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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2633-4682 - ISSN (Online) 2633-4690
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Selected
           Medicinal Plants against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in West
           Shewa Zone, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance to commercially available medications has become a global issue, yet there is still the possibility of developing new drugs from medicinal plants. As a result, the aims of the present study were to screen secondary metabolites and to evaluate in vitro antifungal activities of Brucea antidysenterica, Aloe vera, and Justicia schimperiana. After the plants were identified, their leaves were collected, washed, dried under the shade, pulverized, and extracted with methanol (99.8%) using the maceration technique. The presence of secondary metabolites in plant extracts was screened using various laboratory protocols. The antifungal activities of the plant extract against reference fungal strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger at concentrations of 200, 100, and 50 mg/mL were assessed using the agar-well diffusion method. Ketoconazole (15 μg) was used as a positive control, while 5% dimethyl sulfoxide and/or 5% Tween 80 were used as negative controls. All tests were conducted in triplicate. Alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols were secondary metabolites found in all plant extracts. The extract of leaves of B. antidysenterica and J. schimperiana formed a mean zone of inhibition of 15.5 ± 0.5 mm and 15.3 ± 0.58 mm, respectively, against Candida albicans at a concentration of 200 mg/mL, whereas extracts of A. vera leaves formed a 12.3 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone only against Aspergillus niger at 200 mg/mL. In conclusion, the current study found that B. antidysenterica, A. vera, and J. schimperiana had antifungal activity. In addition, all these plants had a variety of secondary metabolites that possibly have antifungal activities. Studies on in vivo investigations and isolation of specific antifungal compounds from these medicinal plants are suggested.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 08:35:01 +000
  • Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antibacterial Potentials and Chemical
           Composition of Salvia officinalis and Mentha suaveolens Grown Wild in

    • Abstract: This work evaluated in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antibacterial properties of Salvia officinalis (S. officinalis) and Mentha suaveolens (M. suaveolens) essential oils (EO). The EOs were extracted, and their chemical composition was determined using GC-MS analysis. The in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities of S. officinalis and M. suaveolens EO were shown to be remarkable. Furthermore, S. officinalis EO demonstrated better antioxidant findings (using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP test) than M. suaveolens EO (). There were no significant differences in the inhibitory effects of the EOs on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in the antidiabetic assays. All of the examined bacterial strains (10 different strains), with the exception of P. aeruginosa, demonstrated significant sensitivity to the tested EOs, with M. suaveolens EO exhibiting better activity than S. officinalis EO. Thus, the research indicated that EO from these two medicinal plants has considerable potential for application in the formulation of antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic pharmaceuticals. However, more research studies are required to interpret the pharmacologic action of the studied EOs and their principal constituents and to confirm their safety.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 08:35:01 +000
  • Antimicrobial Potential of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from the Rift Valley
           Regions of Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The study was undertaken to isolate, screen, and identify actinomycetes with antimicrobial metabolites. Twenty-one composite soil samples were randomly collected from various unique agroecological niches in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The soil samples were serially diluted and spread on starch casein agar medium supplemented with 50 μg/ml cycloheximide and 25 μg/ml nalidixic acid. Two hundred and forty-nine (249) actinomycetes cultures were isolated and screened by cross streaking against various human pathogens. Twenty-four isolates with pronounced antimicrobial activity were selected for identification and further screening. Among the isolates, 172 (69.1%) showed antimicrobial activities against tested pathogens. The inhibition zone of the isolates ranged from 5 ± 0.31 to >40 mm during primary screening. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of promising isolates showed a statistically significant difference between them and the control. The isolates RVE129 and RVE217 showed the maximum zone of inhibition at 27 ± 0.6 mm and 26 ± 0.6 mm, respectively, against S. aureus, and the results were higher than the standard drug streptomycin (25 ± 0.58 mm). The inhibition zone of crude extracts from RVE129 was at the maximum of 22 ± 0.0 mm against .aeruginosa, almost comparable to the standard drug streptomycin (24 ± 0.58 mm). Crude extract from the isolates RVE129 and RVE187 showed higher inhibition zones of 22 ± 0.6 mm and 16 ± 0.33 mm against A. niger ATCC10535, which, however, were smaller than those obtained with the standard drug amphotericin B (29 ± 0.6 mm). Twenty-four actinomycete strains with remarkable bioactivity were characterized using various cultural, morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and assigned under the genus Streptomycetes. The finding of the current study indicates that Streptomyces sp. isolated from the Rift Valley of Ethiopia was found to possess a broad spectrum of bioactivity against a range of human pathogens.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 11:35:02 +000
  • Levofloxacin Use in Patients with Suspected Tuberculosis in a Community
           Hospital, Thailand: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. Levofloxacin is one of the broad-spectrum antibiotics that is indicated for the second-line treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, using levofloxacin as an empirical therapy for patients without confirmation of TB could still be observed. This descriptive retrospective study, therefore, aimed to investigate the number of levofloxacin use in patients suspected TB in a community hospital in Thailand. Methods. Patient medical charts of all patients who were admitted to a community hospital in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand, from 2016 to 2017, were reviewed. Patients who were suspected TB and received any levofloxacin-containing regimens were included. Data on patient characteristics and the received regimens were descriptively analyzed and reported as percentage and frequency. Results. There were a total of 21 patients who received levofloxacin in the hospital. Six of them (28.57%) had the diagnosis of hepatitis. The most prescribed regimen as empirical therapy was levofloxacin, ethambutol, and amikacin (66.67%). After the confirmation of TB using acid-fast bacilli (AFB) test, ten patients (47.62%) still received levofloxacin-containing regimens. Conclusion. The results from this study indicated high usage of levofloxacin despite no evidence of drug-resistant TB or negative AFB results in a community hospital in Thailand. The results from this study will be further used for the investigation of the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and clinical outcomes of using second-line regimens for TB treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jun 2022 19:20:01 +000
  • Passiflora mollissima Seed Extract Induced Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic
           Effects on CAL 27 Spheroids

    • Abstract: Multicellular tumor spheroids are used as models in drug development due to their characteristics simulating in vivo tumors. Likewise, antiproliferative properties of extracts derived from fruits have been widely described. Peels and seeds can be used as a matrix to obtain different compounds. Recently, a study demonstrated the antiproliferative activity from a P. mollissima extract (PME) on human colon cancer cells; however, its effect on oral spheroids is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the antiproliferative potential of an extract obtained from P. mollissima seeds on the spheroid-type-3D culture model of CAL 27. Methods. CAL 27-spheroids were treated with three concentrations of PME (10, 50, and 100 μg/ml). After 72 hr incubation, morphology and cellular changes, cytotoxic and proapoptotic effect, gene expression, and metastasis were determined. Additionally, changes in the cell cycle phases responded to the PME concentrations. Comparisons between groups were made through a U Mann-Whitney test. Results. It was shown that 100 μg/ml PE affects CAL 27 cells proliferation grown in spheroids through cell cycle arrest and gene regulation of p53, HIF 1α, and CDH1. However, none of the treatments employed induced MMP9 gene expression. Conclusion. Our study shows that PME inhibits the growth and proliferation of oral tumor cells cultured in spheroids through the positive regulation of cell death and metastasis genes.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 10:05:04 +000
  • Ethnopharmacology, Biological Evaluation, and Chemical Composition of
           Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.: A Review

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants are the primary raw materials used in the production of medicinal products all over the world. As a result, more study on plants with therapeutic potential is required. The tropical tree Ziziphus spina belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. Biological reports and traditional applications including management of diabetes and treatment of malaria, digestive issues, typhoid, liver complaints, weakness, skin infections, urinary disorders, obesity, diarrhoea, and sleeplessness have all been treated with different parts of Z. spina all over the globe. The plant is identified as a rich source of diverse chemical compounds. This study is a comprehensive yet detailed review of Z. spina based on major findings from around the world regarding ethnopharmacology, biological evaluation, and chemical composition. Scopus, Web of Science, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Springer Link, and Google Scholar were searched to find published articles. From the 186 research articles reviewed, we revealed the leaf extract to be significant against free radicals, microbes, parasites, inflammation-related cases, obesity, and cancer. Chemically, polyphenols/flavonoids were the most reported compounds with a composition of 66 compounds out of the total 193 compounds reported from different parts of the plant. However, the safety and efficacy of Z. spina have not been wholly assessed in humans, and further well-designed clinical trials are needed to corroborate preclinical findings. The mechanism of action of the leaf extract should be examined. The standard dose and safety of the leaf should be established.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 May 2022 11:05:03 +000
  • Antidiabetic Properties and Toxicological Assessment of Antidesma
           celebicum Miq: Ethanolic Leaves Extract in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    • Abstract: Antidesma is a genus of plants, and its several species are known to have antidiabetic properties. Leaves of Kayu Tuah (Antidesma celebicum Miq) have been proven to have the best α-glucosidase inhibition ability compared to other species in the Antidesma genus, as evidenced by the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition test. However, no scientific studies have reported its antidiabetic properties and toxicity in vivo. Therefore, this research managed to verify the antidiabetic features and safety of ethanolic extract of A. celebicum leaves (EEAC) in Sprague–Dawley rats. Male rats (170–280 g) were induced diabetic with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg BW) and fed a high-fat diet comprising 24% fat, whereas control group rats were given a standard diet. Rats were treated with EEAC at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW doses for 28-days and 60 mg/kg BW acarbose for the control group. Determination of antidiabetic properties was done by analyzing lipid profiles as well as fasting blood glucose. After confirming the antidiabetic properties of EEAC, the toxicological assessment was determined using the fixed-dose method. General behavior changes, appearance, signs of toxicity, mortality, and body weight of animals were marked down during the observation period. When the treatment period ended, hematological, biochemical, and histological examinations of liver, kidneys, and heart sections were performed. The results confirmed that EEAC reduced fasting blood glucose levels and stepped forward lipid profiles of rats. Also, all animals survived, and no obvious destructive outcomes were noticeable during the study. As EEAC has promising results toward hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and has been proven safe through toxicity tests, it can be concluded that EEAC has good potential to be further developed into antidiabetic drugs.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 08:20:03 +000
  • Evaluation of Dermal Toxicity and Wound Healing Activity of Cnestis
           ferruginea Vahl ex DC

    • Abstract: Cnestisferruginea is a tropical plant, which is traditionally used in the treatment and management of various conditions including skin infections and wounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermal toxicity and wound healing potential of C. ferruginea. Ten millimeter full-thickness mucosal wounds were created on the dorsal midportion of the Sprague Dawley rats. Wounds were treated with 10, 5, and 2.5% w/w aqueous creams, prepared from the methanol extract of the root bark of C. ferruginea (CFM). The wound tissues were harvested on day 21 for histology studies. Compared with the untreated group, 10, 5, and 2.5% w/w CFM-treated wounds significantly reduced the wound size over the study period (). Tissue histology revealed a healed wound with well-regenerated collagen and skin appendages with no pus cells. A skin irritation test was conducted on CFM, as well as the dermal toxicity of CFM was determined in the repeated dose and acute dermal toxicity bioassays. These tests revealed that CFM showed no toxic effect on the skin and showed that CFM was not a skin irritant. C. ferruginea exhibited wound healing activity, which gives credence to its folkloric use.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 May 2022 08:05:01 +000
  • Phylogeny, Phytomedicines, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Properties, and
           Toxicity of Croton gratissimus Burch (Euphorbiaceae)

    • Abstract: Croton gratissimus is an important plant in Africa setup and across the globe for its ethnomedicinal uses in managing a wide range of diseases. Its phylogeny, pharmacological properties, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and cytotoxicity have been highlighted in various articles and journals. This review article aims to give a comprehensively overviewed literature about Croton gratissimus genus. Authentic literature sources such as books, peer reviewed articles, journals, theses, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and any other validated internet source have been used to develop this review. Croton gratissimus is richly found across different climatic zones because of its ability to adapt to various climatic conditions. It is mainly found in rocky hills as a scrub that is about 12–15 m tall. Its leaves are glossy, green on the top, and silvery underneath. Some of the leaves may look brick red rusty. Croton gratissimus has been explored traditionally to manage a number of diseases among the human race since time immemorial. It has been used to treat different ailments ranging from respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, malaria, diabetes, hypertension, dermatological conditions, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, fever, sexually transmitted diseases, and infertility. Studies have shown that parts of this plant have antioxidative, antimicrobial, anticholinesterases inhibitory, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, anticonvulsant, antiulcer, antihypertensive, antiproliferative, antiplasmodial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Terpenoids and flavonoids have shown to be the major classes of compounds in this plant. Its toxicity has not been well established; some studies have suggested that Croton gratissimus can cause hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity. More studies are needed to elucidate the compounds and their structures giving this plant a wide range of pharmacological activities, efficacy, safety, and toxicity levels, since the plant has greater ethnomedicinal uses. This would give a great indication of discovering new novelties that can give a breakthrough in drug discovery.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:35:03 +000
  • In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Digestive Enzymes Inhibition
           Activities of Hydro-Ethanolic Leaf and Bark Extracts of Psychotria
           densinervia (K. Krause) Verdc

    • Abstract: Psychotria densinervia hydro-ethanolic leaf extract (PHELE) and bark extract (PHEBE) were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and inhibition of digestive enzymes activities. The antioxidant activity was characterized by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was characterized by protein denaturation and antiproteinase tests, while the inhibition of the enzymes was assessed using α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, and cholesterol esterase activities. PHELE presented low () IC50 (59.09 ± 5.97 μg/ml) for DPPH compared with ascorbic acid (71.78 ± 6.37 μg/ml) and PHEBE (115.40 ± 1.21 μg/ml). The IC50 of PHELE (262.4 ± 4.46 μg/ml) and PHEBE (354.2 ± 1.97 μg/ml) was higher () than that of catechin (33.48 ± 2.02 μg/ml) for ABTS. PHELE had high () FRAP (341.73 ± 21.70 mg CE/g) than PHEBE (150.30 ± 0.32 mg CE/g). PHELE presented () high TPC (270.05 ± 7.53 mg CE/g) and TFC (23.43 ± 0.032 mg CE/g) than PHEBE (TPC: 138.89 ± 0.91 and TFC: 20.06 ± 0.032 mg CE/g). PHELE showed antiprotein denaturation with IC50 (257.0 ± 7.51 μg/ml) () and antiproteinase activity (74.37 ± 1.10 μg/ml) lower than PHEBE (316.1 ± 6.02 μg/ml and 177.6 ± 0.50 μg/ml), respectively. Orlistat inhibited lipase () activity with IC50 (37.11 ± 4.39 μg/ml) lower than PHELE and PHEBE (50.57 ± 2.89 μg/ml and 62.88 ± 1.74 μg/ml, respectively). PHELE inhibited cholesterol esterase with IC50 (34.75 ± 3.87 μg/ml) lower than orlistat (54.61 ± 2.56) and PHEBE (80.14 ± 1.71 μg/ml). PHELE inhibited α-amylase IC50 (6.07 ± 4.05 μg/ml) lower than PHEBE (19.69 ± 6.27 μg/ml) and acarbose (20.01 ± 2.84 μg/ml). Acarbose inhibited α-glucosidase () activity with IC50 (4.11 ± 3.47 μg/ml) lower than PHELE (24.41 ± 2.84 μg/ml) and PHEBE (38.81 ± 2.46 μg/ml). PHELE presented better antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibition activity than PHEBE.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 08:50:01 +000
  • Biological Evaluation of Garcinia kola Heckel

    • Abstract: Garcinia kola belongs to the Garcinia genus of the Clusiaceae family and Malpighiales order. It contains more than 180 members all over the globe. It is found all over Asia and in tropical African countries. In Africa, traditionally, G kola is used to manage and treat cancer, diabetes, malaria, analgesics, hypertension, and other numerous ailments. This review aimed to comprehensively update relevant information regarding the pharmacological potential of Garcinia kola. Electronic databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Wiley, Google Scholar, Hindawi, and Springer extracted valuable information from original scientific research papers. Inclusion Criteria. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antibacterial, medications, antiviral, traditional medicine, ethnopharmacology, toxicity, cytotoxic action, chemical composition, mineral elements, GCMS analysis, and any other related phrases were used as filters to find studies. Exclusion Criteria. Data from questionable online sources, as well as thesis reports and review publications, were excluded from this investigation. The investigation revealed that seeds of G. kola are very efficient as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihypertension, antianalgesic, and anti-inflammatory. The study also found that too much consumption of the seeds caused low fertility and toxicity. However, the safety and efficacy of G. kola have not been wholly assessed in humans, and further well-designed clinical trials are needed to corroborate preclinical findings. The mechanism of action of the seed extract should be examined. The standard dose and safety of the seed should be established.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2022 10:20:02 +000
  • Development and In Vitro Evaluation of Oral Capsules from Antiaris: A
           Convenient Substitute for Peripheral Neuropathy

    • Abstract: Antiaris is a monoherbal decoction produced by the Centre for Plant Medicine Research (CPMR), Mampong-Akuapem, Ghana. It is prepared from the stem bark of Antiaris africana Engl. (Moraceae), prescribed, and dispensed to patients for the management of nervous disorders. This current formulation presents notable challenges in patients’ adherence to treatment regimen due to its bulkiness and bitterness. These challenges have resulted in a decrease in therapeutic outcome. This study sought to transform Antiaris into oral capsules to mask its bitter taste and reduce bulkiness of the product to improve patients’ convenience. In this study, four (4) conventional release capsule formulations were successfully prepared from the decoction via wet granulation using corn starch, lactose, light magnesium carbonate (LMC), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and labelled A01, A02, A03, and A04 respectively. The drug-excipient compatibility studies on A01, A02, A03, and A04 were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The flow properties of the granules as well as the quality assessment of the formulations such as dissolution, disintegration, uniformity of weight, and assay tests were evaluated using pharmacopoeial and nonpharmacopoeial methods. Appropriate models were used to investigate the difference factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2) of the dissolution profiles of the formulations and Antiaris. From the study, all formulated granules had excellent flow properties with Carr’s index from 7.83 to 9.56%, Hausner’s ratio from 1.09 to 1.10, and angle of repose from 25.13 to 27.87°. Drug-excipient compatibility studies demonstrated no interaction between extract and used excipients. All formulations passed the uniformity of weight, disintegration, assay, and dissolution tests. Formulation A02 had the highest dissolution efficiency of 100.12%, while A03 recorded the least value of 97.22% in the 1 h dissolution studies. A comparison of their various dissolution profiles, respectively, to that of its decoction demonstrated their similarity, since, in all comparisons, f2  50. This implies that, any of these four formulations could be a good substitute for Antiaris.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 07:50:02 +000
  • Advancement of Nanofibrous Mats and Common Useful Drug Delivery

    • Abstract: Electrospinning enables simple and cost-effective production of polymer nanofibers from different polymer materials. Drug delivery systems are capable of achieving maximum drug treatment benefits by significantly reducing adverse complications. Electrospun nanofibers have recently attracted considerable attention owing to their distinctive properties, including flexibility and biocompatibility. The implementation of functional constituents within nanostructure fibers blends is an effective technique for the administration of a variety of drugs in animal research, broadening the nanofiber capability and reliability. The nanofibrous mesh and its various application purposes are discussed in terms of a summary of recent research, emphasizing the ease of streaming and a large number of combinations of this approach, which could lead to a breakthrough in targeted therapy.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 07:50:02 +000
  • Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Potentiating Activity of Extracts
           from Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) against Cryptococcus neoformans Clinical

    • Abstract: Eriobotrya japonica (loquat) has been used in African traditional medicine with numerous beneficial health effects. The extracts from loquat contain several bioactive compounds with a plethora of pharmacological properties. However, a scientific study on the activity against the aetiological agent of cryptococcosis has not yet been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal potential of various extracts from Eriobotrya japonica against clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical analyses of extracts were made by following standard procedures. The broth microdilution method and the checkerboard methods were used to determine the antifungal activity and the combination of extracts with antifungals drugs. The methanol extract of seeds and the hexane extract of leaves exhibited the best significant antifungal activity with MIC values of 32 µg/mL. Furthermore, the combination of both extracts with nystatin and clotrimazole showed synergistic interactions with a 32-fold reduction in the MIC values of nystatin. Our findings indicate that Eriobotrya japonica extracts are a potential source of new antifungals that could be developed for use in the treatment of cryptococcosis. The anticryptococcal and antifungal activities potentiating activity of the studied extracts indicate their potential in the management of cryptococcosis. Further study should be considered to identify the bioactive principles against Cryptococcus neoformans.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 08:05:04 +000
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anemia among Breast Cancer Patients
           Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Prospective Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and factors associated with anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] 12 g/dL) in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study to collect demographic and clinical data on adult breast cancer patients with or without anemia who were admitted to HKL, UMMC, and NCI. The incidence of anemia was determined by detecting whether or not anemia developed during the course of chemotherapy. Mild, moderate, or severe anemia was defined. A chi-squared and logistic regression model were used to assess the effect of demographic and clinical factors on the incidence of anemia and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of potential risk factors with the presence of CRA. Results. The study enrolled a total of 292 breast cancer patients. Anemia occurred at a rate of 41.1% (n = 120). Our findings indicated that clinical factors such as the number of chemotherapy regimens, dose reduction, and type of chemotherapy, for example, docetaxel, as well as demographic covariates such as age and BMI, all contribute to the incidence of anemia in cancer patients. Conclusions. According to this study, the prevalence of anemia in breast cancer patients is high. Patients' age, BMI, number of chemotherapy regimens, and docetaxel were risk factors; thus, protocols are needed to identify subgroups of breast cancer likely to benefit from novel management strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 08:05:04 +000
  • Effects of the Antiobesity Drugs Aplex and Venera on Certain Biochemical
           and Physiological Indices in Obese Adult Male Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Background. Because of the growing incidence of obesity, the use of synthetic antiobesity medicines as weight-loss agents has grown in popularity, although their usefulness has yet to be established. Two of such medicines are Aplex and Venera. This study is designed to determine the potential dangers of Aplex and Venera on certain biochemical and physiological indicators in obese adult male rats. Methods. Twenty-one obese male albino rats (9 weeks old and having a body mass of 220 ± 20 g) were divided into three equal groups: the control group (vehicle treatment), the Aplex group (0.1 mg/kg/day) for 30 days, and the Venera group (0.1 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Results. The values of serum glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total protein, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), TC/HDL ratio, testosterone, thyroxine (T4), and leptin did not differ significantly between the treated and control groups. In contrast, the treated groups had substantial changes in bodyweight, serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio (A/G ratio), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), LDL/HDL ratio, urea, creatinine, and triiodothyronine (T3) levels. Conclusion. The findings indicate that Aplex and Venera have negative impacts on crucial biochemical and physiological indicators, particularly liver and kidney functioning.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 07:35:03 +000
  • Cytotoxicity against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells and
           Anti-Oxidant Activity of Selected Endemic or Medicinal Plants in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most fatal cancer globally with limited treatment options. Plants and herbs have been used to treat cancer and other diseases for a long time by traditional practitioners in Sri Lanka. In the present study, leaf and bark extracts of selected plants were investigated for cytotoxic properties on HepG2 cells. Anti-oxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. Plant extracts that exerted cytotoxic effects on the HepG2 cell line with IC50  100 μg/mL) to THLE-3 cells after 48 h of incubation. These findings provide a direction to isolate possible anti-cancer compounds for hepatocellular carcinoma.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 08:20:01 +000
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Astragalus floccosus Boiss.

    • Abstract: Estrogens are a group of sex hormones which have receptors on the skin and lead to increased cells and wound healing. Normally isoflavonoids are present in Astragalus floccosus Boiss. (Leguminosae). Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the presence of isoflavonoids in A. floccosus’ rich fraction of flavonoid and evaluate its wound healing effect accordingly. Flavonoids were evaluated by LCMS. Scratch was conducted and the medium culture was treated with the Astragalus’ rich fraction of flavonoid (RFF) and was compared with nontreated culture during 48 hours. In addition, in vivo full-thickness wound healing evaluation was performed on rats. The rats were put into four groups and treated on a daily basis for 21 days with a cream containing 1.5% of the RFF (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (group 2), and Vaseline (group 3) separately. The nontreated group (group 4) was created for a better comparison. During the examination, wound size was evaluated and histopathological examination was performed. Herbal analysis detected 11 flavonoids, including 2 isoflavonoids, Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside and Formononetin, in the RFF. In vitro scratch wound healing showed significant improvement with RFF treatment in comparison to nontreated medium. Furthermore, in vitro drug release of Astragalus ointment showed a stationary line during 24 h and 0.14 mg/ml of flavonoid penetrated the skin. In vivo wound size evaluation showed significant improvement in the group treated with the RFF in comparison to other groups. Histopathological results indicated that congestion, edema, inflammation, necrosis, and angiogenesis decreased during the examination and fibroblast proliferation fibrosis epithelization was increased especially in the RFF group in comparison to the silver sulfadiazine and free groups. In conclusion, A. floccosus showed that wound healing activity in both in vitro and in vivo analyses can be attributed to the presence of isoflavonoids with estrogen-like activity in this plant.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 08:35:01 +000
  • Formulation Design and Cell Cytotoxicity of Curcumin-Loaded Liposomal
           Solid Gels for Anti-Hepatitis C Virus

    • Abstract: Backgrounds. Curcumin (CUR) is a low-molecular-weight polyphenolic substance obtained from the tuber part of Curcuma species. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activities have been associated with CUR. However, its poor aqueous solubility and low systemic bioavailability have been the challenges in improving the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin. Aim. The study aimed to produce CUR-loaded liposomal solid gels as anti-HCV delivery systems. Parameters including the physical characteristics and the cell cytotoxicity properties were evaluated. Methods. The freeze-drying technique was applied to manufacture the CUR-loaded liposomal solid gels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were involved to reveal the characteristics of the solid gels. Such characteristics were as follows: the morphology and the microscopic structure of the solid gels, the crystallinity structure of the curcumin, and the thermal properties of the mixtures. Furthermore, their cell cytotoxicity was investigated using a Huh7it cell line. Results. The SEM images confirmed that curcumin liposomes were intact and trapped in the solid gel matrix. The XRD data showed flat patterns diffractograms of the formulations, confirming the transformation of CUR from crystalline to amorphous form. The DTA thermograms showed a single melting endothermic peak at a higher temperature around 200°C, indicating a single-phase transition of the mixtures. The XRD and DTA data revealed the molecular dispersion of CUR in the developed formulations. The cytotoxicity data provided as cell cytotoxicity 50 (CC50) for all formulations were ≥25 mg. These data confirmed that the developed liposomal solid gels were not cytotoxic to Huh7it cell line, indicating that the anti-HCV activity would be through a specific pathway and not by its toxicity. Conclusion. The CUR-loaded liposomal solid gels exhibited the potential and offered an alternative dosage form to improve the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin as an anti-HCV.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 10:35:01 +000
  • Approaches for the Elimination of Microbial Contaminants from Lippia
           multiflora Mold. Leaves Intended for Tea Bagging and Evaluation of

    • Abstract: Elimination of microorganisms from herbal products has been a major concern due to its implicated health risk to consumers. Drying of herbal materials has been employed for centuries to reduce the risk of contamination and spoilage. The present study adopted three drying approaches in an attempt to eliminate microorganisms from Lippia multiflora tea bag formulation. This study also evaluated the tea bags and optimized the extraction procedure. The L. multiflora leaves for tea bagging were air-dried and milled (A), oven-dried and milled (B), and microwaved (the milled air-dried leaves) (C). The moisture contents were determined at 105°C ± 2°C for 2 hours to constant weight. Phytochemical parameters such as phytochemical constituents, total water extractive, and pH were assessed. The microbial safety and quality of the L. multiflora tea bags were evaluated using the British Pharmacopoeia 2019 specifications. The uniformity of the mass of the formulated tea bags was also determined. Extraction from the Lippia tea bags was optimized. The results showed that using the approaches (A, B, and C) adopted for drying and processing, the moisture contents of the formulated tea bags were in the range of 9.75–10.71% w/w. All the formulated tea bags contained reducing sugars, phenolic compounds, polyuronides, flavonoids, anthracenosides, alkaloids, saponins, and phytosterols. The pH range of the formulations was 7.11–7.54, whereas the total water extractive values were in the range of 19.12–20.41% w/w. The one-way analysis of variance demonstrated no significant difference in the data obtained from the results from A, B, and C. The formulation from A was found to be unsafe for consumption due to unacceptable microbial contamination limits. Microbial load of the formulations from B and C were within the BP specifications. All the batches of the formulations passed the uniformity of mass test. An optimized extraction procedure was obtained when one tea bag was extracted in 250 mL of hot water within the specified time. L. multiflora leaves meant for tea bagging should be oven-dried or microwaved before tea bagging for safe consumption.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Feb 2022 14:35:01 +000
  • Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Potential of Polyherbal Preparations in
           CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    • Abstract: Background. Polyherbal formulations (PLFs) have been widely used for liver protection, treatment for hepatic dysfunction, and regeneration. They can also enhance appetite and protect the gastrointestinal tract from injury. In spite of the prevalent use, there is a need of scientific evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The objective of the present study was to assess the hepatoprotective effect of polyherbal formulations (commercially available in Bangladesh namely Heptaliv, Holyliv, Icturn, and J-deenar) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Methods. In this study, Swiss albino mice were treated for 7 days with distilled water or PLFs (2.6 and 5.2 ml/kg body weight/day, per os.) followed by single subcutaneous injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, diluted with olive oil in 1 : 1 ratio) on day 8. Twenty-four hours after CCl4 administration, the mice were monitored for the effects of PLFs on liver morphology, biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time and histopathology changes in liver tissues were also monitored. Results. CCl4 administration caused significant hepatotoxicity as evidenced by marked elevation in AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin. Phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time and infiltration of inflammatory cells and centrizonal necrosis on histological examination of liver demonstrated hepatic injury after CCl4 administration. However, the administration of Icturn and J-deenar polyherbal formulations at the higher dose significantly decreased the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin. Moreover, pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and histopathological analysis also revealed significant improvement as result of treatment with formulations Icturn and J-deenar. Conclusion. Our results confirmed that polyherbal formulations (Icturn and J-deenar) can significantly prevent CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, demonstrating their protective effect for liver.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Feb 2022 14:05:00 +000
  • Stephania japonica Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in
           Mice through Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and Oxidative Stress

    • Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognition. Stephania japonica is being used as traditional medicine in the treatment of different neurological problems. In this study, we evaluated the anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of the crude methanol extract of S. japonica and its fractions in vitro and the neuroprotective effect of the most active fraction in the scopolamine-induced mouse model of memory impairment. Among the crude extract and its fractions, chloroform fraction exerted strong inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes with IC50 values of 40.06 and 18.78 µg/mL, respectively. Similarly, the chloroform fraction exhibited potent antioxidant activity and effectively inhibited the peroxidation of brain lipid in vitro. The phytochemical profile revealed the high content of polyphenolics and alkaloids in the chloroform fraction. Pearson’s correlation studies showed a significant association of anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity with alkaloid and phenolic contents. Kinetic analysis showed that the chloroform fraction exhibited a noncompetitive type of inhibition. In experimental mice, the chloroform fraction restored the impaired learning and memory induced by scopolamine as evidenced by a significant decrease in latency time and increase of quadrant time in probe trial in Morris water maze task. The chloroform fraction also significantly reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress in mice. Our results suggest that the chloroform fraction of S. japonica may represent a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of AD.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 11:50:01 +000
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of Xylopic Acid on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    • Abstract: Introduction. Xylopic acid (XA), the major constituent of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica, has shown several pharmacological properties. Traditionally, the plant is used to treat several diseases and is being used in the preparation of several local foods despite the lack of information about its safety, food-drug interaction, and other pharmacokinetic properties. This study, therefore, investigated the effect of XA on rat liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Inhibition or induction of some isoforms of CYP450 enzymes: CYP 1A1/1A2, 1A2, 2B1/2B2, 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 were investigated using microsomal fractions of the liver obtained from rats pretreated with a low dose of xylopic acid (LDT) 30 mg/kg, high dose of xylopic acid (HDT) 100 mg/kg, phenobarbitone (PC) 80 mg/kg, and ketoconazole (NC) 100 mg/kg, and a no-treatment group received distilled water, with (n = 5) animals in each group. The in vitro inhibition of CYP 3A4 was assessed by treating rat liver microsomes with XA. Results. Xylopic acid induced CYP 1A1/1A2, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C9, inhibited CYP 3A4, and had no effect on 2B1/2B2. Conclusion. The findings would help mitigate toxicity and therapeutic failure especially in cases of coadministration of medications with food containing XA, with metabolism altered by the latter.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 08:05:05 +000
  • Ethnomedicinal Studies, Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial Activity
           of the Mammea americana L. Bark in the Municipality of Cértegui, Chocó,

    • Abstract: Mammea americana L. is a plant with diverse medicinal uses in the municipality of Cértegui, Chocó, Colombia. This research characterized the ethnomedicinal, chemical, and antibacterial activities of the bark of Mammea americana. Through interviews and semistructured surveys with the community, its ethnomedicinal uses were determined. Compounds present in the bark extract were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a qualitative analysis was performed by preliminary phytochemistry. Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were carried out by agar diffusion and dilution methods, respectively, using ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Ethnomedical data showed that the bark is used to treat 14 conditions, the most representative being gallstones, prostate inflammation, and malaria. Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed the existence of several secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes and/or steroids, quinones, and saponins. A total of 29 compounds were identified; the most abundant were ethyl 5-oxo-4-(p-toluidine)-2,5-dihydro-3-furancarboxylate, phenol, 4,4′,4″-ethylidynetris, nerolidol, 19-hydroxy-13-epimanoyl oxide, α-elemene, and δ-cadinene. The results showed remarkable antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract (20 mg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus (22.6 mm) and Escherichia coli (19.6 mm) and of the crude water extract (20 mg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus (18.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (12.4 mm). The strongest MIC was for the ethanolic extract with values of 0.357 and 0.897 mg/ml against S. aureus and E. coli strains, respectively, while in the aqueous extract, S. aureus (3.99 mg/ml) and E. coli (4.3 mg/ml) were recorded. It is assumed that the compounds identified in this study could be responsible for the antibacterial activity of the species, as well as the relationship of the identified compounds and metabolites with the ethnomedical uses given by the community, providing a scientific and traditional basis for its different traditional medical uses.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 08:05:03 +000
  • Conventional Medicinal Uses, Phytoconstituents, and Biological Activities
           of Euphorbia officinarum L.: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: The Moroccan endemic plant Euphorbia officinarum is a traditional medicinal plant, known locally as “Daghmus.” Plants in the genus Euphorbia are well known for the chemical diversity of their diterpenoids and isoprenoid constituents, which perform many activities such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as different biological properties, that cannot be overlooked. The effect of bioactive compounds (antiviral, antidiabetic, anticancer, and antioxidant). Euphorbia officinarum is an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various conditions, including skin and ophthalmological diseases. It is also used against human pathogens (intestinal parasites). E. officinarum latex is the major part of the plant used for conventional medicine and synthesizing new bioactive compounds. The characterization and isolation of its components are necessary to exploiting and enhancing its therapeutic potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no review is available to date. In order to have and define a research question, we adopt a strategy by considering the items of the PRISMA checklist. Therefore, this review aims to cover E. officinarum taxonomy, botanical description, distribution, conventional uses, and phytochemical compounds of this plant, including the biological activities of compounds isolated and of these semisynthesized compounds. This article provides a foundation for any further studies from this plant.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 07:05:01 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Moroccan Retail Pharmacists towards
           Veterinary Medicines

    • Abstract: This is the first study conducted in Morocco to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of retail pharmacists regarding veterinary medicines. It is a cross-sectional study. Two types of multiple-choice questionnaires were distributed to pharmacists depending on whether or not they dispense veterinary medicines. A total of 143 pharmacists were involved in this study. The percentage of retail pharmacists who dispensed veterinary medicines was estimated at 23.1%. Less than half of respondents were highly satisfied regarding their knowledge of veterinary pharmacy. Besides, 39.4% of retail pharmacists were at ease giving advice in general while dispensing veterinary medicines, and 73% were knowledgeable on parasiticides. Approximately, 94% of retail pharmacists expressed their need to improve their knowledge of veterinary pharmacy. Our study also revealed that 48.5% of pharmacists dispensed veterinary medicine daily. This study demonstrated that involvement of retail pharmacists in dispensing veterinary medicines was poor. The need for training programs on veterinary pharmacy expressed by Moroccan retail pharmacists was high.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 04:50:14 +000
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