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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Molekul     Open Access  
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 311)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
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Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
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Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
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Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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International Journal of Tryptophan Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.149
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1178-6469
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • The Footprint of Kynurenine Pathway in Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Authors: Moein Ala, Seyed Parsa Eftekhar
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Kynurenine pathway is the main route of tryptophan metabolism and produces several metabolites with various biologic properties. It has been uncovered that several cardiovascular diseases are associated with the overactivation of kynurenine pathway and kynurenine and its metabolites have diagnostic and prognostic value in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, it was found that several kynurenine metabolites can differently affect cardiovascular health. For instance, preclinical studies have shown that kynurenine, xanthurenic acid and cis-WOOH decrease blood pressure; kynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid prevent atherosclerosis; kynurenic acid supplementation and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibition improve the outcome of stroke. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) overactivity and increased kynurenine levels improve cardiac and vascular transplantation outcomes, whereas exacerbating the outcome of myocardial ischemia, post-ischemic myocardial remodeling, and abdominal aorta aneurysm. IDO inhibition and KMO inhibition are also protective against viral myocarditis. In addition, dysregulation of kynurenine pathway is observed in several conditions such as senescence, depression, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), cirrhosis, and cancer closely connected to cardiovascular dysfunction. It is worth defining the exact effect of each metabolite of kynurenine pathway on cardiovascular health. This narrative review is the first review that separately discusses the involvement of kynurenine pathway in different cardiovascular diseases and dissects the underlying molecular mechanisms.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T11:14:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221096643
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Behavioral, Hormonal, and Serotonergic Responses to Different Restricted
           Feeding Schedules in Rats

    • Authors: Raheel Saeed, Khalid Mahmood, Sadia Basharat Ali, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      To determine the effect of long-term restricted feeding schedules on behavior, serotonergic responses, and neuro-endocrine functions, metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) in the striatum, expression of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) auto-receptor in the raphe nuclei and circulating levels of leptin and corticosterone were determined in female Wistar rats kept on excessive food restriction schedule. Due to a role of dietary deficiency of tryptophan (Trp) in influencing serotonergic neurotransmission, circulating levels of Trp were also determined. Estimations were done in 2 different restricted feeding models: time-restricted feeding (TRF) and diet restricted (DR). TRF animals were given access to food ad libitum only for 2 hours/day. The DR animals were given a small calculated amount of food each day. We found that chronic food restriction for 5 weeks cause a significant decrease in the body weight and produced hyperactivity in both, TRF and DR animals. Levels of Trp were declined in circulation and in the striatum. Similarly, the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were decreased in the striatum. Also, the expression of 5-HT1A auto-receptor was declined in the raphe nuclei. These changes in 5-HT metabolism and 5-HT1A auto-receptor expression were more profound in DR animals as compare to TRF animals. Similarly, hypoleptinemia and increased corticosterone found in both models was higher in DR animals. Effect of dietary deficiency of Trp in the modulation of striatal 5-HT metabolism and its consequences on circulating leptin and corticosterone are discussed.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T06:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221104729
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Tryptophan and Biogenic Amines in the Differentiation and Quality of Honey

    • Authors: Cristine Vanz Borges, Aline Nunes, Vladimir Eliodoro Costa, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi, Leticia Silva Pereira Basilio, Gean Charles Monteiro, Marcelo Maraschin, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Honey is a natural product with beneficial properties to health and has different characteristics depending on the region of production and collection, flowering, and climate. The presence of precursor amino acids of- and biogenic amines can be important in metabolomic studies of differentiation and quality of honey. We analyzed 65 honeys from 11 distinct regions of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil) as to the profile of amino acids and biogenic amines by HPLC. The highest L-tryptophan (Trp), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-OH-Trp), and tryptamine (Tryp) levels were detected in Cfb climate and harvested in 2019. Although we have found high content of serotonin, dopamine, and L-dopa in Cfb climate, the highest values occurred in honey produced during the summer 2018 and at altitudes above 900 m. Results indicate that the amino acids and biogenic amine levels in honeys are good indicators of origin. These data warrant further investigation on the honey as source of amino acids precursor of serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine, what can guide the choice of food as source of neurotransmitters.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221102098
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Plasma Kynurenine: A Promising Marker for the Assessment of Renal

    • Authors: Fatimah Brekdar, Muhammed Imad Khayat, Afraa Zrieki
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide issue due to the high prevalence and the serious complications, including death. Kidney functions are routinely evaluated by measuring creatinine levels, which are influenced by many factors (age, sex, diet, race, and body mass). Kynurenine is the first stable metabolite in the kynurenine pathway, which is activated in the course of CKD. Kynurenine levels in plasma can be correlated to kidney functions in CKD patients. We investigated the relationship between kynurenine levels and kidney functions indicators, and the influence of some variables (sex, age, and preexisting hypertension or diabetes) on its levels in CKD patients.Material And Methods:The study included 66 CKD patients in stages 3 to 5 seen at Tishreen University Hospital, and 22 subjects served as control. Kynurenine levels were measured by using a kynurenine ELISA kit (IDK® immundiagnostik).Results:Kynurenine levels were significantly increased with the increase in CKD stage (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T07:22:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221102093
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • The Kynurenine Pathway and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Inflammation as a
           Common Denominator

    • Authors: Filip Jovanovic, Aboorva Sudhakar, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex metabolic disorder commonly seen in females of reproductive age. The pathophysiology of PCOS is multifactorial and includes dysfunction in ovarian steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis, impaired gonadotropin levels, insulin resistance, gut microbiota imbalance, genetic predisposition, and lifestyle preferences. Low-grade inflammatory conditions such as obesity and impaired glucose tolerance are common metabolic disturbances in women with PCOS. A growing body of literature suggests strong evidence rendering PCOS in close proximity with chronic inflammation as documented by high levels of serum white blood cells, C-reactive protein, and various proinflammatory cytokines seen in this condition. Inflammation seems to be the most common metabolic denominator between the kynurenine pathway and PCOS. The association of tryptophan and kynurenine pathway has already been well documented in mood disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, chronic pain conditions, and different inflammatory states. In this manuscript, we describe the influence of sex steroid hormones on different enzymes of the KP; inflammatory nature of PCOS and CRP as a marker of IDO/TDO activity; and the effects of altered gut flora in women with PCOS. This review provides a novel view of the available evidence of tryptophan and downstream metabolites in PCOS in the context of underlying inflammation.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221099214
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Alterations in Tryptophan Metabolism Affect Vascular Functions: Connected
           to Ageing Population Vulnerability to COVID-19 Infection'

    • Authors: Arehally M Mahalakshmi, Shasthara Paneyala, Bipul Ray, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Mona Dehhaghi, Benjamin Heng, Gilles J Guillemin, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T09:03:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221083946
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Loss of Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in Knockout Mice Does Not
           Affect the Development of Skin Lesions in the Imiquimod-Induced Mouse
           Model of Psoriasis

    • Authors: Vivek Choudhary, Etsubdenk Ajebo, Rawipan Uaratanawong, Shinjini C Spaulding, Sarah Hossack, Xunsheng Chen, Jianrui Xu, Mrunal Choudhary, Debra L Irsik, Carlos M Isales, Wendy B Bollag
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan resulting in tryptophan depletion and the accumulation of catabolites such as kynurenine. The expression/activity of IDO in various cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, results in an inhibition of T-cell responses in a number of situations, such as toward allogeneic fetuses and tissue grafts. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease involving T cells; kynureninase and its generation of catabolites downstream of IDO are reported to play an important role in this disease. We hypothesized that mice lacking the IDO1 gene would exhibit a hyperactive immune response and an exacerbation of skin lesions in the imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis. Littermate wild-type and IDO1-knockout mice were treated with imiquimod for 5 days, and the severity of psoriasiform skin lesions assessed using the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), ear edema measured using a digital caliper, and thickness of the epidermis determined by histology. Expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes was monitored using quantitative RT-PCR. Imiquimod increased ear edema, PASI scores, and epidermal thickness in both WT and IDO1 knockout mice; however, there were no differences observed between the 2 genotypes. There were also no differences in imiquimod’s induction of skin inflammatory mediators, indicating no effect of IDO1 gene loss in this psoriasis model. Although these data suggest a lack of involvement of IDO1 in psoriatic skin inflammation, other possible mechanisms, such as compensatory changes in other pathways and the involvement of the IDO2 isoform, must also be considered.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T01:17:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469221078191
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Intestinal Dysbiosis, the Tryptophan Pathway and Nonalcoholic

    • Authors: Jiezhong Chen, Luis Vitetta, Jeremy D Henson, Sean Hall
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), which may then progress to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. NASH is characterized by both steatosis and inflammation. Control of inflammation in NASH is a key step for the prevention of disease progression to severe sequalae. Intestinal dysbiosis has been recognized to be an important causal factor in the pathogenesis of NASH, involving both the accumulation of lipids and aggravation of inflammation. The effects of gut dysbiosis are mediated by adverse shifts of various intestinal commensal bacterial genera and their associated metabolites such as butyrate, tryptophan, and bile acids. In this review, we focus on the roles of tryptophan and its metabolites in NASH in association with intestinal dysbiosis and discuss possible therapeutic implications.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T05:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211070533
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Kynurenine and Anthranilic Acid in the Peritoneum Correlate With the Stage
           of Gastric Cancer Disease

    • Authors: Katarzyna Gęca, Karol Rawicz-Pruszyński, Radosław Mlak, Ilona Sadok, Wojciech P Polkowski, Magdalena Staniszewska
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background:This study aimed to assess the importance of selected kynurenines measured in peritoneal fluid, lavage washings, and blood serum in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) based on the clinical and pathological staging of TNM for a more precise evaluation of the stage of the disease.Methods:Data were collected from a prospectively maintained database of all patients operated on advanced GC between July 2018 and August 2020. In total, 98 patients were eligible for the analysis according to the REMARK guidelines.Results:Among the various kynurenines analyzed in this study, we found that the median concentration of anthranilic acid (AA) in the peritoneal lavage washings was significantly higher in patients with positive nodes (pN1-3) compared to those with negative nodes (pN0) (P = 0.0100). Based on the ROC analysis, AA showed diagnostic utility in the differentiation of the pN staging (P = 0.0047). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between AA in peritoneal fluid with stage pN (P = 0.0116) and a positive correlation between AA in peritoneal lavage washings with stage cT (P = 0.0101). We found that the median concentration of kynurenine (Kyn) in peritoneal lavage washings was significantly higher in patients with cM1 compared to cM0 patients (P = 0.0047). Based on the ROC analysis, Kyn showed diagnostic utility in cM staging differentiation (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T06:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211065620
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Association Between Tryptophan Metabolites, Physical Performance, and
           Frailty in Older Persons

    • Authors: Ahmed Al Saedi, Sharron Chow, Sara Vogrin, Gilles J Guillemin, Gustavo Duque
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Frailty is defined as a syndrome of physiological decline in late life, characterized by marked vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. A robust biomarker for frailty is still lacking. Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism through the kynurenine pathway (KP) plays essential roles in aging, the musculoskeletal system, and physical performance. In this study, we quantified 7 KP metabolites, including kynurenine (KYN), kynurenine acid (KYNA), quinolinic acid (QUIN), picolinic acid (PIC), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and anthranilic acid (AA) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the serum of 85 participants (median age 75; 65% female; 28 non-frail, 29 pre-frail, and 28 frail) at the Nepean Osteoporosis and Frailty (NOF) Study. We looked at the association between TRP metabolites and physical performance, sarcopenia, and frailty. After adjusting for age and sex, our results showed that KYN and KYN/TRP were associated with higher interleukin (IL)-6 levels (r = .324 and r = .390, respectively). KYNA and its ratios to other products (mainly KYNA/KYN, KYNA/QUIN, and KYNA/PIC) were associated with a lower likelihood of frailty by Fried’s criteria (OR 0.93 [0.88, 0.98], P = .009) and Rockwood index (r = −.241, P = .028) as well as a lower likelihood of sarcopenia (OR 0.88 [0.78, 1.00], P = .049). QUIN and QUIN/KYN showed an association with increased IL-6 (r = .293 and .204 respectively), higher likelihood of frailty (OR 1.02 [1.00, 1.04], P = .029 and OR 6.43 [2.23, 18.51], P = .001 respectively) and lower physical function (r = −.205 and r = −.292). In conclusion, different TRP metabolites have various associations with physical performance, frailty, and sarcopenia. Defining the underlying mechanisms may permit the development and validation of new biomarkers and therapeutics for frailty and musculoskeletal conditions targeting specific metabolites of the TRP catabolic pathway.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T11:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211069951
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Activation of the Kynurenine Pathway and Production of Inflammatory
           Cytokines by Astrocytes and Microglia Infected With Neospora caninum

    • Authors: Deivison Silva Argolo, Julita Maria Pereira Borges, Luciana dos Santos Freitas, Gizelle Alves Pina, Maria Socorro Grangeiro, Victor Diógenes Amaral da Silva, Alexandre Moraes Pinheiro, Rodrigo Souza Conceição, Alexsandro Branco, Gilles Guillemin, Silvia Lima Costa, Maria de Fátima Dias Costa
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the central nervous system, astrocytes and microglia contribute to homeostasis, regulating the immune response to infectious agents. Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects different animal species and it is encysted in their nervous tissue while triggering an immune response modulated by glia. This study aimed to evaluate the infection of primary cultures of rat glial cells by N. caninum through the catabolites of tryptophan, the expression of inflammatory mediators and the integrity of neural tissue. Infection with this coccidium resulted in morphological and functional changes, particularly astrogliosis and microgliosis, and increased the expression of the inflammatory mediators TNF, IL1β, IL-10, and arginase, as well as mRNA for CCL5 and CCL2, molecules involved in the CNS chemotaxis. The infection with N. caninum in glial cells also triggered the activation of the tryptophan pathway, characterized by increased kynurenine 2,3 monooxygenase (KMO) mRNA expression, and by the production of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN). Moreover, glia-neuron co-cultures, when exposed to the secretome derived from N. caninum infected glial cells, presented greater neurons distribution and formation of neurite extensions, associated to morphological changes in astrocytes compatible with neuro-preservation. Considering that the tryptophan catabolism is associated to immune response, these findings suggest that glial activation in N. caninum infection should be responsible for modulating the inflammatory status in an attempt to restore the nervous system homeostasis, since excessive inflammatory response can cause irreversible damage to tissue preservation.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T06:41:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211069946
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Differential Effect of Non-Purified and Semi-Purified Standard Diets on
           Kynurenine and Peripheral Metabolites in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    • Authors: Yuhei Yajima, Alato Okuno, Isamu Nakamura, Teruo Miyazaki, Akira Honda, Atsushi Toyoda
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The kynurenine (Kyn) pathway plays crucial roles in several inflammation-induced disorders such as depression. In this study, we measured Kyn and other related molecules in the blood plasma, brain, and urine of male C57BL/6J mice (B6) fed non-purified (MF) and semi-purified (AIN-93G and AIN-93M) standard rodent diets. Mice fed MF had increased plasma Kyn levels compared with those on AIN93-based diets, as well as decreased hippocampal Kyn levels compared with those fed AIN-93G. Previous studies showed that branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) suppress peripheral blood Kyn transportation to the brain, but plasma BCAA levels were not significantly different between the diet groups in our study. Urine metabolome analysis revealed that feed ingredients affected the excretion of many metabolites, and MF-fed mice had elevated excretion of kynurenic and quinolinic acids, pivotal metabolites in the Kyn pathway. Collectively, the level of critical metabolites in the Kyn pathway in the central and peripheral tissues was strongly affected by feed ingredients. Therefore, feed selection is a critical factor to ensure the reproducibility of experimental data in studies involving rodent models.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T09:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211066285
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
  • Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 Expression is Changed During Bladder Cancer
           Cell Invasion

    • Authors: Hellen Joyce Sousa Pereira Santos, Luiz Henrique Gomes Matheus, Aline Silva, Stephanie Vanin Dalmazzo, Andressa Assunção Santos, Letícia Rafaela Alves Rubens Santos, Diego Mota Souza, Sabrina Thalita Reis, Ivan Pereira Nascimento, Humberto Dellê
      Abstract: International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Volume 15, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The severity of the bladder carcinoma (BC) is directly linked to cell invasion and metastasis. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) is an INF-γ-induced immunomodulating enzyme that has been linked to the cancer cell invasiveness. Because IDO1 is variable among the tumors, we analyzed its expression in the BC invasion using BC mice models and cell culture. MB49 cells were orthotopically or ectopically inoculated in C57Bl6 mice to evaluate IDO1 by immunohistochemistry. For in vitro experiments, expression of IDO1 and INF-γ was evaluated in grade-1 (RT4) and in grade-3 (T24) BC cell lines. Invading and non-invading T24 cells were separated using the Matrigel/Transwell system, of which total RNA was extracted immediately or after 2 weeks of subculture. Finally, IDO1 was silenced in T24 cells to verify its role on cell invasiveness. In both animal models, IDO1 was differentially expressed between non-invading and invading cells. In cell culture, T24 cells expressed more IDO1 than RT4 cells, independently of the INF-γ expression. IDO1 was differentially expressed between non-invading and invading T24 cells, a difference that was lost by long-time subculture. IDO1 silencing resulted in diminished cell invasiveness. In conclusion, IDO1 expression is changed during bladder carcinoma invasion, playing an important role in this process.
      Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T09:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/11786469211065612
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
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