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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.959
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1559-3258
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Low-Cost Genetic and Clinical Predictors of Response and Toxicity of
           Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    • Authors: Jelena Spasic, Milena Cavic, Nemanja Stanic, Bojan Zaric, Tomi Kovacevic, Davorin Radosavljevic, Ljudmila Nagorni-Obradovic
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate for the first time whether certain genetic and clinical factors could serve as minimally invasive predictors of survival and toxicity to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.MethodsThe study included 121 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with platinum-based dublets until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Response was evaluated using standard radiological methods and toxicity graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v5.0. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. Statistical significance was set at P < .05.ResultsNo significant influence of the examined polymorphisms on the occurrence of high-grade toxicity was detected. However, TP53 72Pro allele carriers were more prone to nausea (P = .037) and thrombocytopenia (P = .051). Anemia and neuropathy occurred more frequently in XRCC1 399Arg allele carriers (Pearson χ2 test, P = .025 and P = .004 respectively). RAD51 135CC carriers were significantly more prone to neutropenia (P = .027).ConclusionsA set of easily determined genetic and clinical predictors of survival and specific toxicity profiles of platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced lung adenocarcinoma were determined in this study, which might be useful for the construction of population-specific, time- and cost-efficient prognostic and predictive algorithms.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T01:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221111666
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Heart Rate-Dependent Protocol of “One-Stop” Computed Tomography
           Angiography of Coronary Combined with Pulmonary Arteries Reduces the
           Dosages of Contrast Agent

    • Authors: Hairong Yu, Hui Wang, Zhen Gao, Guoyue Chen, Hao Song, Shihao Yan, Xiaomei Luan, Peiji Song
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Background:The personalized, heart rate-dependent computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol can reduce the use of contrast medium (CM) and the radiation dose. This is especially beneficial for patients with CTA of coronary combined with pulmonary arteries.Purpose:To evaluate the feasibility of low CM in one-stop coronary and pulmonary arterial CTA tailored by patients’ heart rate.Material and Methods:94 patients set to undergo CTA of coronary combined with pulmonary arteries with one-stop scans. Patients were prospectively randomized into two groups: For group A (n = 47), the timing of the scans was determined according to the patient’s HR using 30 mL CM; For group B (n = 47), in which the routine bolus tracking was applied by setting the ascending aortic threshold of 80 HU with 70 mL CM, scans were performed simultaneously.Results:Compared with group B, group A had slightly higher computed tomography (CT) value and image quality of pulmonary artery (CT value: group A 484.7HU; group B 457.9HU; t = 2.446, P = .016; image quality: χ2 = 8.292, P = .016), but in coronary artery wasn’t statistically different between two groups(image quality: χ2 = 2.516, P = .642).Conclusion:The heart rate-dependent CM injection protocol can greatly reduce the use of CM, simplify the work-flow, and may obtain comparable or even better image quality compared with the routine bolus tracking.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T01:43:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221107906
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Protective Effects of Polydatin on Reproductive Injury Induced by Ionizing

    • Authors: Jin Gao, Jincheng Qian, Nan Ma, Jianfang Han, Fengmei Cui, Na chen, Yu Tu
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The reproductive system is vulnerable to ionizing radiation, which is a hot research topic at present. We tested the effect of polydatin on spermatocytes(GC-1 cells) after X-ray irradiation. The reproductive damage model of C.elegans was established by 60Coγ-ray, and the protective effect of polydatin on reproductive damage caused by ionizing radiation was evaluated. We quantified the ROS levels of GC-1 cells and C.elegans after irradiation with polydatin and evaluated the anti-apoptosis effect of polydatin at proper concentration. Differential genes of C.elegans reproductive damage were screened out from transcriptome sequencing results and comparable GEO datasets. It was proved that 100μM polydatin significantly reduced the apoptosis of GC-1 cells induced by 2 Gy X-ray. In addition, the longevity, reproductive capacity, germ cell apoptosis and spawning and hatching capacity of polydatin were tested. The results showed that 100 μM polydatin content significantly increased the influence of 50 Gy 60Coγ-ray on reproductive capacity of C.elegans. Quantitative analysis of mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis-related genes and reproductive-related genes by qRT-PCR and Western blotcon firmed that polydatin with appropriate dosage had good protective effects on reproductive damage caused by radiation, which laid a foundation for the application research of polydatin in radiation protection.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T04:22:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221107511
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • In-silico Studies Calculated a New Chitin Oligomer Binding Site Inside
           Vicilin: A Potent Antifungal and Insecticidal Agent

    • Authors: Ahsan Saeed, Zahra Rafiq, Muhammad Imran, Qamar Saeed, Muhammad Q. Saeed, Zahid Ali, Rana K. Iqbal, Saber Hussain, Binish Khaliq, Sohaib Mehmood, Ahmed Akrem
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Vicilins are major seed storage proteins and show differential binding affinities toward sugar moieties of fungal cell wall and insect gut epithelium. Hence, purpose of study is the thorough in-silico characterization of interactions between vicilin and chitin oligomer followed by fungal and insecticidal bioassays. This work covers the molecular simulation studies explaining the interactions between Pisum sativum vicilin (PsV) and chitin oligomer followed by protein bioassay against different pathogens. LC-MS/MS of purified PsV (∼50 kDa) generated residual data along high pea vicilin homology (UniProtKB ID; P13918). Predicted model (PsV) indicated the characteristic homotrimer joined through head-to-tail association and each monomer is containing a bicupin domain. PsV site map analysis showed a new site (Site 4) into which molecular docking confirmed the strong binding of chitin oligomer (GlcNAc)4. Molecular dynamics simulation data (50 ns) indicated that chitin-binding site was comprised of 8 residues (DKEDRNEN). However, aspartate and glutamate significantly contributed in the stability of ligand binding. Computational findings were further verified via significant growth inhibition of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and Fusarium oxysporum against PsV. Additionally, the substantial adult population of Brevicoryne brassicae was reduced and different life stages of Tribolium castaneum also showed significant mortality.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T09:04:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221108280
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Craniocervical Junction Visualization and Radiation Dose Consideration
           Utilizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Upper Cervical Chiropractic
           Clinical Application a Literature Review

    • Authors: Greg DeNunzio, Tyler Evans, Mychal E Beebe, Jaime Browning, Juha Koivisto
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      ObjectivesTo highlight the detail obtained on a Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan of the craniocervical junction and its usefulness to Chiropractors who specialize in the upper cervical spine. A review of the dose considerations to patients vs radiography in a chiropractic clinical setting and to review the effective radiation dose to the patient.MethodsA review of studies discussing cervical biomechanics, neurovascular structures, and abnormal radiographic findings, was discussed in relation to chiropractic clinical relevance. Further studies were evaluated demonstrating radiation dose to the patient from radiographs compared to CBCT.ResultsIncidental and abnormal findings of the craniocervical junction were shown to have superior visualization with CBCT compared to radiography. The radiation dose to the patient for similar imaging protocols to the craniocervical junction and cervical spine was equal or less utilizing CBCT when compared to radiographs.ConclusionsThe use of CBCT for visualization of the craniocervical junction and cervical spine in the chiropractic clinical setting allows for adjunctive visualization of the osseous structures which is germane to clinical protocol. Further with CBCT the effective dose to the patient is equal or less than similar imaging protocols utilizing radiographs to evaluate the craniocervical junction.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T04:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221107515
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate Induces the Demethylation of Actinin Alpha 4 to
           Inhibit Diabetic Nephropathy Renal Fibrosis via the NF-KB Signaling
           Pathway In Vitro

    • Authors: Chunling He, Dong Wang, Ruoling Wang, Yongli Huang, Xin Huang, ShuMin Shen, Jun Lv, Mingcai Wu
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Actinin alpha 4 (ACTN4) is expressed in the kidney podocytes. ACTN4 gene methylation in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains high. Underlying mechanism of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inducing ACTN4 demethylation, and its inhibitory effect on DN renal fibrosis remains unclear.Methods:Human podocyte cell line, HPC, was treated with high glucose to establish model of DN. The levels of cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin (IL)-8, and fibrosis markers, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin (FN), were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HPC cells were treated with EGCG, and cell viability was determined by MTT assay, ACTN4 gene methylation was analyzed by MSP. mRNA and protein expression levels were measured using RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively.Results:Actinin alpha 4 gene promoter was hypermethylated in the high glucose-treated groups. EGCG reversed the hypermethylated status of ACTN4, along with the upregulation of ACTN4 levels and downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκB-α, VEGF, IL-8, α-SMA, and FN levels (P
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T11:38:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221105704
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Protective Effects and Mechanism of Doxepin on Radiation–Induced
           Lung Injury in Rats

    • Authors: Xinlong Wan, Xuan Shi, Mengke Li, Qing Chen, Chang Xue, Guanghui Li, Yeke Huang, Jingwen Yang, Chan Chen, Zhiyi Wang, Shumei Ma, Xiaodong Liu
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Radiation-induced lung injuries (RILI) is one of the serious complications of radiotherapy posed by the damage of alveolar cells and inflammation over-reaction. We aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of doxepin on RILI (20 Gy total dose at 3 Gy/min of X-ray irradiation), as well as its underlying mechanism. For animal experiments, such parameters as Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, WBC (white blood cell), CRP (C-reactive protein), Western blot, and q-PCR were detected. The results indicated that both survival status and weight increase of irradiated rats treated by doxepin (3 mg/kg/day, rat) were higher than those of treated with irradiation alone (Dosing started the day before irradiation). Further, histological examinations showed doxepin could tenuate the radiation injury, as indicated as alveolar inflammatory exudation and there was only mild interstitial inflammation infiltration. Western blotting and q-PCR showed that expression of NF-κβ in X group were higher than that in XMD group. For the first time, we reported doxepin functioned as a radioprotectant candidate, which provide a promising application of doxepin for protecting radiotherapy injuries.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T09:14:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221107193
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Dose-Response Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Blood Parameters
           in Industrial Irradiation Workers

    • Authors: Jia-jia Guo, Ning Liu, Zheng Ma, Zi-jun Gong, Yue-lang Liang, Qi Cheng, Xin-guang Zhong, Zhen-jiang Yao
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      While previous studies have focused on the health effects of occupational exposure of radiations on medical radiation workers, few have analyzed the dose-response relationship between low radiation doses and changes in blood parameters. Even fewer studies have been conducted on industrial worker populations. Using a prospective cohort study design, this study collected health examination reports and personal dose monitoring data from 705 industrial irradiation workers who underwent regular physical examinations at Dongguan Sixth People’s Hospital. The dose-response effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on blood parameters were assessed using a generalized linear model and restricted cubic spline model. Red blood cell counts decreased then increased, before decreasing again with increasing ionizing radiation. This was in contrast to the curve of the total platelet count after irradiation. Additionally, a radiation dose of 2.904 mSv was the turning point for the nonlinear curve of hemoglobin count changes. In conclusion, long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation affects blood cell levels in industrial irradiation workers. There is a nonlinear dose-response relationship between red blood cell, platelet, and hemoglobin counts and the cumulative radiation dose. These findings should alert radiation workers to seek preventive medical treatment before the occurrence of any serious hematopoietic disease.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T01:03:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221105695
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Transcriptome Profiling Unveils a Critical Role of IL-17
           Signaling-Mediated Inflammation in Radiation-Induced Esophageal Injury in

    • Authors: Jia Yao, Jinkang Zhang, Jinlong Wang, Qian Lai, Weijun Yuan, Zhongyu Liu, Shuanghua Cheng, Yahui Feng, Zhiqiang Jiang, Yuhong Shi, Sheng Jiang, Wenling Tu
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involving the initiation and progression of radiation-induced esophageal injury (RIEI) is important for prevention and treatment. Despite ongoing advances, the underlying mechanisms controlling RIEI remain largely unknown. In the present study, RNA-seq was performed to characterize mRNA profiles of the irradiated rat esophagus exposed to 0, 25, or 35 Gy irradiation. Bioinformatics analyses including dose-dependent differentially expressed genes (DEGs), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and immune infiltration were performed. 134 DEGs were screened out with a dose-dependent manner (35 Gy > 25 Gy > control, or 35 Gy < 25 Gy < control). GO and KEGG analyses showed that the most significant mechanism was IL-17 signaling-mediated inflammatory response. 5 hub genes, Ccl11, Cxcl3, Il17a, S100a8, and S100a9, were identified through the intersection of the DEGs involved in inflammatory response, IL-17 pathway, and PPI network. Additionally, immune infiltration analysis showed the activation of macrophages, monocytes, T cells, NKT cells, and neutrophils, among which macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils might be the main sources of S100a8 and S100a9. Thus, these findings further our understanding on the molecular biology of RIEI and may help develop more effective therapeutic strategies.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T05:09:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221104609
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Mechanism Study on Radiosensitization Effect of Curcumin in Bladder Cancer
           Cells Regulated by Filamin A

    • Authors: Zhenfan Wang, Shuqing He, Minjun Jiang, Xue Li, Na Chen
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      ObjectiveTo study the radiosensitization effect of curcumin, a natural product with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, in bladder cancer cells and identify the specific role of FLNA gene in that process.MethodsCCK-8 method was initially adopted to identify the proper interventional concentration of curcumin. T24 bladder cancer cells were subjected to CCK-8, flow cytometry, and colony formation assay to study the cell biological behaviors under different interventions. γ-H2AX test was performed to test the level of damage in T24 cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were conducted to measure FLNA mRNA and protein levels.ResultsLow-dose curcumin (10, 20 μM) following X-ray exposure resulted in increased DNA damage, augmented apoptosis, and reduced proliferation of T24 cells. Certain radiosensitization was demonstrated when curcumin was applied at 10 μM. Additionally, elevation of FLNA gene and protein levels was also indicated upon combination treatment.ConclusionLow-dose curcumin has certain radiosensitization effect in bladder cancer, where FLNA plays a certain regulatory role.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221100997
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Baricitinib is Effective in Treating Progressing Vitiligo in vivo and in

    • Authors: Jie Dong, Xuan Huang, Li-Ping Ma, Fei Qi, Si-Nian Wang, Zi-Qin Zhang, Shi-Nan Wei, Ling Gao, Fang Liu
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of baricitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, in treating patient with progressing vitiligo, and to further explore the regulation of baricitinib on melanocytes (MCs) in vitro.MethodsFour patients with progressing vitiligo were treated with oral baricitinib for a total of 12 weeks. MCs were cultured in vitro and irradiated by high-dose ultraviolet B (UVB, 150mJ/cm2) to make an MC damaged model (MC-Ds). Baricitinib was added at a final concentration of 25 μM. Dopamine staining and NaOH method were used to measure the tyrosinase activity and melanin level, respectively, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to measure the mRNA levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1).ResultsSignificant re-pigmentation was observed in the week 12 without obvious side effects. Depigmentation occurred in 2 patients at the 3-month follow-up. Laboratory research found that higher doses of UVB irradiation (150mJ/cm2) could decrease melanin content of MCs, baricitinib (25 μM) could significantly promote tyrosinase activity, melanin content, and TYR, TRP-1 gene expression of MC-Ds.ConclusionOur preliminary study showed that baricitinib was effective and safe in treating progressing vitiligo. Baricitinib could promote tyrosinase activity, melanin content and TYR, TRP1 gene expression of MC-Ds in vitro.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T04:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221105370
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of Diclofenac and Andrographolide Combination on
           Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema and Hyperalgesia in Rats

    • Authors: Augustine Tandoh, Cynthia Amaning Danquah, Charles Kwaku Benneh, Donatus Wewura Adongo, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Eric Woode
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Studies into drug combination at low doses are a promising approach to the management of pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-edema and anti-hyperalgesic effects of a combination of diclofenac and andrographolide. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were first treated with diclofenac or andrographolide alone (3–100 mg/kg), as well as a combination of the 2 drugs. Carrageenan was then injected into the right hind paw of rats, and changes in paw volume and sensitivity to mechanical (von Frey) and thermal (Hargreaves test) stimuli measured. Results showed drug combination produced synergistic effects at reducing paw edema especially at lower doses, with a Loewe synergy score of 13.02 ± 8.75 in SynergyFinder and a combination index of .41 ± .18 after isobolographic analysis. Again synergy scores for decreasing response to 1.0 and 3.6 g force application of von Frey filaments after drug combination were 10.127 ± 5.68 and 8.554 ± 6.53, respectively, in SynergyFinder. Synergistic effects were also seen after drug combination in the Hargreaves test with a synergy score of 5.136 ± 16.38. In conclusion, combination of diclofenac with andrographolide showed better pharmacologic effects after carrageenan injection and was more synergistic at low-dose combinations.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221103846
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Biochemical Toxic Response of Phosphine on Human Health Estimated From
           Enzymatic Variance in Trogoderma granarium

    • Authors: Asma Naeem, Asma Waheed Qureshi, Shafia Arshad, Anila Shehzadi, Asim Kamran, Shehla Noreen
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The primary purpose of the current study was to study the possible pernicious effects of phosphine gas on enzyme activity alterations in Trogoderma granarium to determine its harmfulness to human beings after its prolonged exposure and intake. The saline extract of the adult Khapra beetle was biochemically analyzed at different doses, that is, from 10ppm to 30ppm, to accurately evaluate the effects of various phosphine concentrations (LC30 and LC50) on 2 distinct strains of this insect pest gathered from different godowns of Pakistan as resistant (Chitral [Chi], Haroon Abad [Hbd], and Lahore [Lhr]) and susceptible (Faqeer wali [Fqw], Khanewal [Khw], and Rawalpindi [Rwp]) populations. Our experimental results suggest that the enzyme levels (AcP, AkP, ALAT, ASAT, LDH, and ICDH) seemed to be elevated with increasing dosage of phosphine from 10ppm to 30ppm in the resistant populace of the susceptible ones. It also illustrates that phosphine and its residues can inhibit the workability of certain enzymes that are vital for respiration and neuro reactions in hexapods and mammals. It has detrimental effects of phosphine on human health profile to consume stored food products containing such tenacious enemies.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T12:34:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221095327
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of 3-Methyladenine on Microglia Autophagy and Neuronal Apoptosis
           After Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    • Authors: Huichao Feng, Yahuan Cui, Jing Liu, Meiyi Liu, Wei Zhou, Zhenyu Yan, Haixia Zhang, Yingman Wang, Xueming Wang, Xiaomin Liu, Naiyao Chen
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      ObjectiveTo determine the effect of the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), on cognitive function changes, microglia activity, neuronal apoptosis, and inflammation in rats following radiation-induced brain injury.MethodsThe following groups were established: control, model, and 3-MA. A rat model of radiation-induced brain injury was generated with a medium dose of X-rays. A Morris water maze was used to observe the cognitive function of the rats. H&E staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the hippocampus. The morphological and quantitative changes of neuronal nuclear (NeuN)-positive neurons and Iba-1-positive microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis was done to measure the changes of NeuN ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1(Iba-1) and apoptosis-related proteins. Immunofluorescence staining of Iba-1 and Microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) was done to evaluate the changes in microglia autophagy. TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to detect the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 as a measure of the inflammatory response in the hippocampus.ResultsAfter irradiation, the nucleus of the neurons in the hippocampus was constricted, the pyramidal tract structure was disordered, neuronal apoptosis was increased (P < .001), the expression of microglia increased (P < .01), autophagy was increased (P < .05), and conversion of microglia to the M2 type increased (P < .05). After 3-MA administration, the level of autophagy decreased (P < .05), the damage to the hippocampal region was reduced, neuronal apoptosis decreased (P < .01), and the activity of the microglia decreased (P < .01).ConclusionRadiation can active the Microglia. 3-MA inhibits autophagy and excessive activity in microglia, and promotes the conversion of microglia from the M1 to the M2 type, thereby promoting the recovery of brain tissue following radiation exposure.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T11:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221100593
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Case of Iodine 125 Seeds (I-125) Responding to Lung Squamous Cell

    • Authors: Qingtao Ni, Chi Pan, Qing Guo, Peng Wang, Yan Yang, Wei Zhang, Shengbin Dai
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) and accounts for approximately 20%–30% of all lung cancers. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main treatments for lung SCC patients. A case with lung SCC patient who was treated using iodine 125 seeds (I-125) because the location of the tumor was adjacent to the great vessels. I-125 is an ideal brachytherapy for lung SCC patients with large masses who lost the chance of operation. I-125 is an adjuvant therapy, combined with chemotherapy and molecular targeting therapy might serve to improve the prognosis of lung SCC patients.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:04:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221103373
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Exaggerated Risk Perception of Low-Dose Radiation: Motives and Mechanisms

    • Authors: Sergei Jargin
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.

      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T10:20:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221103378
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Response of Iron Deficiency Markers to Blood Lead Levels and Synergistic
           Outcomes at Prenatal Stage

    • Authors: Shafia Arshad, Amina Arif, Javed I. Wattoo
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Lead may be passed on from a mother to their unborn fetus. If she has been exposed to lead for an extended period, the lead deposited in their bones can be stimulated to be released into the bloodstream during gestation. This study was planned to examine blood lead level at the prenatal stage and its response to markers of iron deficiency during gestation. We collected 396 samples during the second trimester of gestation from women age 19 to 45 years. Hematological markers including hemoglobin, hepcidin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, and blood iron were analyzed. For the detection of blood lead, we used Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean blood lead level of the control group was 3.25 ± .407 μg/dL, and in the iron deficiency group, it was 7.96 ± .502 μg/dL. At the same time, the women with iron deficiency anemia showed 22.12 ± 1.02 μg/dL of mean blood lead. Pearson’s approach showed a non-significant negative correlation between blood lead and hepcidin, while hemoglobin, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, and serum iron showed a significant (.01) negative correlation with blood lead. Blood lead has no direct effect on iron deficiency markers. In contrast, iron deficiency contributes to an increase in lead accumulation during pregnancy. Iron and lead both have an impact on the heme-biosynthetic pathways. The study revealed that pre-existing iron deficiency is connected with increased lead intake and can negatively impact health in gestational females.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T10:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221101744
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effective Parts of Gentiana straminea Maxim Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced
           Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    • Authors: Dan Song, Jingyu Zhang, Jie Li, Xiumei Kong, Yi Jiang, Jiaojiao Xu, Xiaoying Zhang, Qin Zhao
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Hypoxia occurs in physiological situations and several pathological situations, inducing oxidative stress. G straminea Maxim (G.s Maxim) is a traditional Tibetan medicine that exerts several biological effects. This study focused on the protective effects of G.s Maxim in hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. We found that G.s Maxim significantly increased survival and reduced oxidative stress in hypoxic mice. Various extraction parts of G.s Maxim showed antioxidant activity and significantly improved survival in hypoxia-injured PC12 cells. G.s Maxim reduced hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase. Hypoxic cells had increased malondialdehyde levels but reduced superoxide dismutase activity and G.s Maxim reversed these effects. Moreover, G.s Maxim suppressed hypoxia-induced apoptosis by inducing protein expression of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 and reducing the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, Bcl-2-associated X, and nuclear factor-k-gene binding. These findings suggest that G.s Maxim attenuates hypoxia-induced injury associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:46:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221100986
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Highly Diluted Antibodies to eNOS Restore Endothelium Function in Aortic
           Rings From Hypertensive Rats

    • Authors: Nataliya V. Petrova, Sergey A. Tarasov, Oleg I. Epstein, Caroline Dubroca, Thierry Sulpice
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      BackgroundNitric oxide (NO) as a vaso- and cardio-protective agent could reduce vasomotor dysfunction in different cardiovascular diseases. One of the current therapeutics targeted at NO availability in the vascular wall are highly diluted antibodies to endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS). This drug has previously shown its endothelium-protective effect and effectiveness in reducing hypertension. Current study was dedicated to evaluate the direct impact of highly diluted antibodies to eNOS on the vessel constriction and dilation ex vivo.MethodsFor that purpose, we used thoracic aortas dissected from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of highly diluted antibodies to eNOS (1 mL) was examined after phenylephrine-induced pre-constriction of the aorta rings in response to gradually increased acetylcholine concentration (1 nM to 10 µM).ResultsHighly diluted antibodies to eNOS enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation in a statistically significant manner. Moreover, it was demonstrated that observed effect was similar to perindopril, a well-known angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, which works through relaxing and widening blood vessels.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that highly diluted antibodies to eNOS restored impaired endothelium function, as demonstrated by increased relaxation of SHR rats aorta rings. The revealed results suggest beneficial effect of highly diluted antibodies to eNOS to ameliorate hypertension and related diseases.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T07:54:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221099281
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Antioxidant Properties, Phytoactive Compounds and Potential Protective
           Action of Salvia officinalis Flowers Against Combined Gastro-Intestinal
           Ulcer and Diarrhea Experimentally Induced in Rat

    • Authors: Saber Jedidi, Houcine Selmi, Foued Aloui, Kais Rtibi, Houcem Sammari, Chaabane Abbes, Hichem Sebai
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The present study was conducted to investigate the protective action of Salvia officinalis flowers aqueous extract (SOFAE) against combined gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders-induced by ethanol and castor oil administration in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of ten each and various doses of SOFAE (50, 100, and 200 mg kg−1, b.w., p.o.) and sulfasalazine (100 mg kg−1, b.w., p.o.) were daily administrated during 15 days. After, animals were intoxicated with a single oral administration of ethanol (4 g kg−1, b.w., p.o.) and castor oil (5 mL kg−1, b.w., p.o.). We found that SOFAE contains several phytoactive compounds with a strong ABTS scavenging ability. In vivo, we showed that SOFAE protected against EtOH/CO-induced macroscopic and histological alterations in GI tract accompanied by intestinal fluid accumulation and gastric juice decrease. SOFAE significantly counteracted lipoperoxydation increase and reversed the depletion of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. More importantly, SOFAE significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory markers (CRP and ALP) in plasma and mucosal GI tract. In conclusion, our data clearly indicate that the SOFAE exerted a potential protective effect against EtOH-induced peptic ulcer combined with CO-induced diarrhea in rats. These effects could be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:06:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221102313
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Feasibility of Enhancing Skin Permeability of Acyclovir through Sterile
           Topical Lyophilized Wafer on Self-Dissolving Microneedle-Treated Skin

    • Authors: Uzair Nagra, Kashif Barkat, Muhammad U Ashraf, Maryam Shabbir
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Acyclovir is an antiviral drug that is frequently prescribed for the herpes virus. However, the drug requires frequent dosing due to limited bioavailability (10–26.7%). The rationale of the present study was to develop a self-dissolving microneedle system for local and systemic delivery of acyclovir using a topical lyophilized wafer on microneedle-treated skin to provide the drug at the site of infection. The microneedles prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (8% w/w) or HPMC (8% w/w)-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) (30% w/w) penetrated excised rat skin, showing sufficient mechanical strength and rapid polymer dissolution. The topical wafer was prepared with acyclovir (40% w/w; equivalent to 200 mg of drug), gelatin (10% w/w), mannitol (5% w/w), and sodium chloride (5% w/w). The uniform distribution of acyclovir within the wafer in an amorphous form was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). No polymer–drug interaction was evident in the lyophilized wafer as per Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The wafer showed a sufficiently porous structure for rapid hydration as per scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. During ex-vivo analysis, the skin was pre-treated with a self-dissolving microneedle array for 5 minutes, and the wafer was placed on this microporated-skin. Topical wafer provided ∼7–11 times higher skin concentration than the ID99 reported with a lower lag-time. Based on in-vivo testing, ∼2.58 µg/ml of Cmax was achieved in rabbit plasma during 24 hours’ study. Our findings suggest that the self-dissolving microneedle-assisted topical wafer, proposed for the first time, would be efficacious against the infection residing in the skin layer and for systemic therapy.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:42:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221097594
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Biochemical Investigation of Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived
           Bioactive Compounds Against Carbohydrate and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1
           Metabolizing Enzymes

    • Authors: Muhammad Fiaz Khalid, Kanwal Rehman, Kanwal Irshad, Tahir Ali Chohan, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The aim of current study was to investigate the inhibitory activities of resveratrol and taxifolin against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and DPP-IV enzymes via in vitro analysis which was further validated by in silico studies. The analysis of molecular docking was also done to determine the binding capabilities of resveratrol and taxifolin with α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and DPP-IV enzymes. Resveratrol and taxifolin having IC50 values, 47.93 ± 5.21 [math] and 45.86 ± 3.78 [math], respectively, showed weaker effect than acarbose (4.6 ± 1.26 [math]) on α-amylase but showed significant effect to inhibit α-glucosidase (32.23 ± .556 [math] and 31.26 ± .556 [math], respectively). IC50 value of resveratrol and taxifolin (5.638 ± .0016 [math] and 6.691 ± .004 [math]) in comparison to diprotin A (IC50: 7.21 ± .021 [math]) showed that they have significant inhibitory effect on DPP-IV enzyme. Our results illustrated that resveratrol and taxifolin have potential to prevent the metabolism of carbohydrates via inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and prolongs metabolic function of incretin by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of DPP-IV. The results of molecular docking have also revealed that resveratrol and taxifolin have significant affinity to bind with α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and DPP-IV in comparison with standard drugs such as acarbose, miglitol, and diprotin.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T06:03:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221093275
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Extraction and Optimization of Active Metabolites From Cluster Bean: An In
           Vitro Biological and Phytochemical Investigation

    • Authors: Saima Riaz, Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhmmad Ishtiaq, Qasim Ali, Muhammad Muazzam Ali, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The current study aimed to explore active metabolites of locally recognized and high yielding cultivar cluster bean (BR-99) with a wide range of adaptability having antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic potential. Six solvents were used (crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) with escalating polarity for colorimetric determination of antioxidants such as total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Moreover, an antidiabetic and anticancer study was conducted by α-amylase inhibition and MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Biological investigations were carried out against the most commonly found infectious microbial strains. The significant results (P ≤ .001) of each activity were seen among six tested solvent extracts. The ethyl acetate and methanol extract have more antioxidant potential with the highest TPC (16.38 ± .13 mg GAE/g) and TFC (8.15 ± .24 mg CE/g), respectively. Similarly, methanol extract presented the highest free radical scavenging activity (46.31 ± .91%), followed by ethyl acetate, butanol, chloroform, aqueous, and n-hexane extract. However, the maximum α-amylase inhibition (62.54 ± 1.47%) and anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells were congregated (78.31 ± 1.46%) in butanol and chloroform, respectively. A positive correlation was seen between TPC with TFC (R2= .8356), FRSA (R2= .8381), and anti-diabetic activity (R2= .8082), which highlights the phenolic contents as strong anti-oxidant agents especially flavonoids. Each extract of cluster bean (BR-99) showed significant antimicrobial activities for all tested bacterial strains except B. cereus and E. coli. The profound results of maximum antibacterial activity were witnessed by chloroform extract while ethyl acetate extracts showed great antifungal potential against all tested fungal strains. The HPLC quantitative analysis results of cluster bean (BR-99) revealed the presence of active phytochemicals such as gallic acid, HB acid, vanillic acid, kaempferol, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, coumarins, quercetin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, and catechin, and the variation in both phytochemical and biological spectrums envisioned the cluster bean (BR-99) used in future as a cheap, safer, and potent source of bioactive drugs.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T05:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221098992
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Screening of Prognostic Biomarkers for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
           in Primary Liver Cancer

    • Authors: Zhenzhen Liang, Chang Xue, Qing Chen, Mengke Li, Guanghui Li, Hao Feng, Yi Liu, Xiaodong Liu, Shumei Ma
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      ObjectiveSo far there are still no effective immediate-early markers for assessing the efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). To find effective biomarkers for accurate assessment of the efficacy of SBRT in patients with primary liver cancer, we conducted this study including retrospective part and prospective part.Material and Methods589 patients with primary liver cancer were included at Ruikang Hospital affiliated to Guangxi Medical University from January 2012 to December 2018. Follow-up was conducted, clinical information and a total of 17 patients with 51 blood samples (before SBRT, before discharge and 2 months after SBRT) were collected. mRNAs profiles on 2 patients with 6 blood samples were detected by high-throughput sequencing, followed by qPCR verification on 15 patients with 45 blood samples.ResultsThe commonly used serum biomarkers such as AFP, CEA, and CA125 shown low prognostic value in distinguishing survival group and death group, indicated by low AUC (less than .7) and Youden indexes (less than .5). Based on high-throughput sequencing of test group and qPCR detection of another verification group, we found 16 up-regulated and 12 downregulated genes after SBRT. Among them, ADIPOR1 and EPB42 showed significantly different between effective and ineffective group after SBRT, ROC suggested that based on the optimal threshold of .5838, ADIPOR1 shown a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 83.33% to distinguish effective from ineffective group. And EPB42 had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% at the optimal threshold of 1.3817. In addition, GSEA showed that high expression of ADIPOR1 was mainly related to Mismatch repair, Circadian rhythm, Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA replication, and Fanconi anemia pathways.ConclusionADIPOR1 in whole blood is a promising candidate to act as prognostic biomarker for predication of SBRT outcomes in primary liver cancer patients.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221097589
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Characterization of Bioactives From
           Verbascum thapsus Roots to Evaluate Their Antioxidant and Medicinal

    • Authors: Fatima Shahbaz, Naheed Akhter, Muhammad Shahid*, Muhammad Riaz, Fozia Anjum, Fatma Hussain
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Worldwide, Verbascum thapsus is used for the treatment of various ailments owing to the presence of bioactives of therapeutic potential. Current study was planned to extract bioactives from V thapsus roots using methanol and water as solvents under stimulated effect of ultrasonic waves and characterize them to evaluate their potential benefits. Proximate analysis explored the presence of significant contents of protein, fats, fiber, organic and inorganic minerals. Fourier transform infrared spectra and high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram indicated the presence of different phytochemicals having antioxidant potential as evidenced by total phenolic contents, total flavonoids content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activity of both extracts. Both extracts displayed excellent antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) and Fusarium Solani (F solani). Aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited higher inhibition of biofilm made by Bacillus subtilis (B subtilis) as 55.09 and 61.58%, respectively in comparison to biofilm of Escherichia coli (E coli) as 48.11 and 36.51%, respectively. Methanol extract exhibited anti-amylase activity (IC50 5.26 ± .31 μg/mL) with an inhibition rate of 68.11% whereas IC50 of aqueous extract was 6.59 ± .53 μg/mL with an inhibition rate of 63.53%. Inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase (IC50 3.70 ± .94 ppm) was demonstrated by methanol extract in comparison to aqueous extract (IC50 7.58 ± .15). The study concluded that V thapsus roots have significant medicinal potential due to the presence of variety of bioactive molecules and can be used in pharmaceutical preparations.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T01:56:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221097665
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), Structural
           Characterization, and their Antibacterial Potential

    • Authors: Muhammad Asif, Riffat Yasmin, Rizwan Asif, Ana Ambreen, Madiha Mustafa, Shehla Umbreen
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      BackgroundIn the field of nanotechnology, the metallic nanoparticles are of remarkable interest because of their unique electronic, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical properties.Purpose:In the present work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bio-reduction method. Research Design:Silver nitrate was used as metallic precursor and the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves with different concentrations was used as reducing as well capping agent. The extract exhibited strong potential in rapid reduction of silver ions for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.Results:The absorption SPR peaks appeared in the range of 415 to 439 nm. SEM analysis exhibited that particles were spherical in shape with size distribution range from 10 nm to 25 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were pure crystalline in nature as confirmed by the XRD spectra with average crystallite size 7 nm. In vitro antibacterial activity of the prepared silver nanoparticles colloidal samples as well the extract was studied using different concentrations of AgNPs (C1 = 100 μg/ml, C2 = 50 μg/ml, C3 = 25 μg/ml) by well diffusion method against Gram negative Escherichia coli. The antibacterial performance was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition (ZOI). ConclusionsThe results suggested that AgNPs prepared by green approach can be considered as an alternative antibacterial agent.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T10:10:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221088709
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Analysis of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network in Peripheral Blood of
           Radiation Workers

    • Authors: Jin Gao, Tinxi Lan, Xumin Zong, Gensheng Shi, Shuqing He, Na Chen, Fengmei Cui, Yu Tu
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      The health of radiation workers has always been our focus. Epidemiological investigation shows that long-term exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation can affect human health, especially cancer and cardiovascular disease, and there are many studies on it. However, up to now, there have been few reports on the research of blood and biological samples from radiation workers. In this study, radiation workers and healthy control groups were strictly screened, and the transcriptome of mRNA and circRNA was sequenced by extracting their peripheral venous blood. At the same time, appropriate data sets were selected in the GEO database for bioinformatics analysis, and circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed. We identified 9 different circular ribonucleic acids, 3 tiny ribonucleic acids, and 2 central genes (NOD 2 and IRF 7). These differentially expressed genes and non-coding RNA are closely related to ionizing radiation damage, and play an important role as biological markers. In conclusion, this study may provide new insights into the role of the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in the health of radiation workers, and provides a new strategy for the future study of radiation biology.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221088745
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anticancer L-Asparaginase and Phytoactive Compounds From Plant Solanum
           nigrum Against MDR (Methicillindrug resistant) Staphylococcus aureus and
           Fungal Isolates

    • Authors: Ambreen Aisha, Saba Zahra, Imtiaz M. Tahir, Asim Hussain, Naheed Bano, Alishbah Roobi, Nadia Afsheen, Yasir Saleem
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      L-asparaginase is used in chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other cancers. L-asparaginase derived from bacterial source triggers immune responses. The current study investigates Solanum nigrum as a novel and latent source of L-asparaginase to minimize immunological reactions. The antitumor activity of SN methanol extract was determined using the potato disc assay. InterPro Chimera and InterPro were used to predict the amino acid sequence of L-asparaginase and its anticancer activity. Purification of the enzyme was carried out to homogeneity of 1.51-fold with a recovery of 61.99%. At optimal conditions of 36.5°C, pH 8.6, and 8.5 g/mL substrate, fruit (crude extract) revealed an L-asparaginase titer of 48.23 U/mL. The molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be 32 ± 5 kDa using SDS PAGE. The fruit’s total flavonoids and phenolic contents are 0.42 ± .030 g/mL and 94 ± 1.9 mg CAE, respectively. Anti-tumorigenic efficacy was determined to be 66% against Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Additionally, the extract possesses potent antifungal and antibacterial properties. Molecular docking provided the structural motifs and underlying interactions between L-asparaginase, N-acetylglucosamine, murine, and chitin. SN contains high levels of the enzyme L-asparaginase and phytochemicals, making it a potential source of anticancer drugs.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221092379
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Investigation of the Antiangiogenic Properties of Zoledronic Acid by Using
           Chorioallantoic Membrane Model

    • Authors: Anil Gulcu, Ozgur Akkaya
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      ObjectiveZoledronic acid (ZA) is a bisphosphonate-derived agent used in osteoporotic clinical pathologies to prevent the development of complications such as fractures and hypercalcemia by regulating bone metabolism. Studies have been conducted on the antiangiogenic efficacy of this agent, which also has other systemic side effects. In this study, the dose-dependent antiangiogenic activity of ZA was investigated on the chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM).MethodsThree doses (10−4, 10−5, and 10−6 M concentrations) of drug pellets were prepared with ZA and another pellet was prepared as the positive control group with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor agent bevacizumab (10−6 M concentration). Thereafter all pellets were placed on chorioallantoic membranes on the fourth day of egg incubation. All eggs were evaluated for capillary development four days after the drug application.ResultsThe highest antiangiogenic effect was detected in the positive control group. Moreover, incremental antiangiogenic effects were detected with average scores of .9, 1.1, 1.2 in 10−6, 10−5, and 10−4 M concentrations of ZA groups respectively.ConclusionOur findings supported that ZA has dose-dependent antiangiogenic effects. This result suggests that different dosing may be required in cases where angiogenesis is therapeutic.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:04:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221093410
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Development and Evaluation of pH-Responsive Pluronic F 127 Co-Poly-
           (Acrylic Acid) Biodegradable Nanogels for Topical Delivery of Terbinafine

    • Authors: Shams ul Hassan, Ikrima Khalid, Liaqat Hussain, Kashif Barkat, Ikram Ullah Khan
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Research aimed to develop and evaluate biodegradable, pH-responsive chemically cross-linked Pluronic F127 co-poly- (acrylic acid) nanogels for dermal delivery of Terbinafine HCL (TBH) to increase its permeability and as a new approach to treat skin fungal infections. TBH-loaded nanogels were successfully synthesized from acrylic acid (AA) and Pluronic F127 by free-radical copolymerization technique using N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as initiator. Prepared nanogels exhibited 93.51% drug entrapment efficiency (DEE), 45 nm particle size, pH-dependent swelling and release behavior. Nanogels were characterized using different physicochemical techniques. The ex-vivo skin retention studies through rat skin showed about 42.34% drug retention from nanogels while 1% Lamisil cream (marketed product) showed about 26.56% drug retention. Moreover, skin irritation studies showed that nanogels were not irritating. Nanogels showed improved in-vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans compared to commercial product. In-vivo studies on rats infected with Candida albicans confirmed superiority of nanogels over 1% Lamisil for eradication of fungal infection. This confirms that TBH loaded in Pluronic F127 co-poly-(acrylic acid) nanogels provided greater targetibility and cure rates of poorly soluble TBH in animal model and hence nanogels could be a potential carrier for effective topical delivery of TBH for skin fungal infection treatment.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T06:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221095977
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant, and Inhibition Activity of
           Picrorhiza kurroa Against α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase

    • Authors: Jaweria Nisar, Syed Muhammad A. Shah, Muhammad Akram, Sultan Ayaz, Abid Rashid
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Picrorhiza kurroa (P.K) usually familiar as kutki is a well-known plant in the Ayurvedic system of medicine due to its reported activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective. The current research was intended to evaluate the antioxidant, inhibition activity of the ethanolic, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of P.K roots against α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, after the phytochemical analysis. For this purpose, P.K roots were extracted with ethanol (EthPk), methanol (MthPk), and distilled water (AqPk) and phytochemical study of the extracts were performed to recognize the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). Antioxidant capability of the extracts was assessed by FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assay. α-amylase inhibitory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were also determined. Software SPSS-23 was used to statistically analyze with One Way ANOVA and results were stated as mean standard deviation. Result of the study showed that MthPk contained the maximum concentration of TPC and TFC than EthPk and AqEh. Antioxidants in terms of DPPH (lowest IC50 = .894 ± .57), FRAP (612.54 ± 11.73) and ABTS (406.42 ± 4.02) assay was also maximum in MthPk. MthPk was also showed maximum inhibition activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase with lowest IC50 (.39 ± .41; .61 ± .24), respectively. The extracts α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities order was as MthPk> EthPk> AqPk. Results clearly specified that the methanolic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa have the maximum antioxidant, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. A positive correlation of TPC, TFC with antioxidant, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of the P.K roots were also shown. The plant has capability to diminish the oxidative stress and can be used to treat diabetes by inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase actions.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221095960
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Low-Dose Gamma Radiation Modulates Liver and Testis Tissues Response to
           Acute Whole Body Irradiation

    • Authors: Nahed Abdel-Aziz, Riham A.-H. Haroun, Hebatallah E. Mohamed
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      AimThis work aims to investigate whether the pre-exposure to low dose/low dose rate (40 mGy, 2.2 mGy/hour) γ-radiation as a priming dose can produce a protective effect against the subsequent high one (4 Gy, .425 Gy/minute).MethodsRats were divided into Group I (control), Group II (L); exposed to 40 mGy, Group III (H); exposed to 4 Gy, and Group IV (L+H); exposed to 40 mGy 24 hours before the exposure to 4Gy. The molecular and biochemical changes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, and mitochondrial activity in the liver and testis were studied 4 hours after irradiation.ResultsExposure to 40 mGy before 4 Gy induced a significant increase in the levels of Nrf2, Nrf2 mRNA, TAC, and mitochondrial complexes I & II accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of LPO, 8-OHdG, DNA fragmentation, TNF-α, caspase-3, and caspase-3 mRNA compared with H group.ConclusionExposure to low-dose γ-radiation before a high dose provides protective mechanisms that allow the body to survive better after exposure to a subsequent high one via reducing the oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis-induced early after irradiation. However, further studies are required to identify the long-term effects of this low dose.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T09:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221092365
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Building Blocks Towards a Proportionate Chemicals Policy With a Focus on
           the Netherlands

    • Authors: Ira Helsloot, Jaap C. Hanekamp
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      In this contribution, we propose that ‘sound’ government policy should be characterised by a proportionate, integral vision with due consideration to tradeoffs between social costs and benefits. This principle also applies to government policy regarding the protection of workers from exposure to chemicals. It should be taken into account that having a job is a huge health benefit. Less educated people are statistically likely to enjoy ten additional healthy years, if employed. Although there is no debate about the risks of exposure to high doses of chemicals, there is most certainly debate on the magnitude, nature and possible cumulative effects of low-dose exposure to chemicals. These are established by model-based assumptions. The current advisory structure in which the Health Council of the Netherlands restricts its focus to the immediate health benefits for workers on the basis of risk avoidance models, and the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands which focuses primarily on policy costs for trade and industry, is hardly a sound basis for well-considered decision making. The challenge for the scientific experts is to provide political administrators with an insightful social cost-benefit analysis, including all the concomitant uncertainties.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T08:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221086475
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Induction of Erythrocyte Membrane Blebbing by Methotrexate-Induced
           Oxidative Stress

    • Authors: Tayyba Sattar, Kashif Jilani, Khalida Parveen, Zahid Mushataq, Haq Nawaz, Maham Abdul Bari Khan
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Methotrexate (MTX) is a common chemotherapeutical agent and folate antagonist with reported apoptotic activity in nucleated cells. The presented research work was planned to investigate the eryptotic effects of methotrexate after the exposure of erythrocytes to therapeutical doses (10–15 μM) of methotrexate. Eryptosis and the role of calcium in the stimulation of membrane blebbing were evaluated through the determination of mean cell volume. Oxidative stress induced by methotrexate (10–15 μM) was determined by antioxidative enzyme activities. Cytotoxic activity against human erythrocytes was examined through hemolysis assay. Exposure of erythrocytes to methotrexate results in significant reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities at 10 and 15 μM in comparison to the untreated cells. Erythrocytes mean cell volume (MCV) was increased after 48 hours exposure of erythrocytes to methotrexate (10 μM). Significantly increased hemolysis percentage was observed at 10 μM after 48 hours incubation of erythrocytes with methotrexate. The results of the study suggested that the therapeutical doses (10–15 μM) of methotrexate may lead to increase in eryptotic and hemolytic activity of erythrocytes through free radical generation and subsequent calcium entry.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T05:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221093853
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on Adenosine-Pretreated PC12
           Cells Exposed to Paraquat

    • Authors: Liangcheng Shang, Yaobiao Huang, Xin Xie, Sudan Ye, Chun Chen
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Previous studies evaluated the adenosine receptor antagonists alone to determine their effects on oxidative stress, but little is known about adenosine’s protective efficacy when oxidative injury occurs in vivo. Adenosine is a crucial signaling molecule recognized by four distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (i.e., A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R) and protects cells against pathological conditions. The present study was performed to evaluate the role of antagonist modulation in the setting of paraquat toxicity with adenosine pretreatment. First, PC12 cells were exposed to paraquat (850 μM) and adenosine (30 μM) to develop an in vitro model for the antagonist effect assay. Second, we found that the A1R antagonist DPCPX enhanced the viability of paraquat-induced PC12 cells that underwent adenosine pretreatment. Moreover, the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the viability of paraquat-induced PC12 cells that underwent adenosine pretreatment. Our findings indicate that adenosine protection requires a dual blockade of A1R and activation of A2AR to work at its full potential, and the A2B and A3 adenosine receptor antagonists increased paraquat-induced oxidative damage. This represents a novel pharmacological strategy based on A1/A2A interactions and can assist in clarifying the role played by AR antagonists in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T02:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221093411
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Response Surface Analysis of the Combination of Dexmedetomidine and
           Sufentanil for Attenuating the Haemodynamic Response to Endotracheal

    • Authors: Peng Su, Zheng Li, Xiaoqian Jia, Xiaoling Peng, Daiqiang Liu, Jing Xiao, Ye Tu, Feng Gao
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      PurposeDexmedetomidine combined with opioids has been extensively used to blunt cardiovascular responses to endotracheal intubation. To determine their interaction, we aimed to develop a response surface model between dexmedetomidine and sufentanil.MethodsOne hundred and twenty patients undergoing scheduled gynaecological surgery were recruited. According to a simulation of slice design, patients received different dose pairs of dexmedetomidine (0 to 1.1 μg/kg) and sufentanil (.1 to .5 μg/kg). The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of patients were recorded just before endotracheal intubation, immediately after intubation, and during the first 3 min after intubation. The primary outcomes were haemodynamic changes. The full dose–response relationship between dexmedetomidine and sufentanil was analysed using a logit model.ResultsThis response surface model revealed that the interaction between dexmedetomidine and sufentanil was additive. The dose pairs that could effectively attenuate the haemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation primarily ranged from .3 to .4 μg/kg and .5 to 1.1 μg/kg for sufentanil and dexmedetomidine, respectively.ConclusionWhen used propofol as the main hypnotic drug during anaesthesia induction, dexmedetomidine could effectively reduce the requirement of sufentanil in an additive manner. However, it is not an effective drug for ablating the cardiovascular response to endotracheal intubation when used alone. The clinical trial registry. The trial registry name: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Registration number: ChiCTR1800015273. URL:http://www.chictr.org.cn
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T02:33:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221092367
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Tongbixiao Pills Improve Gout by Reducing Uric Acid Levels and Inhibiting

    • Authors: Shijun Xi, ZhiguoShao, Lu Li, Zhuang Gui, Peng Liu, Qi Jiang, Yuan Yu, Wen Zhou, Ziqi Zhou, Shuo Zhang, Xiao Chun Peng, Bo Su
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      Gout is a chronic disease. Gout symptoms are often experienced in the middle of the night. The onset of gout in the middle of the night is closely related to abnormal liver and gallbladder meridian. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and possible mechanism of action of Tongbixiao pills in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. The Tongbixiao pills we used included several traditional Chinese medicines, most of which tonify the spleen; strengthen the liver; benefit the kidney; and reduce heat, dampness, and blood stasis. In this randomized clinical study of 105 patients, we found that Tongbixiao pills can reduce uric acid levels in hyperuricemia patients. Additionally, the efficacy was similar to that of allopurinol and the level of uric acid did not increase significantly at eight weeks after withdrawal. In the absence of notable adverse reactions, Tongbixiao pills can also increase uric acid excretion, reduce serum creatinine and lipid levels, and reduce inflammation and relieve gout symptoms. In addition, we used SD rats to simulate gout and arthritis and divided them into five groups: normal group, model group, low-dose group, medium-dose group, and high-dose group. The inflammatory indices of the 40 SD rats were observed. After seven days, ankle swelling in rats in the treatment group was significantly reduced. The indices of uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group, which proved that Tongbixiao pills could inhibit hyperuricemia in rats, thus treating gout. This study demonstrates that Tongbixiao pills can treat gout, provide more treatment options for gouty arthritis, and improve the quality of life of patients.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T01:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221090340
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Carbon Ion Induces Cell Death and G2/M Arrest Through pRb/E2F1Chk2/Cdc2
           Signaling Pathway in X-ray Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells

    • Authors: Sha Li, Hefa Huang, Mengjie Xing, Jin Qin, Hong Zhang, Yang Liu, Liping Zhang, Chao Zhang, Zhongze Tian, Xingxin Gao, Rui Zhao, Aihong Mao
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 2, April-June 2022.
      To explore the effect of high-LET carbon ion (C-ion) radiation on malignant melanoma, we systematically compared the radiobiological effects of C-ion with that of X-rays in B16F10 melanoma cells. Results showed that C-ion radiation statistically inhibited clonogenic survival capacity of B16F10 melanoma cells. The RBE was 3.7 at D10 levels, meaning 1.0 Gy C-ion should cause the same biological effect as ≥ 3.0 Gy X-rays. In addition, we also observed a stronger proliferation-inhibiting and higher ratio of cell apoptosis and necrosis in B16F10 cells treated with C-ion than X-rays. Moreover, C-ion radiation exhibited stronger and long-lasting G2/M arrest than X-rays. As an underlying mechanism, we speculated that C-ion radiation-induced G2/M block through activating pRb/E2F1/Chk2 pathway. With these results, we highlighted the potential of C-ion in treatment of cutaneous melanoma. Further, in vitro experiments as well as clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the effect of carbon ion radiotherapy in melanoma.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T01:27:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221092364
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2022)
  • Potential Radiological Problems in the Ukrainian War Zone and Challenges
           for Related Health Risks Assessments

    • Authors: Bobby R. Scott
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 1, January-March 2022.

      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T05:18:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221090091
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2022)
  • Evaluation of AI-Based Segmentation Tools for COVID-19 Lung Lesions on
           Conventional and Ultra-low Dose CT Scans

    • Authors: Marco Aiello, Dario Baldi, Giuseppina Esposito, Marika Valentino, Marco Randon, Marco Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 1, January-March 2022.
      A reliable diagnosis and accurate monitoring are pivotal steps for treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Chest computed tomography (CT) has been considered a crucial diagnostic imaging technique for the injury assessment of the viral pneumonia. Furthermore, the automatization of the segmentation methods for lung alterations helps to speed up the diagnosis and lighten radiologists’ workload. Considering the assiduous pathology monitoring, ultra-low dose (ULD) chest CT protocols have been implemented to drastically reduce the radiation burden. Unfortunately, the available AI technologies have not been trained on ULD-CT data and validated and their applicability deserves careful evaluation. Therefore, this work aims to compare the results of available AI tools (BCUnet, CORADS AI, NVIDIA CLARA Train SDK and CT Pneumonia Analysis) on a dataset of 73 CT examinations acquired both with conventional dose (CD) and ULD protocols. COVID-19 volume percentage, resulting from each tool, was statistically compared. This study demonstrated high comparability of the results on CD-CT and ULD-CT data among the four AI tools, with high correlation between the results obtained on both protocols (R> .68, P < .001, for all AI tools).
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T04:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221082896
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2022)
  • Addressing Risk Perceptions of Low-Dose Radiation Exposure

    • Authors: Margot Hurlbert, Larissa Shasko, MIchaela Neetz
      Abstract: Dose-Response, Volume 20, Issue 1, January-March 2022.
      Concern over low-dose radiation (LDR) (exposure of less than 100 milligray (mGy)) is resulting in people refusing diagnostic procedures and medical treatment and also inhibiting revision of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption that informs much of science policy. This article reviews representative surveys in Ontario and Saskatchewan and focus groups conducted with science and policy stakeholders in addressing how the public and policy stakeholders understand issues of exposure to LDR and how policy issues can be addressed.Research results from focus groups demonstrated that policy stakeholders are knowledgeable about issues surrounding the public and perceptions about LDR and implications for policy consistent with LDR literature. Participants understood that the challenge went beyond providing more education about LDR and issues of emotions and biases must be addressed. This research resulted in rich suggestions for public communication and engagement surrounding LDR and a process for addressing the issue of the LNT.
      Citation: Dose-Response
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T05:28:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15593258221088428
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2022)
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