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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 318)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Pharmacognosy Magazine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.519
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0973-1296
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [448 journals]
  • Comprehensive analysis of agronomic characters, chemical compounds, and
           antioxidant activity in chaenomeles fruits at different developmental
           stages

    • Authors: Qingying Fang, Minzhen Yin, Shanshan Chu, Xiangwei Chang, Mei Yang, Huasheng Peng
      Pages: 657 - 665
      Abstract: Qingying Fang, Minzhen Yin, Shanshan Chu, Xiangwei Chang, Mei Yang, Huasheng Peng
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):657-665
      Background: Chaenomeles speciosa, also known as “Mugua” in Chinese, is a medicinal and edible plant with a long history of use. The optimal harvest time for Chaenomeles fruits is not clear. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the appropriate harvest time for different uses of Chaenomeles fruits. Materials and Methods: Agronomic characteristics, chemicals, and antioxidant activity of fruits were detected at several developmental stages (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, and 150 days after full bloom [DAFB]). Results: Based on agronomic characteristics (length, diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight), the whole development period was divided into rapid growth and slow growth stages. Physicochemical characteristics (flavonoids, triterpenes, and polyphenols) and pentacyclic triterpenoids (oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) were used to distinguish medicinal usage. Organic acid content (shikimic acid, quinic acid, malic acid, protocatechuic acid, and chlorogenic acid) was the major consideration for edible fruits. Principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were performed based on the whole indexes, and all developmental stages were divided into six clusters. Quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and oleanolic acid showed a positive relationship with antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The results showed that the 105–120 DAFB fruits were most suitable for use as Chinese medicine and the 120–150 DAFB fruits might be most suitable for use as edible flavored fruit.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):657-665
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_111_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemical investigation of bauhinia winitii based on alpha-glucosidase
           inhibitory effect and molecular docking affirmation

    • Authors: Sukanya Dej-adisai, Ichwan Ridwan Rais, Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul, Thanet Pitakbut
      Pages: 666 - 672
      Abstract: Sukanya Dej-adisai, Ichwan Ridwan Rais, Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul, Thanet Pitakbut
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):666-672
      Background: Bauhinia winitii (BW) (Fabaceae) plant revealed poor phytochemical investigation and anti-diabetic report. As one of the Bauhinia family which known with abundant flavonoids content, contrary, BW was only used for the treatment of diarrhea in Thai conservative remedy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents and anti-alpha glucosidase activity of BW. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical study was based on the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect. Isolated compounds were determined by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The alpha-glucosidase enzymatic inhibitory test was then connected with molecular docking affirmation. Results: The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from leaves and woods exhibited the strongest activity with above 60% inhibition. Six compounds were isolated from these extracts, naringenin (1), luteolin (2), isoquercitrin (3), griffonilide (4), lithospermoside (5), and epi-β amyrin (6). The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory test showed that flavonoids performed potential results with naringenin as the highest IC50 on 0.41 mM. The docking ensured the flavonoids activated at the same binding of alpha-glucosidase enzyme active site. Conclusion: This study would be the first report of chemical constituents from BW with its isolated compounds was presented anti-diabetic activity as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):666-672
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_204_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Effects of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis on pharmacokinetics and
           tissue distribution of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy
           stilbene-2-Ο-β-D-glucoside and β-ecdysterone in rats

    • Authors: Sun Yan-Tao, Wang Bing, Kang Ting-Guo
      Pages: 673 - 678
      Abstract: Sun Yan-Tao, Wang Bing, Kang Ting-Guo
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):673-678
      Background: The compatibility of Radix Polygoni multiflori-Achyranthes (RPMA) root is a Traditional Chinese medicine pair frequently used in the clinic and has good anti-osteoporosis (OP) effects. Materials and Methods: The extract of the compatibility of RPMA root was given orally in this study. The pharmacokinetics and the distribution in the tissues of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside and β-ecdysterone were considered by high-performance liquid chromatography in OP rats induced by retinoic acid and healthy rats. Quercetin was employed as the internal standard. According to the above results, the effects of Osteoporosis on the process of β-ecdysterone and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene 2-Ο-β-D-glucoside in rats were analyzed. Results: The results displayed that the peak time of β-ecdysterone in plasma of OP model rats was earlier and the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside in the model group were suggestively different from those in the normal group. The concentration distribution of the two components in each tissue of the model group was significantly diverse from that of the normal group. In particular, the concentrations of the two components in kidney tissue of the model group were inferior than those of the normal group at most time points. Conclusion: It is ventured that the two components may be convoluted in the treatment of OP. This experiment can deliver the reference for the further pharmacodynamic study of the compatibility of RPMA root and the correlation analysis of pharmacodynamics and the content of active ingredients in vivo.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):673-678
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_51_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Antifibrotic effects of lilii bulbus extract in a mouse model of
           bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    • Authors: Shuen-Cheng Chiang, Jihye Park, Jinhyun Bae, Hyejin Joo, Donghyun Lee, Kwan-Il Kim, Seok-Jae Ko, Jae-Woo Park, Youngmin Bu, Beom-Joon Lee
      Pages: 679 - 683
      Abstract: Shuen-Cheng Chiang, Jihye Park, Jinhyun Bae, Hyejin Joo, Donghyun Lee, Kwan-Il Kim, Seok-Jae Ko, Jae-Woo Park, Youngmin Bu, Beom-Joon Lee
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):679-683
      Objectives: Lilii Bulbus (LB), a lung-moistening herbal medicine, has been used to treat the symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis, including dry cough and dyspnea. In this study, we investigated whether LB water extract (LIB) has antifibrotic effects in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods: The effects of LIB and its mechanisms of action were investigated in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced (2 mg/kg, intratracheal) pulmonary fibrosis. LIB (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily for 10 days after induction. Changes in body weight, lung histology, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Results: LIB treatment decreased histological fibrotic change according to Ashcroft score, inflammatory cells, including total cells, macrophages, inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) in BALF, and TGF-β and α-SMA production in lung tissue. Conclusion: LIB exerted antifibrotic effects in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting inflammatory reactions and fibrotic mediators including TGF-β and α-SMA.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):679-683
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_117_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Data mining and network pharmacology study on dried tangerine peel and
           immature tangerine peel essential oil as a treatment for liver depression
           and insomnia

    • Authors: Gang Ke, Guilin Ren, Qingrong Pu, Rui Huang, Ting Liu, Lu Liu, Qian Gong, Jie Li, Rong Li
      Pages: 684 - 694
      Abstract: Gang Ke, Guilin Ren, Qingrong Pu, Rui Huang, Ting Liu, Lu Liu, Qian Gong, Jie Li, Rong Li
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):684-694
      Background: With the variation of modern medical mode from “disease medicine” to “health medicine,” the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) aromatherapy befits an important part of the exclusive health service resource intended for the prevention of diseases, rehabilitation and health care in China. Liver depression and insomnia are among the human health conditions that are apparently treated by TCMs since the ancient Chinese period. Objectives: To study the mechanism of volatile oil in treating liver depression and insomnia. Materials and Methods: Through data mining, we found dried and immature tangerine peel as a prescription for treating liver depression and insomnia. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was achieved to control the chemical composition of the essential oil. The effects of dried and immature tangerine peel essential oil on sleep latency and sleep duration were also explored using a pentobarbital-induced sleep test in mice. Network pharmacology tactics was executed to determine the potential active ingredients and molecular mechanism of the dried and immature tangerine peel essential oil in treating liver depression and insomnia. Results: Dried and immature tangerine peel essential oil has both calming and tranquilizing effects. Based on the network pharmacology, it was foretold that essential oil were mostly employed to treat liver depression and insomnia with predicted functions convoluted in regulating several neurotransmitters, such as the gamma-aminobutyric acid in the neuroactive receptor-ligand signaling pathway. Conclusion: In this study, the effect of volatile oil from dried tangerine peel and immature tangerine peel on mice sleep was established, and the mechanism of action for treating liver depression and insomnia was preliminarily deliberated.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):684-694
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_559_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Arbortristoside-A: A promising bioactive moiety from nyctanthes
           arbortristis linn. against hemorrhoid

    • Authors: Sanjita Das, Saumya Das, Aniruddh Pratap Singh, Manas Kumar Das, Nishu Gautam, P Ayash Kumar, Sradhanjali Mohapatra, Richa Shakya
      Pages: 695 - 699
      Abstract: Sanjita Das, Saumya Das, Aniruddh Pratap Singh, Manas Kumar Das, Nishu Gautam, P Ayash Kumar, Sradhanjali Mohapatra, Richa Shakya
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):695-699
      Background: Hemorrhoid disease is becoming a common problem in modernized society and its treatment is less developed. Although there are many plants used traditionally, proper scientific evidence is still lacking. Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is scientifically proved to have pharmacological activities. In this research work, an approach has been made to establish the potentiality of arbortristoside-A from N. arbortristis L. seeds against hemorrhoid. Materials and Methods: After characterization of arbortristoside-A from N. arbortristis L seeds, it was subjected to explore its effectiveness against hemorrhoid using rat ileum and following croton oil-induced hemorrhoid screening models. Results: Arbortristoside-A observed to have a significant reduction in inflammation due to hemorrhoid at 50 and 100 mg/kg (1.25 ± 0.06 and 0.76 ± 0.05, respectively). Reduction of severity scores was observed in animals due to arbortristoside-A mainly at its higher dose 100 mg/kg. It was also found to decrease the rectoanal coefficient significantly. Conclusion: Oral administration of arbortristoside-A was proved to have significant anti-hemorrhoid effect which was well compared to that of the standard drug. In the course of time, this research work will be helpful in providing new entities to the field of medicines and pharmaceutical sciences for the treatment of hemorrhoid.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):695-699
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_573_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • D-Pinitol-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ulcerative
           colitis in experimental rats: possible through inhibition of nuclear
           factor-κb/nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in
           b-cell inhibitor-alpha pathway and activation of colonic tight junction
           proteins

    • Authors: Hui Yang, Shanshan Yuan, Yongsheng Li
      Pages: 700 - 707
      Abstract: Hui Yang, Shanshan Yuan, Yongsheng Li
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):700-707
      Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a complex, chronic, and relapsing inflammatory disorder categorized by chronic inflammation followed by colonic damage. D-Pinitol has been recognized for its numerous pharmacological properties, counting antioxidant, antiulcer, and anti-inflammatory potential. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure the plausible mechanisms of action of pinitol on an experimental model of (2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid [TNBS])-induced UC in rats. Materials and Methods: TNBS (100 mg/kg, in 50% ethanol) was employed to induce UC in overnight fasted Sprague–Dawley rats. The rats have received either vehicle or (5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA]) or pinitol (5 or 10 or 20 mg/kg), p.o. for 14 days. Innumerable biochemical and molecular analysis were achieved in colon tissue. Results: Rectal instillation of TNBS resulted in the induction of colonic damage reproduced by marked (P < 0.05) reduced in colonic total antioxidant capacity (TOC) and significant (P < 0.05) surge in colonic oxido-nitrosative, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline levels. However, administration of pinitol (10 and 20 mg/kg) effectively inhibited these TNBS-induced colonic damages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis recommended that TNBS-induced upregulated cytokine (Tumour necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], (interleukins)-1 [ILs] β, and IL-6), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) messenger ribonucleic acid expressions were effectively (P < 0.05) condensed by pinitol. Western blot analysis recommended that pinitol conspicuously (P < 0.05) augmented tight junction proteins (claudin-1, occludin, and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)) expression to improve colon functions. TNBS-induced histopathology modification in the colon was significantly (P < 0.05) diminished by pinitol. Conclusion: D-Pinitol ameliorated TNBS-induced UC through inhibition of raised oxidative stress (TOC, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and Malondialdehyde) and inflammatory release (TNF-α, ILs, and NF-κB), which further progresses the intestinal barrier through activation of colonic tight junction proteins (ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin).
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):700-707
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_177_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Systems bioinformatic approach to determine the pharmacological mechanisms
           of radix astragali and radix angelicae sinensis in idiopathic pulmonary
           fibrosis

    • Authors: Yufeng Zhang, Lina Gu, Juan PuYang, Mengying Liu, Qingqing Xia, Weilong Jiang, Mengshu Cao
      Pages: 708 - 718
      Abstract: Yufeng Zhang, Lina Gu, Juan PuYang, Mengying Liu, Qingqing Xia, Weilong Jiang, Mengshu Cao
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):708-718
      Background: Earlier meta-analysis has publicized that Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae sinensis (RAS) are valuable to pulmonary function and exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Objectives: The objective of the study was to regulate the pharmacological mechanism of RA and RAS in IPF treatment. Materials and Methods: Microarray datasets for IPF were examined in the Gene Expression Omnibus database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were recognized. Active compounds and target genes of RA and RAS were recognized using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology platform. The DEGs were combined with the active target genes to construct a medicine-compound-gene network and a protein–protein interaction network using Cytoscape software. Gene ontology function enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment were studied using RGUI. A gene-pathway network was established using Cytoscape and molecular docking was done using AutoDock Tool and AutoDock Vina software. Results: We recognized 1566 DEGs and 40 candidate target genes of RA and RAS acting on IPF. The six key active compounds prophesied were quercetin, kaempferol, stigmasterol, 7-O-methylisomucronulatol, formononetin, and beta-sitosterol. Following network construction and enrichment, the two main pathways were acknowledged, namely the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway and advanced glycation end (AGE) products receptor for AGE signaling pathway. Preliminary molecular docking to confirm interactions between key compounds and their protein targets in the pathways was carried out. Conclusion: The pharmacological mechanisms of RA and RAS in IPF treatment have been further elucidated, which could show valuable in future studies on their mechanisms of action for the treatment of IPF.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):708-718
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_9_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Gas chromatography coupled with mass analysis phytochemical profiling,
           antiproliferative and antimigratory effect of tagetes lucida leaves
           extracts on cervical cancer cell lines

    • Authors: Onelio Mora-Candelario, Marco Antonio Leyva-V&#225;zquez, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catal&#225;n, Laura &#193;lvarez, Mayra Antunez-Mojica, Julio Ortiz-Ortiz, Macdiel Acevedo-Quiroz
      Pages: 719 - 727
      Abstract: Onelio Mora-Candelario, Marco Antonio Leyva-Vázquez, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalán, Laura Álvarez, Mayra Antunez-Mojica, Julio Ortiz-Ortiz, Macdiel Acevedo-Quiroz
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):719-727
      Background: Tagetes species have been extensively employed in folk medicine and have been demonstrated to exert various biological activities due to its phytochemical constituents, including those related to cancer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify, in Tagetes lucida organic leaf extracts, the bioactive compounds with antiproliferative and antimigratory activities on the human cervical cancer (CCa) cell lines human cervical cancer cell line (HPV-16) (SiHa) and human cervical cancer cell line (HPV-18) (HeLa), and on the non-cancer cell line human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Materials and Methods: The phytochemical profile of all Tagetes leaves extracts was determined by Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis and tested on SiHa, HeLa, and HaCaT cell lines using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and wound-healing assays. Results: The Gas chromatography coupled with mass analysis analysis revealed two main constituents identified in all extracts, the coumarins herniarin (17.152%–56.904% content) and scoparone (2.778%–34.817% content), the rest of identified constituents were terpenes where the geranyl acetate was the major constituent on hexane extract. On the anti-proliferative potential of T. lucida extracts, our present investigation revealed that all extracts decreased HeLa cell viability (half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of <190.26 mg/mL at 24 h and <220.41 mg/mL at 48 h) dose dependently; the cell viability of SiHa and HaCaT was not affected. Furthermore, the migration capacity of SiHa and HeLa cells decreased after 24 and 48 h with acetonic and methanolic extracts treatment, while on HeLa cells a more evident effect was observed with a <80% decrease in wound closure. Conclusion: Our findings revealed the coumarins presented in T. lucida as potential candidates of inhibiting cell proliferation and migration preferably toward CCa (HeLa cell line).
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):719-727
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_49_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Processed rehmanniae radix can improve cold syndrome damage of rats by
           regulating glycolipid metabolism

    • Authors: Mengmeng Wang, Yingying Ke, Yangyang Wang, Tong Liu, Yage Li, Zengfu Shan, Wangyang Mi, Ning Zhou, Weisheng Feng, Xiaoke Zheng
      Pages: 728 - 734
      Abstract: Mengmeng Wang, Yingying Ke, Yangyang Wang, Tong Liu, Yage Li, Zengfu Shan, Wangyang Mi, Ning Zhou, Weisheng Feng, Xiaoke Zheng
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):728-734
      Background: The traditional chinese medicine have medicinal property,and the property of the drug has been found to be mostly related to the body's substance and energy metabolism. Objectives: The present study intended to assess the drug property of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (PRR), called Shudihuang in traditional Chinese medicine and to discover its mechanism of cold syndrome in rats. Materials and Methods: Through the creation of a typical cold syndrome animal model, the appearance score, body weight, rectal temperatures, and survival rate of the animals treated were evaluated at different time points. Several indices in vivo correlated with glycolipid metabolism (glucose transporters (GLUT- 4), fructose phosphate kinase (PFK- 2), glycogen synthetase (GS), acetyl- CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), acetyl- CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2), hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) and hormone- sensitive lipase (HSL) were determined; Western blot is used to analyze of phosphorylated amp- dependent protein kinase (p- AMPK) appearance in liver tissues. Results: Compared with the normal group, the levels of GLUT- 4, PFK- 2, GS, ACC1, ACC2, HMG- CoA, and HSL in the model group all reduced significantly and p- AMPK protein expression diminished. Compared with the model group, PRR can significantly relapse to GLUT- 4, PFK- 2, GS, ACC1, ACC2, HMG- CoA, and HSL (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and rise the expression of p- AMPK. RR could suggestively diminution the level of these indices (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusion: Drug property of PRR was inferred as trending to “heat and warm,” which still essential for further study. PRR may recover the metabolic function of the cold syndrome model rats by distressing the process of glycolipid metabolism which is by triggering the AMPK signaling pathway.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):728-734
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_282_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Beneficial effect of moringa stenopetala (bak.f) cuf. on
           lithium–pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in experimental
           animals

    • Authors: Etsay Weldekidan Tsegay, Rajkapoor Balasubramanian, Kald Beshir Tuem, Abadi Kahsu Gebre
      Pages: 735 - 742
      Abstract: Etsay Weldekidan Tsegay, Rajkapoor Balasubramanian, Kald Beshir Tuem, Abadi Kahsu Gebre
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):735-742
      Background: Moringa stenopetala is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy in southern Ethiopia. Additionally, the plant material is used for the treatment of various ailments such as pain, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipemia. Aim of the Study: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of M. stenopetala crude extract on the development of lithium–pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–225 g were randomly divided into nine groups. Groups I, V, and VI served as normal control, positive control, and negative control, respectively. While Groups II–IV were treated with three different doses (400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) levels of crude extract in pre- and postinduction of status epilepticus (SE). On the other hand, Groups VII–IX were treated with the same three dose levels but after induction of SE only. All the rats, except those in normal control, were subjected to lithium (3 meq/kg) and pilocarpine (35 mg/kg) for the induction of SE. In addition, the elevated plusmaze and infrared actimeter models were used to evaluate anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy in SE animals. Results: The rats treated with the crude extract of M. stenopetala significantly increased the latency period to the first motor seizure (58.1 min) and SE (80.4 min) compared to the control group; those developed seizure and SE at 13.3 and 35.4 min, respectively. The chronic spontaneous seizure was less severity just below spontaneous recurrent seizure at Pinel and Rovner scale 6 in rats treated with extract pre- and postinduction. The crude extract also showed significant dose-dependent anxiolytic activity (P < 0.001) and improved locomotor activity (P < 0.001). The histopathological studies of hippocampus formation revealed that the extract prevented damages compared to control animals. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that a crude extract of M. stenopetala has anticonvulsant activity in a lithium–pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model M. stenopetala also reduced depression and anxiety associated with epilepsy that indicates that it is having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):735-742
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_276_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Optimization of steaming process for polysaccharides from panax
           notoginseng by box-behnken response surface methodology and comparison of
           immunomodulatory effects of raw and steamed panax notoginseng
           polysaccharides

    • Authors: Na Xing, Zhihong Zhang, Donghui Peng, Yuxin Li, Xue Wang, Rui Wang, Yanshan He, Yuanning Zeng, Haixue Kuang, Qiuhong Wang
      Pages: 743 - 751
      Abstract: Na Xing, Zhihong Zhang, Donghui Peng, Yuxin Li, Xue Wang, Rui Wang, Yanshan He, Yuanning Zeng, Haixue Kuang, Qiuhong Wang
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):743-751
      Aim: We aimed to optimize the steaming process of Pana notoginseng using response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods: The yield and immune activity of steamed P. notoginseng polysaccharides (s-PNPs) was used as the indicators to optimize the steaming parameters: wetting time, steaming time, and temperature. After this, chromatogram and spectroscopy were used to analyze the effect of steaming on the structure of polysaccharides. Then, our study evaluated the immunological activities between s-PNPs and raw P. notoginseng polysaccharides (r-PNPs) in vivo and in vitro. Results: The optimal parameters of processing technology were as follows: wetting time was 25 h, steaming time was 4 h, and steaming temperature was 110°C. The s-PNPs yield reached a maximum of 13.67 ± 0.39%, and the cell proliferation rate was 22.87 ± 0.015% under these conditions. The chemical analysis method showed that the polysaccharide content was slightly increased, the protein content was decreased and the monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that the glucose content in s-PNPs was significantly increased than r-PNPs. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the functional groups of polysaccharides changed partially between s-PNPs and r-PNPs. In addition, the immunological activity of s-PNPs was better than that of r-PNPs in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: These studies showed that polysaccharides content was increased, and the immune function of s-PNPs was enhanced after applying steaming, making this approach meaningful for the development and application of P. notoginseng with its immunomodulatory.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):743-751
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_42_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Antischistosomal evaluation of stem bark's extract and chemical
           constituents from anonidium mannii against schistosoma mansoni

    • Authors: Josette Linda Toussi Matchi, Diderot Tchamo Noungoue, Guilhem Chaubet, J&#233;r&#244;me Boissier, Isabelle Kuhn, Jean Claude Tchouankeu, Marc Nothisen, Sylvain Ursuegui, Silv&#232;re Augustin Ngouela, Alain Wagner
      Pages: 752 - 758
      Abstract: Josette Linda Toussi Matchi, Diderot Tchamo Noungoue, Guilhem Chaubet, Jérôme Boissier, Isabelle Kuhn, Jean Claude Tchouankeu, Marc Nothisen, Sylvain Ursuegui, Silvère Augustin Ngouela, Alain Wagner
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):752-758
      Context: Anonidium mannii (Annonaceae) has been traditionally used in Africa to treat stomach aches, schistosomiasis, and many other illnesses. However, few phytochemical study and no investigation on schistosomiasis have been conducted on this species. This neglected tropical disease, caused by a worm, comes second after malaria as the most devastating parasitical infection. Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-Schistosoma mansoni activity of fractions and constituents from A. mannii's stem bark and also to search efficient inhibitors of a recently discovered ectoenzyme of S. mansoni (S. mansoni nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + catabolizing enzyme [SmNACE]). Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark of A. mannii was extracted with ethanol/distilled water (80:20). The extract was then subjected to a partial bioguided separation by chromatography means. The structures of compounds were elucidated using modern spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, isolated and semisynthetic compounds were evaluated for their antischistosomal and cytotoxic activities. Results: Chemical investigation led to the isolation and identification of eight compounds, in the majority, obtained for the first time from this genus. In addition, acetylation reactions were carried out to afford a new semisynthetic derivative. Preliminary biological screening of the extracts and compounds showed very good activities from antiparasitic and enzymatic tests and also very good percentage of cell viability evaluation. Conclusion: Like praziquantel drug, gallic acid exhibited full anthelmintic activity at concentration of 100 μM. On the other hand, piperolactam D showed important inhibition on SmNACE (IC50 10 μM). Thus, standardization of bioactive fraction can help in improving traditional medicine. The optimization of those two compounds will enhance their selectivity/effectiveness and could be used as seed for the development of new remedies against schistosomiasis. Further, the study will be focus on other pathogens species of Schistosoma genus.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):752-758
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_29_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Species Difference of Asarinin Metabolism in vitro and its Effect on the
           Activity of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    • Authors: Hu Tingting, Shi Xianbao, Jiayin Hu, Yang Jingming
      Pages: 759 - 764
      Abstract: Hu Tingting, Shi Xianbao, Jiayin Hu, Yang Jingming
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):759-764
      Aim: To investigate the metabolic behaviors of asarinin in different species and found animal models with metabolic pathways similar to those in humans and to study the effect (inhibition or induction) between asarinin and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s). Materials and Methods: The interspecies difference in asarinin metabolism was studied using liver microsomes (LMs) from humans and six mammals including rabbits, mini pigs, dogs, monkeys, rats, and mice. The potential drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between asarinin and cytochrome P450 enzymes was studied by incubating with six CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs). Results: The metabolic profiles revealed substantially different metabolism of asarinin among the seven species. Moreover, the potential DDIs between asarinin and cytochrome P450 enzymes were studied in vitro by incubating with six CYP enzymes in HLMs, it was found that asarinin inhibited CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP2E1 activity. Conclusion: The interspecies comparison can help find other species that have similar metabolic pathways to humans. There were potential DDIs between asarinin and some drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):759-764
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_200_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Effects of cyclocarya paliurus flavonoid extract in non-alcoholic
           steatohepatitis mice: Intermeshing network pharmacology and in vivo
           pharmacological evaluation

    • Authors: Senling Feng, Jing Zhang, Baoying Liang, Hongliu Jin, Zhongwen Yuan
      Pages: 765 - 773
      Abstract: Senling Feng, Jing Zhang, Baoying Liang, Hongliu Jin, Zhongwen Yuan
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):765-773
      Objectives: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the second most common cause of the hepatitis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Cyclocarya paliurus (CPF) flavonoids extract in the treatment of NASH. To achieve this, we performed compound target prediction and network analysis based on the method of network pharmacology. We investigated the effect of CPF extract on NASH and the underlying molecular mechanisms using the in vivo pharmacological evaluation technique. Materials and Methods: First, NASH was induced in mice with a high-fat diet. Furthermore, experimental validation was carried out with a high-fat feed-induced NASH mouse model. Chemical compounds and human target proteins of CPF, as well as NASH-related human genes, were obtained from TCMSP, PubChem, and GenBank Database, respectively. Subsequently, molecular networks and typical pathways presumably involved in the treatment of CPF on NASH were performed by Metoscape and String software. Then, the network was constructed by using Cytoscape v3.7.2. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment was performed by using Database for Annotation. Then, the possible underlying mechanisms were studied using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results: The network pharmacology research showed that the CPF, which contained 26 compounds and 27 genes, regulated the most signaling pathways related to NASH. Moreover, the protein–protein interaction network based on the targets of CPF on NASH revealed that the core compounds were luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid, isoquercitrin, gallic acid, inositol, and myricetin, which were regulated by more than 4 compounds, remarkable related with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, cholesterol metabolism, bile secretion, type II diabetes mellitus, adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and insulin signaling pathway. In addition, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (CYP7A1), cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily A member 1 (CYP27A1), and fatty acid-binding protein 1 were treated as target genes of CPF in NASH. In vivo experiments indicated that CPF promoted Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α)/Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) signaling pathway in NASH mouse model. Conclusion: CPF played a role in inhibiting lipid response in NASH, which was closely associated with the modulation effect of CPF on PPAR α/PPAR γ signaling pathway.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):765-773
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_21_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Effect of aging and geographical variations in the content of
           guggulsterones and metabolomic profiling of oleogum resins of commiphora
           wightii: The Indian bdellium

    • Authors: Rajesh Kumar Verma, Mohammad Ibrahim, Avi Fursule, Ranjan Mitra, Jatavallabhula Lakshmi Narayana Sastry, Sayeed Ahmad
      Pages: 774 - 779
      Abstract: Rajesh Kumar Verma, Mohammad Ibrahim, Avi Fursule, Ranjan Mitra, Jatavallabhula Lakshmi Narayana Sastry, Sayeed Ahmad
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):774-779
      Background: The oleo-gum resin of Commiphora wightii has been utilized for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Ruthless exploitation of this species with negligible conservation efforts has led to its inclusion in the International Union for Conservation of Nature assemblage of endangered plant species. Objectives: In this paper, the impact of plant aging and geographical variations of guggulsterone (GS) content in oleo-gum resin collected from different geographical regions of India has been examined. Materials and Methods: The oleo-gum resin samples of different age groups and geographical regions of India (Kutch, Morena, Jodhpur, Jaipur, and Pakistan border of Kutch) were collected directly from the site and examined to check the concentration of GS-E and Z by high-performance liquid chromatography. Comprehensive metabolomic profiling of samples was done through liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: The data showed that there is no significant variation was found in the concentration of GS-E and Z with the change in the age of C. wightti plant. The oleo-gum resin samples of Morena showed a high percentage range of GSs (0.88%–2.17% w/w), whereas Jaipur samples showed a lower percentage of GSs (0.56%–0.89% w/w). From metabolomics profiling, 11 high-intensity metabolites were identified in samples of all major regions of India. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is no impact of plant aging on the GS contents. The Indian regions such as Morena, Kutch, and Pakistan border near Kutch regions can be used as a potential source for mass multiplication of guggul plants to get the good quality of the oleo-gum resin.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):774-779
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_76_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Antidepressant effect of buddleja cordata methanolic extract in chronic
           stress mouse model

    • Authors: Griselda Garci&#237;a-Alonso, Marco Atzori, Roberto Salgado, Adrian Ba&#237;ez, Marcela Miranda, Aylin Rangel, Edgar Guevara, Roberto Cuevas, Jos&#233; Manuel Vega-Riquer, Jos&#233; Guillermo Avila-Acevedo, Antonio Monroy-Noyola
      Pages: 780 - 785
      Abstract: Griselda Garciía-Alonso, Marco Atzori, Roberto Salgado, Adrian Baíez, Marcela Miranda, Aylin Rangel, Edgar Guevara, Roberto Cuevas, José Manuel Vega-Riquer, José Guillermo Avila-Acevedo, Antonio Monroy-Noyola
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):780-785
      Background: Preclinical studies in animal models have shown anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects of B. cordata. Objectives: To explore the antidepressant effect of a methanolic extract of Buddleja cordata leaves (MEBc) in early maternal separation and chronic restraint stress mouse model. Materials and Methods: From day 2 to day 21, the litters were removed from the maternal cage for 3h/day. Based on the pharmacological treatments, four experimental groups were established: sham animals without maternal separation, chronic restrained stress and oral administration (S group) or 10 ml/Kg/day saline solution (SS group) or 100 mg/kg/day of MEBc (MEBc group) or 20 mg/kg/day of fluoxetine (F group). After 4 weeks of these treatments the antidepressant activity was evaluated through behavioral tests and also IL-6 determinations were performed. Results: Mice administered with MEBc showed significantly diminished immobility time in the forced swimming test (P < 0.01), tail suspension test (P < 0.001) and the time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus-maze (P < 0.01) versus SS group. By contrast, animals treated with fluoxetine only diminished immobility time in the tail suspension test (P < 0.01). The vegetal extract was more effective (P < 0.05) that fluoxetine in preventing the increase of interleukin 6 (IL-6) over the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex region (45 and 20 %, respectively). Conclusion: These results demonstrate the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of MEBc over the chronic stress depression-induced model.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):780-785
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_554_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Astragaloside iv inhibits salmonella-induced meningitis via modulation of
           bacterial virulence and host response

    • Authors: Zhonghua Chen
      Pages: 786 - 792
      Abstract: Zhonghua Chen
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):786-792
      Objectives: To control Salmonella-induced meningitis, in this study, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-virulence activity and neuroprotective role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) under in vitro and ex vivo conditions during coculturing with Salmonella cells. Materials and Methods: The expression of virulence factors encoding genes was tested under in vitro conditions using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. In addition, Salmonella cells and neuron cells were cocultured to examine the expression of virulence-associated genes and host immune response. Results: The results of this study indicate that AS-IV efficiently inhibited the production of virulence factors such as biofilm formation and expression of virulence-associated genes including rpoS, phoP, sopA, and spvB under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. In addition, our results showed that AS-IV might boost the production of reactive oxygen species via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which in turn inhibits the growth and virulence factors of Salmonella cells. Conclusion: In summary, the results of this study provide insights into the mechanisms of AS-IV against Salmonella infections, and we identified a promising therapeutic agent against Salmonella-induced meningitis.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):786-792
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_55_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Cytotoxic and antitumor properties of ziziphus spina-christi found in al
           bahah region of hejaz area: An in vitro study on oral cancer cell lines

    • Authors: Abdulaziz Al Shahrani, Jagadish Virupaxi Hosmani, Ibrahim AlShahrani, Rafi Ahmad Togoo, Tasneem Sakinatul Ain, Sadatullah Syed, Master Luqman Mannakandath, Mohamed Khaled Abdulrahman Addas
      Pages: 793 - 801
      Abstract: Abdulaziz Al Shahrani, Jagadish Virupaxi Hosmani, Ibrahim AlShahrani, Rafi Ahmad Togoo, Tasneem Sakinatul Ain, Sadatullah Syed, Master Luqman Mannakandath, Mohamed Khaled Abdulrahman Addas
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):793-801
      Background: Ziziphus spina-christi (Z s-c) is traditionally been used as an herbal medicine and is part of Rhamnaceae plants family. Objectives: The probable cytotoxic effect of Z s-c, found in Al Bahah region, on human oral cancer cell lines (SCC-9) was assessed in the present study. Materials and Methods: Bioactive compounds of Z s-c were evaluated using thin layer chromatography, analytical high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxic effect of Z s-c on SCC-9 cells was revealed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mechanisms involved in the cytotoxicity of Z s-c were investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase-9 and p53 activity was investigated using the Western Blot analysis. Results: Z s-c has potent variable cytotoxic effect on SCC-9 cells demonstrated through lactate dehydrogenase and comet assay. An effective cell cycle arrest was observed at the G2M phase with apoptotic induction. They significantly induce G2M cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis in SCC-9 cell line. The expression of caspase-9 and p53 was induced by Z s-c in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Z s-c may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product-based therapeutic agents against oral cancer.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):793-801
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_65_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Chrysoeriol promotes functional neurological recovery in a rat model of
           cerebral ischemia

    • Authors: Guoqiang Shao, Shenxu Chen, Yijie Sun, Haizhu Xu, Fangfang Ge
      Pages: 802 - 810
      Abstract: Guoqiang Shao, Shenxu Chen, Yijie Sun, Haizhu Xu, Fangfang Ge
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):802-810
      Background: Stroke is among the leading causes of death worldwide, but current treatment options for cerebral ischemia are limited. Chrysoeriol is a natural isolated agent with bioactive pharmacological properties. Materials and Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and chrysoeriol was administrated for the subsequent 3 days. Neurological deficit scores, apoptosis, oxidant stress, and inflammatory cytokines were then measured and the effects on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were evaluated. Results: Behavioral tests revealed that chrysoeriol promoted recovery from neurological deficits in rats. Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that chrysoeriol alleviated neurological damage. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining demonstrated that chrysoeriol reduced the area of ischemia. An enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that chrysoeriol inhibited excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) and regulated oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione). Caspase-3 immunofluorescence and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay showed that chrysoeriol reduced neuronal apoptosis. The ELISA assay and Nissl staining showed that chrysoeriol promoted neuronal survival and growth. Western blotting and an immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the neuronal effects of chrysoeriol. The Wnt inhibitor, Dickkopf-related protein-1, validated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the neuroprotective effects of chrysoeriol. Conclusion: Chrysoeriol exerts neuroprotective effects in a rat model of MCAO. These effects are mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):802-810
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_329_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of Esophageal Mucosa Protective Efficacy of Evodiae Fructus and
           Toosendan Fructus against Duodenogastroesophageal Reflux Esophagitis

    • Authors: Jin A Lee, Mi-Rae Shin, Hae-Jin Park, Seong-Soo Roh
      Pages: 811 - 818
      Abstract: Jin A Lee, Mi-Rae Shin, Hae-Jin Park, Seong-Soo Roh
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):811-818
      Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease accounts for more than 20% of the Western population and is a disease that is also increasing in incidence in Asian countries. Objectives: This work was aimed to assess the impact of Evodiae Fructus and Toosendan Fructus against esophageal mucosal injury with Duodenogastroesophageal Reflux Esophagitis (DGER). Materials and Methods: After inducing DGER through surgery, the group was separated (n = 8) and the drug was administered for 2 weeks: normal rats (Normal), Water-treated DGER (Control), Evodiae Fructus 200 mg/kg-treated DGER (EF), and Toosendan Fructus 200 mg/kg-treated DGER (TF). Results: The administration of EF and TF significantly protected the esophageal mucosa. Furthermore, the content of bilirubin, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum decreased in EF and TF. In addition, those significantly regulated the protein expression of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), AP-1/MAPK, mtrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), and tight junction. Conclusion: Taken together, the administration of EF and TF significantly protected the esophageal mucosa of reflux esophagitis, and in particular, the esophageal mucosa protective effect was better in EF. Furthermore, EF and TF inhibited the JAK/STAT and AP-1/MAPK pathway, and EF significantly modulated the expression of MMP/TIMP. These results show the potential of EF as a material for DGER by alleviating inflammation and improving esophageal function.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):811-818
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_277_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Hemidesmus indicus (l)-derived 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid attenuates
           dna damage and autophagy in sk-mel28 cells via p-erk pathway

    • Authors: Yuanxin Miao, Zhenyu Chen, Zhiguo Wang, Chunnan Hu, Lu Chen, Hao Sun
      Pages: 819 - 827
      Abstract: Yuanxin Miao, Zhenyu Chen, Zhiguo Wang, Chunnan Hu, Lu Chen, Hao Sun
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):819-827
      Background: Melanoma, a type of skin cancer, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently available therapy shows numerous side effects; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop safe drugs to treat this malignancy. Recently, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA), a bioactive plant component, has been reported to demonstrate various biological functions. Objectives: In this study, the anticancer effect of HMBA was assessed against SK-MEL-28 cells. Materials and Methods: DNA damage was assessed using DNA strand break assay (comet assay), apoptosis-mediated cell death by Annexin-V, and Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling experiments. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Results: Increasing the time of exposure decreases the IC25, IC50, and IC75 value of HMBA. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture medium of control and HMBA-exposed cells directly correlate its cytotoxic property. HMBA caused dose-dependent DNA damage and induced apoptosis in SK-MEL-28 cells. AO-staining showed autophagy in HMBA-treated cells, whereas Western blot analysis revealed increase in the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Furthermore, our results show that ERK phosphorylation is responsible for the activation of autophagy protein such as LC3 and p62. These observations reveal that the activation of caspase-3 and commencement of autophagy is mediated through activation of ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion: Therefore, HMBA inhibits propagation of SK-MEL-28 cells via stimulation of apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, HMBA promotes apoptosis and autophagy by phosphorylation of vital signaling protein such as ERK, however other vital signaling such as p38 and JNK also phosphorylate. Thus, HMBA may be of therapeutic importance for the treatment of melanoma.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):819-827
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_489_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Myricitrin attenuates hypoxic-ischemia-induced brain injury in neonatal
           rats by mitigating oxidative stress and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related
           factor 2/hemeoxygenase-1/antioxidant response element signaling pathway

    • Authors: Ting Yan, Man Lu
      Pages: 828 - 835
      Abstract: Ting Yan, Man Lu
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):828-835
      Background: Neonatal hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an overwhelming infantile neurological disability causing extreme morbidity and mortality with limited therapies available. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotective efficacy of myricitrin and elucidate the mechanism of action of myricitrin through the regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/antioxidant response element (ARE)-signaling pathways in neonatal rats. Materials and Methods: Seven-day-old neonatal rats were divided into four groups. Sham group served as the control group. After inducing HI through standard operation procedure, two groups of neonatal rats were intraperitoneally administered with 20 and 40 mg/kg bw of myricitrin twice a day for up to 1 week. At the end of the experiment, we assessed the brain infract area, edema, and motor coordination activity by using Rota Rod test. Furthermore, we measured the level of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in the brain tissue samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to detect the inflammatory molecules expression including HO-1 being the activator of Nrf2 where further mediates the transcriptional activation of ARE. Subsequently, the hypothesis was further confirmed by the immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. Results: Myricitrin administration ameliorated HI-induced increase in infract volume and edema of the brain, as well as improved neurobehavioral impairments. Interestingly, myricitrin significantly reduced the level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and reduced the levels of nuclear fraction of Nrf2-ARE and cytosolic fraction of HO-1 enzyme activation. Conclusion: In summary, myricitrin improved the antioxidant defense mechanism and ameliorated the oxidative stress-associated neurological damage via modulating Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 pathway in neonatal rats.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):828-835
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_397_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Rhei rhizoma and citri pericarpium mixture regulates oxidative stress and
           tight junction proteins on acute reflux esophagitis

    • Authors: Mi-Rae Shin, Jin A Lee, Min Ju Kim, Hae-Jin Park, Seong-Soo Roh
      Pages: 836 - 843
      Abstract: Mi-Rae Shin, Jin A Lee, Min Ju Kim, Hae-Jin Park, Seong-Soo Roh
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):836-843
      The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a Rhei Rhizoma and Citri Pericarpium (RC) mixture on esophageal mucosal injury in rats with acute reflux esophagitis (ARE). An experimental model of ARE was established surgically. RC mixture was administered at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight 90 min prior to induction of ARE, and its effects were compared with those of the Control group, which underwent the ARE procedure without treatment. Administration of the RC mixture significantly ameliorated the severity of the histopathological changes compared with the ARE control group. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the esophageal tissues of reflux esophagitis-induced rats was significantly decreased by the RC mixture. Moreover, the increased ROS production induced by the increase in NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and p22phox was down-regulated by the RC mixture. The protein expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines together with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through the degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB was modulated by the RC mixture treatment. The levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, were significantly increased. Additionally, RC mixture supplementation improved esophageal barrier function through upregulating claudin −1, −3 and −4 protein expression levels. Taken together, these results suggest that RC mixture treatment may attenuate the esophageal mucosal injury, possibly through suppression of ROS formation, inhibiting NF-κB inflammatory signaling, and up-regulating the expression of proteins associated with tight junction formation, including claudin −1, −3 and −4.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):836-843
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_207_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidant and antiglycation effects of cucurbita argyrosperma seeds
           polysaccharide

    • Authors: Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez
      Pages: 844 - 851
      Abstract: Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):844-851
      Background: Diabetes is related with oxidative stress caused by free radicals and glycation of the proteins. Objectives: This study aimed to isolate a polysaccharide (PLY) from Cucurbita argyrosperma seeds and determine their antioxidant and antiglycation effects. Materials and Methods: The PLY fraction was isolated by hot water extraction and purified by ion-exchange chromatography (A103S). La antioxidant capacities were evaluated by using lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase, and malondialdehyde activities, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) with stimulation H2O2 in pancreatic β INS-1 cells. In addition, scavenging activities of PLY were estimated in 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, 2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, β-carotene-linoleic acid, chelating activity, ferric reducing power, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, and superoxide anion radical assays. Therefore, the protective effect of PLY on reducing sugar-induced bovine serum albumin glycation was examined. Results: PLY consisted of mannose, galactose, and glucose in the molar ratio of 1.12:6.12:5.60 with an average molecular weight of 102326 Da. PLY had a pronounced radical scavenging potential as well as total antioxidant effect and prevented the cells ROS generation and increased the level of antioxidant enzymes. PLY inhibited the formation of carboxymethyllysine and fructosamine, prevented protein oxidation increasing the level of thiol, and decreasing protein carbonyl level, interacts with reactive dicarbonyl compounds (methylglyoxal), and decreased amyloid cross β-structure level. Conclusion: These results indicate that PLY enhanced antioxidant capacity and prevented oxidative stress and AGEs progression in its different stages. consequently, had promising effects on diabetes and associated disorders.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):844-851
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_364_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the rapid
           characterization and screening of volatile oil of euphorbia fischeriana
           steud

    • Authors: Qi Liu, Yu-Mei Wang, Wen-Hao Fu, Ai-Hua Zhang
      Pages: 852 - 856
      Abstract: Qi Liu, Yu-Mei Wang, Wen-Hao Fu, Ai-Hua Zhang
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):852-856
      Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry is a powerful tool which is used in the analysis of volatile components in food and herbal medicine. Euphorbia fischeriana Steud., a traditional Chinese herb, has been used for thousands of years in China. Recently, scientists are exploring more on the pharmacological action of E. fischeriana. However, so far, there is no information regarding the volatile constituents of E. fischeriana. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate and characterize the global chemical ingredients of volatile oil of E. fischeriana under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In this study, an accurate and rapid GC combined with the mass spectrometric method and MassHunter tool were employed to identify the comprehensive constituents and explored the absorbed components in rat serum after oral administration of E. fischeriana. According to our results, a total of 28 compounds were identified via in vitro analysis by matching with the NIST database. Of them, the following 14 compounds were tentatively characterized in the serum samples: (−)-alpha-cedrene; (+/-)-sesquithuriferone; cedrol; acorenone; neocembrene; geranylgeraniol; abietatriene; abieta-7,13-diene; cembrenol; sclareol; ethyl linoleate; isopimara-7,15-dien-3-one; abietadienal; and abietinol. Most of the compounds identified were diterpenes and sesquiterpenes. These results might be useful in various pharmacological and pharmacodynamic research, and the established method could offer valuable chemical information for bioactive volatile components characterization.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):852-856
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_265_19
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Anti-fatigue activities and phytochemical compositions of turnip (brassica
           rapa l.) extracts

    • Authors: Yi Zhou, Zhanqiang Li
      Pages: 857 - 864
      Abstract: Yi Zhou, Zhanqiang Li
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):857-864
      Background: Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) is a biennial plant, which belongs to Cruciferae Brassica, and is widely distributed at an altitude of 3000-4000 m in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in western China. Turnip has been shown to have anti-hypoxia activities; however, there is limited scientific evidence of its anti-fatigue effects. Objectives: The objective is to evaluate the anti-fatigue properties and characterize the phytochemical compositions of turnip. Materials and Methods: Different proportions of turnip extract, including the total aqueous extract (50 mg/kg, per oral, [p. o.]), supernatant (50 mg/kg, p. o.), and polysaccharide (50 mg/kg, p. o.), were administered to mice, once a day for 20 days; following which, the exhaustive swimming time, liver and muscle glycogen, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), blood lactic acid (BLA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were tested. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and Q-Exactive Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry were used to analyze the turnip compounds. Results: Turnip, especially the supernatant portion, increased the exhaustive swimming time (476.01 ± 59.63 vs. 217.89 ± 32.70 s, P < 0.01), levels of liver glycogen (87.22 ± 16.28 vs. 18.53 ± 4.82 mg/kg, P < 0.01), and muscle glycogen (5.93 ± 0.51 vs. 2.56 ± 0.62 mg/kg, P < 0.01); decreased the activities of LDH (6,351.84 ± 344.81 vs. 7,359.54 ± 382.48 U/L, P < 0.01) and CK (974.66 ± 112.89 vs. 1,115.69 ± 113.52 U/L, P < 0.05); and decreased the levels of BLA (8.68 ± 1.86 vs. 10.99 ± 1.52 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and BUN (4.40 ± 0.44 vs. 5.21 ± 0.52 mmol/L, P < 0.01) when compared to the control group, and exhibited the best performance in relieving fatigue. Fourteen low-molecular-weight chemicals were detected in the supernatant portion, some of which had anti-fatigue effects. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that turnip prevents fatigue in mice and has the potential to be developed into health products to reduce fatigue.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):857-864
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_470_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Chemopreventive strategies of teucrium alopecurus de noé water
           insoluble fraction for hepatocarcinogenesis in lipopolysaccharide-induced
           mice models: Pharmacological attributes

    • Authors: Fatma Guesmi, Manel Ben Ali, Ramla Ben Mouhoub, Amor Hedfi, Mohammad S AL-Harbi, Ahmed Landoulsi
      Pages: 865 - 871
      Abstract: Fatma Guesmi, Manel Ben Ali, Ramla Ben Mouhoub, Amor Hedfi, Mohammad S AL-Harbi, Ahmed Landoulsi
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):865-871
      Background: In Tunisia, the ethnobotanical study and biological activity of Teucrium alopecurus (TAlp), belonging to Labiatea family, is poorly recorded. Objectives: The goal of this study is to investigate the inhibitory potential of TAlp in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage. Methods: Cell viability was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenylbromide (Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue) assay. We treated tumor cells with TAlp essential oil (0.005 and 0.01 μg/ml) and curcumin (10 μM). Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Therefore, we carried out the in vivo malignant hepatoma induced by LPS and the preventive effect of water-insoluble fraction extracted from aerial parts of TAlp. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect was investigated by the determination of serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Results: Our results indicated the significant anti-proliferative effects of TAlp on colon tumor cell lines alone or in combination with curcumin. Moreover, hepatocellular inflammation induced by LPS increases metastasis in liver cells and was suppressed by intragastric administration of TAlp essential oil. Inflammation is tightly associated with carcinogenesis at both the initiation and development of tumor. Conclusion: Overall, the Tunisian plants showed potency in the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):865-871
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_585_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • In vivo evaluation of acalypha indica extract incorporated electrospun
           guar/pva nanofibrous mats for use as active wound dressing material

    • Authors: Preethi Jenifer, Mangathayaru Kalachaveedu, Ramajayan Pandian
      Pages: 882 - 885
      Abstract: Preethi Jenifer, Mangathayaru Kalachaveedu, Ramajayan Pandian
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):882-885
      Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Acalypha indica extract incorporated electrospun guar/PVA nanofibrous mats for use as active wound dressing material by in vivo. Background: A. indica is a well-known plant for its wound healing properties and has been used for decades by tribes of Asia and Africa. Materials and Methods: In vivo evaluation of fabricated electrospun nanofibrous mats with 5% A. indica incorporated 3:7 of 1 wt% guar/10 wt% PVA by excisional wound model on rats followed histopathological and gene expression analysis. Results: The results indicated that guar/PVA nanofiber loaded with 5% of A. indica extract showed higher performance and synergistic effect for wound healing applications by remarkably capable of healing the wounds up to 97.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. Histopathology and gene expression results revealed complete closure of wound with narrow scar, complete epidermal–dermal lining formation, maximum upregulation of wound healing related genes of involucrin, collagen IV, integrin 6-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):882-885
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_275_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of free radical scavenging with in vitro antiproliferative
           properties of different extracts of pluchea lanceolata (dc.) oliv. and
           hiern in cancer cell lines

    • Authors: Ravikiran Bhausaheb Humbare, Joyita Sarkar, Anjali Abhay Kulkarni, Swapnil C Kamble
      Pages: 886 - 892
      Abstract: Ravikiran Bhausaheb Humbare, Joyita Sarkar, Anjali Abhay Kulkarni, Swapnil C Kamble
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):886-892
      Background: Traditional medicinal plants have gained attention as a repository of pharmacologically active molecules. Extracts derived from Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. and Hiern are reported to be antimalarial and can protect against chemical-induced neurotoxicity. There is limited research on solvents for extraction of metabolites from stem of P. lanceolata and their anti-cancer potential, which needs to be investigated. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate potency of stem powder, extracted in ethanol, methanol, aqueous, and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solvents, for their phytochemical content, antioxidant potential, and in vitro antiproliferative nature in human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The stem extracts of P. lanceolata were evaluated by phytochemical assays, antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity, and assay of reducing power), and antiproliferative potential against cervical (ME-180 and HeLa) and hepatic (HepG2) carcinoma cell lines by MTT assay. Results: Quantification studies showed that the total phenolic content was in the range 7.44–38.91 mg GAE/g of stem extract, while the flavonoids were present in the range 29.05–109.62 mg QE/g of stem extract. Aqueous (DPPH antioxidant capacity assay±PVPP, H2O2 free radical scavenging method-PVPP, assay of reducing power+PVPP, and total antioxidant capacity-PVPP), methanol (H2O2 free radical scavenging method+PVPP, NO radical scavenging assay+PVPP, total antioxidant capacity-PVPP), and ethanol (NO radical scavenging assay-PVPP, assay of reducing power-PVPP) extracts had the highest antioxidant potential in respective assays. MTT findings demonstrated that the aqueous extract was more potent in ME-180 and HepG2 cell lines while the PBS extract caused maximal cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. HepG2 cells were more susceptible than ME-180 and HeLa cells for any of the extract or standard drug evaluated. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of P. lanceolata stem is the most promising extract for further cancer-cell toxicity.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):886-892
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_252_21
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Kirenol ameliorated ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis in mice via
           suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory response

    • Authors: Tao Liu, Huixia Gao, Ying Gao, Dengwei Guo, Wen Si, Hongfang Du
      Pages: 893 - 899
      Abstract: Tao Liu, Huixia Gao, Ying Gao, Dengwei Guo, Wen Si, Hongfang Du
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):893-899
      Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a type-1 inflammatory ailment characterized by the recurrent nasal rubbings, sneezing, and other unpleasant symptoms. AR is an imperative airway inflammatory ailment that affects nearly 20%–30% of the global population. Kirenol is a bioactive diterpenoid with numerous beneficial properties. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to assess the therapeutic role of kirenol against the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR in mice via suppression of oxidative and inflammatory responses. Materials and Methods: AR was induced in BALB/c mice via administration of OVA. Subsequently, the animals were administered with 20 and 30 mg/kg of kirenol. Dexamethasone was utilized as the standard drug. The frequencies of nasal rubbings and sneezing of the mice were recorded. The status of histamine, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2), and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) was examined by using commercial assay kits. The levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were investigated through the marker-specific assay kits. The mononuclear cells were isolated from the spleen of the animals of untreated AR group and cultured in an RPMI-1640 medium. The mRNA expression of a thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in the spleen cells was studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. The status of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines was examined by using assay kits. Results: Kirenol (20 and 30 mg/kg)-administered AR mice exhibited reduced frequency of nasal rubbing and sneezing. Kirenol effectively reduced the status of OVA-specific IgE and histamine in AR mice. The status of PGD2, LTC4, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-33, TNF-α, ECP status, and eosinophil count was diminished by the kirenol. The level of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species was reduced and the activity of superoxide dismutase markedly was improved by the kirenol. The kirenol-supplemented spleen-derived mononuclear cells showed downregulation of mRNA expression of TXNIP. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the curative role of kirenol against the OVA-mediated AR in mice, which can be a promising agent to treat AR in humans in future.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):893-899
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_513_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Salutary effect of brucine in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis: Role of
           t-helper 1, t-helper 2 cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa b, stat3, and rorc
           signaling in mouse models

    • Authors: Shuang Cai, Yanping Shi, Jifeng Tian, Xia Li, Hui Ji
      Pages: 900 - 906
      Abstract: Shuang Cai, Yanping Shi, Jifeng Tian, Xia Li, Hui Ji
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):900-906
      Background: Allergic rhinitis, a type 2 inflammatory sickness, is mediated by immunoglobulin E in nasal mucosa due to airborne allergens and formed inflammatory infiltrates containing of eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and T-cells, which escorts the secretion of granule proteins, cytokines, and chemokines, thereby inducing the onset of clinical symptoms. Brucine, an indole alkaloid, it activates anti-inflammation, antitumor, antiproliferative property, and antiangiogenic in a tumor and it is considered for the usefulness in the cure of analgesia, diabetes, anemia, and gonorrhea. Contrariwise, the role of brucine on allergic rhinitis (AR) was unresolved. Materials and Methods: Hence, the vital mechanism indispensable for the defending achievement of brucine was discovered by giving ovalbumin (OVA) to mice. BALB/c mice were induced for AR by OVA administration. Brucine and dexamethasone were given before OVA. Nasal physical rubbing, the generation of cytokine response, and histological examination studies were achieved in mice. Results: Nasal rubbing and sneezing were enhanced in the brucine group of mice than in the AR group of mice. Above and beyond, the malondialdehyde level was diminished and prevented the signaling of cytosolic STAT3 and NF-κBp65 pathway activation through the modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: Moreover, brucine abridged signs of augmented goblet cells, vascular congestions in the lamina, elevated ciliary loss, and improved eosinophil filtration in the AR model. Hence, our finding outcomes exposed that brucine has an auspicious tactic meant for immunotherapy in AR disease.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):900-906
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_511_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Management of early lung tumorigenesis by corilagin via modulation of
           proliferating cell nuclear antigen and apoptotic pathway

    • Authors: Junfeng Sun, Jianbo Zhu, Xin&#39;an Wang, Hongju Wang
      Pages: 907 - 914
      Abstract: Junfeng Sun, Jianbo Zhu, Xin'an Wang, Hongju Wang
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):907-914
      Background: Corilagin is vastly found in plants and incorporated in countless traditional medicinal systems to treat various ailments including cancer disease. However, till now, no scientific study has been done to validate its efficiency with appropriate experimental evidence. Resulting, this study examined the ameliorative effects of corilagin in benzo(a)pyrene (B[a] P)-induced lung cancer in vivo. Methods: Experimentally, the B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]) was administered orally to initiate lung cancer in mice, and the supplementation of prophylactic and therapeutic treatment by corilagin (30 mg/kg b.wt.) was observed for changes in b.wt. and lung weight, tumor incidence, oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation), tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, 5′-nucleotidase, alpha-keto dehydrogenase, citric acid cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase), histological and immunohistochemical analysis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and apoptotic mRNA gene expression (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome-c). Results: B(a)P-induced animals exhibited unusual changes in b.wt. and lung weight, tumor incidence, oxidative stress marker, enzymatic antioxidants, tumor markers, histological lung tissue damage, number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and apoptotic mRNA gene expression. On prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of corilagin, the animals showed reinstatement of all the above alterations to the near normal. Conclusion: These findings of all the analyzed data demonstrate that the B(a)P-induced animals of pre- and post-treated with corilagin may prevent initiation of lung cancer, hence establishing its chemopreventive effect against lung tumorigenesis.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):907-914
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_483_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • An ethnobotanical survey of traditional medicinal plants used against
           elephantiasis in the or Tambo District, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    • Authors: Zanele Adams, Oriel Thekisoe, Lisa Buwa-Komoreng
      Pages: 915 - 922
      Abstract: Zanele Adams, Oriel Thekisoe, Lisa Buwa-Komoreng
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):915-922
      Introduction: Elephantiasis is a medical condition associated with skin thickening and excessive swelling of the lower limbs. It is caused by parasitic nematodes which are filarial in nature; hence, it is also known as lymphatic filariasis. The condition is classified into filarial and nonfilarial elephantiasis. Filarial elephantiasis is caused by infection with nematode worms which are transmitted by several genera of mosquitoes. Nonfilarial elephantiasis is a result of cases such as tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, leprosy, and repeated streptococcal infections, leading to elephantiasis. South African population is at risk of the disease and treating it is still a problem. This study documents medicinal plants that are used for the treatment of elephantiasis and related infections in the OR Tambo District municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey of medicinal plants used against elephantiasis in King Sabata Dalindyebo, Ingquza-Hill and Nyandeni municipal areas in the OR Tambo District of the Eastern Cape Province was conducted using structured questionnaires. The information was gathered from 30 traditional healers, 4 herbalists, and 3 young people with indigenous knowledge. Results and Discussion: A total of 29 plant species belonging to 23 families that are used to treat elephantiasis were recorded. Convolvulaceae (Ipomoea oblongata), Dioscoreaceae (Dioscorea sylvatica), Gunneraceae (Gunnera perpensa), Hypoxidaceae (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), and Ranunculaceae (Clematis brachiata) were the most frequently mentioned in all three municipal areas. The H. hemerocallidea had the highest use-value (0.31), followed by Elephantorrhiza elephantina (0.27) and G. perpensa (0.24). Bark, root, rhizome and leaf decoction and infusion, as well as cooked bark or leaves are commonly used to treat elephantiasis. Some plant parts are ground into powder, mixed with water and applied on affected skin as poultice.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):915-922
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_434_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
  • Chemopreventive effect of tomentosin against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]
           anthracene-induced breast cancer progression and inhibits the cell
           proliferation in MCF-7 cells via downregulation of PI3K/AKT signaling
           pathway

    • Authors: Jinqing Zhang, Shuling Zhang, Zhonghua Song, Haifeng Li
      Pages: 923 - 930
      Abstract: Jinqing Zhang, Shuling Zhang, Zhonghua Song, Haifeng Li
      Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):923-930
      Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer which disturbs not only the older population but also women under 35 years old. It also ranks to be the first in cancer-connected deaths of women. Objectives: Hence, we intended the study to investigate the efficacy of tomentosin as an anticancer agent against breast cancer in vitro and in vivo conditions. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer was persuaded to the rats by DMBA administration and then treated with the tomentosin for 28 days. The levels of estrogen receptor α (ER-α), oxidative stress markers, biotransformation enzymes, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokines were assessed. Histopathological analysis was done to check the anticancer effect of tomentosin. In vitro studies were finished with MCF-7 cells and the cells were exposed to cell viability assay and different fluorescent staining assays such as H2DCFDA, JC-1, and AO/EtBr dual staining to inspect the tomentosin effects. The expression of PI3K/AKT signaling molecules was considered by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Results: Our in vivo consequences recommend tomentosin knowingly reduced the levels of ER-α, CYP450, CYT-b5, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokines and augmented the levels of CAT, GST, and GR enzymes. Histological results authorize anticancer effects of tomentosin. The qPCR results exhibited that tomentosin significantly lessened the expression of PI3K/AKT and augmented the apoptosis-related p38/JNK1 expression in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Overall, our results settle tomentosin possibly inhibit the DMBA-convinced breast cancer induction in rats and they also induce apoptosis in estrogen-dependent breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines.
      Citation: Pharmacognosy Magazine 2021 17(76):923-930
      PubDate: Mon,24 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_558_20
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 76 (2022)
       
 
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