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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Acta Pharmaceutica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.362
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1330-0075 - ISSN (Online) 1846-9558
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Design and development of novel 1,2,3-triazole chalcone derivatives as
           potential anti-osteosarcoma agents inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling

    • Abstract: Osteosarcoma (OS) is an uncommon tumour that mainly affects bone in children and adolescents. The current treatment options of OS are of limited significance due to their immense side effects. In the present manuscript, we have developed a novel series of 1,2,3-triazole chalcone derivatives as potential agents against OS. The compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their PI3K and mTOR inhibitory activity using luminescent kinase assay, and Lance ultra assay, resp. The entire set of compounds showed significant to moderate inhibition of both kinases in the nanomolar range. The three most active compounds: 4e (N-(4-(3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)acryloyl)phenyl)-4-nitrobenzamide), 4f (N-(4-(3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)acryloyl)phenyl)-4-chlorobenzamide) and 4g (4-bromo-N-(4-(3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)acryloyl)phenyl)benzamide), were evaluated for anticancer activity against human OS cancer cell line (MG-63), liver cancer cell line (HepG2), lung cancer cell line (A549) and cervical cancer (HeLa), using MTT assay. Among the tested series, compound 4e showed a better inhibitory profile than gedatolisib against PI3K and was approximately comparable to that of gedatolisib against mTOR. The most significant inhibitory activity was observed for compound 4e against all cell lines (MG-63, HepG2, A549 and HeLa), still somewhat lower to comparable to that of gedatolisib, but with the highest potency against MG-63 cells. Compound 4e was further tested for anti-cancer activity against other OS cells and showed to be equipo-tent to gedatolisib against U2OS and Saos-2 cells. Moreover, it was also found non-toxic to normal cells (BEAS-2B and MCF 10A). The effect of compound 4e was further determined on apoptosis of Saos-2 cells by Annexin-PI assay, where it significantly amplified the percentage of apoptotic cells. Novel 1,2,3-triazole chalcone derivatives are potential agents against OS.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of phytoestrogen containing
           food and dietary supplements: DPPH free radical scavenging activity by

    • Abstract: Soy, red clover, chaste tree, hop and flax have all been found to contain a wide range of phytoestrogenic compounds, and a large number of dietary supplements contain their extracts as principal ingredients. This study is aimed to evaluate the total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of phytoestrogen-containing food and formulated dietary supplements. The HPLC-DPPH method was applied for DPPH free radical scavenging activity testing of various phytoestrogen-containing samples. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in dietary supplements were higher than in functional food samples; multiple-botanical-source preparations showed higher polyphenol content and antioxidant activity than the mono-botanical counterparts. Furthermore, the correlation between polyphenol content and anti-oxidant activity was strongly statistically significant, so it might be concluded that antioxidant activity is proportional to the content of these secondary metabolites. The most striking batch-to-batch deviations were represented by one chaste berry-based product (RSD 41.3 %) and one red clover derived product (RSD 57.9 %). The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the phenolic profile and antioxidant properties of phytoestrogen containing food and dietary supplements.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Potential anti-ageing effects of probiotic-derived conditioned media on
           human skin cells

    • Abstract: In this study, the protective functions of bacteria-free conditioned media from Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species against ultraviolet radiation-induced skin ageing and associated cellular damage were investigated. The effects of ultraviolet radiation-induced reactive oxygen species production were suppressed by all conditioned media; particularly, the loss of cell viability and downregulation of collagen gene expression were significantly reversed by the conditioned media from B. longum and B. lactis. Further exa mination of potential anti-pigmentation effects revealed that the B. lactis-derived conditioned media significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production in human epidermal melanocytes. Further, the conditioned media suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal- related kinase, which functions as an upstream regulator of melanogenesis. Therefore, B. lactis-derived conditioned media can potentially protect against cellular damage involved in skin-ageing processes.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Fingolimod exerts anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma
           cell lines YAP/TAZ suppression

    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a notably global health challenge with high mortality rates and poor prognosis. The deregulation of the Hippo signalling pathway, especially the overexpression and activation of downstream effector Yes-associated protein (YAP), has been demonstrated to result in the rapid malignant evolution of HCC. In this context, multiple efforts have been dedicated to targeting YAP for HCC therapy, but effective YAP inhibitors are still lacking. In this study, through a YAP-TEAD (8×GTIIC) luciferase reporter assay, we identified fingolimod, an immunomodulatory drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, as a novel YAP inhibitor. Fingolimod suppressed the proliferation of HCC cell lines by downregulating the protein levels as well as the trans-activating function of YAP. Overall, our current study not only identifies fingolimod as a novel YAP-targeting in hibitor, but also indicates that this clinically-approved drug could be utilized as a potential and feasible therapeutic drug for HCC.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Metabolomics reveal the mechanism for anti-renal fibrosis effects of an
           -butanol extract from

    • Abstract: To reveal the mechanism of anti-renal fibrosis effects of an n-butanol extract from Amygdalus mongolica, renal fibrosis was induced with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and then treated with an n-butanol extract (BUT) from Amygdalus mongolica (Rosaceae). Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated, renal fibrosis (RF) model, benazepril hydrochloride-treated model (1.5 mg kg−1) and BUT-treated (1.75, 1.5 and 1.25 g kg−1) groups and the respective drugs were administered intragastrically for 21 days. Related biochemical indices in rat serum were determined and histopathological morphology observed. Serum metabolomics was assessed with HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The BUT reduced levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and albumin and lowered the content of malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline in tissues. The activity of superoxide dismutase in tissues was increased and an improvement in the severity of RF was observed. Sixteen possible biomarkers were identified by metabolomic analysis and six key metabolic pathways, including the TCA cycle and tyrosine metabolism, were analyzed. After treatment with the extract, 8, 12 and 9 possible biomarkers could be detected in the high-, medium- and low-dose groups, respectively. Key biomarkers of RF, identified using metabolomics, were most affected by the medium dose. A. mongolica BUT extract displays a protective effect on RF in rats and should be investigated as a candidate drug for the treatment of the disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation and molecular modelling of bis-Schiff base derivatives as
           potential leads for management of diabetes mellitus

    • Abstract: Developing a medication to cure and manage diabetes mellitus complications is of interest in medicinal chemistry. Toward this end, six bis-biphenyl-salicylaldehyde Schiff base derivatives have been evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibition, antiglycation and anti-inflammation potentials. Four compounds (compounds 2–5) showed an excellent α-glucosidase inhibitory effect superior to that produced by acarbose. Additionally, the docking study revealed that these compounds are anchored within the binding pocket of α-glucosidase via hydrogen bonding, π-stacking and hydrophobic interactions, comparable to a high number of hydrogen bonding involved in anchoring acarbose. Interestingly, all tested compounds showed varying degrees of antiglycation activity with superior activity for two of them (compound 1 and compound 6) compared to the standard rutin. Moreover, the results indicated an outstanding anti-inflammatory activity for two compounds (compounds 1 and 6) compared to ibuprofen.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Dasatinib enhances curcumin-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and protective
           autophagy in human schwannoma cells HEI-193: The role of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K
           signalling pathway

    • Abstract: The present study was carried out in human schwannoma cells (HEI-193) to determine the combined anti-cancer effect of curcumin and dasatinib. Cells were treated with curcumin only, dasatinib only, or the combination of curcumin and dasatinib for 24 hours. Cellular toxicity, cell proliferation, and cell death were determined by LDH, MTT, and trypan blue dye assays, respectively. ELISA based kit was used to determine apoptotic cell death. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of apoptotic and autophagy-associated protein markers. Similarly, expression levels of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway-related proteins were studied using Western blotting. Cell death and apoptosis were significantly higher in HEI-193 cells treated with curcumin and dasatinib combination compared to individual controls. The combination of curcumin and dasatinib significantly enhances autophagy markers compared to individual controls. Furthermore, the combination of curcumin and dasatinib significantly activates Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway compared to individual controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of curcumin and dasatinib significantly enhances cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and protective autophagy in HEI-193 cells through Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • AXL inhibitors selected by molecular docking: Option for reducing
           SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and the benefit from vaccines is still insufficient since COVID-19 continues to be dia g-nosed in vaccinated individuals. It is, therefore, necessary to propose specific pharmacological treatments against COVID-19. A new therapeutic target on the human cellular membrane is AXL (anexelekto), proposed as an independent pathway by which interaction with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 allows the virus to enter the cell, without the participation of ACE2. AXL serves as another gate through which SARS-CoV-2 can enter cells. Therefore, any stage of COVID-19 could be ameliorated by hindering the interaction between AXL and SARS-CoV-2. This study proposes ten compounds (1–10), selected by mole-cu lar docking and using a library of nearly 500,000 compounds, to develop a new drug that will decrease the interaction of AXL with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. These compounds have a specific potential site of interaction with AXL, between Glu59, His61, Glu70 and Ser74 amino acids. This site is necessary for the interaction of AXL with the S protein. With this, we propose to develop a new adjuvant treatment against COVID-19.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Bivalirudin exerts antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial
           virus-induced lung infections in neonatal mice

    • Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of small airways inflammation in the lungs (bronchiolitis) in neonates and immunocompromised adults. The deregulation of cellular and plasma components leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The activation of the clotting cascade plays a key role in the progression of disease severity during viral infection. The current investigation studied the effect of bivalirudin (BR) on the progression and cellular effects of RSV-induced infection in the neonatal mice model. Mice (5–7 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV with or without BR administration (2 mg kg−1 day−1, i.v.) for 2 weeks. Tissue histopathology, inflammatory signalling genes such as TLR, and cytokines were analyzed. The results showed pneumocytes exhibiting nuclear pyknosis, cellular infiltration in lung tissue and increased lung titers in RSV-infected mice compared to the control. Furthermore, RSV-infected mice demonstrated altered clotting parameters such as D-dimer, soluble thrombomodulin, and increased inflammatory cytokines IL-5, 6, IFN-γ, IL-13, and CXCL1. Additionally, the mRNA expression analysis displayed increased levels of IL-33, TLR3, and TLR7 genes in RSV-infected lung tissue. Further, to delineate the role of micro RNAs, the qRT-PCR analysis was done, and the results displayed an increase in miR-136, miR-30b, and let-7i. At the same time, the down-regulated expression of miR-221 in RSV-infected mice compared to the control. BR treatment reduced the cellular infiltration with reduced inflammatory cytokines and normalized clotting indices. Thus, the study shows that RSV infection induces specific changes in lung tissue and the clotting related signalling mechanism. Additionally, BR treatment significantly reduces bronchiolitis and prevents the severity of the infections suggesting that BR can possibly be used to reduce the viral-mediated infections in neonates.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The effectiveness of dexamethasone as a combination therapy for COVID-19

    • Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported as a global pandemic in March 2020 after invading many countries and leaving behind tens of thousands of infected patients in a brief time span. Approval of a few vaccines has been obtained and their efficacy of varying degrees established. Still, there is no effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of COVID-19 though several drugs are undergoing clinical trials. Recent studies have shown that dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, can reduce the rate of COVID-19-related mortality in the intensive care unit by 35 % for patients who are on mechanical ventilation. Although variable efficacy of other combination therapies has been reported for treating COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), dexamethasone is an extensively used drug in many treatment regimens against COVID-19. The current review aims to explore the role of dexamethasone as an efficient combination treatment for COVID-19.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Antithrombotic activity of flavonoids and polyphenols rich plant species

    • Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases represent one of the most notable health problems of the modern civilization. Stroke and heart attack often lead to lethal outcome; essential problem underneath being thrombus formation. Prophylactic approaches include acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel therapy on the level of primary hemostasis, i.e., primary clot formation. In the last five years, in the USA, health care expenses related to cardiovascular diseases have increased 50 %, to over 350 billion dollars. Thus, application of plant species and medicinal plants rich in polyphenols in prevention of thrombus formation are of interest. This is supported by the fact that the number of publications on antiaggregatory effect of polyphenols has doubled in the last decade. In this review we focus on antiaggregatory effect of most abundant polyphenols – flavonoids, the effect of plant extracts rich in polyphenols (propolis, species Salvia sp., Calamintha nepeta L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Melissa officinalis L, Mentha x piperita L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on platelet aggregation, association of chemical composition and antioxidant properties with the observed biological effect, and possible clinical significance of the published results.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of stability and wound healing potential of melatonin loaded
           (lipid enriched) chitosan based microspheres

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term stability and assess the wound healing potential of the innovative melatonin-loaded lipid-enriched hybrid system compared to conventional melatonin-loaded chitosan microspheres. The hybrid system contained nanostructured lipid carrier incorporated in the chitosan matrix, in order to modify melatonin release and alter physicochemical characteristics of the delivery system. Stability testing was performed during a six-month period under two conditions: refrigerated (5 ± 3 °C) and at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C/60 ± 5 % RH). Samples stored at both conditions were analyzed in terms of particle size, zeta potential, moisture content and thermal properties. At the end of testing, drug content was determined in all samples. Dressings wound healing potential was assessed by in vitro scratch test using human skin fibroblast cell line. Although both systems showed good stability characteristics, the addition of lipids in the system has improved its wound healing potential.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Phenolic compounds of and their antimycobacterial effects

    • Abstract: Little is known about the pharmacological activities of Iris adriatica (Iridaceae), a plant endemic to Dalmatia (Croatia). We therefore performed a bioassay-guided fractionation including high-performance counter current chromatography (HPCCC) and antibacterial tests using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155. One obtained fraction was found to be antimycobacterially active with a MIC of 64 mg L−1. Furthermore, fractions were tested for resistance modulatory effects using ethidium bromide as substrate. We were able to identify the pure isoflavonic compounds irigenin and irilone and a fraction containing mainly benzophenone 2,4,6-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone, responsible for the resistance-modulatory activity of this plant.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Application of medicinal plants in several dermatovenerological entities

    • Abstract: Treatment of skin conditions with medicinal plants has been an ongoing human activity lasting over thousands of years. The use of specific plant species developed regionally, based on local flora. Commonly used medicinal plants for dermatological complaints are: Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm., Ginkgo biloba L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Panax ginseng C.A.Mey., Allium cepa L., Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Capsicum annuum L., Berbe ris aquifolium Pursh, Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Podophyllum peltatum L.The demand for complementary therapeutics is an emerging trend due to the awareness of potential side effects that synthetic drugs might cause. More scientific evidence and better documentation are needed before advising dermatologic patients on herbal medicinal treatment. Standardised extracts and formulations with proven clinical efficacy should be developed for this cause. Here provided review entails the use of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of frequent chronic skin diseases, such as vitiligo, alopecia, psoriasis and genital warts.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Actualities in the phytochemical research on selected terpenes

    • Abstract: A short review of our recent research on the essential oil phytochemical composition of Petasites albus (L.) Gaertn. and Petasites hybridus (L.) G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (Asteraceae) as well as on the oils of Globularia cordifolia L., Globularia meridionalis (Podp.) O. Schwarz and Globularia punctata Lapeyr. (Plantaginaceae) is presented. All essential oils contained a variety of oxygenated sesquiterpenes among their major constituents, including a bakkane type sesquiterpene fukinanolid (bakkenolide A). The paper is focused on: i) a short overview of the abundance of major terpenes in the essential oils of Petasites and Globularia species from Croatia; ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of major identified sesquiterpenes; and iii) biological activities (literature data) of major sesquiterpenes from Petasites and Globularia species.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Screening of flavonoid aglycons’ metabolism mediated by the human
           liver cytochromes P450

    • Abstract: Biological effects of flavonoids have been extensively studied in the last 80 years. As flavonoids represent a rather large group of compounds, data on metabolic biotransformations of these compounds is relatively limited to those well studied. The objective of this study was to screen the metabolism of 30 selected flavonoid aglycons mediated by the most relevant metabolic enzymes, human liver cytochromes P450. For this purpose, in vitro experiments with human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes were conducted. To evaluate flavonoid’s metabolism and structure of the products, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used. Out of 30 flavonoids, 15 were susceptible to oxidative metabolism mediated by cytochromes P450. Dominant reactions were aromatic hydroxylation and O-demethylation, or a combination of these reactions. The dominant enzyme responsible for the observed metabolic reactions is CYP1A2, whereas other human liver cytochromes P450, namely, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, contribute to flavonoid metabolism to a lesser degree. These results, to some extent, contribute to the understanding of the metabolism of constituents found in antioxidant dietary supplements and their possible interactions with other xenobiotics, i.e., medicinal products.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Anticancer effects of olive oil polyphenols and their combinations with
           anticancer drugs

    • Abstract: Cancer presents one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current treatment includes the administration of one or more anticancer drugs, commonly known as chemotherapy. The biggest issue concerning the chemotherapeutics is their toxicity on normal cells and persisting side effects. One approach to the issue is chemoprevention and the other one is the discovery of more effective drugs or drug combinations, including combinations with polyphenols. Olive oil polyphenols (OOPs), especially hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), tyrosol (Tyr) and their derivatives oleuropein (Ole), oleacein and oleocanthal (Oc) express anticancer activity on different cancer models. Recent studies report that phenolic extract of virgin olive oil may be more effective than the individual phenolic compounds. Also, there is a growing body of evidence about the combined treatment of OOPs with various anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin, tamoxifen, doxorubicin and others. These novel approaches may present an advanced strategy in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficacy and safety of local lysozyme treatment in patients with oral
           mucositis after chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    • Abstract: This observational clinical study was composed of two substudies: a non-comparative one (n = 166), testing only lysozyme-based compounds (LBCs), and a comparative substudy (n = 275), testing both LBCs and bicarbonate-based local compounds (BBCs) on the healing of oral mucositis during radio- or chemotherapy. The density of ulcerations has decreased significantly after the treatment with lysozyme in both substudies. The density of ulcerations in the radiotherapy group was lower in patients treated with LBCs compared to patients treated with BBCs (p < 0.001). In the chemotherapy group, reduction of ulceration density was similar with both LBCs and BBCs. The LBCs reduced pain intensity during the intake of solid food and speech more than BBCs in both patient cohorts (p < 0.05). In the radiotherapy cohort, pain intensity when consuming liquid foods was reduced more with LBCs than with BBCs (p < 0.05). No adverse events were recorded. This study demonstrates the advantages of treating oral mucositis during radiotherapy or chemo-therapy with LBCs.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of phenylethylamine type entactogens and their metabolites
           relevant to ecotoxicology – a QSAR study

    • Abstract: The impact of the selected entactogens and their o-quinone metabolites on the environment was explored in QSAR studies by the use of predicted molecular descriptors, ADMET properties and environmental toxicity parameters, i.e., acute toxicity in Tetrahymena pyriformis (TOX_ATTP) expressed as Th_pyr_pIGC50/mmol L−1, acute toxicity in Pimephales promelas, the fathead minnow (TOX_FHM) expressed as Minnow LC50/mg L−1, the acute toxicity in Daphnia magna (TOX_DM) expressed as Daphnia LC50/mg L−1 and bioconcentration factor (BCF).The formation of corresponding o-quinones via benzo-dioxo-lone ring, O-demethylenation was predicted as the main metabolic pathway for all entactogens except for 1-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)propan-2-amine (DiFMDA). The least favourable ADMET profile was revealed for N-(1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)propan-2-yl)-O-methylhydroxylamine (MDMEO).QSAR studies revealed significant linear correlations between MlogP of entactogens and MlogP of o-quinone metabolites (R = 0.99), and Th_pyr_pIGC50/mmol L−1 (R = 0.94), also their MlogPs with Minnow_LC50/mg L−1 (R = 0.80 and R = 0.78), BCF (R = 0.86 and R = 0.82) and percentage of o-quinones’ yields (R = 0.73 and R = 0.80). Entactogens were predicted as non-biodegradable molecules, whereas the majority of their o-quinones were biodegradable.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of flavonoids’ lipophilicity on platelet aggregation

    • Abstract: Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds present in a wide spectrum of plants that have a beneficial effect on human health. In the context of cardiovascular diseases related to plaque and thrombus formation, flavonoids exhibit an anti-aggregatory effect. Previously, it has been reported that all tested flavonoids exhibit an antiaggregatory effect on platelet aggregation when measured by impedance aggregometry on whole blood, in the test of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). As not all flavonoids have the same targets within signaling pathways, an assumption of a common non-specific mechanism related to lipophilicity is to be considered. To test this hypothesis, reverse-phase thin layer chromatography was used to assess the lipophilicity of flavonoids; impedance aggregometry was used for testing of platelet aggregation and flow cytometry to monitor the influence of flavonoids on platelet activation. Lipophilicity analysis showed a highly negative correlation of logP and MINaAC for groups of flavones and flavanones. As determined by flow cytometry, the exposition of receptors necessary for the promotion of platelet activation and primary clot formation was diminished, i.e., lowered expression of the activated form of integrin αIIbβ3 was observed in the presence of flavanone. Platelet membrane stabilization by flavonoids as a mechanism of antiaggregatory effect has been supported by impedance aggregometry experiments when specific inhibitors of platelet aggregation signaling pathways (U73122, indomethacin, verapamil) were used in the presence of a weak (ADP) and a strong (TRAP-6) agonist of aggregation. While individual flavonoids can have specific targets within aggregation signaling pathways, all flavonoids share a common non-specific mechanism of platelet aggregation inhibition related to their lipophilicity and membrane stabilization that, to some extent, contributes to their antiaggregatory effect.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 00:00:00 GMT
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Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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