACS combined with DM who underwent PCI at the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University were included in this study. We divided the patients into the CI-AKI and non-CI-AKI groups according to whether CI-AKI occurred or not. The patients were then randomly assigned to the training and validation sets at a proportion of 7 : 3. Based on the results of the LASSO regression and multivariate analyses, we determined that the subtypes of ACS, age, multivessel coronary artery disease, hyperuricemia, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride-glucose index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent predictors on CI-AKI after PCI in patients with ACS combined with DM. Using the above indicators to develop the nomogram, the AUC-ROC of the training and validation sets were calculated to be 0.811 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.766-0.844) and 0.773 (95% CI: 0.712-0.829), respectively, indicating high prediction efficiency. After verification by the Bootstrap internal verification, we found that the calibration curves showed good agreement between the nomogram predicted and observed values. And the DCA results showed that the nomogram had a high clinical application. In conclusion, we constructed and validated the nomogram to predict CI-AKI risk after PCI in patients with ACS and DM. The model can provide a scientific reference for predicting the occurrence of CI-AKI and improving the prognosis of patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2022 10:20:00 +000
  • Updates on Pharmacologic Management of Microvascular Angina

    • Abstract: Microvascular angina (MVA), historically called cardiac syndrome X, refers to angina with nonobstructive coronary artery disease. This female-predominant cardiovascular disorder adds considerable health-related costs due to repeated diagnostic angiography and frequent hospital admissions. Despite the high prevalence of this diagnosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography, it is still a therapeutic challenge for cardiologists. Unlike obstructive coronary artery disease, with multiple evidence-based therapies and management guidelines, little is known regarding the management of MVA. During the last decade, many therapeutic interventions have been suggested for the treatment of MVA. However, there is a lack of summarization tab and update of current knowledge about pharmacologic management of MVA, mostly due to unclear pathophysiology. In this article, we have reviewed the underlying mechanisms of MVA and the outcomes of various medications in patients with this disease. Contrary to vasospastic angina in which normal angiogram is observed as well, nitrates are not effective in the treatment of MVA. Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers have the strongest evidence of improving the symptoms. Moreover, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, estrogen, and novel antianginal drugs has had promising outcomes. Investigations are still ongoing for vitamin D, omega-3, incretins, and n-acetyl cysteine, which have resulted in beneficial initial outcomes. We believe that the employment of the available results and results of the future large-scale trials into cardiac care guidelines would help reduce the global cost of cardiac care tremendously.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Oct 2022 06:20:01 +000
  • Comparison between Cardiac CTA and Echocardiography for Assessment of
           Ventricular Septal Rupture Diameter and Its Effect on Transcatheter

    • Abstract: Objective. This study is aimed at comparing cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CTA) with echocardiography in the assessment of ventricular septal perforation diameter. Methods. A total of 44 ventricular septal rupture (VSR) patients undertaking transcatheter occlusion were included and randomly divided into the CTA group and echocardiography group with a 1 : 1 ratio. Clinical data, operation-related data, and 30 d follow-up data were collected and analyzed. Results. Incidence of closure failure, occluder displacement, poor occluder molding, and occluder waist diameter shrinkage between the two groups were not statistically different. The mean residual shunt volume in the echocardiography group (4.2 (3.1, 5.9) mm) was significantly higher than that in the CTA group (2.1 (0, 4.0) mm) with a value of 0.005. However, no significant differences were found in all-cause mortality and incidence of operative complications within 30 days after surgery. Within the CTA group, the correlation was strongest between postoperative occluder diameter and long diameter measured by CTA with a correlation coefficient of 0.799 and , followed by the correlation between postoperative occluder diameter and mean diameter measured by CTA with a correlation coefficient of 0.740 and . The diameter measured by echocardiography was not correlated to postoperative occlude diameter. Conclusion. Assessment of VSR diameter by cardiac CTA is more accurate than by echocardiography.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Oct 2022 11:05:01 +000
  • Biological Properties and Clinical Significance of Lipoprotein-Associated
           Phospholipase A2 in Ischemic Stroke

    • Abstract: Ischemic stroke, which occurs following blockage of the blood supply to the brain, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Its main cause is atherosclerosis, a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on the inner artery walls. Multiple proteins involved in the inflammation response have been identified as diagnosing biomarkers of ischemic stroke. One of these is lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzyme that can hydrolyze circulating oxidized phospholipids, generating proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholine and promoting the development of atherosclerosis. In the last two decades, a number of studies have revealed that both the concentration and the activity of Lp-PLA2 are independent biomarkers of ischemic stroke. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two tests to determine Lp-PLA2 mass and activity for predicting stroke. In this review, we summarize the biological properties of Lp-PLA2, the detection sensitivity and limitations of Lp-PLA2 measurement, the clinical significance and association of Lp-PLA2 in ischemic stroke, and the prospects of therapeutic inhibition of Lp-PLA2 as an intervention and treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Oct 2022 12:50:02 +000
  • Colchicine Does Not Reduce Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth in a Mouse

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. The nacht domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is upregulated in human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but its pathogenic role is unclear. The aims of this study were firstly to examine whether the inflammasome was upregulated in a mouse model of AAA and secondly to test whether the inflammasome inhibitor colchicine limited AAA growth. Methods. AAA was induced in eight-week-old male C57BL6/J mice with topical application of elastase to the infrarenal aorta and oral 3-aminopropionitrile (E-BAPN). For aim one, inflammasome activation, abdominal aortic diameter, and rupture were compared between mice with AAA and sham controls. For aim two, 3 weeks after AAA induction, mice were randomly allocated to receive colchicine (, 0.2 mg/kg/d) or vehicle control (). The primary outcome was the rate of maximum aortic diameter increase measured by ultrasound over 13 weeks. Results. There was upregulation of NLRP3 markers interleukin- (IL-) 1β (median, IQR; 15.67, 7.11-22.60 pg/mg protein versus 6.87, 4.54-11.60 pg/mg protein, ) and caspase-1 (109, 83-155 relative luminosity units (RLU) versus 45, 38-65 RLU, ) in AAA samples compared to controls. Aortic diameter increase over 80 days (mean difference, MD, 4.3 mm, 95% CI 3.3, 5.3, ) was significantly greater in mice in which aneurysms were induced compared to sham controls. Colchicine did not significantly limit aortic diameter increase over 80 days (MD -0.1 mm, 95% CI -1.1, 0.86, ).Conclusions. The inflammasome was activated in this mouse model of AAA; however, daily oral administration of colchicine did not limit AAA growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 14:35:01 +000
  • Effects and Safety of Oral Iron for Heart Failure with Iron Deficiency: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Oral iron supplement is commonly prescribed to heart failure patients with iron deficiency. However, the effects of oral iron for heart failure remain controversial. This study included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of oral iron for heart failure patients. Methods. Nine databases (The Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of science, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, and Wanfang) were searched for RCTs of oral iron for heart failure from inception to October 2021. The effects were assessed with a meta-analysis using Revman 5.3 software. The trial sequential analysis was performed by TSA beta software. The risk of bias of trials was evaluated via Risk of Bias tool. The evidence quality was assessed through GRADE tool. Results. Four studies including 582 patients with heart failure and iron deficiency were enrolled. The results indicated that oral iron treatment could improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, , 95% CI: 0.69 to 2.36, ) and serum ferritin (, 95% CI: 0.26 to 3.02, ). However, there was no between-group difference in the 6-minute walk distances (6MWT), N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or hemoglobin level when compared with control group. Subgroup analyses revealed that the effects of oral iron on 6 MWT and serum ferritin could not be affected by duration and frequency of oral iron uptakes. In trial sequential analysis of LVEF and serum ferritin, the Z-curves crossed the traditional boundary and trail sequential monitoring boundary but did not reach the required information size. Conclusion. This analysis showed that oral iron could improve cardiac function measured by LVEF, and iron stores measured serum ferritin, but lack of effect on exercise capacity measured by 6 MWT, and iron stores measured by hemoglobin. Given the overall poor methodological quality and evidence quality, these findings should be treated cautiously.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Sep 2022 06:50:01 +000
  • Development and Validation of a Nomogram Model for Predicting the Risk of
           Readmission in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
           within 1 Year

    • Abstract: The high incidence of readmission for patients with reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF) can seriously affect the prognosis. In this study, we aimed to build a simple predictive model to predict the risk of heart failure (HF) readmission in patients with HFrEF within one year of discharge from the hospital. This retrospective study enrolled patients with HFrEF evaluated in the Heart Failure Center of the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from January 2018 to December 2020. The patients were allocated into the readmission or nonreadmission group, according to whether HF readmission occurred within 1 year of hospital discharge. Subsequently, all patients were randomly divided into training and validation sets in a 7 : 3 ratio. A nomogram was established according to the results of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Finally, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plot, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to validate the nomogram. Independent risk factors for HF readmission of patients with HFrEF within 1 year of hospital discharge were as follows: age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular ejection fraction, and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors. The AUC-ROC of the training and validation sets were 0.833 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.793-0.866) and 0.794 (95% CI: 0.727-0.852), respectively, which have an excellent distinguishing ability. The predicted and observed values of the calibration curve also showed good consistency. DCA also confirmed that the nomogram had good clinical value. In conclusion, we constructed an accurate and straightforward nomogram model for predicting the 1-year HF readmission risk in patients with HFrEF. This nomogram can guide early clinical intervention and improve patient prognosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Sep 2022 10:35:02 +000
  • Vascular Closure Devices versus Manual Compression in Cardiac
           Interventional Procedures: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Backgrounds. Manual compression (MC) and vascular closure device (VCD) are two methods of vascular access site hemostasis after cardiac interventional procedures. However, there is still controversial over the use of them and a lack of comprehensive and systematic meta-analysis on this issue. Methods. Original articles comparing VCD and MC in cardiac interventional procedures were searched in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science through April 2022. Efficacy, safety, patient satisfaction, and other parameters were assessed between two groups. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by I2 index and the Cochran Q test, respectively. Publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and Egger’s test. Results. A total of 32 studies were included after screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria (33481 patients). This meta-analysis found that VCD resulted in shorter time to hemostasis, ambulation, and discharge (). In terms of vascular complication risks, VCD group might be associated with a lower risk of major complications (), but the analysis limited to randomized controlled trials did not support this result (). There was no significant difference in total complication rates () and bleeding-related complication rates () between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was higher in VCD group (). Meta-regression analysis revealed no specific covariate as an influencing factor for above results ().Conclusions. Compared with MC, the use of VCDs significantly shortens the time of hemostasis and allows earlier ambulation and discharge, meanwhile without increase in vascular complications. In addition, use of VCDs achieves higher patient satisfaction and leads cost savings for patients and institutions.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 10:50:03 +000
  • Association of Choline Intake with Blood Pressure and Effects of Its
           Microbiota-Dependent Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide on Hypertension

    • Abstract: Background. The association of total choline (TC) intake and its metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) with hypertension and blood pressure (BP) has not been elucidated. Methods. For the population study, the association of TC intake with hypertension, as well as blood pressure, was determined through logistic along with multiple linear regression analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2018, respectively. For the animal experimental study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were assigned to the water group or water containing 333 mg/L or 1 g/L TMAO group. After 22 weeks treatment of TMAO, blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, and histopathology of the heart and arteries were evaluated. Results. No significant association of TC with hypertension was observed but the trend for ORs of hypertension was decreased with the increased level of TC. Negative association between TC and BP was significant in quintile 4 and quintile 5 range of TC, and the negative trend was significant. The SHR-TMAO groups showed significant higher urine output levels in contrast with the SHR-water group. No difference of diastolic BP was observed, but there was a trend towards lower systolic BP with the increase doses of TMAO in the SHR group. The SHR 1 g/L TMAO rats had a remarkably lower systolic blood pressure than the SHR-water group. Echocardiography showed a diastolic dysfunction alleviating effect in the 1 g/L TMAO group. Conclusion. High TC intake was not linked to elevated risk of hypertension. An inverse relationship of choline intake with systolic BP was observed. The mechanism for the beneficial effect of TC might be associated with the diuretic effect of its metabolite TMAO.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 10:50:01 +000
  • Silencing RNA for MMPs May Be Utilized for Cardioprotection

    • Abstract: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is accompanied by an increase of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, which degrades heart contractile proteins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of MMP-2 small interfering RNA (MMP-2 siRNA) administration on I/R heart. Isolated rat hearts perfused by the Langendorff method were subjected to I/R in the presence or absence of MMP-2 siRNA. The hemodynamic parameters of heart function were monitored. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured in coronary effluents. Activity and concentration of MMPs in the hearts were measured. Concentration of troponin I (TnI) in coronary effluents was examined as a target for MMP-2 degradation. Recovery of heart mechanical function was reduced after I/R; however, administration of MMP-2 siRNA resulted in restoration of proper mechanical function (). LDH activity was decreased after the use of MMP-2 siRNA (), providing evidence for reduced cardiac damage. Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 syntheses as well as their activity were inhibited in the I/R hearts after siRNA administration (). MMP-2 siRNA administration inhibited TnI release into the coronary effluents (). The use of MMP-2 siRNA contributed to the improvement of heart mechanical function and reduction of contractile proteins degradation during I/R; therefore, MMP-2 siRNA may be considered a cardioprotective agent.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 08:20:01 +000
  • The Alteration of HDL in Patients with AMI Inhibited Angiogenesis by
           Blocking ERK1/2 Activation

    • Abstract: Objective. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was found vasoprotective, but numbers of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have normal or even high levels of pathological HDL (pHDL). So, we investigate the mechanism of pHDL in AMI patients on angiogenesis. Methods. HDL with normal levels from healthy subjects (nHDL, control group, ) and patients with AMI (pHDL, experimental groups, ) were obtained by super high speed centrifugation. Then, effects of HDL on proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and expression of ERK1/2 and its phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with or without PD98059 (inhibitor of ERK1/2) preincubation were detected. Results. Compared with the control group (nHDL), HDL from the experimental group (pHDL) significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of HUVEC (), while these effects of HDL could substantially be blocked by preincubation of PD98059 ().Conclusion. HDL in AMI patients affects angiogenesis by inhibiting ERK1/2 activation free from HDL levels.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 08:50:01 +000
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Diseases: Sad Realities and
           Untold Truths regarding Care of Patients in 2022

    • Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common and serious sleep-related breathing disorders with a high prevalence among patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite its widespread presence, OSA remains severely undiagnosed and untreated. CV mortality and morbidity are significantly increased in the presence of OSA as it is associated with an increased risk of resistant hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation and treatment of OSA should focus on recognizing patients at risk of developing OSA. The use of screening questionnaires should be routine, but a formal polysomnography sleep study is fundamental in establishing and classifying OSA. Recognition of OSA patients will allow for the institution of appropriate therapy that should alleviate OSA-related symptoms with the intent of decreasing adverse CV risk. In this review, we focus on the impact OSA has on CV disease and evaluate contemporary OSA treatments. Our goal is to heighten awareness among CV practitioners.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2022 10:50:02 +000
  • Bioinformatics and System Biological Approaches for the Identification of
           Genetic Risk Factors in the Progression of Cardiovascular Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the combination of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease of the heart and blood vessels. It is one of the leading deadly diseases that causes one-third of the deaths yearly in the globe. Additionally, the risk factors associated with it make the situation more complex for cardiovascular patients, which lead them towards mortality, but the genetic association between CVD and its risk factors is not clearly explored in the global literature. We addressed this issue and explored the linkage between CVD and its risk factors. Methods. We developed an analytical approach to reveal the risk factors and their linkages with CVD. We used GEO microarray datasets for the CVD and other risk factors in this study. We performed several analyses including gene expression analysis, diseasome analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, and pathway analysis for discovering the relationship between CVD and its risk factors. We also examined the validation of our study using gold benchmark databases OMIM, dbGAP, and DisGeNET. Results. We observed that the number of 32, 17, 53, 70, and 89 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) is overlapped between CVD and its risk factors of hypertension (HTN), type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypercholesterolemia (HCL), obesity, and aging, respectively. We identified 10 major hub proteins (FPR2, TNF, CXCL8, CXCL1, IL1B, VEGFA, CYBB, PTGS2, ITGAX, and CCR5), 12 significant functional pathways, and 11 gene ontological pathways that are associated with CVD. We also found the connection of CVD with its risk factors in the gold benchmark databases. Our experimental outcomes indicate a strong association of CVD with its risk factors of HTN, T2D, HCL, obesity, and aging. Conclusions. Our computational approach explored the genetic association of CVD with its risk factors by identifying the significant DEGs, hub proteins, and signaling and ontological pathways. The outcomes of this study may be further used in the lab-based analysis for developing the effective treatment strategies of CVD.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 06:20:01 +000
  • Comparison between High-Power Short-Duration and Conventional Ablation
           Strategy in Atrial Fibrillation: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: High-power short-duration (HPSD) setting during radiofrequency ablation has become an attempt to improve atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment outcomes. This study ought to compare the efficacy, safety, and effectiveness between HPSD and conventional settings. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched. Studies that compared HPSD and conventional radiofrequency ablation settings in AF patients were included while studies performed additional ablations on nonpulmonary vein targets without clear recording were excluded. Data were pooled with random-effect model. Efficacy endpoints include first-pass pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), acute pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection, free from AF, and free from atrial tachycardia (AT) during follow-up. Safety endpoints include esophagus injury rate and major complication rate. Effectiveness endpoints include complete PVI rate, total procedure time, PVI time, and PVI radiofrequency ablation (PVI RF) time. We included 22 studies with 3867 atrial fibrillation patients in total (2393 patients received HPSD radiofrequency ablation). Perioperatively, the HPSD group showed a higher first-pass PVI rate (risk ratio, ,) and less acute PV reconnection rate (,) than the conventional group. During follow-up, free from AF (,) or AT (,) rate did not differ between HPSD and conventional groups 6-month postsurgery. However, the HPSD group showed both higher free from AF (,) and AT (,) rate than the conventional group 12-month postsurgery. The esophagus injury (,) and major complications (,) rates did not differ between the two groups. The HPSD group took shorter total procedure time ( 95% CI: -43.10 to -24.33, ), PVI time ( 95% CI: -25.00 to -18.21, ), and PVI RF time (, 95% CI: -14.45 to -13.00, ) than conventional groups while complete procedure rate did not differ between two groups (,). HPSD setting during AF radiofrequency ablation has better effectiveness, efficacy, and similar safety compared with the conventional setting.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jul 2022 06:05:02 +000
  • Application of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Amplatzer Atrial Septal
           Defect Occluder for Percutaneous Closure of Large Patent Foramen Ovale

    • Abstract: Objective. The Amplatzer patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder is the most commonly used device for percutaneous closure of a large PFO. However, its use may predispose the patient to postoperative residual shunting. To reduce the incidence of residual shunting, we investigated the safety and effectiveness of the Amplatzer atrial septal defect (ASD) occluder for percutaneous closure of a large PFO measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and evaluated the value of TEE in this procedure. Methods. Overall, 118 patients who were diagnosed with a large PFO (all with  mm left atrial side height after the Valsalva maneuver (VM) excluding those with a small ASD) using contrast transthoracic echocardiography (c-TTE) and TEE underwent closure under TEE guidance at The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University. An ASD device was used in 48 patients (group I) and a PFO device in 70 (group II). After the procedure, we verified the safety and efficacy of different devices using c-TTE, TTE, and TEE. Results. In both groups, the preoperative TEE results showed a significantly increased left height of the PFO after VM compared with that at rest (all ). Compared with the left height of the PFO measured using TEE after VM, the PFO-stretch diameter (SD) measured by TEE after the delivery sheath passed the PFO was higher (all ). We selected the ASD occluder size according to this PFO-SD. In group II, most patients underwent the implantation of the larger PFO devices. Interventional treatment was successfully performed on all patients. The effective occlusion rate in group I at 12 months after the procedure was significantly higher than that in group II (93.7% vs. 78.6%, ). The TEE results showed that 18 patients with a medium and large residual shunt at 12 months after the procedure exhibited an intradisc tunnel-like shunt. Conclusion. The Amplatzer ASD device and Amplatzer PFO device are safe for large PFO closure, but the Amplatzer ASD device has a higher effective occlusion rate. TEE plays a crucial role in the use of the Amplatzer ASD occluder for percutaneous closure of a large PFO.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 07:20:02 +000
  • Electrocardiogram Parameters That Affect the Success Rate of
           Radiofrequency Ablation in Patients with Outflow Tract Ventricular
           Premature Complexes

    • Abstract: Objectives. The objectives of this study are to assess the efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in patients with outflow tract (OT) ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) and to explore the electrocardiographic (ECG) features of initially successful procedures. Methods. Based on the outcome of ablation, 154 consecutive patients with OT-VPCs who underwent RFCA from January 2017 to December 2019 were divided into two groups. The rate of successful procedures and the ECG features were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results. The highest success rate was found in patients with VPCs from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), and the lowest success rate was evident among patients with complexes from both the RVOT and the left ventricular OT (LVOT). The patients with successful procedures (136) reflected a lower pseudo delta wave ratio (16.2% vs. 44.4%, ), a smaller R-wave amplitude in lead V1 (V1) (mV vs.  mV, ), shorter intrinsicoid deflection time in lead V2 (V2) (ms vs. ms, ), a shorter RS duration in V2 ( ms vs.  ms, ), and smaller R/S-waveratios in V2. Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated that RS duration in V2 was above 109.17 ms and R/S ratio in V2 was above 0.28, forecasting a failed procedure. Conclusions. The ECG predictors of failed ablation were characterized by RS duration and R/S ratio in V2.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 04:35:01 +000
  • Liquid Embolization of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with
           Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer in Neonates and Infants

    • Abstract: In the postnatal period, extensive peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are associated with high morbidity, especially when localized in the liver. Their urgent treatment is always a challenging problem in neonates and infants. We analyzed four consecutive children aged three days to three years who underwent eight liquid embolization procedures with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer. The AVM were situated on the thoracic wall, in the liver, and on the lower leg. In three cases, the malformations showed total regression. The tibial AVM degenerated widely. If impaired beforehand, cardiac or hepatic function normalized after the interventions. There were no embolization-associated complications such as nontarget embolization or tissue ischemia. We conclude that application of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer seems to be a safe therapeutic option and can be used in neonates and infants with peripheral AVM in consideration of the agent’s characteristics. Nevertheless, there are still hardly any data concerning young children.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 04:35:01 +000
  • Curcumin Attenuates Ferroptosis-Induced Myocardial Injury in Diabetic
           Cardiomyopathy through the Nrf2 Pathway

    • Abstract: Diabetes causes lipid peroxide to accumulate within cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, lipid peroxide buildup is a risk factor for ferroptosis. This study is aimed at examining whether curcumin can ameliorate ferroptosis in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson sections were used to examine the morphology, arrangement, and degree of fibrosis of the myocardium of diabetic rabbit models. The expression levels of nuclear Nrf2, Gpx4, Cox1, and Acsl4 in diabetic animal and cell models were quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Nrf2-overexpression lentivirus vectors were transfected into cardiomyocytes, and the protective effects of curcumin and Nrf2 on cardiomyocytes under high glucose stimulation were assessed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling and reactive oxygen species probes. Diabetes was found to disorder myocardial cell arrangement and significantly increase the degree of myocardial fibrosis and collagen expression in myocardial cells. Curcumin treatment can increase nuclear transfer of Nrf2 and the expression of Gpx4 and HO-1, reduce glucose induced myocardial cell damage, and reverse myocardial cell damage caused by the ferroptosis inducer erastin. This study confirmed that curcumin can promote the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, increase the expression of oxidative scavenging factors, such as HO-1, reduce excessive Gpx4 loss, and inhibit glucose-induced ferroptosis in cardiomyocytes. This highlights a potentially new therapeutic route for investigation for the treatment diabetic cardiomyopathy.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jul 2022 06:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Adiponectin Variant on Lipid Profile and Plasma Adiponectin
           Levels: A Multicenter Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Adiponectin is a recognized antiatherogenic molecule; this study was aimed at clarifying the effects of adiponectin variants on lipid and adiponectin levels. Methods. By searching PubMed and Cochrane databases for studies published before March 31, 2022, a total of 86,610 individuals were included in the analysis. Results. Variants of rs2241766 and rs266729 were associated with decreased adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as increased triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In contrast, the rs1501299 variant was correlated with increased adiponectin and HDL-C, as well as decreased TG, TC, and LDL-C levels. Subgroup analysis indicated that the significant effect of the rs2241766 and rs266729 variants on lipid profile was predominant in Chinese, while the significant effect of the rs1501299 variant on lipid profile was primarily in Caucasians. Moreover, a stronger effect of the rs2241766 and rs1501299 variants on LDL-C levels was observed in males, while a considerable effect of the rs266729 variant on LDL-C levels was observed in children. Conclusions. The present study indicated that Chinese with the rs2241766 and rs266729 variants were at high risk of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, or coronary artery disease (CAD). Males with the rs2241766 variant were at high risk of CAD. Children with the rs266729 variant had a high risk to develop dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and even early onset of CAD in the future. These findings are beneficial to clinical physicians to choose different management strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jul 2022 10:50:02 +000
  • Retrospective Study of Aging and Sex-Specific Risk Factors of COVID-19
           with Hypertension in China

    • Abstract: Background. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global threat that pushes healthcare to its limits. Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 and is strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. To date, clinical mechanisms by which hypertension leads to increased risk in COVID-19 are still unclear. Furthermore, additional factors might increase these risks, such as the consideration of age and sex, which are of interest when in search of personalized treatments for hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 543 COVID-19 patients in seven provinces of China to examine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in this population and to determine risk factors of hypertensive COVID-19 patients. We also used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients in different age and sex subgroups. Results. Among the enrolled COVID-19 patients, the median age was 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) 34.0–57.0), and 99 patients (18.23%) were over 60 years old. With regard to comorbidities, 91 patients (16.75%) were diagnosed with hypertension, followed by diabetes, coronary disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Of the hypertensive COVID-19 patients, 51 (56.04%) were male. Multivariable analysis showed that old age, comorbid diabetes or coronary heart disease on admission, increased D-dimer, increased glucose, and decreased lymphocyte count were independent risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Elevated total bilirubin (odds ratio [OR]: 1.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23–1.05; ) and triglycerides (OR: 1.173, 95% CI: 0.049–1.617; ) were found to be associated with elderly hypertensive COVID-19 patients. In addition, we found that decreased lymphocytes, basophil, high-density lipoprotein, and increased fibrinogen and creatinine were related to a higher risk of disease severity in male patients. The most common abnormal clinical findings pertaining to female hypertensive COVID-19 patients were hemoglobin, total bile acid, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. Conclusions. Factors associated with increased risk of hypertensive COVID-19 patients were identified. Results to the different age and sex subgroups in our study will allow for better possible personalized care and also provide new insights into specific risk stratification, disease management, and treatment strategies for COVID-19 patients with hypertension in the future.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 11:13:03 +000
  • Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KSFY07 on
           Kappa-Carrageenan-Induced Thrombosis in Mice and the Regulation of
           Oxidative Damage

    • Abstract: A mouse thrombosis model was established by kappa-carrageenan to observe the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KSFY07 (LDSB-KSFY07) on thrombosis and the oxidative stress response. Mouse serum, liver tissue-related indicators, and intestinal microbial composition were measured by examining the expression of microbes in mouse faeces using a biochemical kit, slice observations, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments. The results showed that LDSB-KSFY07 effectively reduced the degree of black tail in thrombotic mice, increased activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and decreased thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), and prothrombin time (PT) in thrombotic mice. LDSB-KSFY07 was also able to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in the serum and liver tissues of thrombotic mice. Pathological observations showed that LDSB-KSFY07 reduced liver tissue lesions and tail vein thrombosis. Further, experimental results showed that LDSB-KSFY07 was able to upregulate the mRNA expression of copper/zinc-SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese-SOD, and GSH-Px in the liver tissue of thrombotic mice. Moreover, LDSB-KSFY07 was also able to downregulate the mRNA expression of NF-κB p65, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin in tail vein vascular tissue. Meanwhile, LDSB-KSFY07 could raise plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA expression and reduce tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression in heart and tail vein vascular tissues of thrombotic mice. A mouse faeces examination revealed that LDSB-KSFY07 could also upregulate Bacteroides, Lactobacterium, and Bifidobacterium microbial expression and downregulate Firmicutes expression in the gut. These results indicate that LDSB-KSFY07 was able to inhibit mouse thrombosis and reduce liver oxidative stress damage in thrombus mice and show that high concentrations of LDSB-KSFY07 provided a better response similar to that of the drug heparin.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 11:35:02 +000
  • Heme Oxygenase 1/Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Pathway
           Protects Intimal Hyperplasia and Mitigates Arteriovenous Fistula
           Dysfunction by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response

    • Abstract: Purpose. An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access mode for maintenance hemodialysis, and access stenosis and thrombosis are the primary causes of AVF dysfunction. This study is aimed at exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying AVF development and the roles of the heme oxygenase 1/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (HO-1/PPAR-γ) pathway in AVF. Method. AVF model mice were established, and the vascular tissues from the arteriovenous anastomosis site were sent for mRNA sequencing. Differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were screened and subjected to functional analysis. Thereafter, the mice with HO-1 knockdown and coprotoporphyrin IX chloride (COPP) pretreatment were used to investigate the roles of the HO-1/PPAR-γ pathway in AVF. Results. By sequencing, 2514 DEmRNAs, including 1323 upregulated and 1191 downregulated genes, were identified. These DEmRNAs were significantly enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, glucagon signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. High expression of HO-1 and PPAR-γ reduced endothelial damage and intimal hyperplasia during AVF maturation. After AVF was established, the levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly increased (), and HO-1 normal expression and COPP pretreatment evidently decreased their levels in AVF (). Additionally, AVF significantly upregulated HO-1 and PPAR-γ and downregulated MMP9, and COPP pretreatment and HO-1 normal expression further upregulated and downregulated their expression. Conclusion. The HO-1/PPAR-γ pathway may suppress intimal hyperplasia induced by AVF and protect the intima of blood vessels by regulating MMP9 and ROS, thus mitigating AVF dysfunction.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Jun 2022 07:50:00 +000
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Nonvitamin K Oral Anticoagulants Rivaroxaban
           and Apixaban in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism: A Meta-Analysis of
           Real-World Studies

    • Abstract: Background. Rivaroxaban and apixaban are the most widely used nonvitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This meta-analysis evaluates the effectiveness and safety of both NOACs versus standard of care (SoC) in real-world practice. Methods. Real-world evidence (RWE) studies were identified through a systematic literature review conducted between January 2012 and July 2020, using Embase, MEDLINE, and the websites of cardiological, hematological, and oncological associations. Eligible RWE studies recruited adult patients with deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism and presented a comparison between rivaroxaban and apixaban versus SoC, consisting either of vitamin K antagonists, heparins, or combinations thereof. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the comparison between NOACs and SoC were extracted from the relevant studies or estimated based on the reported binary data. The between-treatment contrasts were reported as HRs with associated 95% confidence intervals. Results. A total of 65 RWE studies were identified and considered relevant for the meta-analysis. Compared with SoC, both rivaroxaban and apixaban were associated with reduced risks of recurrent VTE and a lower rate of major bleeding events. Patients treated with rivaroxaban were at a lower risk of all-cause death compared with those receiving SoC ( [0.39-0.80]), while evidence for apixaban from the identified studies was insufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant change in mortality ( [0.30-1.47]). Conclusion. This analysis indicates that in real-world practice, rivaroxaban and apixaban are associated with a lower risk of recurrent VTE and major bleeding events compared with SoC. Survival benefit in patients treated with rivaroxaban was also observed.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 08:35:01 +000
  • The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Exercise Capacity and
           Prognosis in Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on exercise capacity and several prognostic markers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). Methods. This systematic review is registered on the INPLASY website (number: INPLASY202080112). We conducted a comprehensive search in eight databases of literature before September 13, 2019. Trials comparing HIIT and MICT in participants with CAD or HF aged 52–78 years were included. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2)) and prognostic markers, such as the anaerobic threshold (AT), minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and prognostic value of the predicted VO2 max per cent (the predicted VO2 peak (%)) were examined. Results. A total of 15 studies were included comprising 664 patients, 50% of which were male, with an average age of years. For patients with CAD, HIIT significantly improved peak VO2 values (95% CI 0.7 to 2.11) compared with MICT, but peak VO2 values in patients with HF did not seem to change. For training lasting less than eight weeks, HIIT significantly improved peak VO2 values (95% CI 0.70 to 2.10), while HIIT lasting 12 weeks or longer resulted in a modestly increased peak VO2 value (95% CI 0.31 to 5.31). High-intensity interval training significantly increased the AT when compared with MICT (95% CI 0.50 to 1.48). High-intensity interval training also caused a moderate increase in LVEF (95% CI 0.55 to 5.71) but did not have a significant effect on the VE/VCO2 slope (95% CI −2.32 to 0.98) or the predicted VO2 peak (95% CI −2.54 to 9.59) compared with MICT. Conclusions. High-intensity interval training is an effective therapy for improving peak VO2 values in patients with CAD. High-intensity interval training in the early stage (eight weeks or fewer) is superior to MICT. Finally, HIIT significantly improved prognostic markers, including the AT and LVEF in patients with CAD and HF.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 08:35:00 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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