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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 115)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.147
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0843 - ISSN (Online) 0344-5704
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The effects of two gold-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes in ovarian
           cancer cells: a redox proteomic study

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      Abstract: Purpose Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Standard treatment consists of tumor debulking surgery followed by platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy; yet, despite the initial response, about 70–75% of patients develop resistance to chemotherapy. Gold compounds represent a family of very promising anticancer drugs. Among them, we previously investigated the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties of Au(NHC) and Au(NHC)2PF6, i.e., a monocarbene gold(I) complex and the corresponding bis(carbene) complex. Gold compounds are known to alter the redox state of cells interacting with free cysteine and selenocysteine residues of several proteins. Herein, a redox proteomic study has been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. Methods A biotinylated iodoacetamide labeling method coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify oxidation-sensitive protein cysteines. Results Gold carbene complexes cause extensive oxidation of several cellular proteins; many affected proteins belong to two major functional classes: carbohydrate metabolism, and cytoskeleton organization/cell adhesion. Among the affected proteins, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition was proved by enzymatic assays and by ESI–MS studies. We also found that Au(NHC)2PF6 inhibits mitochondrial respiration impairing complex I function. Concerning the oxidized cytoskeletal proteins, gold binding to the free cysteines of actin was demonstrated by ESI–MS analysis. Notably, both gold compounds affected cell migration and invasion. Conclusions In this study, we deepened the mode of action of Au(NHC) and Au(NHC)2PF6, identifying common cellular targets but confirming their different influence on the mitochondrial function.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • Dose-dependent bioavailability, absorption-rate limited elimination, and
           tissue distribution of the ATR inhibitor BAY-1895344 (elimusertib) in mice
           

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      Abstract: Purpose Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) is a pivotal component of the DNA damage response and repair pathways that is activated in responses to cytotoxic cancer treatments. Several ATR inhibitors (ATRi) are in development that block the ATR mediated DNA repair and enhance the damage associated with cytotoxic therapy. BAY-1895344 (elimusertib) is an orally available ATRi with preclinical efficacy that is in clinical development. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK) which is of interest, because tissue exposure and ATR inhibition may relate to toxicities or responses. Methods To evaluate BAY-1895344 PK, a sensitive LC–MS/MS method was utilized for quantitation in mouse plasma and tissues. PK studies in mice were first conducted to determine dose linearity. In vivo metabolites were identified and analyzed semi-quantitatively. A compartmental PK model was developed to describe PK behavior. An extensive PK study was then conducted in tumor-bearing mice to quantitate tissue distribution for relevant tissues. Results Dose linearity was observed from 1 to 10 mg/kg PO, while at 40 mg/kg PO bioavailability increased approximately fourfold due to saturation of first-pass metabolism, as suggested by metabolite analyses and a developed compartmental model. Longer half-lives in PO treated mice compared to IV treated mice indicated absorption-rate limited elimination. Tissue distribution varied but showed extensive distribution to bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord. Conclusions Complex PK behavior was limited to absorption processes which may not be recapitulated clinically. Tissue partition coefficients may be used to contrast ATR inhibitors with respect to their efficacy and toxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Relationship between achievement of major molecular response or deep
           molecular response and nilotinib plasma concentration in patients with
           chronic myeloid leukemia receiving first-line nilotinib therapy

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      Abstract: Purpose We evaluated the plasma exposure and response relationships of nilotinib for patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in real-world practice. Methods For the 26 patients enrolled in this study, at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after nilotinib administration, the trough plasma concentrations (Ctrough) of nilotinib were analyzed. The relationships between nilotinib Ctrough and the molecular response to nilotinib treatment at each point (each n = 26) were evaluated. Results Median nilotinib Ctrough values were significantly higher in patients with a major molecular response (MMR) at 3 months than in patients without an MMR (809 and 420 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.046). Based on the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, the threshold value of the nilotinib Ctrough at 3 months for predicting MMR achievement was 619 ng/mL at the best sensitivity (71.4%) and specificity (77.8%). Patients with a nilotinib Ctrough of above 619 ng/mL had a significantly shorter time to achievement of a deep molecular response (DMR; 9.0 and 18.0 months, respectively; P = 0.020) and higher rates of DMR by 2 years in Kaplan–Meier plots (P = 0.025) compared with that in patients with a nilotinib Ctrough of less than 619 ng/mL. Conclusion For patients with newly diagnosed CML, the nilotinib dose may be adjusted using a Ctrough of above 619 ng/mL as the minimum effective concentration, i.e., the lowest concentration required for MMR or DMR achievement within a shorter time, during early stages after beginning therapy to obtain faster and deeper clinical responses.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • ATF4-mediated microRNA-145/HDAC4/p53 axis affects resistance of colorectal
           cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil by regulating autophagy

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      Abstract: Background The impact of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), differentially expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), on 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) chemoresistance has not been fully explained. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of ATF4-mediated microRNA-145 (miR-145)/histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4)/p53 axis in CRC. Methods Initially, the expression of ATF4, miR-145, HDAC4, and p53 in CRC tissues and cells was quantified by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. Next, luciferase activity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed to verify the binding affinity among miR-145, ATF4, and HDAC4. Moreover, proliferation, clone formation, and apoptosis in CRC cells treated with 5-FU were assessed after gain- or loss-of-function of ATF4, miR-145, and/or HDAC4. Furthermore, the tumorigenicity and chemoresistance of CRC cells in mice were assayed for validating the in vitro findings. Results ATF4 and HDAC4 were highly expressed, while miR-145 and p53 were poorly expressed in CRC tissues and cells. miR-145 targeted and negatively regulated HDAC4 to activate p53, and miR-145 expression was suppressed by ATF4. Of note, ATF4 facilitated cell proliferation and clone formation ability and repressed apoptosis to promote autophagy and chemoresistance of CRC cells by regulating the miR-145/HDAC4/p53 axis. In vivo experiment elucidated that ATF4-mediated miR-145/HDAC4/p53 axis enhanced tumorigenesis and resistance of CRC cells to 5-FU. Conclusion In conclusion, ATF4-mediated miR-145 inhibition accelerated autophagy of CRC cells and boosted their resistance to 5-FU via the HDAC4/p53 axis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Pharmacokinetics of metronomic temozolomide in cerebrospinal fluid of
           children with malignant central nervous system tumors

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      Abstract: Purpose Although temozolomide is widely used in the treatment of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors, information on its pharmacokinetic profile in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sparse. This study aimed at investigating whether measurable and clinically relevant concentrations of temozolomide are reached and maintained in CSF for continuous oral administration in pediatric patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to quantify CSF penetration of temozolomide. Methods Eleven pediatric CNS tumor patients (aged 4–14 years) treated with oral temozolomide using a metronomic schedule (24–77 mg/m2/day) were included. Temozolomide concentrations in 28 plasma samples and 64 CSF samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations were performed using non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM 7.4.2). Results Median temozolomide concentrations in plasma and CSF were 0.96 (range 0.24–5.99) µg/ml and 0.37 (0.06–1.76) µg/ml, respectively. A two-compartment model (central/plasma [1], CSF [2]) with first-order absorption, first-order elimination, and a transit compartment between CSF and plasma adequately described the data. Population mean estimates for clearance (CL) and the volume of distribution in the central compartment (Vc) were 3.29 L/h (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.58–3.95) and 10.5 L (8.17–14.32), respectively. Based on simulations, we found a median area under the concentration vs. time curve ratio (AUCCSF / AUCplasma ratio) of 37%. Conclusion Metronomic oral temozolomide penetrates into the CSF in pediatric patients, with even higher concentration levels compared to adults.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Anti-drug antibodies in the current management of cancer

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      Abstract: Abstract Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the main therapeutic weapons in modern oncology, mainly as targeted therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) after their administration can alter their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, efficacy and safety profile causing infusion-related reactions. Several risk factors have been associated with ADAs development, notably host genetics and immune status, comorbidity, concomitant medications, mAbs molecular structure, dose and route of administration. ADAs are not usually tested on daily clinical practice, being their analysis generally placed in early stages of drug development. ELISA-type assay the most common method. ADAs detection can involve important implications for treatment strategies of cancer patients, guiding therapeutic adjustment. In oncology, some studies about ADAs synthesis related to targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been recently published. Several strategies are proposed to reduce mAbs immunogenicity, such as different schedules, routes of administration or even the use of immunosuppressants. Another question that arises in relation to ADAs generation is the need to measure the concentration levels of active drug to guide the administration schedule. In this review, we will discuss all the aspects that are currently under discussion in relation with ADAs in oncology.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Integrated exposure–response analysis of efficacy and safety of
           lurbinectedin to support the dose regimen in small-cell lung cancer

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      Abstract: Purpose These exposure–response (E–R) analyses integrated lurbinectedin effects on key efficacy and safety variables in relapsed SCLC to determine the adequacy of the dose regimen of 3.2 mg/m2 1-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks (q3wk). Methods Logistic models and Cox regression analyses were applied to correlate lurbinectedin exposure metrics (AUCtot and AUCu) with efficacy and safety endpoints: objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS) in SCLC patients (n = 99) treated in study B-005 with 3.2 mg/m2 q3wk, and incidence of grade 4 (G4) neutropenia and grade 3–4 (G ≥ 3) thrombocytopenia in a pool of cancer patients from single-agent phase I to III studies (n = 692) treated at a wide range of doses. A clinical utility index was used to assess the appropriateness of the selected dose. Results Effect of lurbinectedin AUCu on ORR best fitted to a sigmoid-maximal response (Emax) logistic model, where Emax was dependent on chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI). Cox regression analysis with OS found relationships with both CTFI and AUCu. An Emax logistic model for G4 neutropenia and a linear logistic model for G ≥ 3 thrombocytopenia, which retained platelets and albumin at baseline and body surface area, best fitted to AUCtot and AUCu. AUCu between approximately 1000 and 1700 ng·h/L provided the best benefit/risk ratio, and the dose of 3.2 mg/m2 provided median AUCu of 1400 ng·h/L, thus maximizing the proportion of patients within that lurbinectedin target exposure range. Conclusions The relationships evidenced in this integrated E–R analysis support a favorable benefit-risk profile for lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m2 q3wk. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02454972; registered May 27, 2015.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Comparison of docetaxel pharmacokinetics between castration-resistant and
           hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer patients

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      Abstract: Purpose Recently, docetaxel treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients shifted towards the hormone-sensitive stage of the disease. There are contradictive reports on differences in toxicity of docetaxel in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Possible differences in toxicity might be attributed to different pharmacokinetics (PK) in the two patient populations. Methods Patients with mCRPC or mHSPC and a standard indication for docetaxel treatment were included in the study. All patients had suppressed serum testosterone levels (≤ 0.5 ng/mL or 1.73 nmol/L). Venous blood samples were obtained at the first docetaxel treatment, until 48 h after infusion. Plasma concentrations of docetaxel, unbound docetaxel and docetaxel metabolites were measured using validated liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) assays and compared between the two groups. Moreover, serum levels of docetaxel transporting α1-acid glycoprotein were measured and docetaxel toxicity recorded. Results A total of ten mCRPC and nine mHSPC patients were included in the study. The two cohorts differed in the number of prior treatments and opiate use, which were higher for mCRPC patients. The docetaxel PK was not different between mCRPC and mHSPC patients, with areas under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC0-48) 1710 [coefficient of variation (CV) 28.4%] and 1486 (CV 25.2%) ng/mL*h (p = 0.27), respectively. Also, the PK profile of unbound docetaxel, M1/M3, M2 and M4 metabolites were similar in both groups. Docetaxel doses were reduced in 50% of the mCRPC patients and 11% of the mHSPC patients. Conclusion The PK profile of docetaxel was similar in mCPRC and mHSPC patients. Therefore, possible differences in toxicity between mCRPC and mHSPC patients cannot be explained by differences in docetaxel PK in our study population. These results suggest that treatment adaptations are not recommended in the new population of patients with mHSPC.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • An evaluation of the interaction of pixantrone with formaldehyde-releasing
           drugs in cancer cells

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      Abstract: Purpose Pixantrone is a synthetic aza-anthracenedione currently used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The drug is firmly established as a poison of the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase II, however, pixantrone can also generate covalent drug-DNA adducts following activation by formaldehyde. While pixantrone-DNA adducts form proficiently in vitro, little evidence is presently at hand to indicate their existence within cells. The molecular nature of these lesions within cancer cells exposed to pixantrone and formaldehyde-releasing prodrugs was characterized along with the cellular responses to their formation. Methods In vitro crosslinking assays, [14C] scintillation counting analyses and alkaline comet assays were applied to characterize pixantrone-DNA adducts. Flow cytometry, cell growth inhibition and clonogenic assays were used to measure cancer cell kill and survival. Results Pixantrone-DNA adducts were not detectable in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to [14C] pixantrone (10–40 µM) alone, however the addition of the formaldehyde-releasing prodrug AN9 yielded readily measurable levels of the lesion at ~ 1 adduct per 10 kb of genomic DNA. Co-administration with AN9 completely reversed topoisomerase II-associated DNA damage induction by pixantrone yet potentiated cell kill by the drug, suggesting that pixantrone-DNA adducts may promote a topoisomerase II-independent mechanism of cell death. Pixantrone-DNA adduct-forming treatments generally conferred mild synergism in multiple cell lines in various cell death and clonogenic assays, while pixantrone analogues either incapable or relatively defective in forming DNA adducts demonstrated antagonism when combined with AN9. Conclusions The features unique to pixantrone-DNA adducts may be leveraged to enhance cancer cell kill and may be used to guide the design of pixantrone analogues that generate adducts with more favorable anticancer properties.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Effectiveness and safety of sorafenib for renal cell, hepatocellular and
           thyroid carcinoma: pooled analysis in patients with renal impairment

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      Abstract: Purpose Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with regulatory approval in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors like sorafenib may cause proteinuria. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness and safety of sorafenib in RCC, HCC and DTC patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods This retrospective study analyzed integrated data from prospective post-marketing surveillance studies for advanced RCC, HCC and DTC. Background factors considered to affect patients’ prognosis were balanced by propensity score matching using eGFR cut-off values of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results In the combined matched population (N = 2430), sorafenib was equally effective in patients with lower and higher eGFR values. Sorafenib had an overall response rate (ORR: complete + partial responses) of 18.9% and a disease control rate (DCR: complete + partial responses + stable disease) of 67.0%. There were no significant differences between lower and higher eGFR groups for response rates. Renal function was maintained throughout the 12-month study period in the combined population and in each indication. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were reported in 91.6% and 58.2% of propensity score-matched patients, and with no significant differences between lower and higher eGFR groups. Conclusion The effectiveness and safety of sorafenib were similar in patients with eGFR < 60 and ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 during the 12-month observation period, and without impairing renal function.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Feasibility of therapeutic drug monitoring of sunitinib and its
           implications on response and toxicity in patients with metastatic renal
           cell cancer

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      Abstract: Purpose Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). High variability in pharmacokinetics coupled with a proven exposure–effect relationship makes sunitinib an ideal candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The feasibility of TDM of sunitinib in patients with mRCC was evaluated in this prospective observational study in a real-world scenario. Methods Seventy patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib at a fixed dose of 50 mg per day were enrolled in the study. Total trough plasma level (TTL) of sunitinib (sunitinib and its active metabolite, SU12662), was measured between days 14/15 of cycle 1. The discriminatory potential of TTL of sunitinib for the prediction of responders and occurrence of grade ≥ 3 toxicity was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results The median TTL of sunitinib was 76 ng/mL. Forty six out of 70 patients were evaluable for response, whereas 60 out of 70 patients were evaluable for toxicity. Threshold concentrations obtained from ROC analysis showed that TTL of 60.75 ng/mL and 82.3 ng/mL was discriminatory for response and occurrence of grade ≥ 3 toxicity respectively. 31/34 (91.7%) patients having TTL ≥ 60.75 ng/mL responded to treatment, while only 5/12 (41.6%) responded when TTL was < 60.75 ng/mL (P = 0.001). On the other hand, the incidence of grade ≥ 3 toxicity was 9/24 (37.7%) in patients with TTL ≥ 82.3 ng/mL compared to 4/36 (11.1%) in patients with TTL < 82.3 ng/mL (P = 0.024). Conclusion The TTL range of 60.75–82.3 ng/mL was found to be optimal in terms of safety and efficacy. More than 50% of patients in our cohort attained TTL of sunitinib outside the optimal range, thus demonstrating the feasibility of TDM to improve safety and efficacy of sunitinib in mRCC.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • A phase 1 and pharmacodynamic study of chronically-dosed, single-agent
           veliparib (ABT-888) in patients with BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated cancer or
           platinum-refractory ovarian or triple-negative breast cancer

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      Abstract: Purpose BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated cancers (BRCAmut) have intrinsic sensitivity to PARP inhibitors due to deficiency in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair. There are similarities between BRCAmut and BRCAwt ovarian and basal-like breast cancers. This phase I study determined the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and preliminary efficacy of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib (ABT-888), in these patients. Patients and methods Patients (n = 98) were dosed with veliparib 50–500 mg twice daily (BID). The BRCAmut cohort (n = 70) contained predominantly ovarian (53%) and breast (23%) cancers; the BRCAwt cohort (n = 28) consisted primarily of breast cancer (86%). The MTD, DLT, adverse events, PK, PD, and clinical response were assessed. Results DLTs were grade 3 nausea/vomiting at 400 mg BID in a BRCAmut carrier, grade 2 seizure at 400 mg BID in a patient with BRCAwt cancer, and grade 2 seizure at 500 mg BID in a BRCAmut carrier. Common toxicities included nausea (65%), fatigue (45%), and lymphopenia (38%). Grade 3/4 toxicities were rare (highest lymphopenia at 15%). Overall response rate (ORR) was 23% (95% CI 13–35%) in BRCAmut overall, and 37% (95% CI 21–55%) at 400 mg BID and above. In BRCAwt, ORR was 8% (95% CI 1–26%), and clinical benefit rate was 16% (95% CI 4–36%), reflecting prolonged stable disease in some patients. PK was linear with dose and was correlated with response and nausea. Conclusions Continuous veliparib is safe and tolerable. The RP2D was 400 mg BID. There is evidence of clinical activity of veliparib in patients with BRCAmut and BRCAwt cancers.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Is age just a number' A population pharmacokinetic study of
           gemcitabine

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      Abstract: Purpose Pharmacokinetic exposure to gemcitabine and its metabolite, 2′,2′-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU), might be altered in elderly compared to their younger counterparts. It is unknown if age-based dose adjustments are necessary to reduce the development of treatment-induced adverse events. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and dFdU. Methods Pharmacokinetic sampling following a flexible limited sampling strategy was performed in patients ≥ 70 years after gemcitabine infusion. The data were supplemented with pharmacokinetic data in patients included in four previously conducted clinical trials. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was performed on the pooled dataset to assess the impact of age on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and dFdU. Results In total, pharmacokinetic data were available of 197 patients, of whom 83 patients were aged ≥ 70 years (42%). A two-compartment model for both gemcitabine and dFdU with linear clearances from the central compartments described the data best. Age, tested as continuous and categorical (< 70 years versus ≥ 70 years) covariate, did not statistically affect the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and dFdU. Conclusion Age was not of influence on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine or its metabolite, dFdU. Age-related dose adjustments for gemcitabine based on pharmacokinetic considerations are not recommended. Trial registration number NL39647.048.12, registered on May 3rd 2012.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • Assessment of cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated drug–drug interactions for
           ipatasertib using a fit-for-purpose physiologically based pharmacokinetic
           model

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      Abstract: Purpose Ipatasertib, a potent and highly selective small-molecule inhibitor of AKT, is currently under investigation for treatment of cancer. Ipatasertib is a substrate and a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4. It exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics at subclinical doses in the clinical dose escalation study. To assess the DDI risk of ipatasertib at the intended clinical dose of 400 mg with CYP3A4 inhibitors, inducers, and substrates, a fit-for-purpose physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of ipatasertib was developed. Methods The PBPK model was constructed in Simcyp using in silico, in vitro, and clinical data and was optimized and verified using clinical data. Results The PBPK model described non-linear pharmacokinetics of ipatasertib and captured the magnitude of the observed clinical DDIs. Following repeated doses of 400 mg ipatasertib once daily (QD), the PBPK model predicted a 3.3-fold increase of ipatasertib exposure with itraconazole; a 2–2.5-fold increase with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, erythromycin and diltiazem; and no change with a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor, fluvoxamine. Additionally, in the presence of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers, rifampicin and efavirenz, ipatasertib exposures were predicted to decrease by 86% and 74%, respectively. As a perpetrator, the model predicted that ipatasertib (400 mg) caused a 1.7-fold increase in midazolam exposure. Conclusion This study demonstrates the value of using a fit-for-purpose PBPK model to assess the clinical DDIs for ipatasertib and to provide dosing strategies for the concurrent use of other CYP3A4 perpetrators or victims.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • An effective AKT inhibitor-PARP inhibitor combination therapy for
           recurrent ovarian cancer

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      Abstract: Background Although the use of PARP inhibitor has received considerable amount of attention in ovarian cancer, PARP inhibitor resistance still emerges with disease progression. PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors have been proposed to synergize with PARP inhibition to slow tumor growth, but the exact molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Methods Utilizing tumor samples from recurrent EOC patients with platinum resistance and prior PARP inhibitor use, Mini PDX and PDX models were established to study the anti-tumor effect of AKT inhibitor (LAE003) and LAE003/PARP inhibitor (Olaparib) in combination. Five ovarian cancer cell lines were treated with Olaparib or LAE003 or in combination in vitro. Cell viability and apoptosis rate were measured after the treatments. Combination index by the Chou–Talalay was used to evaluate in vitro combination effect of Olaparib and LAE003. The protein expression level of PARP1 and PAR was measured by Western blot in cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in PDX tumor tissues. Results Tumor cells from two out of five platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients previously treated with PARP inhibitor were sensitive to AKT inhibition in Mini-PDX study. Inhibition of AKT further increased the response of tumor cells to Olaparib in a PDX model derived from a recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patient. Additive anti-proliferation effect of LAE003 and Olaparib was also observed in three ovarian cancer cell lines with high PARP1 protein level. Interestingly, mechanism study revealed that AKT inhibition decreased PARP enzyme activity as measured by PAR level and/or reduced PARP1 protein level in the tumor cell lines and PDX tumor tissues, which may explain the observed combined anti-tumor effect of LAE003 and Olaparib. Conclusion Collectively, our results suggest that the combination of AKT inhibitor and PARP inhibitor could be a viable approach for clinical testing in recurrent ovarian cancer patients.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Population pharmacokinetics of rucaparib in patients with advanced ovarian
           cancer or other solid tumors

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      Abstract: Purpose To develop a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model for rucaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Methods The PPK analysis used PK data from patients in Study 1014 (NCT01009190, n = 35), Study 10 (NCT01482715, n = 123), and ARIEL2 (NCT01891344, n = 300), including intensive intravenous data (12–40 mg), intensive and sparse oral data (12–360 mg single-dose, 40–500 mg once daily, and 240–840 mg twice daily [BID]), and intensive single-dose oral data under fasted conditions and after a high-fat meal (40, 300, and 600 mg). Results Rucaparib PK was well described by a two-compartment model with sequential zero-order release and first-order absorption and first-order elimination. A high-fat meal slightly increased bioavailability at 600 mg but not at lower doses; this is not considered clinically significant, and rucaparib can be taken with or without food. Covariate effects of baseline creatinine clearance and albumin on rucaparib clearance were identified. Despite numerical increases in exposure with renal impairment, no dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. No statistically significant relationships were detected for demographics, hepatic function (normal versus mild impairment), CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 phenotypes, or strong CYP1A2 or CYP2D6 inhibitors. Concomitant proton pump inhibitors showed no clinically significant effect on absorption. External validation of the model with data from ARIEL3 (NCT01968213) and TRITON2 (NCT02952534) studies showed no clinically meaningful PK differences across indications or sex. Conclusion The PPK model adequately described rucaparib PK, and none of the covariates evaluated had a clinically relevant effect. ClinicalTrials.gov Study 1014 (NCT01009190), Study 10 (NCT01482715), ARIEL2 (NCT01891344), ARIEL3 (NCT01968213), and TRITON2 (NCT02952534).
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
       
  • Population pharmacokinetic analysis of tepotinib, an oral MET kinase
           inhibitor, including data from the VISION study

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      Abstract: Purpose Tepotinib is a highly selective, potent, mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (MET) inhibitor, approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring MET exon 14 skipping. Objectives of this population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis were to evaluate the dose–exposure relationship of tepotinib and its major circulating metabolite, MSC2571109A, and to identify the intrinsic/extrinsic factors that are predictive of PK variability. Methods Data were included from 12 studies in patients with cancer and in healthy participants. A sequential modeling approach was used to analyze the parent and metabolite data, including covariate analyses. Potential associations between observed covariates and PK parameters were illustrated using bootstrap analysis-based forest plots. Results A two-compartment model with sequential zero- and first-order absorption, and a first-order elimination from the central compartment, best described the plasma PK of tepotinib in humans across the dose range of 30–1400 mg. The bioavailability of tepotinib was shown to be dose dependent, although bioavailability decreased primarily at doses above the therapeutic dose of 500 mg. The intrinsic factors of race, age, sex, body weight, mild/moderate hepatic impairment and mild/moderate renal impairment, along with the extrinsic factors of opioid analgesic and gefitinib intake, had no relevant effect on tepotinib PK. Tepotinib has a long effective half-life of ~ 32 h. Conclusions Tepotinib shows dose proportionality up to at least the therapeutic dose, and time-independent clearance with a profile appropriate for once-daily dosing. None of the covariates identified had a clinically meaningful effect on tepotinib exposure or required dose adjustments.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • PDI inhibitor LTI6426 enhances panobinostat efficacy in preclinical models
           of multiple myeloma

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      Abstract: Abstract The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), panobinostat (Pano), is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Despite regulatory approvals, Pano is used on a limited basis in MM due largely to an unfavorable toxicity profile. The MM treatment landscape continues to evolve, and for Pano to maintain a place in that paradigm it will be necessary to identify treatment regimens that optimize its effectiveness, particularly those that permit dose reductions to eliminate unwanted toxicity. Here, we propose such a regimen by combining Pano with LTI6426, a first-in-class orally bioavailable protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) inhibitor. We show that LTI6426 dramatically enhances the anti-MM activity of Pano in vitro and in vivo using a proteasome inhibitor resistant mouse model of MM and a low dose of Pano that exhibited no signs of toxicity. We go on to characterize a transcriptional program that is induced by the LTI6426/Pano combination, demonstrating a convergence of the two drugs on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway effectors ATF3 (Activating Transcription Factor 3), DDIT3/CHOP (DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 3, a.k.a. C/EBP Homologous Protein), and DNAJB1 (DnaJ homolog subfamily B member 1, a.k.a. HSP40). We conclude that LTI6426 may safely enhance low-dose Pano regimens and that ATF3, DDIT3/CHOP, and DNAJB1 are candidate pharmacodynamic biomarkers of response to this novel treatment regimen.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Efficacy and safety exposure–response relationships of apalutamide in
           patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer: results
           from the phase 3 TITAN study

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      Abstract: Purpose Apalutamide plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been approved for treatment of patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) based on data from phase 3 TITAN study. This analysis was conducted to describe pharmacokinetics of apalutamide and N-desmethyl-apalutamide and explore relationships between apalutamide exposure and selected clinical efficacy and safety observations. Methods 1052 patients were randomized to apalutamide + ADT (n = 525) or placebo + ADT (n = 527). A previously developed population pharmacokinetic model was applied. Cox regression analysis investigated the relationships between apalutamide exposure and overall survival (OS; n = 1004) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS; n = 1003). Logistic regression analysis assessed the relationships between apalutamide exposure and selected clinically relevant adverse events (n = 1051). Results Apalutamide + ADT treatment was efficacious in extending rPFS and OS versus placebo + ADT. Within a relatively narrow apalutamide exposure range (coefficient of variation: 22%), no statistical association was detected between rPFS, OS and apalutamide exposure quartiles. Incidence of skin rash and pruritus increased significantly with increasing apalutamide exposure. Conclusions Differences in apalutamide exposure were not associated with clinically relevant differences in rPFS or OS in patients with mCSPC. Patients with increased apalutamide exposure are more likely to develop skin rash and pruritus. Dose reductions may improve these adverse events, based on an individual risk–benefit approach.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
       
  • Lurbinectedin-induced thrombocytopenia: the role of body surface area

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      Abstract: Abstract Lurbinectedin is an alkylating agent approved for the second-line treatment of small cell lung cancer. Although initial studies showed no association between body surface area (BSA) and drug clearance, the recommended dose is 3.2 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. This recommendation was based on an exposure–response study, which demonstrated that patients with lower BSA had a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia. Herein we present the factors associated with BSA and thrombopoiesis, which may have contributed to the observed relationship.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
 
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